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Sample records for intestinal microbiota regulate

  1. Intestinal Epithelial Sirtuin 1 Regulates Intestinal Inflammation During Aging in Mice by Altering the Intestinal Microbiota.

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    Wellman, Alicia S; Metukuri, Mallikarjuna R; Kazgan, Nevzat; Xu, Xiaojiang; Xu, Qing; Ren, Natalie S X; Czopik, Agnieszka; Shanahan, Michael T; Kang, Ashley; Chen, Willa; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Gulati, Ajay S; Fargo, David C; Guarente, Leonard; Li, Xiaoling

    2017-09-01

    levels of SIRT1 mRNA than controls. Intestinal tissues from SIRT1 iKO mice given antibiotics, however, did not have signs of inflammation at 22-24 months of age, and did not develop more severe colitis than control mice at 4-6 months. In analyses of intestinal tissues, colitis induction, and gut microbiota in mice with intestinal epithelial disruption of SIRT1, we found this protein to prevent intestinal inflammation by regulating the gut microbiota. SIRT1 might therefore be an important mediator of host-microbiome interactions. Agents designed to activate SIRT1 might be developed as treatments for IBDs. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish.

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    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A; Rawls, John F

    2012-09-13

    Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host's energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extraintestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The intestinal microbiota regulates body composition through NFIL3and the circadian clock.

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    Wang, Yuhao; Kuang, Zheng; Yu, Xiaofei; Ruhn, Kelly A; Kubo, Masato; Hooper, Lora V

    2017-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has been identified as an environmental factor that markedly affects energy storage and body-fat accumulation in mammals, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the microbiota regulates body composition through the circadian transcription factor NFIL3. Nfil3 transcription oscillates diurnally in intestinal epithelial cells, and the amplitude of the circadian oscillation is controlled by the microbiota through group 3 innate lymphoid cells, STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and the epithelial cell circadian clock. NFIL3 controls expression of a circadian lipid metabolic program and regulates lipid absorption and export in intestinal epithelial cells. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the intestinal microbiota regulates body composition and establish NFIL3 as an essential molecular link among the microbiota, the circadian clock, and host metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Intestinal microbiota regulate xenobiotic metabolism in the liver.

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    Britta Björkholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver is the central organ for xenobiotic metabolism (XM and is regulated by nuclear receptors such as CAR and PXR, which control the metabolism of drugs. Here we report that gut microbiota influences liver gene expression and alters xenobiotic metabolism in animals exposed to barbiturates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing hepatic gene expression on microarrays from germfree (GF and conventionally-raised mice (SPF, we identified a cluster of 112 differentially expressed target genes predominantly connected to xenobiotic metabolism and pathways inhibiting RXR function. These findings were functionally validated by exposing GF and SPF mice to pentobarbital which confirmed that xenobiotic metabolism in GF mice is significantly more efficient (shorter time of anesthesia when compared to the SPF group. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that gut microbiota modulates hepatic gene expression and function by altering its xenobiotic response to drugs without direct contact with the liver.

  5. Microbiota, intestinal immunity, and mouse bustle

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    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  6. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  7. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  8. Small intestine and microbiota.

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    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  9. Causality of small and large intestinal microbiota in weight regulation and insulin resistance.

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    Scheithauer, Torsten P M; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; de Vos, Willem M; Nieuwdorp, Max; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2016-09-01

    The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search. Altered large intestinal microbial composition may promote obesity by increasing energy harvest through specialized gut microbes. In both large and small intestine, microbial alterations may increase gut permeability that facilitates the translocation of whole bacteria or endotoxic bacterial components into metabolic active tissues. Moreover, changed microbial communities may affect the production of satiety-inducing signals. Finally, bacterial metabolic products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their relative ratios, may be causal in disturbed immune and metabolic signaling, notably in the small intestine where the surface is large. The function of these organs (adipose tissue, brain, liver, muscle, pancreas) may be disturbed by the induction of low-grade inflammation, contributing to insulin resistance. Interventions aimed to restoring gut microbial homeostasis, such as ingestion of specific fibers or therapeutic microbes, are promising strategies to reduce insulin resistance and the related metabolic abnormalities in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. This article is part of a special issue on microbiota.

  10. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

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    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

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    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  12. Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes

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    Allin, Kristine H.; Tremaroli, Valentina; Caesar, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut...... microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1–7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42–48 mmol/mol [6.0–6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health. Methods: In the present case–control study, we analysed the gut microbiota of 134 Danish adults...... impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings...

  13. Diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing lamina propria macrophages in the small intestine.

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    Ochi, Takanori; Feng, Yongjia; Kitamoto, Sho; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kuffa, Peter; Atarashi, Koji; Honda, Kenya; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Kamada, Nobuhiko

    2016-06-15

    Intestinal resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis via production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Although a constant replenishment by circulating monocytes is required to maintain the pool of resident Mϕs in the colonic mucosa, the homeostatic regulation of Mϕ in the small intestine (SI) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that direct stimulation by dietary amino acids regulates the homeostasis of intestinal Mϕs in the SI. Mice that received total parenteral nutrition (TPN), which deprives the animals of enteral nutrients, displayed a significant decrease of IL-10-producing Mϕs in the SI, whereas the IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells remained intact. Likewise, enteral nutrient deprivation selectively affected the monocyte-derived F4/80(+) Mϕ population, but not non-monocytic precursor-derived CD103(+) dendritic cells. Notably, in contrast to colonic Mϕs, the replenishment of SI Mϕs and their IL-10 production were not regulated by the gut microbiota. Rather, SI Mϕs were directly regulated by dietary amino acids. Collectively, our study highlights the diet-dependent, microbiota-independent regulation of IL-10-producing resident Mϕs in the SI.

  14. Regulation of serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) in mouse colonic epithelium and adipose tissue by the intestinal microbiota.

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    Reigstad, Christopher S; Lundén, Gunnel Ostergren; Felin, Jenny; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2009-06-09

    The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that affects the development of metabolic and inflammatory diseases in mammals. Recent reports indicate that gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can initiate obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, the molecular interactions responsible for microbial regulation of host metabolism and mediators of inflammation have not been studied in detail. Hepatic serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are markers and proposed mediators of inflammation that exhibit increased levels in serum of insulin-resistant mice. Adipose tissue-derived SAA3 displays monocyte chemotactic activity and may play a role in metabolic inflammation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. To investigate a potential mechanistic link between the intestinal microbiota and induction of proinflammatory host factors, we performed molecular analyses of germ-free, conventionally raised and genetically modified Myd88-/- mouse models. SAA3 expression was determined to be significantly augmented in adipose (9.9+/-1.9-fold; P<0.001) and colonic tissue (7.0+/-2.3-fold; P<0.05) by the presence of intestinal microbes. In the colon, we provided evidence that SAA3 is partially regulated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88/NF-kappaB signaling axis. We identified epithelial cells and macrophages as cellular sources of SAA3 in the colon and found that colonic epithelial expression of SAA3 may be part of an NF-kappaB-dependent response to LPS from gut bacteria. In vitro experiments showed that LPS treatments of both epithelial cells and macrophages induced SAA3 expression (27.1+/-2.5-fold vs. 1.6+/-0.1-fold, respectively). Our data suggest that LPS, and potentially other products of the indigenous gut microbiota, might elevate cytokine expression in tissues and thus exacerbate chronic low-grade inflammation observed in obesity.

  15. Regulation of serum amyloid A3 (SAA3 in mouse colonic epithelium and adipose tissue by the intestinal microbiota.

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    Christopher S Reigstad

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that affects the development of metabolic and inflammatory diseases in mammals. Recent reports indicate that gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS can initiate obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, the molecular interactions responsible for microbial regulation of host metabolism and mediators of inflammation have not been studied in detail. Hepatic serum amyloid A (SAA proteins are markers and proposed mediators of inflammation that exhibit increased levels in serum of insulin-resistant mice. Adipose tissue-derived SAA3 displays monocyte chemotactic activity and may play a role in metabolic inflammation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. To investigate a potential mechanistic link between the intestinal microbiota and induction of proinflammatory host factors, we performed molecular analyses of germ-free, conventionally raised and genetically modified Myd88-/- mouse models. SAA3 expression was determined to be significantly augmented in adipose (9.9+/-1.9-fold; P<0.001 and colonic tissue (7.0+/-2.3-fold; P<0.05 by the presence of intestinal microbes. In the colon, we provided evidence that SAA3 is partially regulated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR/MyD88/NF-kappaB signaling axis. We identified epithelial cells and macrophages as cellular sources of SAA3 in the colon and found that colonic epithelial expression of SAA3 may be part of an NF-kappaB-dependent response to LPS from gut bacteria. In vitro experiments showed that LPS treatments of both epithelial cells and macrophages induced SAA3 expression (27.1+/-2.5-fold vs. 1.6+/-0.1-fold, respectively. Our data suggest that LPS, and potentially other products of the indigenous gut microbiota, might elevate cytokine expression in tissues and thus exacerbate chronic low-grade inflammation observed in obesity.

  16. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

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    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  17. Gut microbiota regulates NKG2D ligand expression on intestinal epithelial cells

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    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Holm, Thomas L.; Krych, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    expression on small IECs. Germ-free and ampicillin-treated mice were shown to have a significant increase in NKG2D ligand expression. Interestingly, vancomycin treatment, which propagated the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and reduced the level of IFN-¿ and IL-15 in the intestine, decreased the NKG2D...... that the constitutive levels of NKG2D ligand expression on IECs are regulated by microbial signaling in the gut and further disfavor the intuitive notion that IEC NKG2D ligand expression is caused by low-grade immune reaction against commensal bacteria. It is more likely that constitutively high IEC NKG2D ligand...

  18. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

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    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  19. Bile acids and intestinal microbiota in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases.

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    Li, You; Tang, Ruqi; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric; Ma, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), are manifested as an impairment of normal bile flow and excessive accumulation of potentially toxic bile acids. Endogenous bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis. Consequently, chronic cholestasis affects the expression of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptors, and results in liver injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases by regulating metabolism and immune responses. However, progression of the disease may also affect the composition of gut microbiota, which in turn exacerbates the progression of cholestasis. In addition, the interaction between intestinal microbiota and bile acids is not unidirectional. Bile acids can shape the gut microbiota community, and in turn, intestinal microbes are able to alter bile acid pool. In general, gut microbiota actively communicates with bile acids, and together play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC and PSC. Targeting the link between bile acids and intestinal microbiota offers exciting new perspectives for the treatment of those cholestatic liver diseases. This review highlights current understanding of the interactions between bile acids and intestinal microbiota and their roles in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases. Further, we postulate a bile acids-intestinal microbiota-cholestasis triangle in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases and potential therapeutic strategies by targeting this triangle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Shao-shun YE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disseases (IBD are chronic recurrent diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. At present, the etiological factors and mechanism of IBD are still unclear yet. However, it is widely believed that IBD is caused by immune dysfunction, genetic factors, gut barrier dysfuction and dysbacteriosis, change of dietary structure, use of antibiotics, smoking, and environment. Studies suggest that breaking the accurate balance between host and intestinal microbiota in patients with IBD can trigger immuno-inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Therefore, regulating intestinal microbiota disturbance and recovery of intestinal homeostasis between host and intestinal microbiota become a new treatment direction for IBD. This article mainly reviewed research progress of intestinal microbiota in pathogenetic mechanism and treatment of IBD.

  1. [THE INTESTINAL BARRIER, THE MICROBIOTA, MICROBIOME].

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    Mar'yanovich, A T

    2016-01-01

    The review examined modern condition of development directions physiology of digestion, like structure and function of the intestinal barrier, the microbiota of the digestive tract in its relations with the microorganism.

  2. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

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    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  3. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

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    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  4. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

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    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  5. Innate Lymphoid Cells Control Early Colonization Resistance against Intestinal Pathogens through ID2-Dependent Regulation of the Microbiota.

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    Guo, Xiaohuan; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Yuan; Lasorella, Anna; Kee, Barbara L; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2015-04-21

    Microbiota-mediated effects on the host immune response facilitate colonization resistance against pathogens. However, it is unclear whether and how the host immune response can regulate the microbiota to mediate colonization resistance. ID2, an essential transcriptional regulator for the development of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) progenitors, remains highly expressed in differentiated ILCs with unknown function. Using conditionally deficient mice in which ID2 is deleted from differentiated ILC3s, we observed that these mutant mice exhibited greatly impaired gut colonization resistance against Citrobacter rodentium. Utilizing gnotobiotic hosts, we showed that the ID2-dependent early colonization resistance was mediated by interleukin-22 (IL-22) regulation of the microbiota. In addition to regulating development, ID2 maintained homeostasis of ILC3s and controlled IL-22 production through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and IL-23 receptor pathway. Thus, ILC3s can mediate immune surveillance, which constantly maintains a proper microbiota, to facilitate early colonization resistance through an ID2-dependent regulation of IL-22. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

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    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  7. Intestinal Microbiota: Facts and Fiction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, 1-2 (2017), s. 139-147 ISSN 0257-2753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : dysbiosis * gnotobiotic animals * gut microbiota Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2016

  8. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

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    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes

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    Allin, Kristine H.; Tremaroli, Valentina; Caesar, Robert

    2018-01-01

    with prediabetes and those with normal glucose regulation. At the genus level, the abundance of Clostridium was decreased (mean log2 fold change −0.64 (SEM 0.23), padj = 0.0497), whereas the abundances of Dorea, [Ruminococcus], Sutterella and Streptococcus were increased (mean log2 fold change 0.51 (SEM 0...... individuals with prediabetes (mean log2 fold change −1.74 (SEM 0.41), padj = 2 × 10−3 and −1.65 (SEM 0.34), padj = 4 × 10−4, respectively). Faecal transfer from donors with prediabetes or screen-detected, drug-naive type 2 diabetes to germfree Swiss Webster or conventional C57BL/6 J mice did not induce...... impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings...

  10. Intestinal Microbiota: Facts and Fiction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, 1-2 (2017), s. 139-147 ISSN 0257-2753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06326S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-28064A; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29336A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Dysbiosis * Gnotobiotic animals * Gut microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2016

  11. Microbiota regulation of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

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    Liu, Zhanju; Cao, Anthony T; Cong, Yingzi

    2013-12-01

    The host and microbiota have evolved mechanisms for coexistence over millions of years. Accumulating evidence indicates that a dynamic mutualism between the host and the commensal microbiota has important implications for health, and microbial colonization contributes to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. However, alterations in communication between the mucosal immune system and gut microbial communities have been implicated as the core defect that leads to chronic intestinal inflammation and cancer development. We will discuss the recent progress on how gut microbiota regulates intestinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

    Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine.

  13. The role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Lankelma, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans carry with them trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi that are collectively called the human microbiota. The intestinal microbiota fulfills essential functions in human physiology and has recently been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases. This thesis focuses on the role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis. Our main hypothesis was that the gut microbiota plays a protective role in innate host defenses against systemic bacterial infections...

  14. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0300 TITLE: Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0300 5c...changes in the microbiota on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16

  15. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  16. Influence of the intrinsic gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the early life development of intestinal epithelial integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Frøkjær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the integrity of the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Interesting parameters are the mucins, which protect the mucosal...

  17. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  18. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  19. Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Intestinal Immunity Mediated by Tryptophan Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Xu, Kang; Liu, Hongnan; Liu, Gang; Bai, Miaomiao; Peng, Can; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system–intestinal microbiota interactions. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the regulation of intestinal immunity by Trp metabolites (as ligands of AhR), which is beneficial for immune homeostasis. Among Trp metabolites, AhR ligands consist of endogenous metabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and cinnabarinic acid, and bacterial metabolites, including indole, indole propionic acid, indole acetic acid, skatole, and tryptamine. Additional factors, such as aging, stress, probiotics, and diseases (spondyloarthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer), which are associated with variability in Trp metabolism, can influence Trp–microbiome–immune system interactions in the gut and also play roles in regulating gut immunity. This review clarifies how the gut microbiota regulates Trp metabolism and identifies the underlying molecular mechanisms of these interactions. Increased mechanistic insight into how the microbiota modulates the intestinal immune system through Trp metabolism may allow for the identification of innovative microbiota-based diagnostics, as well as appropriate nutritional supplementation of Trp to prevent or alleviate intestinal inflammation

  20. A Cross-Talk Between Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids and the Host Mucosal Immune System Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Di Santo, James P

    2018-02-15

    Gut microbiota has a fundamental role in the energy homeostasis of the host and is essential for proper "education" of the immune system. Intestinal microbial communities are able to ferment dietary fiber releasing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFAs, particularly butyrate (BT), regulate innate and adaptive immune cell generation, trafficing, and function. For example, BT has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the recruitment and proinflammatory activity of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and effector T cells and by increasing the number and activity of regulatory T cells. Gut microbial dysbiosis, ie, a microbial community imbalance, has been suggested to play a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has been difficult to prove, especially in humans, and is probably complex and dynamic, rather than one of a simple cause and effect relationship. However, IBD patients have dysbiosis with reduced numbers of SCFAs-producing bacteria and reduced BT concentration that is linked to a marked increase in the number of proinflammatory immune cells in the gut mucosa of these patients. Thus, microbial dysbiosis and reduced BT concentration may be a factor in the emergence and severity of IBD. Understanding the relationship between microbial dysbiosis and reduced BT concentration to IBD may lead to novel therapeutic interventions.

  1. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS.

  2. Regulation of Intestinal Homeostasis by Innate Immune Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple...

  3. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  4. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fischer, Egil A. J.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Stegeman, J. A.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  5. Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-03-01

    To summarize and discuss recent findings concerning diet-microbiota-health relations. Mouse and other model animal studies have provided detailed insight into host-microbiota interactions, but cannot be extrapolated easily to humans that have different dietary habits, intestinal architecture, and microbiota composition. In spite of the fact that all humans have a personalized microbiome, the discovery of the high-level clusters, such as enterotypes, offer great potential for stratifying individuals in intervention studies based on their intestinal microbiota. A highly diverse microbiota seems to be key to adult human health. Long-term dietary patterns have been found to be associated with specific microbiota compositions and in some cases enterotypes. Fecal transplantations indicate that homeostasis can be restored and indicate that diet-microbiota-induced disorders can be improved by therapeutic modification of the microbiota. The specificity of complex carbohydrate conversion is the driving ecological force in the colon, while competition for sugars with the host is the driver for the small intestinal ecosystem. At both locations, the microbial fermentation of dietary components occurs in trophic chains and insight into these multispecies conversions is essential to understand the impact of diet on health. There are clear associations between the microbiota, our diet and our health. However, as microbiota correlations with human health and diet are generally based on baseline comparisons between populations, there is a need for dedicated dietary intervention studies in humans to differentiate between correlation and causality.

  6. Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Ye; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Gang; Peng, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models. PMID:25356041

  7. The role of the intestinal microbiota in pneumonia and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans carry with them trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi that are collectively called the human microbiota. The intestinal microbiota fulfills essential functions in human physiology and has recently been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases. This thesis focuses on

  8. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Tims, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota that colonizes the human intestinal tract is complex and its structure is specific for each of us. In this study we expand the knowledge about the stability of the subject-specific microbiota and show that this ecosystem is stable in short-term intervals (¿10 years). The faecal

  9. Impact of Diet on Human Intestinal Microbiota and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate

  10. The regulation of host defences to infection by the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca L; Clarke, Thomas B

    2017-01-01

    The skin and mucosal epithelia of humans and other mammals are permanently colonized by large microbial communities (the microbiota). Due to this life-long association with the microbiota, these microbes have an extensive influence over the physiology of their host organism. It is now becoming apparent that nearly all tissues and organ systems, whether in direct contact with the microbiota or in deeper host sites, are under microbial influence. The immune system is perhaps the most profoundly affected, with the microbiota programming both its innate and adaptive arms. The regulation of immunity by the microbiota helps to protect the host against intestinal and extra-intestinal infection by many classes of pathogen. In this review, we will discuss the experimental evidence supporting a role for the microbiota in regulating host defences to extra-intestinal infection, draw together common mechanistic themes, including the central role of pattern recognition receptors, and outline outstanding questions that need to be answered. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen's agreement between microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricilli, Andrea Moro; Castoldi, Angela; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-02-15

    Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host's adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.

  12. Role of intestinal microbiota in the development of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Álvarez, F; Marzo-Sola, M E

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects young adults; in that age group, it represents the second leading cause of disability in our setting. Its precise aetiology has not been elucidated, but it is widely accepted to occur in genetically predisposed patients who are exposed to certain environmental factors. The discovery of the regulatory role played by intestinal microbiota in various autoimmune diseases has opened a new line of research in this field, which is discussed in this review. We reviewed published studies on the role of the microbiota in the development of both MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, it has been shown that intestinal microorganisms regulate the polarisation of T helper cells from Th1-Th17 up to Th2, the function of regulatory T cells, and the activity of B cells; they participate in the pathogenesis of EAE and contribute to its prevention and treatment. In contrast, evidence in humans is still scarce and mainly based on case-control studies that point to the presence of differences in certain bacterial communities. Multiple evidence points to the role of microbiota in EAE. Extrapolation of these results to MS is still in the early stages of research, and studies are needed to define which bacterial populations are associated with MS, the role they play in pathogenesis, and the therapeutic possibilities this knowledge offers us. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura M; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A; Anderson, W H Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Methé, Barbara A; Blaser, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared to control treatment, both LFD and HPMC reduced weight gain (11.8 and 5.7 g, respectively), plasma cholesterol (23.1 and 19.6%), and liver triglycerides (73.1 and 44.6%), and, as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene, decreased microbial α-diversity and differentially altered intestinal microbiota. Both LFD and HPMC increased intestinal Erysipelotrichaceae (7.3- and 12.4-fold) and decreased Lachnospiraceae (2.0- and 2.7-fold), while only HPMC increased Peptostreptococcaceae (3.4-fold) and decreased Ruminococcaceae (2.7-fold). Specific microorganisms were directly linked with weight change and metabolic parameters in HPMC and HFD mice, but not in LFD mice, indicating that the intestinal microbiota may play differing roles during the two dietary modulations. This work indicates that HPMC is a potential prebiotic fiber that influences intestinal microbiota and improves host metabolism.

  14. Transcriptional modulation of intestinal innate defense/inflammation genes by preterm infant microbiota in a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; Wang, Yunwei; Chang, Eugene B; Claud, Erika C

    2015-01-01

    It is known that postnatal functional maturation of the small intestine is facilitated by microbial colonization of the gut. Preterm infants exhibit defects in gut maturation, weak innate immunity against intestinal infection and increased susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, all of which may be related to the inappropriate microbial colonization of their immature intestines. The earliest microbes to colonize the preterm infant gut encounter a naïve, immature intestine. Thus this earliest microbiota potentially has the greatest opportunity to fundamentally influence intestinal development and immune function. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of early microbial colonization on global gene expression in the distal small intestine during postnatal gut development. Gnotobiotic mouse models with experimental colonization by early (prior to two weeks of life) intestinal microbiota from preterm human infants were utilized. Microarray analysis was used to assess global gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Multiple intestinal genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix communication, and immune function are developmental- and intestinal microbiota- regulated. Using a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model, we demonstrate that certain early preterm infant microbiota from prior to 2 weeks of life specifically induce increased NF-κB activation and a phenotype of increased inflammation whereas other preterm microbiota specifically induce decreased NF-κB activation. These fundamental differences correlate with altered clinical outcomes and suggest the existence of optimal early microbial communities to improve health outcomes.

  15. Dietary Additive Probiotics Modulation of the Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenglan; Wang, Li; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-01-01

    The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics colonization and its impact on gut microbiota members are highly species specific. Different probiotics have been shown to have dramatically different capacities of modulation physiological function. This review summarizes existing studies of the influence of dietary additive probiotics on the gut microbiota in different animals, such as humans, mice, pigs and chickens, to clarify the contribution of different kinds of probiotics to the intestinal microbiota. Moreover, the probable mechanism for the benefits of dietary supplementation with probiotics will be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. The enteric nervous system promotes intestinal health by constraining microbiota composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah S Rolig

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS, a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts. Profiling microbial communities across a spectrum of inflammatory phenotypes revealed that increased levels of inflammation were linked to an overabundance of pro-inflammatory bacterial lineages and a lack of anti-inflammatory bacterial lineages. Moreover, either administering a representative anti-inflammatory strain or restoring ENS function corrected the pathology. Thus, we demonstrate that the ENS modulates gut microbiota community membership to maintain intestinal health.

  17. The enteric nervous system promotes intestinal health by constraining microbiota composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittge, Erika K.; Ganz, Julia; Troll, Josh V.; Melancon, Ellie; Wiles, Travis J.; Alligood, Kristin; Stephens, W. Zac; Eisen, Judith S.; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS), a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts. Profiling microbial communities across a spectrum of inflammatory phenotypes revealed that increased levels of inflammation were linked to an overabundance of pro-inflammatory bacterial lineages and a lack of anti-inflammatory bacterial lineages. Moreover, either administering a representative anti-inflammatory strain or restoring ENS function corrected the pathology. Thus, we demonstrate that the ENS modulates gut microbiota community membership to maintain intestinal health. PMID:28207737

  18. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  19. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  20. Human intestinal microbiota composition is associated with local and systemic inflammation in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, F.J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Jonge, de C.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Erbil, R.; Greve, J.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Rensen, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity, but the mechanism remains elusive. The relationship between microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, and inflammation in nonobese and obese subjects was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fecal

  1. [Intestinal microbiota and cardiometabolic risk: mechanisms and diet modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco de; Silva, Isis Tande da; Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2014-06-01

    The gut microbiota obtained after birth is composed of a large range of bacteria that play different roles in the human host, such as nutrient uptake, protection against pathogens and immune modulation. The intestinal bacterial content is not completely known, but it is influenced by internal, and mainly by external factors, which modulate its composition and function. Studies indicate that the gut microbiota differs in lean and obese individuals, and in individuals with different food habits. There is evidence that the relationship between diet, inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk are, in part, mediated by the composition of intestinal bacteria. Knowledge about the gut microbiota may result in different strategies to manipulate bacterial populations and promote health. This review discusses the relevance of understanding the role of dietary factors or patterns in the composition of the microbiota, as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic metabolic diseases, and the potential of prebiotics and probiotics on the cardiometabolic risk profile.

  2. Molecular ecological network analysis reveals the effects of probiotics and florfenicol on intestinal microbiota homeostasis: An example of sea cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Mo; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2017-01-01

    Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing....

  3. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of immune development and function by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Srinivasan, Naren; Maloy, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    The immune system must constantly monitor the gastrointestinal tract for the presence of pathogens while tolerating trillions of commensal microbiota. It is clear that intestinal microbiota actively modulate the immune system to maintain a mutually beneficial relation, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are not fully understood. Recent advances have begun to shed light on the cellular and molecular factors involved, revealing that a range of microbiota derivatives can influence host immune functions by targeting various cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes, innate lymphoid cells, and B and T lymphocytes. Here, we review these findings, highlighting open questions and important challenges to overcome in translating this knowledge into new therapies for intestinal and systemic immune disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet-Intestinal Microbiota Axis in Osteoarthritis: A Possible Role

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    Yusheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is highly involved in host physiology and pathology through activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products. Osteoarthritis (OA is a common form of arthritis characterized by articular cartilage destruction and osteophyte formation. Although various person-level risk factors, such as age, sex, and obesity, have been proposed for the pathogenesis of OA, the underlying links between these person-level factors and OA are still enigmatic. Based on the current understanding in the crosstalk between intestinal microbiota and these risk factors, intestinal microbiota could be considered as a major hidden risk factor that provides a unifying mechanism to explain the involvement of these person-level risk factors in OA.

  6. Microbiota-Mediated Inflammation and Antimicrobial Defense in the Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis. PMID:25581310

  7. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Ren, Wenkai; Gao, Wei; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Yinghui; Yao, Kang; Huang, Ruilin; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-06-13

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

  8. Evolutionary Game between Commensal and Pathogenic Microbes in Intestinal Microbiota

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    Amy Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health and is associated with many diseases when the homeostasis is disturbed. Although recent achievements in metagenomic sequencing have begun to reveal the variety of microbial composition associated with healthy and disease states, species-specific interactions and systematic dynamics still pose a great challenge to resolve the complexity of human microbiota. Using Clostridium difficile infection in human intestinal microbiota as an example, we apply evolutionary game theory to gain a fundamental understanding of the phenotypic variability and dynamic progression of microbiota. Here, microbiota dynamics are determined by the frequency-dependent fitness of each phenotypic population in the presence of the others. More specifically, the fitness is a function of phenotypic composition of the microbiota. We show how the phenotypic variability of microbiota can be explained by game theoretical approach. Knowledge of this study provides a new perspective in administrating antibiotic when dealing with pathogenic invasion. Instead of solely targeting to pathogens, therapies should aim at the whole ecosystem by reducing the fitness of pathogens compared to that of commensal microbes. In this case, the system will eradicate the pathogens by itself.

  9. Nanocomposite of Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Exhibits Actual Non-Toxicity and Regulates Intestinal Microbiota, Short-Chain Fatty Acids Production and Oxidative Status in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ru; Yao, Jianbin; Shi, Qingqing; Wei, Rongbian

    2018-01-11

    The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice. The limit test studies show that this nanoparticle is non-toxic at the doses tested. The administration of HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs, daily dose of 1.0 g/kg body weight for 14 days, increased the number of goblet cells in jejunum. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples revealed that HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs increased Firmicutes and reduced Bacteriodetes abundances in female mice. Furthermore, the microbiota for probiotic-type bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium , and SCFAs-producing bacteria in the Clostridia class, e.g., Lachnospiraceae_unclassified and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-001 , were enriched in the feces of female mice. Increases of SCFAs, especially statistically increased propionic and butyric acids, indicated the up-regulated anti-inflammatory activity of HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. Additionally, some positive responses in liver, like markedly increased glutathione and decreased malonaldehyde contents, indicated the improved oxidative status. Therefore, our results suggest that HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs could have potential applications as a safe regulator of intestinal microbiota or also can be used as an antioxidant used in food products.

  10. Microbiota e barreira intestinal: implicações para obesidade

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    Alynne Moniellen Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A epidemia da obesidade é considerada um importante problema de saúde pública na sociedade ocidental, pois ela relaciona-se à comorbidades como síndrome metabólica, diabetes mellitus e hipertensão. A microbiota intestinal pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da obesidade através do aumento da extração energética dos componentes da dieta, da lipogênese, da permeabilidade intestinal e da endotoxemia, mediada especialmente pelos lipopolissacarídeos. Estudos tem demonstrado diferenças na composição da microbiota intestinal entre indivíduos obesos e magros. Ao que parece, o aumento na proporção de Firmicutes em relação a Bacteroidetes parece estar presente na obesidade, podendo ser alterada a medida que ocorre perda de peso. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura acerca dos mecanismos que relacionam a microbiota e a barreira intestinal ao desenvolvimento ou agravamento da obesidade. Palavras-chave: Obesidade; microbioma gastrointestinal; microbiota; permeabilidade intestinal

  11. Antibiotics-induced depletion of mice microbiota induces changes in host serotonin biosynthesis and intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaolong; Ding, Chao; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Lizhi; Tian, Hongliang; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Minsheng; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning

    2017-01-13

    The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively. Contractility of smooth muscle, serotonin levels, and bile acids levels in wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice were also analyzed. After antibiotics treatment, the richness and diversity of intestinal microbiota decreased significantly, and the fecal of mice had less output (P Antibiotics treatment in mice also resulted in delayed gastrointestinal and colonic motility (P antibiotics-treated mice, serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase 1, and secondary bile acids levels were decreased. Gut microbiota play an important role in the regulation of intestinal bile acids and serotonin metabolism, which could probably contribute to the association between gut microbiota and gastrointestinal motility as intermediates.

  12. MyD88 Signaling Regulates Steady-State Migration of Intestinal CD103+ Dendritic Cells Independently of TNF-α and the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerbrand, Karin; Westlund, Jessica; Yrlid, Ulf; Agace, William; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Intestinal homeostasis and induction of systemic tolerance to fed Ags (i.e., oral tolerance) rely on the steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) into draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The majority of these migratory DCs express the α integrin chain CD103, and in this study we demonstrate that the steady-state mobilization of CD103(+) DCs into the MLN is in part governed by the IL-1R family/TLR signaling adaptor molecule MyD88. Similar to mice with complete MyD88 deficiency, specific deletion of MyD88 in DCs resulted in a 50-60% reduction in short-term accumulation of both CD103(+)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the MLN. DC migration was independent of caspase-1, which is responsible for the inflammasome-dependent proteolytic activation of IL-1 cytokine family members, and was not affected by treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Consistent with the latter finding, the proportion and phenotypic composition of DCs were similar in mesenteric lymph from germ-free and conventionally housed mice. Although TNF-α was required for CD103(+) DC migration to the MLN after oral administration of the TLR7 agonist R848, it was not required for the steady-state migration of these cells. Similarly, TLR signaling through the adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β and downstream production of type I IFN were not required for steady-state CD103(+) DC migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in DCs, independently of the microbiota and TNF-α, is required for optimal steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria CD103(+) DCs into the MLN. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  14. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND USE OF PROBIOTICS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: NEWS

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    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of intestinal microbiota is a key factor of a child's health. According to the latest studies, distinctness and certain stability of every person's microbiota is to a large extent determined genetically; at the same time, microbiocenosis is sensitive to external exposure, i.e. it is labile. The article presents new data on the intestinal microflora's composition and function, as well as on the nature of interaction in the microbiocenosis-host system. Intestinal microflora directly affects formation of a child's immune system, ensures protection from pathogens and takes part in all types of metabolism. The article presents modern approaches to intestinal microflora modulation and use of probiotics to prevent and treat various pathologies in pediatric practice.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  16. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  17. Microbiota intestinal en la salud y la enfermedad

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    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota intestinal es la comunidad de microorganismos vivos residentes en el tubo digestivo. Muchos grupos de investigadores a nivel mundial trabajan descifrando el genoma de la microbiota. Las técnicas modernas de estudio de la microbiota nos han acercado al conocimiento de un número importante de bacterias que no son cultivables, y de la relación entre los microorganismos que nos habitan y nuestra homeostasis. La microbiota es indispensable para el correcto crecimiento corporal, el desarrollo de la inmunidad y la nutrición. Las alteraciones en la microbiota podrían explicar, por lo menos en parte, algunas epidemias de la humanidad como el asma y la obesidad. La disbiosis se ha asociado a una serie de trastornos gastrointestinales que incluyen el hígado graso no alcohólico, la enfermedad celíaca y el síndrome de intestino irritable. En el presente trabajo trataremos sobre la nomenclatura, las técnicas de estudio modernas, las funciones de la microbiota intestinal y la relación que tiene con la salud y la enfermedad.

  18. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity...... microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host....... Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex...

  20. Host and environmental factors affecting the intestinal microbiota in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, Jannigje G.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fischer, Egil A.J.; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial

  1. Characterization of intestinal microbiota in celiac children | Lahcene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of intestinal microbiota in celiac children. F Lahcene, A Tir Touil Meddah, K Bouziane-Nedjadi, B Meddah, A Leke. Abstract. Celiac disease (CD) is enteropathy autoimmune induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed subjects. The ingestion of gluten is responsible for the symptoms of CD, ...

  2. [Interaction of effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines with intestinal microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xian-Peng; Lin, Zhang; Xie, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-05-01

    A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment. The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host's health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment. After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology. The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis. In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multi-omics techniques. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Influence of Microbiota on Intestinal Immune System in Ulcerative Colitis and Its Intervention

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    Sai-Long Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD with chronic and recurrent characteristics caused by multiple reasons. Although the pathogenic factors have not been clarified yet, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota plays a major role in UC, especially in the immune system. This review focuses on the description of several major microbiota communities that affect UC and their interactions with the host. In this review, eight kinds of microbiota that are highly related to IBD, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, Bacteroides, Roseburia species, Eubacterium rectale, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium, and Candida albicans are demonstrated on the changes in amount and roles in the onset and progression of IBD. In addition, potential therapeutic targets for UC involved in the regulation of microbiota, including NLRPs, vitamin D receptor as well as secreted proteins, are discussed in this review.

  4. Natural polyreactive IgA antibodies coat the intestinal microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, Jeffrey J.; Erickson, Steven A.; Flynn, Theodore M.; Henry, Carole; Koval, Jason C.; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Bendelac, Albert

    2017-09-28

    Large quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) are constitutively secreted by intestinal plasma cells to coat and contain the commensal microbiota, yet the specificity of these antibodies remains elusive. Here we profiled the reactivities of single murine IgA plasma cells by cloning and characterizing large numbers of monoclonal antibodies. IgAs were not specific to individual bacterial taxa but rather polyreactive, with broad reactivity to a diverse, but defined, subset of microbiota. These antibodies arose at low frequencies among naïve B cells and were selected into the IgA repertoire upon recirculation in Peyer’s patches. This selection process occurred independent of microbiota or dietary antigens. Furthermore, although some IgAs acquired somatic mutations, these did not substantially influence their reactivity. These findings reveal an endogenous mechanism driving homeostatic production of polyreactive IgAs with innate specificity to microbiota.

  5. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

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    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  6. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchiaroni, F; Tortora, A; Gabrielli, M; Bertucci, F; Gigante, G; Ianiro, G; Ojetti, V; Scarpellini, E; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is an ecosystem consisting of a great number of commensal bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Several data confirm that gut microbiota is engaged in a dynamic interaction with the intestinal innate and adaptive immune system, affecting different aspects of its development and function. To review the immunological functions of gut microbiota and improve knowledge of its therapeutic implications for several intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases associated to dysregulation of the immune system. Significant articles were identified by literature search and selected based on content, including atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment of these conditions with probiotics. Accumulating evidence indicates that intestinal microflora has protective, metabolic, trophic and immunological functions and is able to establish a "cross-talk" with the immune component of mucosal immunity, comprising cellular and soluble elements. When one or more steps in this fine interaction fail, autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases may occur. Furthermore, it results from the data that probiotics, used for the treatment of the diseases caused by the dysregulation of the immune system, can have a beneficial effect by different mechanisms. Gut microbiota interacts with both innate and adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in maintenance and disruption of gut immune quiescence. A cross talk between the mucosal immune system and endogenous microflora favours a mutual growth, survival and inflammatory control of the intestinal ecosystem. Based on these evidences, probiotics can be used as an ecological therapy in the treatment of immune diseases.  

  7. Giardia duodenalis induces pathogenic dysbiosis of human intestinal microbiota biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Akierman, Sarah V; Motta, Jean-Paul; Muise, Stacy; Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Bhargava, Amol; Beck, Paul L; Rioux, Kevin P; McKnight, Gordon Webb; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies. Subsequently, we show that co-culture with Giardia induces disturbances in biofilm species composition and biofilm structure resulting in microbiota communities that are intrinsically dysbiotic - even after the clearance of Giardia. These microbiota abnormalities were mediated in part by secretory-excretory Giardia cysteine proteases. Using in vitro cell culture and germ-free murine infection models, we show that Giardia-induced disruptions of microbiota promote bacterial invasion, resulting in epithelial apoptosis, tight junctional disruption, and bacterial translocation across an intestinal epithelial barrier. Additionally, these dysbiotic microbiota communities resulted in increased activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway, and overproduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in humanized germ-free mice. Previous studies that have sought explanations and risk factors for the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome have focused on features of enteropathogens and attributes of the infected host. We propose that polymicrobial interactions involving Giardia and gut microbiota may cause persistent dysbiosis, offering a new interpretation of the reasons why those afflicted with giardiasis are predisposed to gastrointestinal disorders post-infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  8. Intestinal Crosstalk between Bile Acids and Microbiota and Its Impact on Host Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Sayin, Sama I; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    , is produced in the liver from cholesterol and metabolized in the intestine by the gut microbiota. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate numerous metabolic pathways in the host......The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids....... Conversely, bile acids can modulate gut microbial composition both directly and indirectly through activation of innate immune genes in the small intestine. Thus, host metabolism can be affected through microbial modifications of bile acids, which lead to altered signaling via bile acid receptors, but also...

  9. Communication between B-Cells and Microbiota for the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestine is populated with an extremely dense and diverse bacterial community. Commensal bacteria act as an important antigenic stimulus producing the maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. The production of immunoglobulin (Ig A by B-cells in the GALT is one of the immune responses following intestinal colonization of bacteria. The switch of B-cells from IgM to IgA-producing cells in the Peyer’s patches and neighboring lamina propria proceeds by T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent mechanisms. Several grams of secretory IgA (SIgA are released into the intestine each day. SIgA serves as a first-line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. SIgA has a capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and promote the transportation of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to GALT and down-regulate proinflammatory responses associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the reciprocal interactions between intestinal B cells and bacteria, specifically, the formation of IgA in the gut, the role of intestinal IgA in the regulation of bacterial communities and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the effects of probiotics on IgA levels in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  11. Distinct Shifts in Microbiota Composition during Drosophila Aging Impair Intestinal Function and Drive Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca I. Clark

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been correlated with aging and measures of frailty in the elderly. However, the relationships between microbial dynamics, age-related changes in intestinal physiology, and organismal health remain poorly understood. Here, we show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, characterized by an expansion of the Gammaproteobacteria, is tightly linked to age-onset intestinal barrier dysfunction in Drosophila. Indeed, alterations in the microbiota precede and predict the onset of intestinal barrier dysfunction in aged flies. Changes in microbial composition occurring prior to intestinal barrier dysfunction contribute to changes in excretory function and immune gene activation in the aging intestine. In addition, we show that a distinct shift in microbiota composition follows intestinal barrier dysfunction, leading to systemic immune activation and organismal death. Our results indicate that alterations in microbiota dynamics could contribute to and also predict varying rates of health decline during aging in mammals.

  12. Reciprocal Interactions of the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Craig L.; Elson, Charles O.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether to promote mutualism or host defense. These same attributes carry risk for immune-mediated diseases that are increasingly linked to the intestinal microbiota. Understanding how the adaptive immune system copes with the remarkable number and diversity of microbes that colonize the digestive tract, and how it integrates with more primitive innate immune mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis, holds considerable promise for new approaches to modulate immune networks in order to treat and prevent disease. PMID:22972296

  13. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...... designated Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Two such oligosaccharides having different degrees of polymerization, in the following designated S1 and S2, respectively, were tested. Small scale anaerobic fermentation studies were performed to test the effect of S1 and S2 on the composition of the intestinal...... microbiotas. Changes in the microbial composition were addressed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, DGGE, using Fructo- Oligosaccharides (FOS, a goldenstandard prebiotic) and glucose as reference substrates. Comparison between the DGGE profiles obtained by fermentations of S1, S2 and FOS showed...

  14. The intestinal microbiota modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Viaud S; Saccheri F; Mignot G; Yamazaki T; Daill\\xere R; Hannani D; Enot DP; Pfirschke C; Engblom C; Pittet MJ; Schlitzer A; Ginhoux F; Apetoh L; Chachaty E; Woerther PL

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is one of several clinically important cancer drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. Studying mouse models, we demonstrate that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram+ bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of “pathogenic” T helper 17 (pTh17) cel...

  15. Reciprocal Interactions of the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Craig L.; Elson, Charles O.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2012-01-01

    Emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether to promote mutualism or host defense. These same attributes carry risk for immune-mediated diseases that are increasingly linked to the intest...

  16. characterization of intestinal microbiota in celiac children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Lahcene1*, A. Tir Touil Meddah1, K. Bouziane-Nedjadi2, B. Meddah1, A. Leke3

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... In this study, 13 Samples of intestinal biopsy, ... Research Article. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... disease are caused by several factors among, the ingestion of gluten, and it has been suggested.

  17. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials.

  18. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  19. Aberrant intestinal microbiota due to IL-1 receptor antagonist deficiency promotes IL-17- and TLR4-dependent arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, Rebecca; Ederveen, Thomas H A; Boekhorst, Jos; Wopereis, Harm; Scher, Jose U; Manasson, Julia; Frambach, Sanne J C M; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van der Kraan, Peter M; Koenders, Marije I; van den Berg, Wim B; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla

    2017-06-23

    Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn -/- mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn -/- mice. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we show that IL-1Ra critically maintains the diversity and regulates the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice. IL-1Ra deficiency reduced the intestinal microbial diversity and richness, and caused specific taxonomic alterations characterized by overrepresented Helicobacter and underrepresented Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Notably, the aberrant intestinal microbiota in IL1rn -/- mice specifically potentiated IL-17 production by intestinal lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes and skewed the LP T cell balance in favor of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an effect transferable to WT mice by fecal microbiota. Importantly, LP Th17 cell expansion and the development of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice were attenuated under germ-free condition. Selective antibiotic treatment revealed that tobramycin-induced alterations of commensal intestinal microbiota, i.e., reduced Helicobacter, Flexispira, Clostridium, and Dehalobacterium, suppressed arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice. The arthritis phenotype in IL1rn -/- mice was previously shown to depend on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Using the ablation of both IL-1Ra and TLR4, we here show that the aberrations in the IL1rn -/- microbiota are partly TLR4-dependent. We further

  20. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism coincide with increased intestinal permeability in young adults under prolonged physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Murphy, Nancy E; Castellani, John W; Gundersen, Yngvar; Hoke, Allison V; Levangie, Michael W; Kumar, Raina; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Hammamieh, Rasha; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-06-01

    The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiological effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiological stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and a multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiological stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, as well as intestinal permeability (IP). Soldiers ( n = 73) were provided three rations per day with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a 4-day cross-country ski-march (STRESS). IP was measured before and during STRESS. Blood and stool samples were collected before and after STRESS to measure inflammation, stool microbiota, and stool and plasma global metabolite profiles. IP increased 62 ± 57% (mean ± SD, P Intestinal microbiota responses were characterized by increased α-diversity and changes in the relative abundance of >50% of identified genera, including increased abundance of less dominant taxa at the expense of more dominant taxa such as Bacteroides Changes in intestinal microbiota composition were linked to 23% of metabolites that were significantly altered in stool after STRESS. Together, pre-STRESS Actinobacteria relative abundance and changes in serum IL-6 and stool cysteine concentrations accounted for 84% of the variability in the change in IP. Findings demonstrate that a multiple-stressor military training environment induced increases in IP that were associated with alterations in markers of inflammation and with intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. Associations between IP, the pre-STRESS microbiota, and microbiota metabolites suggest that targeting the intestinal microbiota could provide novel strategies for preserving IP during physiological stress. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Military training, a unique model for studying temporal dynamics of intestinal barrier and intestinal microbiota responses to stress, resulted in increased intestinal permeability concomitant with

  1. Microbiota activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Katie L; Targan, Stephan R; Elson, Charles O

    2014-07-01

    The human host has coevolved with the collective of bacteria species, termed microbiota, in a complex fashion that affects both innate and adaptive immunity. Differential regulation of regulatory T-cell and effector T-cell responses are a direct result of specific microbial species present within the gut, and this relationship is subject to dysregulation during inflammation and disease. The microbiota varies widely between individuals and has a profound effect on how one reacts to various environmental stimuli, particularly if a person is genetically predisposed to an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately, half of all CD patients have elevated antibodies to CBir1, a microbiota flagellin common to mice and humans, demonstrating flagellins as immunodominant antigens in the intestines. This review focuses on the use of flagellins as probes to study microbiota-specific responses in the context of health and disease as well as probes of innate and adaptive responses employed by the host to deal with the overwhelming bacterial presence of the microbiota. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Arsenic exposure and intestinal microbiota in children from Sirajdikhan, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Shulzhenko, Natalia; Lemaitre, Julien; Greer, Renee L; Peremyslova, Kate; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Hasan, Omar Sharif Ibn; Joya, Sakila Afroz; Golam, Mostofa; Christiani, David C; Morgun, Andriy; Kile, Molly L

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic has antimicrobial properties at high doses yet few studies have examined its effect on gut microbiota. This warrants investigation since arsenic exposure increases the risk of many diseases in which gut microbiota have been shown to play a role. We examined the association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and the composition of intestinal microbiota in children exposed to low and high arsenic levels during prenatal development and early life. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that children with high arsenic exposure had a higher abundance of Proteobacteria in their stool compared to matched controls with low arsenic exposure. Furthermore, whole metagenome shotgun sequencing identified 332 bacterial SEED functions that were enriched in the high exposure group. A separate model showed that these genes, which included genes involved in virulence and multidrug resistance, were positively correlated with arsenic concentration within the group of children in the high arsenic group. We performed reference free genome assembly, and identified strains of E.coli as contributors to the arsenic enriched SEED functions. Further genome annotation of the E.coli genome revealed two strains containing two different arsenic resistance operons that are not present in the gut microbiome of a recently described European human cohort (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract, MetaHIT). We then performed quantification by qPCR of two arsenic resistant genes (ArsB, ArsC). We observed that the expression of these two operons was higher among the children with high arsenic exposure compared to matched controls. This preliminary study indicates that arsenic exposure early in life was associated with altered gut microbiota in Bangladeshi children. The enrichment of E.coli arsenic resistance genes in the high exposure group provides an insight into the possible mechanisms of how this toxic compound could affect gut microbiota.

  3. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.

  4. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Marguerite Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including, metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique used for decades to study environmental microorganisms but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community independent of identity to known genes by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host. Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex community and its human host.

  5. [The intestinal microbiota: A new player in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrel, M; Varin, L; Detaint, B; Mouaffak, F

    2018-02-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world according to the World Health Organization. The effectiveness of the available antidepressant therapies is limited. Data from the literature suggest that some subtypes of depression may be associated with chronic low grade inflammation. The uncovering of the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the immune system and its bidirectional communication with the brain have led to growing interest on reciprocal interactions between inflammation, microbiota and depression. Our purpose is to review the state of knowledge on these interactions. We carried out a literature search on Pubmed, Go pubmed, psyC info, Elsevier, Embase until August 13, 2016 using the keywords "depression", "microbiota" and "inflammation". Dysbiosis reported in patients suffering from depression seems to contribute to low grade systemic inflammation which in turn feeds back depression. The hypothetical mechanisms behind these interactions are multiple: leaky gut, hyperreactivity of the corticotropic axis, disturbed neurotransmission. Abnormal microbial exposure during childhood and perinatal stress are reported to influence both the maturation of the immune system and the microbiota hence contributing to the ethiopathogeny of depression. There is no evidence in the literature to support a role for diet. The evidence supporting a causal relationship between dysbiosis and depression through low grade inflammation is limited and precludes us from drawing firm conclusions. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rigo-Adrover, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-10-01

    To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples. CC and TB diets induced lower counts of E. coli whereas TB diet led to lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium histolyticum-C. perfingens group compared to RF diet. Metagenomics analysis also revealed a different microbiota pattern among the studied groups. The SCFA content was higher after both CC and TB diets, which was mainly due to enhanced butyric acid production. Furthermore, both diets decreased the proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Cocoa's theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, theobromine modifies gut microbiota although other cocoa compounds could also act on intestinal bacteria, attenuating or enhancing the theobromine effects. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Heat Shock Proteins: Intestinal Gatekeepers that Are Influenced by Dietary Components and the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of microorganisms that inhabit the intestinal tract form a diverse and intricate ecosystem with a deeply embedded symbiotic relationship with their hosts. As more detailed information on gut microbiota complexity and functional diversity accumulates, we are learning more about how diet-microbiota interactions can influence the immune system within and outside the gut and host health in general. Heat shock proteins are a set of highly conserved proteins that are present in all types of cells, from microbes to mammals. These proteins carry out crucial intracellular housekeeping functions and unexpected extracellular immuno-regulatory features in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity and gut homeostasis. It is becoming evident that the enteric microbiota is one of the major determinants of heat shock protein production in intestinal epithelial cells. This review will focus on the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their role for regulating heat shock protein production and, furthermore, how these interactions influence the immune system and the integrity of the mucosal barrier.

  9. Establishment of tolerance to commensal bacteria requires a complex microbiota and is accompanied by decreased intestinal chemokine expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Metzdorff, S. B.; Zeuthen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Intricate regulation of tolerance to the intestinal commensal microbiota acquired at birth is critical. We hypothesized that epithelial cell tolerance toward early gram-positive and gram-negative colonizing bacteria is established immediately after birth, as has previously been shown for endotoxin...

  10. Metaproteomics reveals functional differences in intestinal microbiota development of preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwittink, Romy D.; van Zoeren-Grobben, Diny; Martin, Rocio; van Lingen, Richard A.; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J.; Boeren, Sjef; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Belzer, Clara; Knol, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system can be modulated by the gut microbiota. Establishment of the intestinal microbiota, in its turn, is affected by host and environmental factors. As such, development of the gut microbiota is greatly impacted in preterm infants, who have an

  11. Metaproteomics reveals functional differences in intestinal microbiota development of preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwittink, Romy D.; Zoeren-Grobben, Van Diny; Martin, Rocio; Lingen, Van Richard A.; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J.; Boeren, Sjef; Renes, Ingrid B.; Elburg, Van Ruurd M.; Belzer, Clara; Knol, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system can be modulated by the gut microbiota. Establishment of the intestinal microbiota, in its turn, is affected by host and environmental factors. As such, development of the gut microbiota is greatly impacted in preterm infants,

  12. Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Nermes, M.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Satokari, R.

    2015-01-01

    The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were

  13. Advanced approaches to characterize the human intestinal microbiota by computational meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkilä, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2010-01-01

    GOALS: We describe advanced approaches for the computational meta-analysis of a collection of independent studies, including over 1000 phylogenetic array datasets, as a means to characterize the variability of human intestinal microbiota. BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a complex

  14. Intestinal Microbiota and the Innate Immune System - A Crosstalk in Crohn's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Siegmund, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. The precise etiology of CD is still unclear but it is widely accepted that a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the immune system and environmental factors are implicated in the onset and perpetuation of the disease. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies implies the intestinal microbiota in disease pathogenesis, thereby supporting the hypothesis that chronic intestinal inflammation arises from an abnormal immune response against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Given that CD patients display changes in their gut microbiota composition, collectively termed "dysbiosis," the question raises whether the altered microbiota composition is a cause of disease or rather a consequence of the inflammatory state of the intestinal environment. This review will focus on the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the innate immune system during intestinal inflammation, thereby unraveling the role of the microbiota in CD pathogenesis.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Haro

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI. Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001. However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019 and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026 in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041. Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  16. Immune Development and Intestinal Microbiota in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pozo-Rubio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy, triggered by dietary wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The etiology of this disorder is complex, involving both environmental and genetic factors. The major genetic risk factor for CD is represented by HLA-DQ genes, which account for approximately 40% of the genetic risk; however, only a small percentage of carriers develop the disease. Gluten is the main environmental factor responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, but exposure to gluten does not fully explain the manifestation of CD. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that environmental factors other than gluten might play a role in disease development, including early feeding practices (e.g., breast milk versus formula and duration of breastfeeding, infections, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. Herein, we review what is known about the influence of dietary factors, exposure to infectious agents, and intestinal microbiota composition, particularly in early life, on the risk of developing CD, as well as the possible dietary strategies to induce or increase gluten tolerance.

  17. MyD88 Signaling Regulates Steady-State Migration of Intestinal CD103+ Dendritic Cells Independently of TNF-α and the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägerbrand, Karin; Westlund, Jessica; Yrlid, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    of both CD103+CD11b+and CD103+CD11b- DCs in the MLN. DC migration was independent of caspase-1, which is responsible for the inflammasomedependentproteolytic activation of IL-1 cytokine family members, and was not affected by treatment with broad-spectrumantibiotics. Consistent with the latter finding....... Similarly,TLR signaling through the adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-b and downstream productionof type I IFN were not required for steady-state CD103+ DC migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in DCs, independently of the microbiota and TNF...

  18. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides modulate intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of humanized gnotobiotic diet induced obesity mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Respondek

    Full Text Available Prebiotic fibres like short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS are known to selectively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and especially to stimulate Bifidobacteria. In parallel, the involvement of intestinal microbiota in host metabolic regulation has been recently highlighted. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of scFOS on the composition of the faecal microbiota and on metabolic parameters in an animal model of diet-induced obesity harbouring a human-type microbiota. Forty eight axenic C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with a sample of faecal human microbiota and randomly assigned to one of 3 diets for 7 weeks: a control diet, a high fat diet (HF, 60% of energy derived from fat or an isocaloric HF diet containing 10% of scFOS (HF-scFOS. Mice fed with the two HF gained at least 21% more weight than mice from the control group. Addition of scFOS partially abolished the deposition of fat mass but significantly increased the weight of the caecum. The analysis of the taxonomic composition of the faecal microbiota by FISH technique revealed that the addition of scFOS induced a significant increase of faecal Bifidobacteria and the Clostridium coccoides group whereas it decreased the Clostridium leptum group. In addition to modifying the composition of the faecal microbiota, scFOS most prominently affected the faecal metabolome (e.g. bile acids derivatives, hydroxyl monoenoic fatty acids as well as urine, plasma hydrophilic and plasma lipid metabolomes. The increase in C. coccoides and the decrease in C. leptum, were highly correlated to these metabolic changes, including insulinaemia, as well as to the weight of the caecum (empty and full but not the increase in Bifidobacteria. In conclusion scFOS induce profound metabolic changes by modulating the composition and the activity of the intestinal microbiota, that may partly explain their effect on the reduction of insulinaemia.

  19. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

  20. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries in the h......New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  1. How the Intricate Interaction among Toll-Like Receptors, Microbiota, and Intestinal Immunity Can Influence Gastrointestinal Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Frosali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut is able to maintain tolerance to microbial and food antigens. The intestine minimizes the number of harmful bacteria by shaping the microbiota through a symbiotic relationship. In healthy human intestine, a constant homeostasis is maintained by the perfect regulation of microbial load and the immune response generated against it. Failure of this balance may result in various pathological conditions. Innate immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, may be considered an interface among intestinal epithelial barrier, microbiota, and immune system. TLRs pathway, activated by pathogens, is involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious and inflammatory diseases. The alteration of the homeostasis between physiologic and pathogenic bacteria of intestinal flora causes a condition called dysbiosis. The breakdown of homeostasis by dysbiosis may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases. It is evident that environment, genetics, and host immunity form a highly interactive regulatory triad that controls TLR function. Imbalanced relationships within this triad may promote aberrant TLR signaling, critically contributing to acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory processes, such as in IBD, colitis, and colorectal cancer. The study of interactions between different components of the immune systems and intestinal microbiota will open new horizons in the knowledge of gut inflammation.

  2. MicroRNAs and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtsch, Marah C; Round, June L; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is a unique site in which a large portion of our immune system and the 10(14) commensal organisms that make up the microbiota reside in intimate contact with each other. Despite the potential for inflammatory immune responses, this complex interface contains host immune cells and epithelial cells interacting with the microbiota in a manner that promotes symbiosis. Due to the complexity of the cell types and microorganisms involved, this process requires elaborate regulatory mechanisms to ensure mutualism and prevent disease. While many studies have described critical roles for protein regulators of intestinal homeostasis, recent reports indicate that non-coding RNAs are also major contributors to optimal host-commensal interactions. In particular, there is emerging evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved to fine tune host gene expression networks and signaling pathways that modulate cellular physiology in the intestinal tract. Here, we review our present knowledge of the influence miRNAs have on both immune and epithelial cell biology in the mammalian intestines and the impact this has on the microbiota. We also discuss a need for further studies to decipher the functions of specific miRNAs within the gut to better understand cellular mechanisms that promote intestinal homeostasis and to identify potential molecular targets underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

  3. Eating Disorders and the Intestinal Microbiota: Mechanisms of Energy Homeostasis and Behavioral Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, Elaine M; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Tang, Quyen; Bulik, Cynthia M; Carroll, Ian M

    2017-08-01

    We reviewed and evaluated recently published scientific studies that explored the role of the intestinal microbiota in eating disorders. Studies have demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is a contributing factor to both host energy homeostasis and behavior-two traits commonly disrupted in patients with eating disorders. To date, intestinal microbiota research in eating disorders has focused solely on anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial studies have reported an atypical intestinal microbial composition in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. However, the impact of these AN-associated microbial communities on host metabolism and behavior remains unknown. The intriguing pattern of findings in patients with AN encourages further investigation of the intestinal microbiota in eating disorders. Elucidating the specific role(s) of these microbial communities may yield novel ideas for augmenting current clinical therapies to promote weight gain, decrease gastrointestinal distress, and even reduce psychological symptomatology.

  4. Intestinal microbiota in health and disease: role of bifidobacteria in gut homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Rafael; Suárez, Adolfo; Clemente, Marta G; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-11-07

    The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as "microbiota" and their collective genomes as "microbiome". The colon is the most densely populated organ in the human body, although other parts, such as the skin, vaginal mucosa, or respiratory tract, also harbour specific microbiota. This microbial community regulates some important metabolic and physiological functions of the host, and drives the maturation of the immune system in early life, contributing to its homeostasis during life. Alterations of the intestinal microbiota can occur by changes in composition (dysbiosis), function, or microbiota-host interactions and they can be directly correlated with several diseases. The only disease in which a clear causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota has been demonstrated is the case of Clostridium difficile infections. Nonetheless, alterations in composition and function of the microbiota have been associated with several gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, or irritable bowel syndrome), as well as extra-intestinal pathologies, such as those affecting the liver, or the respiratory tract (e.g., allergy, bronchial asthma, and cystic fibrosis), among others. Species of Bifidobacterium genus are the normal inhabitants of a healthy human gut and alterations in number and composition of their populations is one of the most frequent features present in these diseases. The use of probiotics, including bifidobacteria strains, in preventive medicine to maintain a healthy intestinal function is well documented. Probiotics are also proposed as therapeutic agents for gastrointestinal disorders and other pathologies. The World Gastroenterology Organization recently published potential clinical applications for several probiotic formulations, in which species of lactobacilli are predominant. This review is focused on probiotic preparations containing Bifidobacterium strains, alone or in combination with other bacteria, which have been tested

  5. Intestinal microbiota and type 2 diabetes: From mechanism insights to therapeutic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jun-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of T2DM has not yet been well explained. Recent evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota composition is associated with obesity and T2DM. In this review, we provide an overview about the mechanisms underlying the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is clear evidence that the intestinal microbiota influences the host through its effect on body weight, bile aci...

  6. Human intestinal microbiota composition is associated with local and systemic inflammation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdam, Froukje J; Fuentes, Susana; de Jonge, Charlotte; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Erbil, Runi; Greve, Jan Willem; Buurman, Wim A; de Vos, Willem M; Rensen, Sander S

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity, but the mechanism remains elusive. The relationship between microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, and inflammation in nonobese and obese subjects was investigated. Fecal microbiota composition of 28 subjects (BMI 18.6-60.3 kg m(-2) ) was analyzed by a phylogenetic profiling microarray. Fecal calprotectin and plasma C-reactive protein levels were determined to evaluate intestinal and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HbA1c , and plasma levels of transaminases and lipids were analyzed. Gastroduodenal, small intestinal, and colonic permeability were assessed by a multisaccharide test. Based on microbiota composition, the study population segregated into two clusters with predominantly obese (15/19) or exclusively nonobese (9/9) subjects. Whereas intestinal permeability did not differ between clusters, the obese cluster showed reduced bacterial diversity, a decreased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, and an increased abundance of potential proinflammatory Proteobacteria. Interestingly, fecal calprotectin was only detectable in subjects within the obese microbiota cluster (n = 8/19, P = 0.02). Plasma C-reactive protein was also increased in these subjects (P = 0.0005), and correlated with the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (rs = -0.41, P = 0.03). Intestinal microbiota alterations in obese subjects are associated with local and systemic inflammation, suggesting that the obesity-related microbiota composition has a proinflammatory effect. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of IBS and stabilises intestinal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajander, K.; Myllyluoma, E.; Rajlic-Stojanovic, M.; Kyronpalo, S.S.; Rasmussen, M.; Jarvenpaa, S.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Vapaatalo, H.; Korpela, R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) on abdominal symptoms, quality of life, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory

  8. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima eDrissi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the α-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defence against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy.

  9. High-throughput analysis of the impact of antibiotics on the human intestinal microbiota composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladirat, S.E.; Schols, H.A.; Nauta, A.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Montijn, R.C.; Gruppen, H.; Schuren, F.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments can lead to a disruption of the human microbiota. In this in-vitro study, the impact of antibiotics on adult intestinal microbiota was monitored in a new high-throughput approach: a fermentation screening-platform was coupled with a phylogenetic microarray analysis

  10. Intestinal microbiota in health and disease: Role of bifidobacteria in gut homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Rafael; Suárez, Adolfo; Clemente, Marta G; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. The colon is the most densely populated organ in the human body, although other parts, such as the skin, vaginal mucosa, or respiratory tract, also harbour specific microbiota. This microbial community regulates some important metabolic and physiological functions of the host, and drives the maturation of the immune system in early life, contributing to its homeostasis during life. Alterations of the intestinal microbiota can occur by changes in composition (dysbiosis), function, or microbiota-host interactions and they can be directly correlated with several diseases. The only disease in which a clear causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota has been demonstrated is the case of Clostridium difficile infections. Nonetheless, alterations in composition and function of the microbiota have been associated with several gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, or irritable bowel syndrome), as well as extra-intestinal pathologies, such as those affecting the liver, or the respiratory tract (e.g., allergy, bronchial asthma, and cystic fibrosis), among others. Species of Bifidobacterium genus are the normal inhabitants of a healthy human gut and alterations in number and composition of their populations is one of the most frequent features present in these diseases. The use of probiotics, including bifidobacteria strains, in preventive medicine to maintain a healthy intestinal function is well documented. Probiotics are also proposed as therapeutic agents for gastrointestinal disorders and other pathologies. The World Gastroenterology Organization recently published potential clinical applications for several probiotic formulations, in which species of lactobacilli are predominant. This review is focused on probiotic preparations containing Bifidobacterium strains, alone or in combination with other bacteria, which have been

  11. Intestinal microbiota of healthy and unhealthy Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Sun, Guoxiang; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Xian; Liu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    The present study sampled the intestinal content of healthy and unhealthy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the ambient water of unhealthy fish, and the biofilter material in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to understand differences in the intestinal microbiota. The V4-V5 regions of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in the samples were analyzed by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The fish were adults with no differences in body length or weight. Representative members of the intestinal microbiota were identified. The intestinal microbiota of the healthy fish included Proteobacteria (44.33%), Actinobacteria (17.89%), Bacteroidetes (15.25%), and Firmicutes (9.11%), among which the families Micrococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae and genera Sphingomonas, Streptomyces, Pedobacter, Janthinobacterium, Burkholderia, and Balneimonas were most abundant. Proteobacteria (70.46%), Bacteroidetes (7.59%), and Firmicutes (7.55%) dominated the microbiota of unhealthy fish, and Chloroflexi (2.71%), and Aliivibrio and Vibrio as well as genera in the family Aeromonadaceae were most strongly represented. Overall, the intestinal hindgut microbiota differed between healthy and unhealthy fish. This study offers a useful tool for monitoring the health status of fish and for screening the utility of probiotics by studying the intestinal microbiota.

  12. Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, Ruud S; Levin, Evgeni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Smits, Loek P; Hartstra, Annick V; Udayappan, Shanti D; Hermes, Gerben; Bouter, Kristien E; Koopen, Annefleur M; Holst, Jens J; Knop, Filip K; Blaak, Ellen E; Zhao, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Harms, Amy C; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Romijn, Hans A; Schaap, Frank G; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Ackermans, Mariette T; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Zoetendal, Erwin; de Vos, Willem M; Serlie, Mireille J; Stroes, Erik S G; Groen, Albert K; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor Mediated Modulation of T Cell Response by Commensal Intestinal Microbiota as a Trigger for Autoimmune Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In autoimmune diseases, a disturbance of the balance between T helper 17 (Th17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs is often observed. This disturbed balance is also the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic predisposition to RA confers the presence of several polymorphisms mainly regulating activation of T lymphocytes. However, the presence of susceptibility factors is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the disease development, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors. Multiple studies have shown that commensal gut microbiota is of great influence on immune homeostasis and can trigger the development of autoimmune diseases by favoring induction of Th17 cells over Tregs. However the mechanism by which intestinal microbiota influences the Th cell balance is not completely understood. Here we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of commensal intestinal microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis, along with a potential role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs in modulating the relevant Th cell responses to trigger autoimmunity. A better understanding of TLR triggering by intestinal microbiota and subsequent T cell activation might offer new perspectives for manipulating the T cell response in RA patients and may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets or even preventive measures.

  14. Dietary emulsifiers directly alter human microbiota composition and gene expression ex vivo potentiating intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Bodt, Jana; Marzorati, Massimo; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including IBD and metabolic syndrome. Administration of substances that alter microbiota composition, including the synthetic dietary emulsifiers polysorbate 80 (P80) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), can promote such inflammatory disorders. However, that inflammation itself impacts microbiota composition has obfuscated defining the extent to which these compounds or other substances act directly upon the microbiota versus acting on host parameters that promote inflammation, which subsequently reshapes the microbiota. We examined the direct impact of CMC and P80 on the microbiota using the mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME) model that maintains a complex stable human microbiota in the absence of a live host. This approach revealed that both P80 and CMC acted directly upon human microbiota to increase its proinflammatory potential, as revealed by increased levels of bioactive flagellin. The CMC-induced increase in flagellin was rapid (1 day) and driven by altered microbiota gene expression. In contrast, the P80-induced flagellin increase occurred more slowly and was closely associated with altered species composition. Transfer of both emulsifier-treated M-SHIME microbiotas to germ-free recipient mice recapitulated many of the host and microbial alterations observed in mice directly treated with emulsifiers. These results demonstrate a novel paradigm of deconstructing host-microbiota interactions and indicate that the microbiota can be directly impacted by these commonly used food additives, in a manner that subsequently drives intestinal inflammation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Rhubarb Supplementation Promotes Intestinal Mucosal Innate Immune Homeostasis through Modulating Intestinal Epithelial Microbiota in Goat Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Wang, Min; Zhou, Chuanshe; Zhong, Rongzhen; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-01-31

    The abuse and misuse of antibiotics in livestock production pose a potential health risk globally. Rhubarb can serve as a potential alternative to antibiotics, and several studies have looked into its anticancer, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rhubarb supplementation to the diet of young ruminants on innate immune function and epithelial microbiota in the small intestine. Goat kids were fed with a control diet supplemented with or without rhubarb (1.25% DM) and were slaughtered at days 50 and 60 of age. Results showed that the supplementation of rhubarb increased ileal villus height (P = 0.036), increased jejujal and ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10 production (P immune function were accompanied by shifts in ileal epithelial bacterial ecosystem in favor of Blautia, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas, and with a decline in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus (P immune homeostasis by modulating intestinal epithelial microbiota during the early stages of animal development.

  16. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mayeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS. SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN. In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides. In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises.

  17. IBS-associated phylogenetic unbalances of the intestinal microbiota are not reverted by probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Simone; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Severgnini, Marco; Consolandi, Clarissa; Cavina, Piero; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    IBS is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder, in which the microbiota has been demonstrated to play a role. An increasing number of studies have suggested how probiotics may alleviate IBS symptoms and several mechanisms of action have been proposed.   In the present study we characterized the intestinal microbiota of 19 subjects suffering from diagnosed IBS using a fully validated High Taxonomic Fingerprint Microbiota Array (HTF-Microbi.Array). We demonstrated that the IBS microbiota is different from that of healthy individuals due to an unbalance in a number of commensal species, with an increase in relative abundance of lactobacilli, B. cereus and B. clausii, bifidobacteria, Clostridium cluster IX and E. rectale, and a decrease in abundance of Bacteroides/Prevotella group and Veillonella genus. Additionally, we demonstrated that some bacterial groups of the human intestinal microbiota, recently defined as pathobionts, are increased in concentration in the IBS microbiota. Furthermore, we aimed at investigating if the daily administration of a novel probiotic yogurt containing B. animalis subsp lactis Bb12 and K. marxianus B0399, recently demonstrated to have beneficial effects in the management of IBS symptoms, could impact on the biostructure of IBS microbiota, modulating its composition to counteract putative dysbiosis found in IBS subjects. Notably, we demonstrated that the beneficial effects associated to the probiotic preparation are not related to significant modifications in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota.

  18. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Horta-Baas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome’s role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. La microbiota intestinal en el desarrollo del sistema inmune del recién nacido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira La Rosa Hernández

    Full Text Available La microbiota intestinal comprende al conjunto de microorganismos comensales que cohabitan en simbiosis con el individuo. Su programación intraútero y colonización ulterior son factores determinantes en la maduración del sistema inmune. Para enriquecer nuestros conocimientos sobre el efecto de la microbiota intestinal en la maduración del sistema inmune en el niño, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica tras consultar las bases de datos Google, Medline y el Localizador de Información de Salud de Infomed, con la utilización de descriptores como microbiota intestinal, sistema inmune, gut microbiota.

  20. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

  1. Intestinal microbiota and faecal transplantation as treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udayappan, S. D.; Hartstra, A. V.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is increasing rapidly around the globe. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective that the intestinal microbiota may play a significant role in the development of these metabolic disorders. Alterations in the intestinal

  2. Intestinal microbiota: a potential diet-responsive prevention target in ApcMin mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Colbert, Lisa H; Perkins, Susan N; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hursting, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that two dietary regimens, calorie restriction (CR) and a high olive oil-containing diet supplemented with a freeze-dried fruit and vegetable extract (OFV), reduced the development of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 57% and 33%, respectively, compared to control mice fed a defined diet ad libitum. The OFV diet was designed to have a strong effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota through its high content of fiber, which represents a major source of fermentable substrate for the gut bacteria. We hypothesized that some of the observed effects of diet on intestinal carcinogenesis might be mediated by diet-related changes in the bacterial species that thrive in the gut. Therefore, we determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) how the dietary interventions affected the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and we characterized specific microbiota changes that were associated with diet and reduced intestinal carcinogenesis. The OFV diet changed the overall composition of the intestinal microbiota, smaller changes were observed for the CR diet. Furthermore, we detected a 16S rDNA fragment associated with mice that did not develop polyps. Sequence analysis suggested that hitherto unidentified bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae (order Clostridiales) were its source. Thus, these bacteria may be an indicator of intestinal conditions associated with reduced intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min) mice. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Intestinal immune maturation is accompanied by temporal changes in the composition of the microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.G.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Wehrmaker, A.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    In animals establishment of the intestinal microbial ecosystem is influenced by mucosal immune functions. As mucosal immune functions dynamically change during development of juvenile layer chicken, this study focused on dynamics in the ileal microbiota composition in relation to intestinal immune

  4. Obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherothrombosis: a role for the intestinal microbiota?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, M.; Kootte, R.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Levi, M.; Stroes, E.S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the association between intestinal microorganisms and health has been widely accepted in the area of infectious disease, recent advances have now implied a role for the intestinal microbiota in human energy balance. In fact, numerous studies support an intricate relationship between the

  5. Intestinal immune maturation is accompanied by temporal changes in the composition of the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, G; De Vries-Reilingh, G; Wehrmaker, A M; Savelkoul, H F J; Parmentier, H K; Lammers, A

    2016-11-30

    In animals establishment of the intestinal microbial ecosystem is influenced by mucosal immune functions. As mucosal immune functions dynamically change during development of juvenile layer chicken, this study focused on dynamics in the ileal microbiota composition in relation to intestinal immune development. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum and amount of bacteria coated with IgA, a hallmark of intestinal immune maturation, were analysed. The composition of the intestinal microbiota transiently changed at the age of 14-42 days compared to the microbiota composition before and after this period. This temporal deviation in microbiota composition was associated to a temporal increase in transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Furthermore, before week two limited amounts of faecal bacteria were bound by IgM and from week two increasing amounts of bacteria were bound by IgA, reaching a maximal level of 70% of IgA-coated bacteria at 6 weeks of age. These data could indicate that prior to achievement of intestinal homeostasis at 6-10 weeks post hatch, activation of inflammatory pathways cause a temporal disturbance of the microbiota composition. This period of imbalance may be essential for adequate immune development and establishment of intestinal homeostasis.

  6. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Mithieux, Gilles

    2016-07-12

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, dietary succinate improved glucose and insulin tolerance in wild-type mice, but those effects were absent in mice deficient in IGN. Conventional mice colonized with the succinate producer Prevotella copri exhibited metabolic benefits, which could be related to succinate-activated IGN. Thus, microbiota-produced succinate is a previously unsuspected bacterial metabolite improving glycemic control through activation of IGN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiota intestinal, probióticos y prebióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos David Castañeda Guillot

    2017-01-01

    La microbiota intestinal es el elemento fundamental del “Ecosistema Intestinal”, cuyas acciones tienen un efecto beneficioso para la salud, al participar de forma activa en los procesos de digestión de nutrientes asociado a sus mecanismos sobre la homeostasis y la inmunidad del intestino. Los probióticos y prebióticos juegan un rol decisivo en la modulación de la microbiota intestinal y han demostrado sus beneficios para el tratamiento de distintas enfermedades intestinales y extra-intestinal...

  8. Microbiota-inducible Innate Immune, Siderophore Binding Protein Lipocalin 2 is Critical for Intestinal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Yeoh, Beng San; Chassaing, Benoit; Zhang, Benyue; Saha, Piu; Xiao, Xia; Awasthi, Deepika; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Dikshit, Madhu; Gewirtz, Andrew; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-07-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a multifunctional innate immune protein whose expression closely correlates with extent of intestinal inflammation. However, whether Lcn2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of gut inflammation is unknown. Herein, we investigated the extent to which Lcn2 regulates inflammation and gut bacterial dysbiosis in mouse models of IBD. Lcn2 expression was monitored in murine colitis models and upon microbiota ablation/restoration. WT and Lcn2 knockout ( Lcn2 KO) mice were analyzed for gut bacterial load, composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and, their colitogenic potential by co-housing with Il-10 KO mice. Acute (dextran sodium sulfate) and chronic (IL-10R neutralization and T-cell adoptive transfer) colitis was induced in WT and Lcn2 KO mice with or without antibiotics. Lcn2 expression was dramatically induced upon inflammation and was dependent upon presence of a gut microbiota and MyD88 signaling. Use of bone-marrow chimeric mice revealed non-immune cells are the major contributors of circulating Lcn2. Lcn2 KO mice exhibited elevated levels of entA -expressing gut bacteria burden and, moreover, a broadly distinct bacterial community relative to WT littermates. Lcn2 KO mice developed highly colitogenic T-cells and exhibited exacerbated colitis upon exposure to DSS or neutralization of IL-10. Such exacerbated colitis could be prevented by antibiotic treatment. Moreover, exposure to the microbiota of Lcn2 KO mice, via cohousing, resulted in severe colitis in Il-10 KO mice. Lcn2 is a bacterially-induced, MyD88-dependent, protein that play an important role in gut homeostasis and a pivotal role upon challenge. Hence, therapeutic manipulation of Lcn2 levels may provide a strategy to help manage diseases driven by alteration of the gut microbiota.

  9. Fatty acids from diet and microbiota regulate energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Alcock, Joe; Lin, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    A high-fat diet and elevated levels of free fatty acids are known risk factors for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and visceral obesity. Although these disease associations are well established, it is unclear how different dietary fats change the risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Here, we review emerging evidence that insulin resistance and fat storage are linked to changes in the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, in turn, are highly ...

  10. Exploring a Possible Link between the Intestinal Microbiota and Feed Efficiency in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ursula M; Curião, Tânia; Buzoianu, Stefan G; Prieto, Maria L; Ryan, Tomas; Varley, Patrick; Crispie, Fiona; Magowan, Elizabeth; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Berry, Donagh; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2017-08-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium, and high residual feed intake ([RFI] a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional, and management effects were minimized, to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty-one pigs were ranked according to RFI between weaning and day 126 postweaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, and 10 high). Intestinal microbiota diversity, composition, and predicted functionality were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although no differences in microbial diversity were found, some RFI-associated compositional differences were revealed, principally among members of Firmicutes , predominantly in feces at slaughter (albeit mainly for low-abundance taxa). In particular, microbes associated with a leaner and healthier host (e.g., Christensenellaceae , Oscillibacter , and Cellulosilyticum ) were enriched in low RFI (more feed-efficient) pigs. Differences were also observed in the ileum of low RFI pigs; most notably, Nocardiaceae ( Rhodococcus ) were less abundant. Predictive functional analysis suggested improved metabolic capabilities in these animals, especially within the ileal microbiota. Higher ileal isobutyric acid concentrations were also found in low RFI pigs. Overall, the differences observed within the intestinal microbiota of low RFI pigs compared with that of their high RFI counterparts, albeit relatively subtle, suggest a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE in pigs. IMPORTANCE This study is one of the first to show that differences in intestinal microbiota composition, albeit subtle, may partly explain improved feed efficiency (FE) in low residual feed intake (RFI) pigs. One of the main findings is

  11. Exploring a Possible Link between the Intestinal Microbiota and Feed Efficiency in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ursula M.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Prieto, Maria L.; Ryan, Tomas; Varley, Patrick; Crispie, Fiona; Magowan, Elizabeth; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Berry, Donagh; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium, and high residual feed intake ([RFI] a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional, and management effects were minimized, to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty-one pigs were ranked according to RFI between weaning and day 126 postweaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, and 10 high). Intestinal microbiota diversity, composition, and predicted functionality were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although no differences in microbial diversity were found, some RFI-associated compositional differences were revealed, principally among members of Firmicutes, predominantly in feces at slaughter (albeit mainly for low-abundance taxa). In particular, microbes associated with a leaner and healthier host (e.g., Christensenellaceae, Oscillibacter, and Cellulosilyticum) were enriched in low RFI (more feed-efficient) pigs. Differences were also observed in the ileum of low RFI pigs; most notably, Nocardiaceae (Rhodococcus) were less abundant. Predictive functional analysis suggested improved metabolic capabilities in these animals, especially within the ileal microbiota. Higher ileal isobutyric acid concentrations were also found in low RFI pigs. Overall, the differences observed within the intestinal microbiota of low RFI pigs compared with that of their high RFI counterparts, albeit relatively subtle, suggest a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE in pigs. IMPORTANCE This study is one of the first to show that differences in intestinal microbiota composition, albeit subtle, may partly explain improved feed efficiency (FE) in low residual feed intake (RFI) pigs. One of the main findings is

  12. Effect of Functional Oligosaccharides and Ordinary Dietary Fiber on Intestinal Microbiota Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Lu, Jing; Li, Boxing; Lin, Weishi; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Xiao; Sun, Chengming; Chi, Mingguo; Bi, Wei; Yang, Bingjun; Jiang, Aimin; Yuan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted. Compared to the control group, the different prebiotics diets had varying effects on the structure and diversity of intestinal microbiota. GI and PF supplementation led to significant changes in intestinal microbiota, including an increase of Bacteroides and a decrease of Alloprevotella in the GI-fed, but those changes were opposite in PF fed group. Intriguing, in the GI/PF mixture-fed group, intestinal microbiota had the similar structure as the control groups, and flora diversity was upregulated. Fecal metabolic profiling showed that the diversity of intestinal microbiota was helpful in maintaining the stability of fecal metabolites. Our results showed that a single type of oligosaccharides or dietary fiber caused the reduction of bacteria species, and selectively promoted the growth of Bacteroides or Alloprevotella bacteria, resulting in an increase in diamine oxidase (DAO) and/or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) values which was detrimental to health. However, the flora diversity was improved and the DAO values was significantly decreased when the addition of nutritionally balanced GI/PF mixture. Thus, we suggested that maintaining microbiota diversity and the abundance of dominant bacteria in the intestine is extremely important for the health, and that the addition of a combination of oligosaccharides and dietary fiber helps maintain the health of the intestinal microecosystem.

  13. Impact of Prematurity and Perinatal Antibiotics on the Developing Intestinal Microbiota: A Functional Inference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Sánchez, Borja; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; Milani, Christian; Margolles, Abelardo; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2016-04-29

    The microbial colonization of the neonatal gut provides a critical stimulus for normal maturation and development. This process of early microbiota establishment, known to be affected by several factors, constitutes an important determinant for later health. We studied the establishment of the microbiota in preterm and full-term infants and the impact of perinatal antibiotics upon this process in premature babies. To this end, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based microbiota assessment was performed at phylum level and functional inference analyses were conducted. Moreover, the levels of the main intestinal microbial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate, were measured by Gas-Chromatography Flame ionization/Mass spectrometry detection. Prematurity affects microbiota composition at phylum level, leading to increases of Proteobacteria and reduction of other intestinal microorganisms. Perinatal antibiotic use further affected the microbiota of the preterm infant. These changes involved a concomitant alteration in the levels of intestinal SCFA. Moreover, functional inference analyses allowed for identifying metabolic pathways potentially affected by prematurity and perinatal antibiotics use. A deficiency or delay in the establishment of normal microbiota function seems to be present in preterm infants. Perinatal antibiotic use, such as intrapartum prophylaxis, affected the early life microbiota establishment in preterm newborns, which may have consequences for later health.

  14. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota of mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Refaat; Huynh, Kevin; Desoky, Enas; Badawy, Ahmed; Widmer, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the interaction between the intestinal microbiota (microbiome) and enteric pathogens is of interest in the development of alternative treatments that do not rely on chemotherapy and do not lead to drug resistance. We undertook research in a rodent model of cryptosporidiosis to assess whether the bacterial gut microbiota is impacted by infection with the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. The profile of the faecal bacterial microbiota in infected and uninfected animals was compared using 16S amplicon sequencing. In four independent experiments, the intestinal microbiota of infected mice differed from that of uninfected animals, regardless of the C. parvum isolate used to infect mice. The use of replicated treatment groups demonstrated that microbiota divergence between treatments was driven by the infection and did not result from spontaneous changes in the intestinal ecosystem unrelated to the infection. Microbiota perturbation induced by C. parvum appeared to be reversible, as we observed a tendency for the phylogenetic distance between infected and uninfected mice to diminish after mice cleared the infection. As mice infected with C. parvum do not develop diarrhoea, these observations indicate that microbiota perturbation results from other mechanisms than an accelerated movement of gut content. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  16. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01. The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05. This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  17. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Cenit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD, compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant’s gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc. could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis.

  18. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Olivares, Marta; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Sanz, Yolanda

    2015-08-17

    It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant's gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Olivares, Marta; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Sanz, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant’s gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis. PMID:26287240

  20. Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota.

  1. Intestinal Microbiota and the Innate Immune System – A Crosstalk in Crohn’s Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Siegmund, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. The precise etiology of CD is still unclear but it is widely accepted that a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the immune system and environmental factors are implicated in the onset and perpetuation of the disease. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies implies the intestinal microbiota in disease pathogenesis, thereby supporting the hypothesis that chronic intestinal inflammation arises from an abnormal immune response against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Given that CD patients display changes in their gut microbiota composition, collectively termed “dysbiosis,” the question raises whether the altered microbiota composition is a cause of disease or rather a consequence of the inflammatory state of the intestinal environment. This review will focus on the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the innate immune system during intestinal inflammation, thereby unraveling the role of the microbiota in CD pathogenesis. PMID:26441993

  2. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Phillip A; Green, Stefan J; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies.

  3. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTE IN AGOUTIS BRED IN CAPTIVITY MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL EM CUTIAS CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO LUÍS MARTINS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines are colonized by microorganisms, which vary according to the species and the intestinal region. Thus, due the lack of information about this subject in literature, this research was developed for better knowing some aspects of the intestinal microbiology of the agouti, considered one of the biggest Brazilian wild rodents. Three males and three not pregnant adult females, belonging to the Catanduva City Zoo, SP, went through laparotomy after anesthesia. Samples were collected with sterile swab in the medium thirds of the jejune, cecum and greater colon after enterotomy. They were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and in TSA (triptone-soy agar. In the jejune, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was of 83.33%, Salmonella spp. of 66.67% and Clostridium spp. of 50.00% of the samples. In the cecum, they were identified Staphylococcus aureus in 33.33%, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in 100% and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples were identified. In the greater colon, the growth of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in 66.67%, Staphylococcus aureus in 83.33%, and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples was observed, showing the occurrence of variations in the bacteriae proportion according to the intestinal region. 

    KEY WORDS: Dasyprocta azarae, intestines, microbiote.

    Os intestinos são colonizados por microorganismos, variáveis de acordo com a espécie e região intestinal. Assim, em virtude da ausência de informações sobre esse assunto na literatura, esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para melhor se conhecer alguns aspectos da microbiota intestinal da cutia, um dos maiores roedores selvagens brasileiros. Três machos e três fêmeas adultas vazias, pertencentes ao Zoológico Municipal de Catanduva, SP, foram submetidos a laparotomia mediante anestesia. Amostras com swab estéril foram coletadas nos terços médios do jejuno, ceco e c

  4. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van Baarlen, Peter; Derrien, Muriel; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Hooiveld, Guido; Levenez, Florence; Doré, Joël; Dekker, Jan; Samsom, Janneke N; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-09-01

    During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced, appropriate responses to the microbiota is obscure. Here, combined analysis of germfree and conventionalized mice revealed that the major molecular responses could be detected initiating at day 4 post conventionalization, with a strong induction of innate immune functions followed by stimulation of adaptive immune responses and development and expansion of adaptive immune cells at later stages of conventionalization. This study provides a comprehensive overview of mouse developmental and immune-related cellular pathways and processes that were co-mediated by the commensal microbiota and suggests which mechanisms were involved in this reprogramming. The dynamic, region-dependent mucosal responses to the colonizing microbiota revealed potential transcriptional signatures for the control of intestinal homeostasis in healthy mice, which may help to decipher the genetic basis of pathway dysregulation in human intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  5. Molecular ecological network analysis reveals the effects of probiotics and florfenicol on intestinal microbiota homeostasis: An example of sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Mo; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2017-07-06

    Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P. marcusii DB11 supplementation may lead to sub-module integration and the formation of a large, new sub-module, and enhance species-species interactions and connecter and module hub numbers. B. cereus G19 supplementation decreased sub-module numbers, and increased the number of species-species interactions and module hubs. Sea cucumber treated with florfenicol were shown to have only one connecter and the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and species-species interactions within the ecological network. These results suggested that P. marcusii DB11 or B. cereus G19 may promote intestinal microbiota homeostasis by improving modularity, enhancing species-species interactions and increasing the number of connecters and/or module hubs within the network. In contrast, the use of florfenicol can lead to homeostatic collapse through the deterioration of the ecological network.

  6. 16S rDNA analysis of the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on pulmonary and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhao; Yang, Zhongshan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Han, Niping; Yuan, Jiali; Cheng, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined. At the phylum level, FMT down-regulated Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes in the pulmonary flora. At the genus level, FMT down-regulated Pseudomonas , Sphingobium , Lactobacillus , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter , thus maintaining the balance of the pulmonary flora. Moreover, FMT could change the structure and diversity of the pulmonary and intestinal flora by positively regulating the pulmonary flora and negatively regulating intestinal flora. This study may provide a scientific basis for FMT treatment of respiratory diseases.

  7. The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan C; Watson, Hunna J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Huh, Eun Young; Tarantino, Lisa M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the microbe-gut-brain axis to psychopathology is of interest in anorexia nervosa (AN), as the intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in metabolic function and weight regulation. We characterized the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in AN, using stool samples collected at inpatient admission (T1; n = 16) and discharge (T2; n = 10). At T1, participants completed the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Patients with AN were compared with healthy individuals who participated in a previous study (healthy comparison group; HCG). Genomic DNA was isolated from stool samples, and bacterial composition was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequencing results were processed by the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline. We compared T1 versus T2 samples, samples from both points were compared with HCG (n = 12), and associations between psychopathology and T1 samples were explored. In patients with AN, significant changes emerged between T1 and T2 in taxa abundance and beta (between-sample) diversity. Patients with AN had significantly lower alpha (within-sample) diversity than did HCG at both T1 (p = .0001) and T2 (p = .016), and differences in taxa abundance were found between AN patients and HCG. Levels of depression, anxiety, and eating disorder psychopathology at T1 were associated with composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. We provide evidence of an intestinal dysbiosis in AN and an association between mood and the enteric microbiota in this patient population. Future directions include mechanistic investigations of the microbe-gut-brain axis in animal models and association of microbial measures with metabolic changes and recovery indices.

  8. Interactions of Giardia sp. with the intestinal barrier: Epithelium, mucus, and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Thibault; Amat, Christina B; Motta, Jean-Paul; Manko, Anna; Buret, André G

    2017-01-02

    Understanding how intestinal enteropathogens cause acute and chronic alterations has direct animal and human health perspectives. Significant advances have been made on this field by studies focusing on the dynamic crosstalk between the intestinal protozoan parasite model Giardia duodenalis and the host intestinal mucosa. The concept of intestinal barrier function is of the highest importance in the context of many gastrointestinal diseases such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders. This crucial function relies on 3 biotic and abiotic components, first the commensal microbiota organized as a biofilm, then an overlaying mucus layer, and finally the tightly structured intestinal epithelium. Herein we review multiple strategies used by Giardia parasite to circumvent these 3 components. We will summarize what is known and discuss preliminary observations suggesting how such enteropathogen directly and/ or indirectly impairs commensal microbiota biofilm architecture, disrupts mucus layer and damages host epithelium physiology and survival.

  9. Regulation of intestinal immune responses through TLR activation: implications for pro- and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander eDe Kivit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, allergic gastroenteritis (e.g. eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLR play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation.

  10. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans....

  11. Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Claesson, Marcus J

    2011-03-15

    Alterations in the human intestinal microbiota are linked to conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. The microbiota also undergoes substantial changes at the extremes of life, in infants and older people, the ramifications of which are still being explored. We applied pyrosequencing of over 40,000 16S rRNA gene V4 region amplicons per subject to characterize the fecal microbiota in 161 subjects aged 65 y and older and 9 younger control subjects. The microbiota of each individual subject constituted a unique profile that was separable from all others. In 68% of the individuals, the microbiota was dominated by phylum Bacteroides, with an average proportion of 57% across all 161 baseline samples. Phylum Firmicutes had an average proportion of 40%. The proportions of some phyla and genera associated with disease or health also varied dramatically, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Faecalibacteria. The core microbiota of elderly subjects was distinct from that previously established for younger adults, with a greater proportion of Bacteroides spp. and distinct abundance patterns of Clostridium groups. Analyses of 26 fecal microbiota datasets from 3-month follow-up samples indicated that in 85% of the subjects, the microbiota composition was more like the corresponding time-0 sample than any other dataset. We conclude that the fecal microbiota of the elderly shows temporal stability over limited time in the majority of subjects but is characterized by unusual phylum proportions and extreme variability.

  12. Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    AB Purpose of review: To summarize and discuss recent findings concerning diet-microbiota-health relations. Recent findings: Mouse and other model animal studies have provided detailed insight into host-microbiota interactions, but cannot be extrapolated easily to humans that have different dietary

  13. Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by the commensal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Jarchum, Irene; Pamer, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial communities that inhabit the intestinal tract are essential for mammalian health. Communication between the microbiota and the host establishes and maintains immune homeostasis, enabling protective immune responses against pathogens while preventing adverse inflammatory responses to harmless commensal microbes. Specific bacteria, such as segmented filamentous bacteria, Clostridium species, and Bacteroides fragilis, are key contributors to immune homeostasis in the gut. The cellu...

  14. Crosstalk between the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system in intestinal homeostasis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupaul-Chicoine, Jeremy; Dagenais, Maryse; Saleh, Maya

    2013-09-01

    : Inflammatory bowel diseases are a set of complex and chronic disorders that arise in genetically predisposed individuals due to a lack of tolerance to the gut microflora. Although the intestinal microbiota is required for the proper development of the host and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, its dysbiosis is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases pathogenesis. In this review, we focus the discussion on the crosstalk between the innate immune system and the microbiota. We examine new findings from genetic and functional studies investigating the critical role of the intestinal epithelial cell layer and the processes that maintain its integrity in health and disease. We further explore the mechanisms of the mucosal innate immune system including dendritic cells, macrophages, and innate-like lymphocytes in mediating immunological tolerance at the steady state or pathogenic inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  15. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  16. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian MM Ahmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Molecular characterization of the intestinal microbiota in patients with and without abdominal bloating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Benson, Andrew K; Carroll, Ian M; Kim, Jaehyoung; Legge, Ryan M; Ringel, Yehuda

    2016-03-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls (HC), suggesting a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Alterations in the microbiota have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal bloating, a commonly reported symptom in IBS. We investigated the relationship between the intestinal microbiota, abdominal bloating, and altered bowel patterns in a cohort of patients with IBS and HC. The 16S rRNA gene from fresh fecal samples was amplified and pyrosequenced by using Roche-454 Titanium chemistry. A Core Measurable Microbiome (CMM) was generated for Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) detected in >75% of all samples and compositional features of CMM were compared between groups by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). IBS differentiated from HC by LDA using continuous variation in the species/OTUs or the CMM genera. When subcategorized based on bloating symptoms and bowel characteristics, the same subjects were also well differentiated from one another and from HC. ANOVA analysis showed quantitative species/OTU differences between the subgroups including IBS with and without bloating, and subtypes based on bowel characteristics. The clear LDA differentiation and the significant microbial taxa differences between the groups imply a significant association of the microbiota with bloating symptoms and bowel characteristics in IBS. These changes in the microbiota may serve as a biomarker for IBS and its clinical subtypes and suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the main symptoms of the disorder. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    evaluating the effects of these changes on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome , mycobiome...immune cells associated with the intestine and their interactions with the normal microbial contents of the gut. 2. KEYWORDS Radiation, microbiome ... microbiome following TBI. At the end of the experiment, we also harvested the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes for multiparametric flow cytometry and

  19. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  20. Routine habitat change: a source of unrecognized transient alteration of intestinal microbiota in laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty W Ma

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute and chronic diseases. Valuable insights on the association of the microbiota with disease critically depend on investigation of mouse models. Like in humans, the microbial community in the mouse intestine is relatively stable and resilient, yet can be influenced by environmental factors. An often-overlooked variable in research is basic animal husbandry, which can potentially alter mouse physiology and experimental outcomes. This study examined the effects of common husbandry practices, including food and bedding alterations, as well as facility and cage changes, on the gut microbiota over a short time course of five days using three culture-independent techniques, quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP and next generation sequencing (NGS. This study detected a substantial transient alteration in microbiota after the common practice of a short cross-campus facility transfer, but found no comparable alterations in microbiota within 5 days of switches in common laboratory food or bedding, or following an isolated cage change in mice acclimated to their housing facility. Our results highlight the importance of an acclimation period following even simple transfer of mice between campus facilities, and highlights that occult changes in microbiota should be considered when imposing husbandry variables on laboratory animals.

  1. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.

  2. Influence of Intestinal Microbiota on the Catabolism of Flavonoids in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weiqun; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Hai; Wang, Dongliang; Ling, Wenhua

    2016-12-01

    Although in vitro studies have shown that flavonoids are metabolized into phenolic acids by the gut microbiota, the biotransformation of flavonoids by intestinal microbiota is seldom studied in vivo. In this study, we investigated the impact of the gut microbiota on the biotransformation of 3 subclasses of flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, and flavanones). The ability of intestinal microbiota to convert flavonoids was confirmed with an in vitro fermentation model using mouse gut microflora. Simultaneously, purified flavonoids were administered to control and antibiotic-treated mice by gavage, and the metabolism of these flavonoids was evaluated. p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, coumaric acid, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid were detected in the serum samples from the control mice after flavonoid consumption. The serum flavonoid concentrations were similar in both groups, whereas the phenolic metabolite concentrations were lower in the antibiotic-treated mice than in the control mice. We detected markedly higher flavonoids excretion in the feces and urine of the antibiotic-treated mice compared to the controls. Moreover, phenolic metabolites were upregulated in the control mice. These results suggest that the intestinal microbiota are not necessary for the absorption of flavonoids, but are required for their transformation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Effect of in ovo administration of an adult-derived microbiota on establishment of the intestinal microbiome in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Batal, Amy B; Lee, Margie D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of in ovo administration of a probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of 2 genetic lineages (modern and heritage) of chickens. SAMPLE 10 newly hatched chicks and 40 fertile eggs to determine intestinal microbiota at hatch, 900 fertile eggs to determine effects of probiotic on hatchability, and 1,560 chicks from treated or control eggs. PROCEDURES A probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota was administered in ovo to fertile eggs of both genetic lineages. Cecal contents and tissues were collected from embryos, newly hatched chicks, and chicks. A PCR assay was used to detect bacteria present within the cecum of newly hatched chicks. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vitality staining were used to detect viable bacteria within intestines of embryos. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by use of 16S pyrosequencing. RESULTS Microscopic evaluation of embryonic cecal contents and tissues subjected to differential staining techniques revealed viable bacteria in low numbers. Development of the intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks of both genetic lineages was enhanced by in ovo administration of adult microbiota. Although the treatment increased diversity and affected composition of the microbiota of chicks, most bacterial species present in the probiotic were transient colonizers. However, the treatment decreased the abundance of undesirable bacterial species within heritage lineage chicks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ovo inoculation of a probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota may be a viable method of managing development of the microbiota and reducing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in chickens.

  4. Intestinal microbiota differentially affect brush border enzyme activity and gene expression in the neonatal gnotobiotic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, B P; Van Kessel, A G

    2009-10-01

    To study microbial influence on intestinal development pertaining to nutrient digestion, two separate gnotobiotic experiments were performed, each with 16 piglets allocated to four treatment groups: germfree (GF), monoassociation with Escherichia coli, monoassociation with Lactobacillus fermentum or conventionalization with faecal bacteria (CV). Enzyme activity and gene expression of lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and aminopeptidase N (APN) were measured in isolated enterocytes, harvested on day 14, using specific substrates and quantitative PCR respectively. Enterocytes of CV pigs had reduced APN activity, but had increased gene expression relative to GF, making the specific activity:mRNA (A:G) ratio dramatically lower (p pigs as compared with GF. The results of co-incubation of L. fermentum, E. coli and faecal bacteria with APN indicate a direct relationship between enzyme inactivation and specific A:G ratio in enterocytes. We conclude that enterocyte up-regulation of APN expression occurs as either a direct response to microbial colonization or as a feedback mechanism in response to reduced enzyme activity through microbial degradation. This mechanism may play a role in ensuring effective competition of the host with the intestinal microbiota for available nutrients.

  5. Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2017-01-06

    A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis. We focus on the recent findings with an intention to illuminate the mechanisms by which the microbiota and products thereof are interacting with host immunity, as well as to scrutinize imbalanced gut microbiota (dysbiosis) which lead to autoimmune disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and systemic immune syndromes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to their well-recognized benefits in the gut such as occupation of ecological niches and competition with pathogens, commensal bacteria have been shown to strengthen the gut barrier and to exert immunomodulatory actions within the gut and beyond. It has been realized that impaired intestinal microbiota not only contribute to gut diseases but also are inextricably linked to metabolic disorders and even brain dysfunction. A better understanding of the mutual interactions of the microbiota and host immune system, would shed light on our endeavors of disease prevention and broaden the path to our discovery of immune intervention targets for disease treatment.

  6. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Responses upon Multi-drug ResistantPseudomonas aeruginosaColonization of Mice Harboring a Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliane, von Klitzing; Ekmekciu, Ira; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has rated multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as serious threat for human health. It is, however, unclear, whether intestinal MDR P. aeruginosa carriage is associated with inflammatory responses in intestinal or even systemic compartments. In the present study, we generated with respect to their microbiota "humanized" mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice. Following peroral challenge with a clinical P. aeruginosa isolate on two consecutive days, mice harboring a human or murine microbiota were only partially protected from stable intestinal P. aeruginosa colonization given that up to 78% of mice were P. aeruginosa -positive at day 28 post-infection (p.i.). Irrespective of the host-specificity of the microbiota, P. aeruginosa colonized mice were clinically uncompromised. However, P. aeruginosa colonization resulted in increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis that was accompanied by pronounced proliferative/regenerative cell responses. Furthermore, at day 7 p.i. increased innate immune cell populations such as macrophages and monocytes could be observed in the colon of mice harboring either a human or murine microbiota, whereas this held true at day 28 p.i. for adaptive immune cells such as B lymphocytes in both the small and large intestines of mice with murine microbiota. At day 7 p.i., pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was enhanced in the colon and mesenteric lymph nodes, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was down-regulated in the former at day 28 p.i. Strikingly, cytokine responses upon intestinal P. aeruginosa colonization were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically, given that TNF and IFN-γ concentrations were elevated in spleens as early as 7 days p.i., whereas splenic IL-10 levels were dampened at day 28 p.i. of mice with human microbiota. In conclusion, mere intestinal carriage of MDR P. aeruginosa by clinically unaffected

  7. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans......., pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free...

  8. Can the composition of the intestinal microbiota predict the development of urinary tract infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Casper Dj; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Prins, Jan M.; Beerepoot, Marielle A. J.; Stobberingh, Ellen E.; Penders, John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether intestinal microbiota predicts the development of new-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) in postmenopausal women with prior recurrent UTIs (rUTIs). Fecal samples (n = 40) originated from women with rUTI who received 12 months' prophylaxis of either

  9. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Smidt, H.; Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonise the human gastrointestinal tract play an important role in human health. The development of culture-independent molecular techniques has provided new insights in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we summarise the

  10. Cultivable intestinal microbiota of yellowtail juveniles (Seriola lalandi in an aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguilera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellowtail (Seriola lalandi has been farmed for many years and is becoming a promising aquaculture species. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of this species is very limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the bacterial populations associated with the intestinal tract of Seriola lalandi reared in Chile. The microbiota composition was analyzed at two growth stages distinguished by weight and parameters such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. Juveniles (mean initial weight 7.33 ± 0.30 g and pre-adults (81.7 ± 19.0 g were fed with commercial diet for 33 and 50 days, respectively. The first intestinal samples were collected at the end of Trial 1 from specimens weighing approximately 50 g while the second samples were obtained at the end of Trial 2 from specimens weighing approximately 370 g. The microbiota composition was examined using conventional isolation in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA followed by 16S rRNA sequencing and identification. In total, 16 genera were identified. Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Staphylococcus were the predominant genera in fish at the 50 g stage, whereas Microbacterium and Francisella were the predominant genera in the 370 g stage. The microbiota composition showed different assemblages, depending on host size, with Bacillus and Vibrio being the only genera that were shared. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of Seriola lalandi is the first step in the exploration of microbiota management and the development of probiotics, as well as in the identification of the bacterial populations in healthy fish under cultured conditions.

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius bacteriocin Abp118 on the mouse and pig intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliette Riboulet-Bisson

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are gram-positive bacteria that are a subdominant element in the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and which are commonly used in the food industry. Some lactobacilli are considered probiotic, and have been associated with health benefits. However, there is very little culture-independent information on how consumed probiotic microorganisms might affect the entire intestinal microbiota. We therefore studied the impact of the administration of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, a microorganism well characterized for its probiotic properties, on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in two model animals. UCC118 has anti-infective activity due to production of the bacteriocin Abp118, a broad-spectrum class IIb bacteriocin, which we hypothesized could impact the microbiota. Mice and pigs were administered wild-type (WT L. salivarius UCC118 cells, or a mutant lacking bacteriocin production. The microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from faeces. The data show that L. salivarius UCC118 administration had no significant effect on proportions of major phyla comprising the mouse microbiota, whether the strain was producing bacteriocin or not. However, L. salivarius UCC118 WT administration led to a significant decrease in Spirochaetes levels, the third major phylum in the untreated pig microbiota. In both pigs and mice, L. salivarius UCC118 administration had an effect on Firmicutes genus members. This effect was not observed when the mutant strain was administered, and was thus associated with bacteriocin production. Surprisingly, in both models, L. salivarius UCC118 administration and production of Abp118 had an effect on gram-negative microorganisms, even though Abp118 is normally not active in vitro against this group of microorganisms. Thus L. salivarius UCC118 administration has a significant but subtle impact on mouse and pig microbiota, by a mechanism that seems at least partially

  12. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Microbiota intestinal en la enfermedad renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarran Guldris

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo se revisan la situación de la microflora intestinal en la ERC, la alteración de la barrera intestinal y sus consecuencias clínicas, los efectos deletéreos de las toxinas urémicas derivadas de la microflora intestinal, así como las posibles opciones terapéuticas para mejorar esta disbiosis y reducir las complicaciones de la ERC.

  14. Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the metabolism of chemical compounds found within food. Bacterial metabolites are different from those that can be generated by human enzymes because bacterial processes occur under anaerobic conditions and are based mainly on reactions of reduction and/or hydrolysis. In most cases, bacterial metabolism reduces the activity of dietary compounds; however, sometimes a specific product of bacterial transformation exhibits enhanced properties. Studies on the metabolism of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota are crucial for understanding the role of these compounds and their impact on our health. This review article presents possible pathways of polyphenol metabolism by intestinal bacteria and describes the diet-derived bioactive metabolites produced by gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their potential impact on human health. Because the etiology of many diseases is largely correlated with the intestinal microbiome, a balance between the host immune system and the commensal gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining health. Diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences are summarized in the paper.

  15. Identification of an Intestinal Microbiota Signature Associated With Severity of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tap, Julien; Derrien, Muriel; Törnblom, Hans; Brazeilles, Rémi; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie; Doré, Joël; Störsrud, Stine; Le Nevé, Boris; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    We have limited knowledge about the association between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and clinical features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We collected information on the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with IBS and evaluated whether these were associated with symptoms. We collected fecal and mucosal samples from adult patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS at a secondary/tertiary care outpatient clinics in Sweden, as well as from healthy subjects. The exploratory set comprised 149 subjects (110 with IBS and 39 healthy subjects); 232 fecal samples and 59 mucosal biopsy samples were collected and analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA targeted pyrosequencing. The validation set comprised 46 subjects (29 with IBS and 17 healthy subjects); 46 fecal samples, but no mucosal samples, were collected and analyzed. For each subject, we measured exhaled H 2 and CH 4 , oro-anal transit time, and the severity of psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal methanogens were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Numerical ecology analyses and a machine learning procedure were used to analyze the data. Fecal microbiota showed covariation with mucosal adherent microbiota. By using classic approaches, we found no differences in fecal microbiota abundance or composition between patients with IBS vs healthy patients. A machine learning procedure, a computational statistical technique, allowed us to reduce the 16S ribosomal RNA data complexity into a microbial signature for severe IBS, consisting of 90 bacterial operational taxonomic units. We confirmed the robustness of the intestinal microbial signature for severe IBS in the validation set. The signature was able to discriminate between patients with severe symptoms, patients with mild/moderate symptoms, and healthy subjects. By using this intestinal microbiota signature, we found IBS symptom severity to be associated negatively with microbial richness, exhaled CH 4 , presence

  16. The role of intestinal microbiota in energetic metabolism: new perspectives in combating obesity

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    Juliana Pereira Perpétuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge that the composition of intestinal microbiota is different in lean and obese humans indicates that the microbiota plays an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Studies show that diet composition promotes the modification of intestinal bacterial species, favoring the increase of energy extraction from the diet, insulin resistance and obesity. Unbalanced diets, with overload fat and low fiber content, lead to increased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla favoring dysbiosis, endotoxemia and inflammation. The use of probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics, in order to modulate the composition of intestinal microbiome, may be a promising therapy for the reduction of the metabolic complications of obesity; however, further studies should be conducted to establish which probiotic species are suitable to help in the treatment of obesity.

  17. MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL Y SU INFLUENCIA EN EL SÍNDROME METABÓLICO

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    Bertha Maggi De Monserrate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La pandemia de la obesidad, diabetes mellitus 2, enfermedades cardiovasculares son la mejor prueba de que el tratamiento para estas patologías han fracasado, hasta ahora se ha intervenido en el factor genético y ambiental; pero surge como un posible tercer factor, la microbiota intestinal que podría estar relacionada con el síndrome metabólico el cual se ha comprobado es causante de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles anteriores citadas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, que permita dilucidar la situación actual de las investigaciones que establecen una relación entre la microbiota intestinal y el Síndrome metabólico. La clave para esta hipótesis fue el paradigma emergente de la esencia natural de las comunidades microbianas complejas y su importancia para la biología de los mamíferos, la salud y las enfermedades humanas. Dos proyectos llevan a cabo la tarea de descifrar la estructura y funcionalidad de la flora intestinal humana, así como su relación con estados de enfermedad, el Proyecto MetaHIT y el Proyecto de la Microbiota Humana(2007, otros autores como Diaman et al (2011, Robles-Alonso, Guarner F. (2013, Devaraj S (2013, Fernández Palomares (2013, entre otros han estudiado directamente síndrome metabólico-obesidad y diabetes mellitus 2 y microbiota intestinal. La determinación de los microrganismos de la microbiota se analiza mediante metagenómica y la secuenciación de genes ARNr 16S en heces. El desequilibrio de la microbiota intestinal (disbiosis afecta la obtención de nutrientes, energía y un sinfín de rutas metabólicas del huésped. El avance de estos estudios han determinando una mejor comprensión del papel de la microbiota intestinal en la obesidad, síndrome metabólico, diabetes mellitus 2 y enfermedades cardiovasculares.

  18. Human milk oligosaccharides in premature infants: absorption, excretion, and influence on the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A; Gaerlan, Stephanie; De Leoz, Maria Lorna A; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Kalanetra, Karen M; Lemay, Danielle G; German, J Bruce; Mills, David A; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2015-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the intestinal microbiota in term infants. In premature infants, alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis, and the influence of HMOs on the microbiota is unclear. Milk, urine, and stool specimens from 14 mother-premature infant dyads were investigated by mass spectrometry for HMO composition. The stools were analyzed by next-generation sequencing to complement a previous analysis. Percentages of fucosylated and sialylated HMOs were highly variable between individuals but similar in urine, feces, and milk within dyads. Differences in urine and fecal HMO composition suggest variability in absorption. Secretor status of the mother correlated with the urine and fecal content of specific HMO structures. Trends toward higher levels of Proteobacteria and lower levels of Firmicutes were noted in premature infants of nonsecretor mothers. Specific HMO structures in the milk, urine, and feces were associated with alterations in fecal Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. HMOs may influence the intestinal microbiota in premature infants. Specific HMOs, for example those associated with secretor mothers, may have a protective effect by decreasing pathogens associated with sepsis and NEC, while other HMOs may increase dysbiosis in this population.

  19. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  20. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

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    Yehao Liu

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1 cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  1. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Mucosal innate immune cells regulate both gut homeostasis and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Continuous exposure of intestinal mucosal surfaces to diverse microorganisms and their metabolites reflects the biological necessity for a multifaceted, integrated epithelial and immune cell-mediated regulatory system. The development and function of the host cells responsible for the barrier function of the intestinal surface (e.g., M cells, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and columnar epithelial cells) are strictly regulated through both positive and negative stimulation by the luminal microbiota. Stimulation by damage-associated molecular patterns and commensal bacteria-derived microbe-associated molecular patterns provokes the assembly of inflammasomes, which are involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Mucosal immune cells located beneath the epithelium play critical roles in regulating both the mucosal barrier and the relative composition of the luminal microbiota. Innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, in particular, orchestrate the mucosal regulatory system to create a mutually beneficial environment for both the host and the microbiota. Disruption of mucosal homeostasis causes intestinal inflammation such as that seen in inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we review the recent research on the biological interplay among the luminal microbiota, epithelial cells, and mucosal innate immune cells in both healthy and pathological conditions. © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Levin, Evgeni; Salojärvi, Jarkko

    2017-01-01

    be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition. Kootte et al. show that fecal microbiota transplantation from lean donors to obese patients with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity, a transient effect associated with changes in microbiota composition and fasting plasma metabolites......The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome...... allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism are associated with changes in intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites and can...

  4. Aspects regarding the profile of intestinal microbiota on wild populations of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus, linnaeus, 1758

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    Lucian OPREA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to examinate the profile of intestinal microbiota of sterlet from the Danube River. Genomic DNA was extracted from each gut fish and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rDNA to characterise the variability of bacterial populations, the results showed different microbial profiles for 50% of fish. These results demonstrate the potential of PCRDGGE-based analysis for identification of gut microbiota and could contribute to a better understanding of fish ecology.

  5. Inulin with different degrees of polymerization modulates composition of intestinal microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Limeng; Qin, Song; Zhai, Shixiang; Gao, Yonglin; Li, Lili

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to analyze the global influences of dietary inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on intestinal microbial communities. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were obtained at time point 0 and 6th week. 16S rRNA sequence analysis was used to measure intestinal microbiota performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Influences of dietary inulin on intestinal microbiota were more complex effects than bifidogenic effects, relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria increased after interventions. Akkermansia muciniphila, belonging to mucin-degrading species, became a dominant species in Verrucomicrobia phylum after treatment with fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin. Modulation effects of intestinal microbiota were positively correlated with DP. Lower DP interventions exhibited better effects than higher DP treatment on stimulation of probiotics. We hypothesized that Akkermansia muciniphila played an important role on maintaining balance between mucin and short chain fatty acids. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Modification of Intestinal Microbiota and Its Consequences for Innate Immune Response in the Pathogenesis of Campylobacteriosis

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    Wycliffe Omurwa Masanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in the world, and thus one of the most important public health concerns. The initial stage in its pathogenesis after ingestion is to overcome colonization resistance that is maintained by the human intestinal microbiota. But how it overcomes colonization resistance is unknown. Recently developed humanized gnotobiotic mouse models have provided deeper insights into this initial stage and host’s immune response. These studies have found that a fat-rich diet modifies the composition of the conventional intestinal microbiota by increasing the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria loads while reducing the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes loads creating an imbalance that exposes the intestinal epithelial cells to adherence. Upon adherence, deoxycholic acid stimulates C. jejuni to synthesize Campylobacter invasion antigens, which invade the epithelial cells. In response, NF-κB triggers the maturation of dendritic cells. Chemokines produced by the activated dendritic cells initiate the clearance of C. jejuni cells by inducing the actions of neutrophils, B-lymphocytes, and various subsets of T-cells. This immune response causes inflammation. This review focuses on the progress that has been made on understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota shift, establishment of C. jejuni infection, and consequent immune response.

  7. Modification of intestinal microbiota and its consequences for innate immune response in the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Zautner, Andreas E

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in the world, and thus one of the most important public health concerns. The initial stage in its pathogenesis after ingestion is to overcome colonization resistance that is maintained by the human intestinal microbiota. But how it overcomes colonization resistance is unknown. Recently developed humanized gnotobiotic mouse models have provided deeper insights into this initial stage and host's immune response. These studies have found that a fat-rich diet modifies the composition of the conventional intestinal microbiota by increasing the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria loads while reducing the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes loads creating an imbalance that exposes the intestinal epithelial cells to adherence. Upon adherence, deoxycholic acid stimulates C. jejuni to synthesize Campylobacter invasion antigens, which invade the epithelial cells. In response, NF- κ B triggers the maturation of dendritic cells. Chemokines produced by the activated dendritic cells initiate the clearance of C. jejuni cells by inducing the actions of neutrophils, B-lymphocytes, and various subsets of T-cells. This immune response causes inflammation. This review focuses on the progress that has been made on understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota shift, establishment of C. jejuni infection, and consequent immune response.

  8. Intestinal microbiota in fishes: what's known and what's not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Kendall D; Angert, Esther R; Montgomery, W Linn; Choat, J Howard

    2014-04-01

    High-throughput sequencing approaches have enabled characterizations of the community composition of numerous gut microbial communities, which in turn has enhanced interest in their diversity and functional relationships in different groups of vertebrates. Although fishes represent the greatest taxonomic and ecological diversity of vertebrates, our understanding of their gut microbiota and its functional significance has lagged well behind that of terrestrial vertebrates. In order to highlight emerging issues, we provide an overview of research on fish gut microbiotas and the biology of their hosts. We conclude that microbial community composition must be viewed within an informed context of host ecology and physiology, and that this is of particular importance with respect to research planning and sampling design. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microbiota intestinal, probióticos y prebióticos

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    Carlos David Castañeda Guillot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota intestinal es el elemento fundamental del “Ecosistema Intestinal”, cuyas acciones tienen un efecto beneficioso para la salud, al participar de forma activa en los procesos de digestión de nutrientes asociado a sus mecanismos sobre la homeostasis y la inmunidad del intestino. Los probióticos y prebióticos juegan un rol decisivo en la modulación de la microbiota intestinal y han demostrado sus beneficios para el tratamiento de distintas enfermedades intestinales y extra-intestinales. Se realizó una búsqueda en bases documentales de PubMed, SciELO y Latindex de publicaciones relacionadas con la microbiota intestinal, probióticos y prebióticos hasta el 30 junio 2017. Son actualizados los criterios relacionados con las funciones de la microbiota intestinal, el proceso de implantación a partir del nacimiento, el desarrollo acelerado en su composición, los distintos factores que influencian en su diversidad y estabilidad para mantener un estado de eubiosis en el curso de la vida. El desequlibrio de la misma (disbiosis es un elemento de importancia en la producción de afecciones intestinales y extra-intestinales agudas y crónicas. Se revisaron los probióticos y prebióticos, sus ventajas, tipos, indicaciones y las formas de obtención de los prebióticos. El papel de la microbiota intestinal como órgano metabólico por sus múltiples funciones, en especial la homeostasis e inmunidad intestinal y sus beneficios para la salud son revisados. La participación de los probióticos y prebióticos como terapéutica y sus efectos en enfermedades intestinales y extra-intestinales relacionadas con la microbiota y su modulación son examinados por su importancia en la práctica médica.

  10. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

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    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  11. [The role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Pedro; González, Margarita; Castro, Érica

    2016-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium.

  12. Structure of protein emulsion in food impacts intestinal microbiota, caecal luminal content composition and distal intestine characteristics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Douard, Véronique; Mat, Damien; Koeth, Fanny; Goustard, Bénédicte; Mayeur, Camille; Mondot, Stanislas; Hovaghimian, Anais; Le Feunteun, Steven; Chaumontet, Catherine; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Michon, Camille; Fromentin, Gilles; Blachier, François; Leclerc, Marion

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion. LFE diet led to higher abundance, when compared to the GCE, of Lactobacillaceae (Lactobacillus reuteri) in the ileum, higher β-diversity of the caecum mucus-associated bacteria. In contrast, the LFE diet led to a decrease in Akkermansia municiphila in the caecum. This coincided with heavier caecum content and higher amount of isovalerate in the LFE group. LFE diet induced an increased expression of (i) amino acid transporters in the ileum (ii) glucagon in the caecum, together with an elevated level of GLP-1 in portal plasma. However, these intestinal effects were not associated with modification of food intake or body weight gain. Overall, the structure of protein emulsion in food affects the expression of amino acid transporters and gut peptides concomitantly with modification of the gut microbiota composition and activity. Our data suggest that these effects of the emulsion structure are the result of a modification of protein digestion properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Intestinal microbiota and emergence of new representations of the body: a psychosocial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durif-Bruckert, Christine

    2016-11-01

    In view of the growing importance attached to the gut microbiota in preventive medicine and treatment, it would seem essential to identify and analyse the modalities of its representation in a psychosocial approach. In the first part of this article, we will discuss the renewal of representations of the digestive tract brought about by scientific discourse on the gut microbiota, mainly regarding the anthropological status of the intestines and faeces. Then in the second part we will focus on ways of taking advantage of the variable nature of the microbiota by food choices, and we will also focus on therapeutic approaches that use transplantations of faecal matter, and the ensuing loss of privacy entailed (an anthropological notion of defil). © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  14. Respiratory influenza virus infection induces intestinal immune injury via microbiota-mediated Th17 cell–dependent inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Fengqi; Wei, Haiming; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Sun, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Influenza in humans is often accompanied by gastroenteritis-like symptoms such as diarrhea, but the underlying mechanism is not yet understood. We explored the occurrence of gastroenteritis-like symptoms using a mouse model of respiratory influenza infection. We found that respiratory influenza infection caused intestinal injury when lung injury occurred, which was not due to direct intestinal viral infection. Influenza infection altered the intestinal microbiota composition, which was mediated by IFN-γ produced by lung-derived CCR9+CD4+ T cells recruited into the small intestine. Th17 cells markedly increased in the small intestine after PR8 infection, and neutralizing IL-17A reduced intestinal injury. Moreover, antibiotic depletion of intestinal microbiota reduced IL-17A production and attenuated influenza-caused intestinal injury. Further study showed that the alteration of intestinal microbiota significantly stimulated IL-15 production from intestinal epithelial cells, which subsequently promoted Th17 cell polarization in the small intestine in situ. Thus, our findings provide new insights into an undescribed mechanism by which respiratory influenza infection causes intestinal disease. PMID:25366965

  15. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota alters colitis-associated colorectal cancer susceptibility.

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    Joshua M Uronis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological studies have provided strong evidence that IBD patients bear increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the impact of the microbiota on the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC remains largely unknown. In this study, we established a new model of CAC using azoxymethane (AOM-exposed, conventionalized-Il10(-/- mice and have explored the contribution of the host intestinal microbiota and MyD88 signaling to the development of CAC. We show that 8/13 (62% of AOM-Il10(-/- mice developed colon tumors compared to only 3/15 (20% of AOM- wild-type (WT mice. Conventionalized AOM-Il10(-/- mice developed spontaneous colitis and colorectal carcinomas while AOM-WT mice were colitis-free and developed only rare adenomas. Importantly, tumor multiplicity directly correlated with the presence of colitis. Il10(-/- mice mono-associated with the mildly colitogenic bacterium Bacteroides vulgatus displayed significantly reduced colitis and colorectal tumor multiplicity compared to Il10(-/- mice. Germ-free AOM-treated Il10(-/- mice showed normal colon histology and were devoid of tumors. Il10(-/-; Myd88(-/- mice treated with AOM displayed reduced expression of Il12p40 and Tnfalpha mRNA and showed no signs of tumor development. We present the first direct demonstration that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters the development of CAC. The TLR/MyD88 pathway is essential for microbiota-induced development of CAC. Unlike findings obtained using the AOM/DSS model, we demonstrate that the severity of chronic colitis directly correlates to colorectal tumor development and that bacterial-induced inflammation drives progression from adenoma to invasive carcinoma.

  16. Microbiota-Dependent Crosstalk Between Macrophages and ILC3 Promotes Intestinal Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortha, Arthur; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Hashimoto, Daigo; Bogunovic, Milena; Spencer, Sean P.; Belkaid, Yasmine; Merad, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and tissue-resident myeloid cells promote immune responses that maintain intestinal homeostasis in the host. However, the cellular cues that translate microbial signals into intestinal homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we show that deficient granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production altered mononuclear phagocyte effector functions and led to reduced regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers and impaired oral tolerance. We observed that RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the primary source of GM-CSF in the gut and that ILC-driven GM-CSF production was dependent on the ability of macrophages to sense microbial signals and produce interleukin-1β. Our findings reveal that commensal microbes promote a crosstalk between innate myeloid and lymphoid cells that leads to immune homeostasis in the intestine. PMID:24625929

  17. Disrupted intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation in children with cystic fibrosis and its restoration with Lactobacillus GG: a randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Bruzzese

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF. Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the microflora structure before and after Lactobacillus GG (LGG administration in children with CF with and without antibiotic treatment.The intestinal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by measuring fecal calprotectin (CLP and rectal nitric oxide (rNO production in children with CF as compared with healthy controls. We then carried out a small double-blind randomized clinical trial with LGG.Twenty-two children with CF children were enrolled in the study (median age, 7 years; range, 2-9 years. Fecal CLP and rNO levels were higher in children with CF than in healthy controls (184±146 µg/g vs. 52±46 µg/g; 18±15 vs. 2.6±1.2 µmol/L NO2 (-, respectively; P<0.01. Compared with healthy controls, children with CF had significantly different intestinal microbial core structures. The levels of Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were reduced in children with CF. A similar but more extreme pattern was observed in children with CF who were taking antibiotics. LGG administration reduced fecal CLP and partially restored intestinal microbiota. There was a significant correlation between reduced microbial richness and intestinal inflammation.CF causes qualitative and quantitative changes in intestinal microbiota, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of CF. Administration of probiotics restored gut microbiota, supporting

  18. Disrupted intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation in children with cystic fibrosis and its restoration with Lactobacillus GG: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Eugenia; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Raia, Valeria; Viscovo, Sara; Scotto, Riccardo; Ferrari, Susanna; Morelli, Lorenzo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the microflora structure before and after Lactobacillus GG (LGG) administration in children with CF with and without antibiotic treatment. The intestinal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Intestinal inflammation was assessed by measuring fecal calprotectin (CLP) and rectal nitric oxide (rNO) production in children with CF as compared with healthy controls. We then carried out a small double-blind randomized clinical trial with LGG. Twenty-two children with CF children were enrolled in the study (median age, 7 years; range, 2-9 years). Fecal CLP and rNO levels were higher in children with CF than in healthy controls (184±146 µg/g vs. 52±46 µg/g; 18±15 vs. 2.6±1.2 µmol/L NO2 (-), respectively; P<0.01). Compared with healthy controls, children with CF had significantly different intestinal microbial core structures. The levels of Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were reduced in children with CF. A similar but more extreme pattern was observed in children with CF who were taking antibiotics. LGG administration reduced fecal CLP and partially restored intestinal microbiota. There was a significant correlation between reduced microbial richness and intestinal inflammation. CF causes qualitative and quantitative changes in intestinal microbiota, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of CF. Administration of probiotics restored gut microbiota, supporting the

  19. Intestinal Microbiota in Premature Children — the Modern State of the Problem (Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of intestinal microbiota influencing the health of early aged children has become especially relevant over the past few years. On one hand, this is due to the significant worsening of the human environment ecology, on the other — due to the high prevalence of digestive disorders in children, especially premature ones. The introduction of modern high-informative molecular-genetic research methods (PCR-amplification with gene sequenation made it possible to reveal the primary stage of human colonization by bacteria even at the stage of fetal ontogenesis and to thoroughly decode the microbiota structure in newborns and first-year babies. It is established, that the mothers microbiota has a direct effect on the quantity and quality of the child’s microbiota. The mother’s microbiota depends not only on her possessing inflammatory, but also metabolic diseases (obesity. There is also a direct correlation between the children’s microbiota and the wway they were born (microbiota is better in cases of natural birth, and these differences are prevalent after a number of months after birth. One of the main factors affecting microbiota after birth from the very first day is nutrition. Most studies earnestly confirm the role of breastfeeding in contributing to an optimal microbiocenosis in the child. Antibacterial therapy, being received by either the mother or the child has a negative effect on the colonization of the intestines by symbiont microbes. The negative impacts on the micro flora are especially significant for premature children especially those born with a very low and extremely low body mass. The ontogenesis of these children is most severed by malicious factors (infections followed by the necessity of a massive antibacterial therapy, hypoxia, surgical birth, forced artificial feeding in connection with a general immaturity, including not yet fully-fledged body defense systems. Directive microbiota correction in premature

  20. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  2. Modulation of microbiota as treatment for intestinal inflammatory disorders: An uptodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonella; Passaro, Giovanna; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Montalto, Massimo

    2016-08-28

    Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation. More than three hundred articles published up to 2015 were selected and reviewed. Randomized placebo-controlled trials and meta-analysis were firstly included, mainly for probiotics. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of these studies. Most of relevant data derived from studies on probiotics, reporting some efficacy in ulcerative colitis and in pouchitis, while disappointing results are available for Crohn's disease. Probiotic supplementation may significantly reduce rates of rotavirus diarrhea. Efficacy of probiotics in NSAID enteropathy and irritable bowel syndrome is still controversial. Finally, FMT has been recently recognized as an efficacious treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Modulation of intestinal flora represents a very interesting therapeutic target, although it still deserves some doubts and limitations. Future studies should be encouraged to provide new understanding about its therapeutical role.

  3. Associations of cocaine use and HIV infection with the intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gretchen E; Ward, Honorine; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Dinh, Duy; Bhalchandra, Seema; Wanke, Christine; Kane, Anne V

    2014-03-01

    HIV and illicit drug use have been associated with altered nutrition, immune function, and metabolism. We hypothesized that altered composition and decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota, along with microbial translocation, contribute to nutritional compromise in HIV-infected drug users. We enrolled 26 men and 6 women, 15 HIV infected and 17 HIV uninfected, in this exploratory, cross-sectional study; 7 HIV-infected and 7 HIV-uninfected participants had used cocaine within the previous month. We examined the independent effects of cocaine use and HIV infection on the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota, determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Using dietary records, anthropometrics, and dual x-ray absorptiometry, we examined the additional effects of nutritional indices on the intestinal microbiota. We compared markers of inflammation and microbial translocation between groups. Cocaine users had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (M ± SD = 57.0% ± 21 vs. 37.1% ± 23, p = .02) than nonusers. HIV-infected individuals had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (Mdn [interquartile range] = 1.56% [0.5, 2.2] vs. 0.36% [0.2, 0.7], p = .03), higher levels of soluble CD14 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and lower levels of anti-endotoxin core antibodies than uninfected subjects. HIV-infected cocaine users had higher interferon-γ levels than all other groups. Food insecurity was higher in HIV-infected cocaine users. We identified differences in the relative abundance of major phyla of the intestinal microbiota, as well as markers of inflammation and microbial translocation, based on cocaine use and HIV infection. Nutritional factors, including alcohol use and lean body mass, may contribute to these differences.

  4. Intestinal Microbiota and the Innate Immune System – A Crosstalk in Crohn’s Disease Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Siegmund, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. The precise etiology of CD is still unclear but it is widely accepted that a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the immune system and environmental factors are implicated in the onset and perpetuation of the disease. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies implies the intestinal microbiota in disease pathogenesis, thereby sup...

  5. Metabolomics analysis identifies intestinal microbiota-derived biomarkers of colonization resistance in clindamycin-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L P Jump

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota protect the host against enteric pathogens through a defense mechanism termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt colonization resistance and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of bacterial metabolites in fecal specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment.To assess in vivo colonization resistance, mice were challenged with oral vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or Clostridium difficile spores at varying time points after treatment with the lincosamide antibiotic clindamycin. For concurrent groups of antibiotic-treated mice, stool samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess changes in the microbiota and using non-targeted metabolic profiling. To assess whether the findings were applicable to another antibiotic class that suppresses intestinal anaerobes, similar experiments were conducted with piperacillin/tazobactam.Colonization resistance began to recover within 5 days and was intact by 12 days after clindamycin treatment, coinciding with the recovery bacteria from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, both part of the phylum Firmicutes. Clindamycin treatment caused marked changes in metabolites present in fecal specimens. Of 484 compounds analyzed, 146 (30% exhibited a significant increase or decrease in concentration during clindamycin treatment followed by recovery to baseline that coincided with restoration of in vivo colonization resistance. Identified as potential biomarkers of colonization resistance, these compounds included intermediates in carbohydrate or protein metabolism that increased (pentitols, gamma-glutamyl amino acids and inositol metabolites or decreased (pentoses, dipeptides with clindamycin treatment. Piperacillin

  6. Intestinal microbiota in pediatric patients with end stage renal disease: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Salgado, Janice; Vehaskari, V Matti; Stewart, Tyrus; Ferris, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi; Blanchard, Eugene E; Taylor, Christopher M; Kallash, Mahmoud; Greenbaum, Larry A; Aviles, Diego H

    2016-09-17

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with uremia and increased systemic inflammation. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota may facilitate translocation of endotoxins into the systemic circulation leading to inflammation. We hypothesized that children with ESRD have an altered intestinal microbiota and increased serum levels of bacterially derived uremic toxins. Four groups of subjects were recruited: peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), post-kidney transplant and healthy controls. Stool bacterial composition was assessed by pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-lactate, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate were measured. Compared to controls, the relative abundance of Firmicutes (P = 0.0228) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0040) was decreased in PD patients. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased in HD patients (P = 0.0462). Compared to HD patients the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0233) was increased in PD patients. At the family level, Enterobacteriaceae was significantly increased in PD patients (P = 0.0020) compared to controls; whereas, Bifidobacteria showed a significant decrease in PD and transplant patients (P = 0.0020) compared to control. Alpha diversity was decreased in PD patients and kidney transplant using both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic diversity measures (P = 0.0031 and 0.0003, respectively), while beta diversity showed significant separation (R statistic = 0.2656, P = 0.010) between PD patients and controls. ESRD patients had increased serum levels of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate (P intestinal microbiota and CRP, D-lactate, or uremic toxins. Oral iron supplementation results in expansion of the phylum Proteobacteria. Children with ESRD have altered intestinal microbiota and increased bacterially derived serum uremic toxins.

  7. Alteration of the Canine Small-Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacterium Microbiota by Feeding of Potential Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB ...

  8. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. Methodology/Findings In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 ...

  9. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazanfari,S; Mohammadi,Z; Adib Moradi,M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD). Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control), or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a fla...

  10. Food intolerance and intestinal microbiota. Whether there is a relationship between them?

    OpenAIRE

    Gubskaya, O. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In the article the modern view on the problem of food intolerance, food intolerance relationships, and food allergy with the state of the intestinal microbiota are shown. Special attention is focused on the new therapeutic possibilities and approaches for correction of food intolerance manifestations, including the appointment of probiotics among which the Bacillus subtillis and Bacillus licheniformis is justified, effective and safe measure. Key words: food intolerance, food allergy, hypers...

  11. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bercik Premysl; Denou Emmanuel; Collins Josh; Jackson Wendy; Lu Jun; Jury Jennifer; Deng Yikang; Blennerhassett Patricia; Macri Joseph; McCoy Kathy D; Verdu Elena F; Collins Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND 38; AIMS Alterations in the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbiosis) are believed to contribute to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders and psychiatric comorbidities. We examined whether the intestinal microbiota affects behavior and brain biochemistry in mice. METHODS Specific pathogen free (SPF) BALB/c mice with or without subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or chemical sympathectomy or germ free BALB/c mice received a mixture of nonabsorbable antimicrobials (...

  12. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ampicillin on rat intestinal microflora and liver in the presence of high carbohydrate and protein diets. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control, the second group was treated with ampicillin (50 mg/kg for 3 weeks) and fed with a ...

  13. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  14. Luminal and mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Ian M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested a role for an altered intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the association between specific enteric bacterial groups and IBS. The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal and mucosal-associated microbiota using two independent techniques in intestinal samples from diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS and healthy controls. Methods Fecal and colonic mucosal biopsy samples were obtained from 10 D-IBS patients and 10 healthy controls. Colonic tissue was collected during a un-sedated un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy. Fecal and tissue samples were processed immediately upon collection for culture under aerobic and anaerobic conditions or frozen for further molecular analysis. DNA was extracted from all frozen samples and used to enumerate specific bacterial groups using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results Culture analysis of intestinal samples demonstrated a significant reduction in the concentration of aerobic bacteria in fecal samples from D-IBS patients when compared to healthy controls (1.4 × 107 vs. 8.4 × 108 CFUs/g feces, P = 0.002. qPCR analysis demonstrated a significant 3.6 fold increase (P = 0.02 in concentrations of fecal Lactobacillus species between D-IBS patients and healthy controls. Conclusions Our culture and molecular data indicate that quantitative differences exist in specific bacterial groups in the microbiota between D-IBS and healthy subjects.

  15. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group. At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed

  16. Laminaria japonica combined with probiotics improves intestinal microbiota: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Kim, Jinsung; Han, Gajin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hong-Geol; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Laminaria japonica--a widely used ingredient in seaweed kimchi--and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)--a main component of traditional fermented Korean food--may alter human intestinal microbiota composition and have a positive effect on various digestive problems. However, few clinical trials have investigated the potential benefits of L. japonica when combined with LAB for human intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of L. japonica and representative LAB on the human intestine. Forty participants with no known digestive diseases were randomly assigned to one of the two combination groups: (1) L. japonica with LAB and (2) L. japonica with placebo LAB. The study agents were administered for 4 weeks with a 2-week follow-up period. The primary outcome measure was the number of each of the seven LAB species in the human intestine, and the secondary outcome measures included the Korean version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and bowel functions. The primary outcome was evaluated before and after administration of the study agents (0 and 4 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were evaluated at 0, 4, and 6 weeks. Four of the seven LAB species were found to be significantly increased in the L. japonica with the LAB group and five species were significantly different from those of the placebo group. The secondary outcome measures did not change significantly. In conclusion, L. japonica with LAB facilitated the proliferation of beneficial human intestinal microbiota. ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01651741).

  17. Chronic Trichuris muris infection decreases diversity of the intestinal microbiota and concomitantly increases the abundance of lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of th...

  18. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  19. [Physiological patterns of intestinal microbiota. The role of dysbacteriosis in obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Tamás; Suba, Ilona

    2016-01-03

    The intestinal microbiota is well-known for a long time, but due to newly recognized functions, clinician's attention has turned to it again in the last decade. About 100 000 billion bacteria are present in the human intestines. The composition of bacteriota living in diverse parts of the intestinal tract is variable according to age, body weight, geological site, and diet as well. Normal bacteriota defend the organism against the penetration of harmful microorganisms, and has many other functions in the gut wall integrity, innate immunity, insulin sensitivity, metabolism, and it is in cross-talk with the brain functions as well. It's a recent recognition, that intestinal microbiota has a direct effect on the brain, and the brain also influences the microbiota. This two-way gut-brain axis consists of microbiota, immune and neuroendocrine system, as well as of the autonomic and central nervous system. Emerging from fermentation of carbohydrates, short-chain fatty acids develop into the intestines, which produce butyrates, acetates and propionates, having favorable effects on different metabolic processes. Composition of the intestinal microbiota is affected by the circadian rhythm, such as in shift workers. Dysruption of circadian rhythm may influence intestinal microbiota. The imbalance between the microbiota and host organism leads to dysbacteriosis. From the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysacharides penetrate into the blood stream, via impaired permeability of the intestinal mucosa. These processes induce metabolic endotoxaemia, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, obesity, and contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, inflammarory bowel diseases, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. Encouraging therapeutic possibility is to restore the normal microbiota either using pro- or prebiotics, fecal transplantation or bariatric surgery. Human investigations seem to prove that fecal transplant from lean

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor preserves intestinal mucosal barrier function and alters gut microbiota in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB enables the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients. In this study, we explored the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF on IMB function and gut microbiota in mice. BDNF gene knock-out mice (the BDNF+/− group and wild-type mice (the BDNF+/+ group were selected. The gut microbiota of these mice was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE assay. The ultrastructure of the ileum and the colonic epithelium obtained from decapitated mice were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The protein expression of epithelial tight junction proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 and occludin was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. The protein expression of claudin-1 and claudin-2 was determined by Western blotting. The DGGE band patterns of gut microbiota in the BDNF+/− group were significantly different from that in the BDNF+/+ group, which indicated that the BDNF expression alters the gut microbiota in mice. Compared with the BDNF+/+ group, the BDNF+/− group presented no significant difference in the ultrastructure of ileal epithelium; however, a significant difference was observed in the colonic epithelial barrier, manifested by decreased microvilli, widening intercellular space and bacterial invasion. Compared with the BDNF+/+ group, the expression of ZO-1 and occludin in the BDNF+/− group was significantly decreased. The expression of claudin-1 in the BDNF+/− group was significantly reduced, while the expression of claudin-2 was elevated. These findings indicate that BDNF preserves IMB function and modulates gut microbiota in mice.

  1. Lactation and Intestinal Microbiota: How Early Diet Shapes the Infant Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Felicia; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Freeman, Samara L

    2015-12-01

    Breast milk is a multifunctional biofluid that provides nutrients along with highly diverse non-nutritive bioactive components such as antibodies, glycans, bacteria, and immunomodulatory proteins. Research over the past decade has confirmed the essential role of breast milk bioactives in the establishment a healthy intestinal microbiota within the infant. The intestinal microbiota of an exclusively breastfed baby is dominated by several species of Bifidobacteria - the most influential member of which is Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) - and is referred to as the milk-oriented microbiome (MOM). MOM is associated with reduced risk of infection in infancy as well as a reduced risk of certain chronic illnesses in adulthood. Establishment and persistence of MOM is dependent on the selective digestion of complex sugar structures in breast milk that are otherwise indigestible to the infant by B. infantis and its relatives. This review focuses primarily on the influence of breast milk glycans and glycosylated proteins on the development of the intestinal microbiome, and how maternal phenotype may influence the development of MOM providing a framework to understand how variation in diet shapes a protective intestinal microbiome.

  2. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined...... in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  3. A Possible Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjun; Wang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Xian, Cory J.; Lu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, for which the pathogenesis is thought to be a result of the combination of host genetic factors and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one’s susceptibility to AS remain to be unraveled. With 100 trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut having established a symbiotic relation with their host influencing many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity, a growing body of evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may play an important role in AS. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the potential role of the microbiome in the etiology of AS, such as alterations of intestinal permeability, stimulation of immune responses, and molecular mimicry. In this review, the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in AS pathogenesis was discussed and the potential of intestinal microbiome-targeting strategies in the prevention and treatment of AS was evaluated. PMID:27999312

  4. A Possible Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjun; Wang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Xian, Cory J; Lu, Hai

    2016-12-17

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, for which the pathogenesis is thought to be a result of the combination of host genetic factors and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to AS remain to be unraveled. With 100 trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut having established a symbiotic relation with their host influencing many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity, a growing body of evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may play an important role in AS. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the potential role of the microbiome in the etiology of AS, such as alterations of intestinal permeability, stimulation of immune responses, and molecular mimicry. In this review, the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in AS pathogenesis was discussed and the potential of intestinal microbiome-targeting strategies in the prevention and treatment of AS was evaluated.

  5. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

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    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Distortions in development of intestinal microbiota associated with late onset sepsis in preterm infants.

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    Volker Mai

    Full Text Available Late onset sepsis (LOS is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants. Distortions in the establishment of normal gut microbiota, commensal microbes that colonize the digestive tract, might increase the risk of LOS via disruption of the mucosal barrier with resultant translocation of luminal contents. Correlation of distortions of the intestinal microbiota with LOS is a necessary first step to design novel microbiota-based screening approaches that might lead to early interventions to prevent LOS in high risk infants. Using a case/control design nested in a cohort study of preterm infants, we analyzed stool samples that had been prospectively collected from ten preterm infants with LOS and from 18 matched controls. A 16S rRNA based approach was utilized to compare microbiota diversity and identify specific bacterial signatures that differed in their prevalence between cases and controls. Overall α-diversity (Chao1 was lower in cases two weeks before (p<0.05 but not one week before or at the time of diagnosis of LOS. Overall microbiota structure (Unifrac appeared distinct in cases 2 weeks and 1 week before but not at diagnosis (p<0.05. Although we detected few operational taxonomic units (OTUs unique or enriched in cases, we found many OTUs common in controls that were lacking in cases (p<0.01. Bifidobacteria counts were lower in cases at all time points. Our results support the hypothesis that a distortion in normal microbiota composition, and not an enrichment of potential pathogens, is associated with LOS in preterm infants.

  7. The interplay between the gut immune system and microbiota in health and disease: nutraceutical intervention for restoring intestinal homeostasis.

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    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Gut immune system is daily exposed to a plethora of antigens contained in the environment as well as in food. Both secondary lymphoid tissue, such as Peyer's patches, and lymphoid follicles (tertiary lymphoid tissue) are able to respond to antigenic stimuli releasing cytokines or producing antibodies (secretory IgA). Intestinal epithelial cells are in close cooperation with intraepithelial lymphocytes and possess Toll-like receptors on their surface and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) which sense pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Intestinal microbiota, mainly composed of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, generates tolerogenic response acting on gut dendritic cells and inhibiting the T helper (h)-17 cell anti-inflammatory pathway. This is the case of Bacteroides fragilis which leads to the production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, from both T regulatory cells and lamina propria macrophages. Conversely, segmented filamentous bacteria rather induce Th17 cells, thus promoting intestinal inflammation. Intestinal microbiota and its toxic components have been shown to act on both Nod1 and Nod2 receptors and their defective signaling accounts for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In IBD a loss of normal tolerance to intestinal microbiota seems to be the main trigger of mucosal damage. In addition, intestinal microbiota thanks to its regulatory function of gut immune response can prevent or retard neoplastic growth. In fact, chronic exposure to environmental microorganisms seems to be associated with low frequency of cancer risk. Major nutraceuticals or functional foods employed in the modulation of intestinal microbiota are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, amino acids and polyphenols. The cellular and molecular effects performed by these natural products in terms of modulation of the intestinal microbiota and mostly attenuation of the inflammatory pathway are described.

  8. Effects of byproducts on intestinal microbiota and the immune modulation

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    Da Yoon Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although the efficacy of Rubus coreanus (RC byproducts as a feed additive has been recognized, its effects on intestinal microorganisms and the immune system are still unknown. Methods Six-week-old male rats were treated with 0.5% RC (T1, 1.0% RC (T2, and 1.5% RC (T3 for 4 weeks. Results We found that treatment with RC byproducts significantly increased the daily gain of body weight and feed intake. Treg-cell differentiation was enhanced in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen from the rats fed with RC byproducts. Illumina sequencing showed that bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes decreased and while those in the phylum Bacteroidetes increased in RC-treated groups. Particularly, the pathogenic microorganisms in the family Peptococcaceae decreased, and the non-pathogenic families Lachnospiraceae and S24-7 increased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the RC byproducts increased the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium spp., Oscillospira spp., Leuconostoc citreum, and Weissella cibaria in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion RC byproducts may be effective in immunomodulation by affecting intestinal microorganisms.

  9. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

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    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  10. Ecological modeling from time-series inference: insight into dynamics and stability of intestinal microbiota.

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    Richard R Stein

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is a microbial ecosystem of crucial importance to human health. Understanding how the microbiota confers resistance against enteric pathogens and how antibiotics disrupt that resistance is key to the prevention and cure of intestinal infections. We present a novel method to infer microbial community ecology directly from time-resolved metagenomics. This method extends generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics to account for external perturbations. Data from recent experiments on antibiotic-mediated Clostridium difficile infection is analyzed to quantify microbial interactions, commensal-pathogen interactions, and the effect of the antibiotic on the community. Stability analysis reveals that the microbiota is intrinsically stable, explaining how antibiotic perturbations and C. difficile inoculation can produce catastrophic shifts that persist even after removal of the perturbations. Importantly, the analysis suggests a subnetwork of bacterial groups implicated in protection against C. difficile. Due to its generality, our method can be applied to any high-resolution ecological time-series data to infer community structure and response to external stimuli.

  11. Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota.

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    Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Kobayashi, Takako; Songjinda, Prapa; Tateyama, Atsushi; Tsubouchi, Mina; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shirakawa, Taro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2009-06-01

    The influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota was monitored in 26 infants including five antibiotic-treated (AT) subjects orally administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the first 4 days of life and three caesarean-delivered (CD) subjects whose mothers were intravenously injected by the similar type of antibiotics in the same period. The faecal bacterial composition was analysed daily for the first 5 days and monthly for the first 2 months. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the AT subjects showed less diversity with the attenuation of the colonization of some bacterial groups, especially in Bifidobacterium and unusual colonization of Enterococcus in the first week than the control antibiotic-free infants (AF, n=18). Quantitative real-time PCR showed overgrowth of enterococci (day 3, P=0.01; day 5, P=0.003; month 1, P=0.01) and arrested growth of Bifidobacterium (day 3, P=0.03) in the AT group. Furthermore, after 1 month, the Enterobacteriaceae population was markedly higher in the AT group than in the AF group (month 1, P=0.02; month 2, P=0.02). CD infants sustained similar, although relatively weaker, alteration in the developing microbiota. These results indicate that antibiotic exposure at the beginning of life greatly influences the development of neonatal intestinal microbiota.

  12. Dynamic alteration of the colonic microbiota in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R plays an important role in critical illnesses. Gut flora participate in the pathogenesis of the injury. This study is aimed at unraveling colonic microbiota alteration pattern and identifying specific bacterial species that differ significantly as well as observing colonic epithelium change in the same injury model during the reperfusion time course.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to monitor the colonic microbiota of control rats and experimental rats that underwent 0.5 hour ischemia and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours following reperfusion respectively. The microbiota similarity, bacterial diversity and species that characterized the dysbiosis were estimated based on the DGGE profiles using a combination of statistical approaches. The interested bacterial species in the gel were cut and sequenced and were subsequently quantified and confirmed with real-time PCR. Meanwhile, the epithelial barrier was checked by microscopy and D-lactate analysis. Colonic flora changed early and differed significantly at 6 hours after reperfusion and then started to recover. The shifts were characterized by the increase of Escherichia coli and Prevotella oralis, and Lactobacilli proliferation together with epithelia healing.This study shows for the first time that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion results in colonic flora dysbiosis that follows epithelia damage, and identifies the bacterial species that contribute most.

  13. Social Interaction, Noise and Antibiotic-Mediated Switches in the Intestinal Microbiota

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    Bucci, Vanni; Bradde, Serena; Biroli, Giulio; Xavier, Joao B.

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays important roles in digestion and resistance against entero-pathogens. As with other ecosystems, its species composition is resilient against small disturbances but strong perturbations such as antibiotics can affect the consortium dramatically. Antibiotic cessation does not necessarily restore pre-treatment conditions and disturbed microbiota are often susceptible to pathogen invasion. Here we propose a mathematical model to explain how antibiotic-mediated switches in the microbiota composition can result from simple social interactions between antibiotic-tolerant and antibiotic-sensitive bacterial groups. We build a two-species (e.g. two functional-groups) model and identify regions of domination by antibiotic-sensitive or antibiotic-tolerant bacteria, as well as a region of multistability where domination by either group is possible. Using a new framework that we derived from statistical physics, we calculate the duration of each microbiota composition state. This is shown to depend on the balance between random fluctuations in the bacterial densities and the strength of microbial interactions. The singular value decomposition of recent metagenomic data confirms our assumption of grouping microbes as antibiotic-tolerant or antibiotic-sensitive in response to a single antibiotic. Our methodology can be extended to multiple bacterial groups and thus it provides an ecological formalism to help interpret the present surge in microbiome data. PMID:22577356

  14. Social interaction, noise and antibiotic-mediated switches in the intestinal microbiota.

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    Vanni Bucci

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota plays important roles in digestion and resistance against entero-pathogens. As with other ecosystems, its species composition is resilient against small disturbances but strong perturbations such as antibiotics can affect the consortium dramatically. Antibiotic cessation does not necessarily restore pre-treatment conditions and disturbed microbiota are often susceptible to pathogen invasion. Here we propose a mathematical model to explain how antibiotic-mediated switches in the microbiota composition can result from simple social interactions between antibiotic-tolerant and antibiotic-sensitive bacterial groups. We build a two-species (e.g. two functional-groups model and identify regions of domination by antibiotic-sensitive or antibiotic-tolerant bacteria, as well as a region of multistability where domination by either group is possible. Using a new framework that we derived from statistical physics, we calculate the duration of each microbiota composition state. This is shown to depend on the balance between random fluctuations in the bacterial densities and the strength of microbial interactions. The singular value decomposition of recent metagenomic data confirms our assumption of grouping microbes as antibiotic-tolerant or antibiotic-sensitive in response to a single antibiotic. Our methodology can be extended to multiple bacterial groups and thus it provides an ecological formalism to help interpret the present surge in microbiome data.

  15. Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

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    Martin, O C B; Lin, C; Naud, N; Tache, S; Raymond-Letron, I; Corpet, D E; Pierre, F H

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that heme iron from red meat is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. In carcinogen-induced-rats, a heme iron-rich diet increases the number of precancerous lesions and raises associated fecal biomarkers. Heme-induced lipoperoxidation measured by fecal thiobarbituric acid reagents (TBARs) could explain the promotion of colon carcinogenesis by heme. Using a factorial design we studied if microbiota could be involved in heme-induced carcinogenesis, by modulating peroxidation. Rats treated or not with an antibiotic cocktail were given a control or a hemoglobin-diet. Fecal bacteria were counted on agar and TBARs concentration assayed in fecal water. The suppression of microbiota by antibiotics was associated with a reduction of crypt height and proliferation and with a cecum enlargement, which are characteristics of germ-free rats. Rats given hemoglobin diets had increased fecal TBARs, which were suppressed by the antibiotic treatment. A duplicate experiment in rats given dietary hemin yielded similar results. These data show that the intestinal microbiota is involved in enhancement of lipoperoxidation by heme iron. We thus suggest that microbiota could play a role in the heme-induced promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  16. Replacing corn with sorghum in the diet alters intestinal microbiota without altering chicken performance.

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    Fagundes, N S; Pereira, R; Bortoluzzi, C; Rafael, J M; Napty, G S; Barbosa, J G M; Sciencia, M C M; Menten, J F M

    2017-10-01

    Sorghum grain can be used to replace corn in broiler diets. However, the effects related to an abrupt change between these grains are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and intestinal health of broilers fed diets containing corn and/or sorghum during different periods of rearing. To accomplish this aim, 2100 male chicks were fed the following experimental diets: C100% (corn-based diet); S100% (sorghum-based diet); C:S50% (diet based on corn and sorghum 1:1); PC-S (corn-based diet in the pre-starter phase and sorghum-based diet in subsequent phases); and PS-C (sorghum-based diet in the pre-starter phase and corn-based diet in subsequent phases). The study was conducted with two simultaneous trials in a randomized block design as follows: a performance trial up to 40 days occurred in floor pens (n = 8), and the metabolism trial occurred in cages (n = 10). Performance, jejunal morphometry, number of goblet cells, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and the coefficient of apparent metabolizability of dry matter (CMDM) of the diets, and the intestinal microbiota of small intestine and caeca at 10 and 21 days of age (16S gene sequencing) were evaluated. The different experimental diets did not affect performance, jejunal epithelium, AME, AMEn or CMDM. However, the experimental diets altered the percentages of the genera Clostridium, Weissella, Bacillus and Alkaliphilus in the small intestine. In addition, the genera Lactobacillus and Desulfotomaculum in the caeca were altered. The age also affected the microbiota of the intestinal segments. In conclusion, feeding sorghum in place of corn as well as the grain change after the pre-starter phase does not alter broiler performance. However, sorghum alters the intestinal microbiota, resulting in a lower percentage of Clostridium and a higher percentage of Lactobacillus in the small intestine and caeca, respectively. Journal of

  17. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

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    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  18. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei at different culture stages

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    Shenzheng Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph to adult stage (75 dph to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter, Propionigenium, Synechococcus, Shewanella and Cetobacterium. Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage

  19. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender

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    Yoshio Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6% by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013 and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046 count and fecal pH (P = 0.007 and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030, succinic acid (P = 0.007 and formic acid (P = 0.046 as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L

  1. Alteration of the intestinal microbiome: fecal microbiota transplant and probiotics for Clostridium difficile and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindigni, Stephen M; Broussard, Elizabeth K; Surawicz, Christina M

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly common with a high risk of recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. In cases of recurrent C. difficile infection, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a highly effective treatment option promoting the restoration of normal gut microbiota. Furthermore, preliminary uncontrolled evidence demonstrates possible benefit of FMT in the management of some cases of inflammatory bowel disease and chronic constipation. In addition to presenting an overview of FMT, we discuss the role of probiotics, a more common approach to modifying the intestinal microbiome. Probiotics have been utilized broadly for many disease processes, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and allergic disease settings, although with limited and inconsistent results. Multiple potential areas for research are also identified.

  2. Characterization of microbiota in Arapaima gigas intestine and isolation of potential probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale Pereira, G; da Cunha, D G; Pedreira Mourino, J L; Rodiles, A; Jaramillo-Torres, A; Merrifield, D L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intestinal microbiota of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) in different growth stages (adult and fingerlings) and to isolate and identify potential probiotic bacteria. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the intestinal contents revealed that the majority of sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. At the genus level, the greatest number of sequences belonged to Bradyrhizobium in adult fish, while Cetobacterium was the most abundant in juvenile fish. Twenty-three lactic-acid bacteria (LABs) were isolated on MRS agar from healthy juvenile fish. The isolates were tested in vitro for probiotic properties. Two isolates (identified as strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium) displayed antagonism against all 10 pathogens tested, were nonhaemolytic and maintained good viability for at least 3 weeks when supplemented to fish diets. The presence of a number of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), conferring resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, was investigated by PCR. The absence of ARGs investigated the potential to antagonize pathogens, and favourable growth and survival characteristics indicate that these autochthonous isolates have the potential to be considered probiotics, which will be studied in future in vivo experiments. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the normal microbiota in the A. gigas intestine during different life stages and the presence of LAB strains. It also demonstrated LAB antibiotic resistance and antagonistic behaviour against pathogens isolated from the same fish. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

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    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  4. Evidence from Animal Models: Is a Restricted or Conventional Intestinal Microbiota Composition Predisposing to Risk for High-LET Radiation Injury?

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    Maier, Irene; Schiestl, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota affect cell responses to ionizing radiation at the molecular level and can be linked to the development of the immune system, controlled cell death or apoptosis. We have developed a microbiota mouse model and report here that high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induced the repair of chromosomal DNA lesions more efficiently in conventional than in restricted intestinal microbiota mice. Based on different phylotype densities after whole-body irradiation, bacterial indicator phylotypes were found to be more abundant in restricted in microbiota than in conventional microbiota. Genotoxic phenotypes of irradiated restricted and conventional microbiota mice were compared with ataxia telangiectasia-deficient restricted and conventional microbiota mice, respectively. Those indicator phylotypes, including Bacteroides (Gram-negative bacterium cTPY-13), Barnesiella intestinihominis and others, which were identified in nonirradiated restricted microbiota mice, increase in radiation-exposed conventional microbiota along with a reduction of persistent DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes. The dynamic change of phylotype abundances elucidated a feedback mechanism and effect of intestinal microbiota composition on the adaptive response to high-LET radiation. Several other bacterial phylotypes ( Helicobacter hepaticus , Helicobacter spp and others) were found to be more abundant in conventional than restricted microbiota. In this commentary, mouse models used in cancer research and radiotherapy for the study on the effects of intestinal microbiota composition on normal tissue radiation response are characterized and discussed. Highlights of this commentary: 1. Restricted microbiota phylotypes were correlated with persistent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and were found to orchestrate onco-protective controlled cell death after radiation; 2. Restricted microbiota composition reduced proinflammatory extracellular-stimulated immune responses, but

  5. Investigation of Microbiota Alterations and Intestinal Inflammation Post-Spinal Cord Injury in Rat Model.

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    O'Connor, Gregory; Jeffrey, Elisabeth; Madorma, Derik; Marcillo, Alexander; Abreu, Maria T; Deo, Sapna K; Dietrich, W Dalton; Daunert, Sylvia

    2018-03-23

    Although there has been a significant amount of research focused on the pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), there is limited information on the consequences of SCI on remote organs. SCI can produce significant effects on a variety of organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with SCI often suffer from severe, debilitating bowel dysfunction in addition to their physical disabilities, which is of major concern for these individuals due to the adverse impact on their quality of life. Herein, we report on our investigation into the effects of SCI and subsequent antibiotic treatment on the intestinal tissue and microbiota. For that, we employed a thoracic SCI rat model and investigated changes to the microbiota, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and bacterial communication molecule levels post injury and gentamicin treatment for seven days. We discovered significant changes, the most interesting being the differences in the gut microbiota beta diversity of 8-week SCI animals compared to control animals at the family, genus, and species level. Specifically, 35 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were enriched in the SCI animal group and 3 were identified at species level; Lactobacillus intestinalis, Clostridium disporicum, and Bifidobacterium choerinum. In contrast, Clostridium saccharogumia was identified as depleted in the SCI animal group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, MIP-2, and TNF-α, were found to be significantly elevated in intestinal tissue homogenate 4-weeks post-SCI compared to 8-weeks post-injury. Further, levels of IL-1β, IL-12, and MIP-2 significantly correlated with changes in beta diversity 8-weeks post-SCI. Our data provide a greater understanding of the early effects of SCI on the microbiota and gastrointestinal tract, highlighting the need for further investigation to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects.

  6. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  7. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota

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    Giselle Eler Amorim Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias G.E.A., de Carvalho B.O., Medeiros, P.T. deM., Sousa F.D.deR., Gomes A.V.daC., de Souza M.M.S. & de Lima C.A.R. [Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota.] Óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare L. na dieta de frangos de corte como equilibrador da microbiota intestinal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:108-114, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: giselleeler@gmail.com The effectiveness of the use of oregano essential oil as an zootechnical additive in broiler diets was evaluated. 300 male broiler chickens were distributed in delineation in blocks at random, five treatments and six repetitions of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of oregano essential oil (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg ration, a negative control (with no antimicrobial and a positive control with the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Samples were collected from the ileum at 40 days of age with the objective of determining the count of total coliform and identifying enterobacteria. The digestibility assay was constituted of 8 adaptation days to the diet and 4 days for collecting. There was reduction (P<0.05 at the count of total coliform in chickens treated with antibiotic or oregano. There were no differences between treatments in dry matter apparent metabolization coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance. The treatment with higher level of oregano resulted at a higher nitrogen apparent metabolization coefficient. The oregano essential oil may be utilized in diets of broilers as zootechnical additive balancing the intestinal microbiota.

  9. Interactions between intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura; Aloi, Marina

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the result of an altered immune homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa against the gut microbiota, leading to chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Under normal conditions, the immune system defends against pathogens and prevents the passage of excessive intestinal bacteria; regulatory pathways must maintain a low-grade, controlled inflammation in a healthy gut, but also induce a protective response against pathogens. The innate immune system is the first-line defense from microbes; dendritic cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells produce an initial, immediate response. The immune system constantly controls commensal bacteria and utilizes constitutive antimicrobial mechanisms to sustain immune homeostasis. The discovery that several genes linked to IBD modulate microbial recognition and innate immune pathways, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), and genes that mediate autophagy (ie, ATG16L1, IRGM), has highlighted the critical role of host-microbe interactions in controlling intestinal immune homeostasis. Commensal microorganisms actively interact with the intestinal mucosa and influence the activity of the immune system as well as the amplitude of the immune response. In contrast, host factors can influence microbes, which in turn modulate disease susceptibility. In this paper, we focus on the mechanisms that mediate host-microbe interactions and how the disruption of this balance leads to chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD.

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

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    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children’s Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children’s developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children’s microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children’s antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2–7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676 PMID:27111772

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  13. Effects of dietary soybean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on gastrointestinal histological characteristics, distal intestine cell proliferation and intestinal microbiota in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke-Mckellep, AM; Sperstad, Sigmund; Penn, MH; Salas, PM; Refstie, Ståle; Landsverk, Tor; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2007-01-01

    This is the publishers version/PDF (institutional repository or PubMed Central can publish publishers version after 12 month embargo) Soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and other salmonids may be considered a model for diet-related mucosal disorders in other animals and man. The role of the intestinal microbiota in its pathogenesis was explored. Compared to diets containing fishmeal (FM) as the sole protein so...

  14. Imbalance in the intestinal microbiota as a risk factor of cardiometabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the role of the intestinal microflora in the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, overweight / obesity and diabetes. It is well known that consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and cholesterol (meat, egg yolk and milk products with high fat content is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, new studies show that the atherogenic properties of these products are also due to the high content of L-carnitine and its structural analog choline, which, after entering the body is metabolized by intestinal bacteria up to trimethylamine (TMA, and then converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO having direct atherogenic action. It was found that elevated levels of TMAO increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac failure and death, including the common causes. In the center of international attention is also the question of the role of the intestinal microbiota imbalance in the development of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, increase of the adhesive properties of macrophages, the appearance of dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, overweight. Attention of the doctors is focused on the extremely importance of maintaining a normal balance of the intestinal microbiota to prevent cardiometabolic diseases apart from implementation of already well-known and generally accepted preventive measures.

  15. Analysis of the intestinal lumen microbiota in an animal model of colorectal cancer.

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    Qingchao Zhu

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001. Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%, Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32% and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%, were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively. We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant

  16. Effect of probiotic administration on the intestinal microbiota, current knowledge and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-11-28

    Although it is now known that the human body is colonized by a wide variety of microbial populations in different parts (such as the mouth, pharynx and respiratory system, the skin, the gastro- and urogenital tracts), many effects of the complex interactions between the human host and microbial symbionts are still not completely understood. The dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota is considered to be one of the most important contributing factors in the development of many gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and colorectal cancer, as well as systemic diseases like obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fecal microbial transplantations appear to be promising therapies for dysbiosis-associated diseases; however, probiotic microorganisms have been growing in popularity due to increasing numbers of studies proving that certain strains present health promoting properties, among them the beneficial balance of the intestinal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel diseases and obesity are the pathologies in which there are more studies showing this beneficial association using animal models and even in human clinical trials. In this review, the association of the human gut microbiota and human health will be discussed along with the benefits that probiotics can confer on this symbiotic activity and on the prevention or treatment of associated diseases.

  17. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

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    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  18. In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Andrej; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L). The MIC 50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathobiology of Salmonella, intestinal microbiota, and the host innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lima Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a relevant pathogen under a clinical and public health perspective. Therefore, there has been a significant scientific effort to learn about pathogenic determinants of this pathogen. The clinical relevance of the disease, associated with the molecular tools available to study Salmonella as well as suitable animal models for salmonellosis, have provided optimal conditions to drive the scientific community to generate a large expansion of our knowledge about the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enterocolitis that took place during the past two decades. This research effort has also generated a wealth of information on the host immune mechanisms that complements gaps in the fundamental research in this area. This review focus on how the interaction between Salmonella, the microbiota and intestinal innate immunity leads to disease manifestation. As a highly successful enteropathogen, Salmonella actively elicits a robust acute intestinal inflammatory response from the host, which could theoretically lead to the pathogen demise. However, Salmonella has evolved redundant molecular machineries that renders this pathogen highly adapted to the inflamed intestinal environment, in which Salmonella is capable of outcompete resident commensal organisms. The adaptation of Salmonella to the inflamed intestinal lumen associated with the massive inflammatory response that leads to diarrhea, generate perfect conditions for transmission of the pathogen. These conditions illustrate the complexity of the co-evolution and ecology of the pathogen, commensals and the host.

  20. Pathobiology of salmonella, intestinal microbiota, and the host innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a relevant pathogen under a clinical and public health perspective. Therefore, there has been a significant scientific effort to learn about pathogenic determinants of this pathogen. The clinical relevance of the disease, associated with the molecular tools available to study Salmonella as well as suitable animal models for salmonellosis, have provided optimal conditions to drive the scientific community to generate a large expansion of our knowledge about the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enterocolitis that took place during the past two decades. This research effort has also generated a wealth of information on the host immune mechanisms that complements gaps in the fundamental research in this area. This review focus on how the interaction between Salmonella, the microbiota and intestinal innate immunity leads to disease manifestation. As a highly successful enteropathogen, Salmonella actively elicits a robust acute intestinal inflammatory response from the host, which could theoretically lead to the pathogen demise. However, Salmonella has evolved redundant molecular machineries that renders this pathogen highly adapted to the inflamed intestinal environment, in which Salmonella is capable of outcompete resident commensal organisms. The adaptation of Salmonella to the inflamed intestinal lumen associated with the massive inflammatory response that leads to diarrhea, generate perfect conditions for transmission of the pathogen. These conditions illustrate the complexity of the co-evolution and ecology of the pathogen, commensals, and the host.

  1. Lack of host gut microbiota alters immune responses and intestinal granuloma formation during schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzscheiter, M; Layland, L E; Loffredo-Verde, E; Mair, K; Vogelmann, R; Langer, R; Wagner, H; Prazeres da Costa, C

    2014-02-01

    Fatalities from schistosome infections arise due to granulomatous, immune-mediated responses to eggs that become trapped in host tissues. Schistosome-specific immune responses are characterized by initial T helper type 1 (Th1) responses and our previous studies demonstrated that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-deficient mice failed to initiate such responses in vivo. Paradoxically, schistosomal antigens fail to stimulate innate cells to release proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Since Schistosoma mansoni infection is an intestinal disease, we hypothesized that commensal bacteria could act as bystander activators of the intestinal innate immune system to instigate Th1 responses. Using a broad spectrum of orally administered antibiotics and anti-mycotics we analysed schistosome-infected mice that were simultaneously depleted of gut bacteria. After depletion there was significantly less inflammation in the intestine, which was accompanied by decreased intestinal granuloma development. In contrast, liver pathology remained unaltered. In addition, schistosome-specific immune responses were skewed and faecal egg excretion was diminished. This study demonstrates that host microbiota can act as a third partner in instigating helminth-specific immune responses. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  2. The taxonomic composition of the donor intestinal microbiota is a major factor influencing the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation in therapy refractory ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, P; Wurm, P; Gröchenig, H P; Wenzl, H; Petritsch, W; Halwachs, B; Wagner, M; Stadlbauer, V; Eherer, A; Hoffmann, K M; Deutschmann, A; Reicht, G; Reiter, L; Slawitsch, P; Gorkiewicz, G; Högenauer, C

    2018-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown. To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success. This is an open controlled trial of repeated faecal microbiota transplantation after antibiotic pre-treatment (FMT-group, n = 17) vs antibiotic pre-treatment only (AB-group, n = 10) in 27 therapy refractory ulcerative colitis patients over 90 days. Faecal samples of donors and patients were analysed by 16SrRNA gene-based microbiota analysis. In the FMT-group, 10/17 (59%) of patients showed a response and 4/17 (24%) a remission to faecal microbiota transplantation. Response to faecal microbiota transplantation was mainly influenced by the taxonomic composition of the donor's microbiota. Stool of donors with a high bacterial richness (observed species remission 946 ± 93 vs no response 797 ± 181 at 15367 rps) and a high relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (3.3 ± 3.1% vs 0.1 ± 0.2%), unclassified Ruminococcaceae (13.8 ± 5.0% vs 7.5 ± 3.7%), and Ruminococcus spp. (4.9 ± 3.5% vs 1.0 ± 0.7%) were more likely to induce remission. In contrast antibiotic treatment alone (AB-group) was poorly tolerated, probably because of a sustained decrease of intestinal microbial richness. The taxonomic composition of the donor's intestinal microbiota is a major factor influencing the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation in ulcerative colitis patients. The design of specific microbial preparation might lead to new treatments for ulcerative colitis. © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interactions between host metabolism, immune regulation, and the gut microbiota in diet-associated obesity and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Daniel

    The increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications such as the metabolic syndrome is becoming a global challenge. Dietary habits and nutrient consumption modulates host homeostasis, which manifests in various diet-induced complications marked by changes in host...... metabolism and immune regulation, which are intricately linked. In addition, diet effectively shapes the gut microbiota composition and activity, which in turn interacts with the host to modulate host metabolism and immune regulation. In the three studies included in this PhD thesis, we have explored...... the impact of specific dietary components on host metabolic function, immune regulation and gut microbiota composition and activity. In the first study, we have characterized the effect of a combined high-fat and gliadin-rich diet, since dietary gliadin has been reported to be associated with intestinal...

  4. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  5. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene......-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition....... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...

  6. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  7. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer.

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    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-02-26

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC.

  9. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

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    Chin-An Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined.In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment.Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  10. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment. Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  11. Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; O' Doherty, Robert M; Murphy, Eileen F; Wall, Rebecca; O' Sullivan, Orla; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-06-14

    Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the intestinal microbiota composition of the host. C57BL/6J mice (n 9-10 mice per group) were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either (1) palm oil, (2) olive oil, (3) safflower oil or (4) flaxseed/fish oil for 16 weeks and compared with mice fed low-fat (LF) diets supplemented with either high maize starch or high sucrose. Tissue fatty acid compositions were assessed by GLC, and the impact of the diet on host intestinal microbiota populations was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Compositional sequencing analysis revealed that dietary palm oil supplementation resulted in significantly lower populations of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level compared with dietary olive oil supplementation (Poil was associated with an increase in the population of the family Bacteroidaceae compared with dietary supplementation of palm oil, flaxseed/fish oil and high sucrose (Poil diet for 16 weeks led to significantly increased tissue concentrations of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA compared with ingestion of all the other diets (Pimpact on host physiology with further downstream alterations to the intestinal microbiota population, with a HF diet supplemented with flaxseed/fish oil positively shaping the host microbial ecosystem.

  12. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, C.J.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Mulder, L.; Rombouts, F.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the side effects of antimicrobial therapy is a disturbance of the intestinal microbiota potentially resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). In this placebo-controlled double-blind study, the effect of a multispecies probiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life- Threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in

  14. The intestinal microbiota, energy balance, and malnutrition: emphasis on the role of short-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, K.S.; Clercq, N.C. de; Keijser, B.J.F.; Visser, M.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Ijzerman, R.G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition refers to both over- and undernutrition and results from a disruption in energy balance. It affects one in three people worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The intestinal microbiota represents a newly identified factor that might contribute

  15. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (Δ I sc ) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT 3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher Δ I sc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT 3A -green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT 3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT 3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT 3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT 3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT 3 receptor expression in

  16. Distinct Roles for Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the Regulation of Murine Intestinal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Alexis; Turgeon, Naomie; Boudreau, François; Perreault, Nathalie; Rivard, Nathalie; Asselin, Claude

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium responds to and transmits signals from the microbiota and the mucosal immune system to insure intestinal homeostasis. These interactions are in part conveyed by epigenetic modifications, which respond to environmental changes. Protein acetylation is an epigenetic signal regulated by histone deacetylases, including Hdac1 and Hdac2. We have previously shown that villin-Cre-inducible intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions disturb intestinal homeostasis. To determine the role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the regulation of IEC function and the establishment of the dual knockout phenotype, we have generated villin-Cre murine models expressing one Hdac1 allele without Hdac2, or one Hdac2 allele without Hdac1. We have also investigated the effect of short-term deletion of both genes in naphtoflavone-inducible Ah-Cre and tamoxifen-inducible villin-Cre(ER) mice. Mice with one Hdac1 allele displayed normal tissue architecture, but increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In contrast, mice with one Hdac2 allele displayed intestinal architecture defects, increased proliferation, decreased goblet cell numbers as opposed to Paneth cells, increased immune cell infiltration associated with fibrosis, and increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In comparison to dual knockout mice, intermediary activation of Notch, mTOR, and Stat3 signaling pathways was observed. While villin-Cre(ER) Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions led to an impaired epithelium and differentiation defects, Ah-Cre-mediated deletion resulted in blunted proliferation associated with the induction of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that IEC determination and intestinal homeostasis are highly dependent on Hdac1 and Hdac2 activity levels, and that changes in the IEC acetylome may alter the mucosal environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Dynamic Distribution of Small-Tail Han Sheep Microbiota across Different Intestinal Segments

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    Hao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology. Results showed a significant difference between jejunum and cecum, jejunum, and rectum. Meanwhile, the cecum and rectum not only display higher species richness but also exhibit higher similarity of the bacterial diversity than that of the jejunum based on the results of abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE, Chao1, and Shannon indexes. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in cecum and rectum, while higher relative abundances of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were observed in jejunum. At the genus level, Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Flavonifractor, and Clostridium were the dominant genera in the cecum and rectum. An obvious dynamic distribution of Lactobacillus is continuously decreasing from the jejunum to the cecum, then to the rectum, whereas the result of Bacteroides is completely inverse. In addition, this study also found many kinds of bacteria associated with the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA colonized in the large intestine. This study is the first to investigate the distribution of intestinal flora in small-tail Han sheep. The findings provide an important indication for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal diseases in small-tail Han sheep, as well as offer a direction for the development of intestinal microecological preparations.

  18. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao; Bi, Jingcheng; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-08-03

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota.

  19. Intestinal microbiota sustains inflammation and autoimmunity induced by hypomorphic RAG defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Rosita; Fontana, Elena; Guglielmetti, Simone; Fosso, Bruno; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Maina, Virginia; Taverniti, Valentina; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Mantero, Stefano; Pacchiana, Giovanni; Musio, Silvia; Pedotti, Rosetta; Selmi, Carlo; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Pesole, Graziano; Vezzoni, Paolo; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Omenn syndrome (OS) is caused by hypomorphic Rag mutations and characterized by a profound immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune-like manifestations. Both in humans and mice, OS is mediated by oligoclonal activated T and B cells. The role of microbial signals in disease pathogenesis is debated. Here, we show that Rag2R229Q knock-in mice developed an inflammatory bowel disease affecting both the small bowel and colon. Lymphocytes were sufficient for disease induction, as intestinal CD4 T cells with a Th1/Th17 phenotype reproduced the pathological picture when transplanted into immunocompromised hosts. Moreover, oral tolerance was impaired in Rag2R229Q mice, and transfer of wild-type (WT) regulatory T cells ameliorated bowel inflammation. Mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency in the gut resulted in enhanced absorption of microbial products and altered composition of commensal communities. The Rag2R229Q microbiota further contributed to the immunopathology because its transplant into WT recipients promoted Th1/Th17 immune response. Consistently, long-term dosing of broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABXs) in Rag2R229Q mice ameliorated intestinal and systemic autoimmunity by diminishing the frequency of mucosal and circulating gut-tropic CCR9+ Th1 and Th17 T cells. Remarkably, serum hyper-IgE, a hallmark of the disease, was also normalized by ABX treatment. These results indicate that intestinal microbes may play a critical role in the distinctive immune dysregulation of OS. PMID:26926994

  20. The effect of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on intestinal microbiota.

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    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on the intestinal microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty male pigs (∼40 days old were blocked by weight and litter ancestry and assigned to one of four treatments; 1 Isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (Isogenic; 2 Bt maize-based diet (MON810 for 110 days (Bt; 3 Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by a Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (Isogenic/Bt; 4 Bt maize-based diet for 30 days followed by an isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/Isogenic. Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus and total anaerobes were enumerated in the feces using culture-based methods on days 0, 30, 60 and 100 of the study and in ileal and cecal digesta on day 110. No differences were found between treatments for any of these counts at any time point. The relative abundance of cecal bacteria was also determined using high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. No differences were observed in any bacterial taxa between treatments, with the exception of the genus Holdemania which was more abundant in the cecum of pigs fed the isogenic/Bt treatment compared to pigs fed the Bt treatment (0.012 vs 0.003%; P≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Feeding pigs a Bt maize-based diet for 110 days did not affect counts of any of the culturable bacteria enumerated in the feces, ileum or cecum. Neither did it influence the composition of the cecal microbiota, with the exception of a minor increase in the genus Holdemania. As the role of Holdemania in the intestine is still under investigation and no health abnormalities were observed, this change is not likely to be of clinical significance. These results indicate that feeding Bt maize to pigs in the context of its influence on the porcine intestinal microbiota is safe.

  1. Improvement in Human Immune Function with Changes in Intestinal Microbiota by Salacia reticulata Extract Ingestion: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

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    Yuriko Oda

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732.

  2. Cd1d-dependent regulation of bacterial colonization in the intestine of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Lindenbergh, Dicky; Willemsen, Rob; Kaser, Arthur; Simons-Oosterhuis, Ytje; Brugman, Sylvia; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Samsom, Janneke N.; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kikuchi, Mami; Escher, Johanna C.; Hattori, Masahira; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of certain species of bacteria in the intestine is involved in both tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated pathologies. The host mechanisms involved in controlling intestinal colonization with commensal bacteria are poorly understood. We observed that under specific pathogen–free or germ-free conditions, intragastric administration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Lactobacillus gasseri resulted in increased colonization of the small intestine and bacterial translocation in mice lacking Cd1d, an MHC class I–like molecule, compared with WT mice. In contrast, activation of Cd1d-restricted T cells (NKT cells) with α-galactosylceramide caused diminished intestinal colonization with the same bacterial strains. We also found prominent differences in the composition of intestinal microbiota, including increased adherent bacteria, in Cd1d–/– mice in comparison to WT mice under specific pathogen–free conditions. Germ-free Cd1d–/– mice exhibited a defect in Paneth cell granule ultrastructure and ability to degranulate after bacterial colonization. In vitro, NKT cells were shown to induce the release of lysozyme from intestinal crypts. Together, these data support a role for Cd1d in regulating intestinal colonization through mechanisms that include the control of Paneth cell function. PMID:19349688

  3. Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function and Innate Immunity

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    Harmit S. Ranhotra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis for the regulation of the intestinal barrier is a very fertile research area. A growing body of knowledge supports the targeting of various components of intestinal barrier function as means to treat a variety of diseases, including the inflammatory bowel diseases. Herein, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of key xenobiotic receptor regulators of barrier function, highlighting recent advances, such that the field and its future are succinctly reviewed. We posit that these receptors confer an additional dimension of host-microbe interaction in the gut, by sensing and responding to metabolites released from the symbiotic microbiota, in innate immunity and also in host drug metabolism. The scientific evidence for involvement of the receptors and its molecular basis for the control of barrier function and innate immunity regulation would serve as a rationale towards development of non-toxic probes and ligands as drugs.

  4. Current Hypothesis for the Relationship between Dietary Rice Bran Intake, the Intestinal Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Winnie K W; Law, Bernard M H; Law, Patrick T W; Chan, Carmen W H; Chair, Sek Ying

    2016-09-15

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models. Rice bran intake was shown to reverse such changes through the manipulation of the population of health-promoting bacteria in the intestine. The present review first provides an overview of evidence on the link between microbial dysbiosis and CRC carcinogenesis and describes the molecular events associated with that link. Thereafter, there is a summary of current data on the effect of rice bran intake on the composition of intestinal microbiota in human and animal models. The article also highlights the need for further studies on the inter-relationship between rice bran intake, the composition of intestinal microbiota and CRC prevention.

  5. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  6. A five patient’s case study on the influence of two different probiotics on individual intestinal microbiota

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    Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The composition and activities of indigenous intestinal microbiota are of paramount importance to human immunity, nutrition, and pathological processes, and hence, the health of the individual. It is well established that the intestine is an important site for local immunity. It is known that the effect of probiotics increases beneficial microbiota and improves chronic conditions such as atopic diseases, irritable bowel disease, and obesity. However, as there are so many probiotics, it is unknown which probiotics might have more of an impact upon intestinal microbiota.Objective: To understand how two different types of probiotics influence human intestinal microbiota, we analyzed human fecal microbiota after taking each of the probiotics.Methods: Five outpatients from Yoko Clinic (1 male and 4 females; aged between 34–46 years old were enrolled in this study. None of the subjects had cancer or any active inflammatory diseases. The five patients took Lactobacillus buchneri (SU for 4 weeks, no probiotics the following week, and mixed probiotics (NS which are Lactobacillus plantarum (NS-5, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NS-11, Lactobacillus delbruekii (NS-12, Lactobacillus helveticus (NS-8, Lactobacillus fermentum (NS-9 for the following 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected before and after the outpatients took each of the two probiotics, and were then analyzed using a kit from Techno Suruga Laboratory Co., Ltd. The analysis of the microbiota was performed by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis program (Nagashima method.Results: Three patients of the five patients decreased the percentage of beneficial bacteria(Lactobacillales, Bifidobacteria after taking SU (13.7 ± 7.1% to 4.0 ± 3.5%, whereas the remaining two patients showed an increased percentage of beneficial bacteria (16.8 ± 3.4% to 30.4 ± 4.6%. After taking NS, the three patients who decreased the

  7. Early Innate Immunity to Bacterial Infection in the Lung Is Regulated Systemically by the Commensal Microbiota via Nod-Like Receptor Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota is a major regulator of the immune system. The majority of commensal bacteria inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are known to regulate local mucosal defenses against intestinal pathogens. There is growing appreciation that the commensal microbiota also regulates immune responses at extraintestinal sites. Currently, however, it is unclear how this influences host defenses against bacterial infection outside the intestine. Microbiota depletion caused significant defects in the early innate response to lung infection by the major human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. After microbiota depletion, early clearance of K. pneumoniae was impaired, and this could be rescued by administration of bacterial Nod-like receptor (NLR) ligands (the NOD1 ligand MurNAcTriDAP and NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) but not bacterial Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Importantly, NLR ligands from the gastrointestinal, but not upper respiratory, tract rescued host defenses in the lung. Defects in early innate immunity were found to be due to reduced reactive oxygen species-mediated killing of bacteria by alveolar macrophages. These data show that bacterial signals from the intestine have a profound influence on establishing the levels of antibacterial defenses in distal tissues. PMID:25135683

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy M Dinh

    Full Text Available Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001 with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043. There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380 with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004 and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489 with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed.

  9. Vitamin D, immune regulation, the microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantorna, Margherita T; McDaniel, Kaitlin; Bora, Stephanie; Chen, Jing; James, Jamaal

    2014-11-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases are complex diseases caused by environmental, immunological, and genetic factors. Vitamin D status is low in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and experimental inflammatory bowel diseases are more severe in vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D receptor knockout animals. Vitamin D is beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases because it regulates multiple checkpoints and processes essential for homeostasis in the gut. Vitamin D inhibits IFN-γ and IL-17 production while inducing regulatory T cells. In addition, vitamin D regulates epithelial cell integrity, innate immune responses, and the composition of the gut microbiota. Overall, vitamin D regulates multiple pathways that maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis. The data support improving vitamin D status in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  11. THE INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND THE ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Prado MORAES-FILHO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, chronic relapsing gastrointestinal disorder that affects 7%-22% of the population worldwide. According to Rome III Criteria, the disorder is defined by the coexistence of abdominal discomfort or pain associated with an alteration in bowel habits. Its pathophysiology is not completely understood but, in addition to some important abnormalities, the disturbed intestinal microbiota has also been described supported by several strands of evidence. The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is based upon several therapeutic approaches but few have been successful or without adverse events and more recently the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics have emerged as a factor to be considered. Probiotics are live micro-organisms which when consumed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host, such as Lactic bacteria among others. An important scientific rationale has emerged for the use of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome, although the data regarding different species are still limited. Not all probiotics are beneficial: it is important to select the specific strain which should be supported by good evidence base. The mechanisms of action of probiotics are described and the main strains are quoted.

  12. An essential role of Ffar2 (Gpr43) in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of healthy composition of gut microbiota and suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprakasam, S; Gurav, A; Paschall, A V; Coe, G L; Chaudhary, K; Cai, Y; Kolhe, R; Martin, P; Browning, D; Huang, L; Shi, H; Sifuentes, H; Vijay-Kumar, M; Thompson, S A; Munn, D H; Mellor, A; McGaha, T L; Shiao, P; Cutler, C W; Liu, K; Ganapathy, V; Li, H; Singh, N

    2016-06-27

    Composition of the gut microbiota has profound effects on intestinal carcinogenesis. Diet and host genetics play critical roles in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Whether diet and host genes interact with each other to bring specific changes in gut microbiota that affect intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Ability of dietary fibre to specifically increase beneficial gut microbiota at the expense of pathogenic bacteria in vivo via unknown mechanism is an important process that suppresses intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota. Here, we show FFAR2 is down modulated in human colon cancers than matched adjacent healthy tissue. Consistent with this, Ffar2(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to development of intestinal carcinogenesis. Dietary fibre suppressed colon carcinogenesis in an Ffar2-dependent manner. Ffar2 played an essential role in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of beneficial gut microbiota, Bifidobacterium species (spp) and suppression of Helicobacter hepaticus and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, numbers of Bifidobacterium is reduced, whereas those of Prevotellaceae are increased in human colon cancers than matched adjacent normal tissue. Administration of Bifidobacterium mitigated intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in Ffar2(-/-) mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that interplay between dietary fibre and Ffar2 play a key role in promoting healthy composition of gut microbiota that stimulates intestinal health.

  13. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus supplementation on immune responses, intestinal structure and microbiota in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhui; Lv, Zengpeng; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Hong; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus on immune responses, intestinal structure and microbiota in broilers, 840 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (eight replicates) and were fed basal diets without or with 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g/kg of K. marxianus (2.0×1010 CFU/g). Serum and intestine samples were collected at 21 d of age. The results showed that increasing K. marxianus addition linearly reduced feed conversion ratio but linearly elevated relative thymus weight, as well as quadratically increased serum lysozyme and IgG levels, with the medium dose (1.0 g/kg) being the most effective. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth of jejunum and ileum, ileal villus height and sucrase activity, as well as the mRNA expression of ileal mucin-2, claudin-1 and sodium glucose cotransporter 1 linearly responded to the increasing K. marxianus addition. Supplemental K. marxianus at low (0.5 g/kg), medium (1.5 g/kg) and high (2.5 g/kg) dose all decreased the abundance of phylum Cyanobacteria, increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus in ileum. The high dose of K. marxianus addition also reduced the abundance of order Rickettsiales and Pseudomonadales along with species Acinetobacter junii. Ileal bacterial communities between K. marxianus-treated and untreated groups formed distinctly different clusters. In summary, K. marxianus supplementation benefits feed efficiency and immune function, as well as intestinal structure in broilers, which might be attributed to the improved ileal microbial structure. Supplemental K. marxianus at high dose (2.5 g/kg) was more effective for feed efficiency and intestinal health of broilers, while the innate immunity was optimized at a medium dose (1.0 g/kg).

  14. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (pBSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  15. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  16. Intestinal microbiota as modulators of the immune system and neuroimmune system: impact on the host health and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa; De Castro, Sandra Bertelli Ribeiro; de Souza, Gustavo Torres; Rossato, Cristiano; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Valente, Maria Anete Santana; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; do Carmo, Antônio Márcio Resende; Macedo, Gilson Costa; Silva, Fernando de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Many immune-based intestinal disorders, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as other illnesses, may have the intestines as an initial cause or aggravator in the development of diseases, even apparently not correlating directly to the intestine. Diabetes, obesity, multiple sclerosis, depression, and anxiety are examples of other illnesses discussed in the literature. In parallel, importance of the gut microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and immunologic conflict between tolerance towards commensal microorganisms and combat of pathogens is well known. Recent researches show that the immune system, when altered by the gut microbiota, influences the state in which these diseases are presented in the patient directly and indirectly. At the present moment, a considerable number of investigations about this subject have been performed and published. However, due to difficulties on correlating information, several speculations and hypotheses are generated. Thus, the present review aims at bringing together how these interactions work-gut microbiota, immune system, and their influence in the neuroimmune system.

  17. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Xiao; Bi, Jingcheng; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue sampl...

  18. Irf4-dependent CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and the intestinal microbiome regulate monocyte and macrophage activation and intestinal peristalsis in postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Judith Mira; Gutweiler, Sebastian; Thiebes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    and large intestinal POI suggested a potential role of the intestinal microbiota. Indeed, antibiotic treatment reduced iNOS levels and ameliorated POI. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that CD103+CD11b+ DCs and the intestinal microbiome are a prerequisite for the activation of intestinal monocytes...

  19. The intestinal microbiota in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) is influenced by diet type and Yersinia Ruckeri challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger; Jørgensen, L. von Gersdorff

    In recent years it has become more and more evident that the bacterial flora in the gut of warm-blooded animals modulates physiological processes and the immunological status of the host. Besides effects on growth parameters, commensal intestinal bacteria balance the immune system and prevent...... colonization of pathogenic bacteria. The question is if the gut microbiota is also important in lower vertebrates such as fish? Is the microbiota related to the diet type and does it play a protective role in connection to pathogenic challenge? To examine these questions rainbow trout fry were fed two...... different diets of either a marine or vegetable origin from first feeding and onwards. At a size of about four gram the fish were bath challenged by Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and intestines were then sampled 5 days post challenge for subsequent metagenomic examination. Next-generation sequencing...

  20. THE CHANGES OF LARGE INTESTINE CAVITY’S MICROBIOTA IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinova O.M.

    2015-12-01

    features of obligate microfloras’ functions (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus, E.coli, its lack has a negative impact on microecological system of the human body and reduces immunomodulatory effect on humoral and cellular immunity. So one of the issues which will have a positive impact on the health of patients with HIV infection is a normalization of obligate microflora deficit and reducing of opportunistic microflora. The conducted researches point to the need of microbiological analysis of fecal on dysbiosis for the patients with HIV infection and depending on the revealed dysbiotic changes making correction of microflora by biological agents. To correct the number of anaerobic bacteria (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus use of bacterial preparations is not enough for only one month. It is necessary to continue taking of medicine for at least one month under the control of microbiological studies. The positive dynamics of the microflora of the large intestine points to changes that may be found in the immune system of the person that takes biological preparations. The close interaction between the microbiota of intestinal canal and the immune system leads to the formation of non–specific resistance of the organism. In this regard, the big importance has a modulating effect of intestinal microflora on products of cytokines, which are characterized by a wide range of biological effects. Conclusion. 1. Patients with HIV infection irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease have deficit both anaerobic (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. 2. E.coli is the leading microorganism among the facultative anaerobic intestinal microflora, its amount of has been reduced to levels <106 CFU / mL at 56% at the patients. 3. Correction of patients' microflora by bacterial agents showed that the number of E.coli already in a month have reached the normal level in 100% of cases.

  1. From sensing to shaping microbiota: insights into the role of NOD2 in intestinal homeostasis and progression of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Iyshwarya; Gao, Nan

    2017-07-01

    NOD2 was the first susceptibility gene identified for Crohn's disease (CD), one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The field of NOD2 research has opened up many questions critical to understanding the complexities of microbiota-host interactions. In addition to sensing its specific bacterial components as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 also appears to shape the colonization of intestinal microbiota. Activated NOD2 triggers downstream signaling cascades exampled by the NF-κB pathway to induce antimicrobial activities, however, defective or loss of NOD2 functions incur a similarly activated inflammatory response. Additional studies have identified the involvement of NOD2 in protection against non-microbiota-related intestinal damages as well as extraintestinal infections. We survey recent molecular and genetic studies of NOD2-mediated bacterial sensing and immunological modulation, and integrate evidence to suggest a highly reciprocal but still poorly understood cross talk between enteric microbiota and host cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Technical Aspects of Nominal Partitions on Accuracy of Data Mining Classification of Intestinal Microbiota — Comparison between 7 Restriction Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    KOBAYASHI, Toshio; FUJIWARA, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The application of data mining analyses (DM) is effective for the quantitative classification of human intestinal microbiota (HIM). However, there remain various technical problems that must be overcome. This paper deals with the number of nominal partitions (NP) of the target dataset, which is a major technical problem. We used here terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism data, which was obtained from the feces of 92 Japanese men. Data comprised operational taxonomic units (OTUs) a...

  3. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - a comparison of composition and drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cantas, Leon; Fraser, Thomas W. K.; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Mayer, Ian; Sørum, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. Results No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial speci...

  4. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Moen

    Full Text Available Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN, cellulose (CE or brewers spent grain (BSG on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4. We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001. Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001. The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003 different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile.

  5. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-01-01

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber

  6. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  7. Microbiota metabolite regulation of host immune homeostasis: a mechanistic missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, S; Lee, K; Jayaraman, A; Alaniz, R C

    2015-05-01

    Metazoans predominantly co-exist with symbiotic microorganisms called the microbiota. Metagenomic surveys of the microbiota reveal a diverse ecosystem of microbes particularly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Perturbations in the GI microbiota in higher mammals (i.e., humans) are linked to diseases with variegated symptomology including inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and auto-inflammatory disorders. Indeed, studies using germ-free mice (lacking a microbiota) confirm that host development and homeostasis are dependent on the microbiota. A long-known key feature of the GI tract microbiota is metabolizing host indigestible dietary matter for maximum energy extraction; however, host signaling pathways are greatly influenced by the microbiota as well. In line with these observations, recent research has revealed that metabolites produced strictly by select microbiota members are mechanistic regulators of host cell functions. In this review, we discuss two major classes of microbiota-produced metabolites: short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan metabolites. We describe the known important roles for these metabolites in shaping host immunity and comment on the current status and future directions for microbiota metabolomics research.

  8. Evaluation of the nutrition and function of cow and goat milk based on intestinal microbiota by metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Jiang, Shuaiming; Ma, Chenchen; Huo, Dongxue; Peng, Qiannan; Shao, Yuyu; Zhang, Jiachao

    2018-03-26

    Milk contains nutrients needed by the body, and the main components of different animal milk vary. Accordingly, we evaluated cow and goat milk's nutrition and their effects on the gut microbiota in mice models using a high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology. The intestinal microbiota of mice changed significantly after the intake of cow and goat milk, and the goat milk had a greater effect on the intestinal microbial community than the cow milk. Bifidobacterium, Allobaculum, Olsenella and Akkermansia grew significantly in both cow and goat milk groups compared with the control group, indicating that milk positively affected their growth. We also found that the citrate cycle (TCA cycle), pyruvate metabolism, and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, as well as lipoic acid metabolism, were higher in the goat milk group than in the cow milk group. Association analysis of milk components and their representative intestinal microbiota showed that casein, αs1-casein, and β + κ-casein were positively correlated with Enterococcus and Allobaculum, and negatively correlated with Roseburia. Protein and αs2-casein were positively associated with Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium.

  9. Association between oxidative status and the composition of intestinal microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuraszova, Marianna; Kovalcikova, Alexandra; Gardlik, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays an important role in a variety of physiological processes, as well as disease. The continuous formation of ROS in the GIT is the result of the interaction between intestinal mucosa, symbiotic bacteria and dietary factors. It has also been proven that ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of several GI disorders, including IBD. We hypothesized that the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) would be the highest in the ileum, caecum or colon, where the microbiota mostly consist of butyrate producing bacteria, Bacterioides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus or Bifidobacterium, which derive energy through carbohydrate fermentation. We also assumed that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) mostly act in the segments, where bacteria reside and which are responsible for the amino acid fermentation, such as caecum or colon. Lipid hydroxyperoxides are generated during digestion in the stomach, which contains absorbed oxygen and has a low pH. According to this we hypothesized that the highest concentration of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) could be in the stomach, which, however, has not been confirmed. Because Lactobacilli are able to produce catalase, an endogenous antioxidant, and are abundant in the small intestine, we hypothesized that antioxidant capacity (measured by ferric reducing ability) would be the highest here. The highest levels of AGEs were found in the caecum. The highest level of

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG modulates innate signaling pathway and cytokine responses to rotavirus vaccine in intestinal mononuclear cells of gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Kan; Wen, Ke; Allen, Irving Coy; Li, Guohua; Zhang, Wenming; Kocher, Jacob; Yang, Xingdong; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati; Li, Guan-Hong; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-06-14

    A better understanding of mechanisms underlying dose-effects of probiotics in their applications as treatments of intestinal infectious or inflammatory diseases and as vaccine adjuvant is needed. In this study, we evaluated the modulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on transplanted human gut microbiota (HGM) and on small intestinal immune cell signaling pathways in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with an oral attenuated human rotavirus (AttHRV) vaccine. Neonatal HGM transplanted pigs were given two doses of AttHRV on 5 and 15 days of age and were divided into three groups: none-LGG (AttHRV), 9-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG9X), and 14-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG14X) (n = 3-4). At post-AttHRV-inoculation day 28, all pigs were euthanized and intestinal contents and ileal tissue and mononuclear cells (MNC) were collected. AttHRV + LGG14X pigs had significantly increased LGG titers in the large intestinal contents and shifted structure of the microbiota as indicated by the formation of a cluster that is separated from the cluster formed by the AttHRV and AttHRV + LGG9X pigs. The increase in LGG titers concurred with significantly increased ileal HRV-specific IFN-γ producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine reported in our previous publication, suggesting pro-Th1 adjuvant effects of the LGG. Both 9- and 14-doses LGG fed pig groups had significantly higher IkBα level and p-p38/p38 ratio, while significantly lower p-ERK/ERK ratio than the AttHRV pigs, suggesting activation of regulatory signals during immune activation. However, 9-doses, but not 14-doses LGG fed pigs had enhanced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TLR9 mRNA levels, and p38 MAPK and ERK expressions in ileal MNC. Increased TLR9 mRNA was in parallel with higher mRNA levels of cytokines, p-NF-kB and higher p-p38/p38 ratio in MNC of the AttHRV + LGG9X pigs. The relationship between modulation of gut microbiota and regulation of host immunity by different doses of probiotics is complex. LGG

  11. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eTellez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group. At 10d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate bacterial translocation (BT. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated.

  12. The ELDERMET biobank: Isolation and characterization of the intestinal microbiota from elderly Irish subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a dense and diverse bacterial community, the commensal microbiota, which plays an important role in the overall health of individuals. This microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but may fluctuate over time with aging and disease. The adaptation of the gut microbiota to our changing life-style is probably the reason for the large inter-individual variation observed among different people. Since the gut microbiota plays an e...

  13. Restoration of a healthy intestinal microbiota normalizes portal hypertension in a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lezana, Teresa; Raurell, Imma; Bravo, Miren; Torres-Arauz, Manuel; Salcedo, María Teresa; Santiago, Alba; Schoenenberger, Andreu; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Genescà, Joan; Martell, María; Augustin, Salvador

    2018-04-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) drives most of the clinical complications in chronic liver diseases. However, its progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its association with the intestinal microbiota (IM) have been scarcely studied. Our aim was to investigate the role of the IM in the mechanisms leading to PH in early NASH. The experimental design was divided in two stages. In stage 1, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks a high-fat, high-glucose/fructose diet (HFGFD) or a control diet/water (CD). Representative rats were selected as IM donors for stage 2. In stage 2, additional HFGFD and CD rats underwent intestinal decontamination, followed by IM transplantation with feces from opposite-diet donors (heterologous transplant) or autologous fecal transplant (as controls), generating four groups: CD-autotransplanted, CD-transplanted, HFGFD-autotransplanted, HFGFD-transplanted. After IM transplantation, the original diet was maintained for 12-14 days until death. HFGFD rats developed obesity, insulin resistance, NASH without fibrosis but with PH, intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction, and IM dysbiosis. In HFGFD rats, transplantation with feces from CD donors caused a significant reduction of PH to levels comparable to CD without significant changes in NASH histology. The reduction in PH was due to a 31% decrease of intrahepatic vascular resistance compared to the HFGFD-autotransplanted group (P protein kinase B-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway. The IM exerts a direct influence in the development of PH in rats with diet-induced NASH and dysbiosis; PH, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction revert when a healthy IM is restored. (Hepatology 2018;67:1485-1498). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Simon A; Ng, Jeffrey; Lueng, Alan; Khajah, Maitham; Parhar, Ken; Li, Yan; Lam, Victor; Potentier, Mireille S; Ng, Kelvin; Bawa, Misha; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Rioux, Kevin P; Ghosh, Subrata; Xavier, Ramnik J; Colgan, Sean P; Tschopp, Jurg; Muruve, Daniel; MacDonald, Justin A; Beck, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    Attenuated innate immune responses to the intestinal microbiota have been linked to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Recent genetic studies have revealed that hypofunctional mutations of NLRP3, a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) superfamily, are associated with an increased risk of developing CD. NLRP3 is a key component of the inflammasome, an intracellular danger sensor of the innate immune system. When activated, the inflammasome triggers caspase-1-dependent processing of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β and IL-18. In the current study we sought to assess the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through its regulation of innate protective processes. To investigate this role, Nlrp3(-/-) and wildtype mice were assessed in the dextran sulfate sodium and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid models of experimental colitis. Nlrp3(-/-) mice were found to be more susceptible to experimental colitis, an observation that was associated with reduced IL-1β, reduced antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, and reduced protective growth factor TGF-β. Macrophages isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice failed to respond to bacterial muramyl dipeptide. Furthermore, Nlrp3-deficient neutrophils exhibited reduced chemotaxis and enhanced spontaneous apoptosis, but no change in oxidative burst. Lastly, Nlrp3(-/-) mice displayed altered colonic β-defensin expression, reduced colonic antimicrobial secretions, and a unique intestinal microbiota. Our data confirm an essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and provide biological insight into disease mechanisms associated with increased risk of CD in individuals with NLRP3 mutations. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  15. Correlation of intestinal microbiota with overweight and obesity in Kazakh school children

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    Xu Peiru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to investigate a possible correlation between the intestinal microbiota, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and obesity in Kazakh school children, aged 7–13 (n = 175. Results Obese subjects had significantly greater systolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, as well as HOMA-IR as compared to normal and overweight participants. In addition, Bacteroides copy number and Bact/Firm ratios were significantly lower in the obese group as compared to the normal and overweight groups (P Bacteroidetes copy number (r = −0.18, P = 0.017 as well as Bact/Firm (r = −0.22, P = 0.003 was observed. Conclusion An association between reduced gut Bacteroidetes and Bact/Firm ratio with obesity in female Kazakh children was identified. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes as well as the value of determining their presence for predicting obesity.

  16. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  17. High occurrence of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Clostridium difficile in the intestinal microbiota of colorectal carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukugaiti, Márcia H; Ignacio, Aline; Fernandes, Miriam R; Ribeiro Júnior, Ulysses; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is considered the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Several microorganisms have been associated with carcinogenesis, including Enterococcus spp., Helicobacter pylori, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, pathogenic E. coli strains and oral Fusobacterium. Here we qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the presence of oral and intestinal microorganisms in the fecal microbiota of colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls. Seventeen patients (between 49 and 70 years-old) visiting the Cancer Institute of the Sao Paulo State were selected, 7 of whom were diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma. Bacterial detection was performed by qRT-PCR. Although all of the tested bacteria were detected in the majority of the fecal samples, quantitative differences between the Cancer Group and healthy controls were detected only for F. nucleatum and C. difficile. The three tested oral microorganisms were frequently observed, suggesting a need for furthers studies into a potential role for these bacteria during colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis. Despite the small number of patients included in this study, we were able to detect significantly more F. nucleatum and C. difficile in the Cancer Group patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting a possible role of these bacteria in colon carcinogenesis. This finding should be considered when screening for colorectal cancer.

  18. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  19. Effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and changes in gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Cardoso, Katherine; Ginés, Iris; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena

    2016-12-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, which, in most cases, leads to the development of metabolic disorders, primarily insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although prior studies have implicated the adipose tissue as being primarily responsible for obesity-associated inflammation, the latest discoveries have correlated impairments in intestinal immune homeostasis and the mucosal barrier with increased activation of the inflammatory pathways and the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to define the mechanisms underlying the obesity-associated gut alterations to develop therapies to prevent and treat obesity and its associated diseases. Flavonoids appear to be promising candidates among the natural preventive treatments that have been identified to date. They have been shown to protect against several diseases, including CVD and various cancers. Furthermore, they have clear anti-inflammatory properties, which have primarily been evaluated in non-intestinal models. At present, a growing body of evidence suggests that flavonoids could exert a protective role against obesity-associated pathologies by modulating inflammatory-related cellular events in the intestine and/or the composition of the microbiota populations. The present paper will review the literature to date that has described the protective effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and gut microbiota in studies conducted using in vivo and in vitro models.

  20. The Development of Microbiota and Metabolome in Small Intestine of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon from Birth to Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense and diverse community of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals plays critical roles in the metabolism and absorption of nutrients, and gut associated immune function. Understanding microbial colonization in the small intestine of new born ruminants is a vital first step toward manipulating gut function through interventions during early life to produce long-term positive effects on host productivity and health. Yet the knowledge of microbiota colonization and its induced metabolites of small intestine during early life is still limited. In the present study, we examined the microbiota and metabolome in the jejunum and ileum of neonatal sika deer (Cervus nippon from birth to weaning at days 1, 42, and 70. The microbial data showed that diversity and richness were increased with age, but a highly individual variation was observed at day 1. Principal coordinate analysis revealed significant differences in microbial community composition across three time points in the jejunum and ileum. The abundance of Halomonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia–Shigella, and Bacteroides spp. tended to be decreased, while the proportion of Intestinibacter spp., Cellulosilyticum spp., Turicibacter spp., Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and Romboutsia spp. was significantly increased with age. For metabolome, metabolites separated from each other across the three time points in both jejunum and ileum. Moreover, the amounts of methionine, threonine, and putrescine were increased, while the amounts of myristic acid and pentadecanoic acid were decreased with age, respectively. The present study demonstrated that microbiota colonization and the metabolome becomes more developed in the small intestine with age. This may shed new light on the microbiota-metabolome-immune interaction during development.

  1. Effects of a simple or a compex starter microbiota on intestinal microbiota composition in caeseran derived piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Zhang, J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R.A.; Smidt, H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to develop a model in piglets that allows the investigation of the effects of postnatal association with a simple or a complex microbiota on gut health and development. Thirty piglets from 2 sows were obtained by caesarean delivery (day 0) and were equally divided over

  2. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    . Overall, enrofloxacin at a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. significantly altered the microbial community membership and structure, and microbial functions in the chicken intestine during the medication. This study fully investigates the chicken intestinal microbiota in response to enrofloxacin treatment and identifies potential targets against which the fluoroquinolones may have potent antimicrobial effects. These results provide insights into the effects of the usage of enrofloxacin on chicken and will aid in the prudent and rational use of antibiotics in poultry industry.

  3. Daily Changes in Composition and Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: A Series of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan C; Glenny, Elaine M; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Huh, Eun Young; Tsilimigras, Matthew C B; Fodor, Anthony A; Bulik, Cynthia M; Carroll, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa, a severe psychiatric illness, is associated with an intestinal microbial dysbiosis. Individual microbial signatures dominate in healthy samples, even over time and under controlled conditions, but whether microbial markers of the disorder overcome inter-individual variation during the acute stage of illness or renourishment is unknown. We characterized daily changes in the intestinal microbiota in three acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa over the entire course of hospital-based renourishment and found significant, patient-specific changes in microbial composition and diversity. This preliminary case series suggests that even in a state of pathology, individual microbial signatures persist in accounting for the majority of intestinal microbial variation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Is the intestinal microbiota in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) influenced by diet type and challenge by yersinia ruckeri?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has become more and more evident that the bacterial flora in the gut of warm-blooded animals modulates physiological processes and the immunological status of the host. Besides effects on growth parameters, commensal intestinal bacteria balance the immune system and prevent...... colonization of pathogenic bacteria. The question is if the gut microbiota is also important in lower vertebrates such as fish? And does it play a role in connection to pathogenic challenge? To examine these questions rainbow trout fry were fed two different diets of either a marine or vegetable origin...... the Illumina HiSeq platform. The results clearly showed two different microbial patterns in the intestines dependent on the diet type. Control fish fed a marine based diet overall had a higher amount of proteobacteria, while high amount of reads belonging to phylum Firmicutes dominated in the intestines...

  5. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level.

  6. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - a comparison of composition and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantas, Leon; Fraser, Thomas W K; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Mayer, Ian; Sørum, Henning

    2011-11-17

    With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial species isolated, however, triploids were found to contain a significant increase in total gut microbiota levels, with increases in Pseudomonas spp., Pectobacterium carotovorum, Psychrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Vibrio spp., (12, 42, 9, 10, and 11% more bacteria in triploids than diploids, respectively), whereas a decrease in Carnobacterium spp., within triploids compared to diploids was close to significant (8% more bacteria in diploids). With the exception of gentamicin, where no bacterial resistance was observed, bacterial isolates originating from triploid hosts displayed increased resistance to antibacterials, three of which were significant (tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide). Results indicate that triploidy influences both the community and drug resistance of culturable intestinal microbiota in juvenile salmon. These results demonstrate differences that are likely to contribute to the health of triploid fish and have important ramifications on the use of antibacterial drugs within aquaculture.

  7. The Intricate Link among Gut “Immunological Niche,” Microbiota, and Xenobiotics in Intestinal Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pagliari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are diseases characterized by various degrees of inflammation involving the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are characterized by a dysregulated immune response leading to structural gut alterations in genetically predisposed individuals. Diverticular disease is characterized by abnormal immune response to normal gut microbiota. IBDs are linked to a lack of physiological tolerance of the mucosal immune system to resident gut microbiota and pathogens. The disruption of immune tolerance involves inflammatory pathways characterized by an unbalance between the anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells. The interaction among T cell subpopulations and their related cytokines, mediators of inflammation, gut microbiota, and the intestinal mucosa constitute the gut “immunological niche.” Several evidences have shown that xenobiotics, such as rifaximin, can positively modulate the inflammatory pathways at the site of gut immunological niche, acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Xenobiotics may interfere with components of the immunological niche, leading to activation of anti-inflammatory pathways and inhibition of several mediators of inflammation. In summary, xenobiotics may reduce disease-related gut mucosal alterations and clinical symptoms. Studying the complex interplay between gut immunological niche and xenobiotics will certainly open new horizons in the knowledge and therapy of intestinal pathologies.

  8. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar - a comparison of composition and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantas Leon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. Results No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial species isolated, however, triploids were found to contain a significant increase in total gut microbiota levels, with increases in Pseudomonas spp., Pectobacterium carotovorum, Psychrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Vibrio spp., (12, 42, 9, 10, and 11% more bacteria in triploids than diploids, respectively, whereas a decrease in Carnobacterium spp., within triploids compared to diploids was close to significant (8% more bacteria in diploids. With the exception of gentamicin, where no bacterial resistance was observed, bacterial isolates originating from triploid hosts displayed increased resistance to antibacterials, three of which were significant (tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide. Conclusion Results indicate that triploidy influences both the community and drug resistance of culturable intestinal microbiota in juvenile salmon. These results demonstrate differences that are likely to contribute to the health of triploid fish and have important ramifications on the use of antibacterial drugs within aquaculture.

  9. Neuroimmune regulation during intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease.

  10. Aquacultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Possess a Large Core Intestinal Microbiota That Is Resistant to Variation in Diet and Rearing Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandi; Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven; Davidson, John; Barrows, Frederic; Kenney, P. Brett; Welch, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D.; Snekvik, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    As global aquaculture fish production continues to expand, an improved understanding of how environmental factors interact in fish health and production is needed. Significant advances have been made toward economical alternatives to costly fishmeal-based diets, such as grain-based formulations, and toward defining the effect of rearing density on fish health and production. Little research, however, has examined the effects of fishmeal- and grain-based diets in combination with alterations in rearing density. Moreover, it is unknown whether interactions between rearing density and diet impact the composition of the fish intestinal microbiota, which might in turn impact fish health and production. We fed aquacultured adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishmeal- or grain-based diets, reared them under high- or low-density conditions for 10 months in a single aquaculture facility, and evaluated individual fish growth, production, fin indices, and intestinal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that the intestinal microbiotas were dominated by a shared core microbiota consisting of 52 bacterial lineages observed across all individuals, diets, and rearing densities. Variations in diet and rearing density resulted in only minor changes in intestinal microbiota composition despite significant effects of these variables on fish growth, performance, fillet quality, and welfare. Significant interactions between diet and rearing density were observed only in evaluations of fin indices and the relative abundance of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus. These results demonstrate that aquacultured rainbow trout can achieve remarkable consistency in intestinal microbiota composition and suggest the possibility of developing novel aquaculture strategies without overtly altering intestinal microbiota composition. PMID:23770898

  11. Microarray analysis reveals marked intestinal microbiota aberrancy in infants having eczema compared to healthy children in at-risk for atopic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylund Lotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deviations in composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota in infancy have been associated with both the development and recurrence of atopic eczema. Thus, we decided to use a deep and global microarray-based method to characterize the diversity and temporal changes of the intestinal microbiota in infancy and to define specific bacterial signatures associated with eczema. Faecal microbiota at 6 and 18 months of age were analysed from 34 infants (15 with eczema and 19 healthy controls selected from a prospective follow-up study based on the availability of faecal samples. The infants were originally randomized to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo. Results Children with eczema harboured a more diverse total microbiota than control subjects as assessed by the Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index of the microarray profiles. Composition of the microbiota did not differ between study groups at age of 6 months, but was significantly different at age of 18 months as assessed by MCPP (p=0.01. At this age healthy children harboured 3 -fold greater amount of members of the Bacteroidetes (p=0.01. Microbiota of children suffering from eczema had increased abundance of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, which are typically abundant in adults. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition. Conclusion A diverse and adult-type microbiota in early childhood is associated with eczema and it may contribute to the perpetuation of eczema.

  12. Gut Microbiota-Regulated Pharmacokinetics of Berberine and Active Metabolites in Beagle Dogs After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ru; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Ma, Shu-Rong; Guo, Fang; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is considered a multi-target drug that has significant advantages. In contrast to its significant pharmacological effects in clinic, the plasma level of BBR is very low. Our previous work revealed that dihydroberberine (dhBBR) could be an absorbable form of BBR in the intestine, and butyrate is an active metabolite that is generated by gut bacteria in rats. In this study, for the first time we describe gut microbiota-regulated pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs after oral administration of BBR by single (50 mg/kg) or multiple doses (50 mg/kg/d) for 7 days. GC-MS, GC, LC-MS/MS, and LC/MS n -IT-TOF were used to detect dhBBR, butyrate and BBR as well as its Phase I and II metabolites, respectively. The results showed that dhBBR was not detected in dog plasma but was excreted in small amounts in the feces of dogs examined on days 3 and 7. Butyrate was generated by gut bacteria and increased by 1.3- and 1.2-fold in plasma or feces, respectively, after 7 days of BBR treatment compared to the levels before treatment. Changes of intestinal bacterial composition were analyzed by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The results presented that dogs treated with BBR for 7 days increased both the abundance of the butyrate- and the nitroreductases- producing bacteria. We also identified chemical structures of the Phase I and II metabolites and analyzed their contents in beagle dogs. Eleven metabolites were detected in plasma and feces after BBR oral administration (50 mg/kg) to dogs, including 8 metabolites of Phase I and III metabolites of Phase II. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated that the concentration of BBR in plasma was low, with a C max value of 36.88 ± 23.45 ng/mL. The relative content of glucuronic acid conjugates (M11) was higher than those of other metabolites (M1, M2, M12, and M14) in plasma. BBR was detected in feces, with high excreted amounts on day 3 (2625.04 ± 1726.94 μg/g) and day 7 (2793.43 ± 488.10 μg/g). In summary, this is the first study to

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Affects Microbiota and Suppresses Autophagy in the Intestines of Pigs Challenged with Salmonella Infantis

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    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis is a common source of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Here, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG was administrated to weaned piglets for 1 week before S. Infantis challenge. S. Infantis caused decreased ileal mucosal microbiota diversity, a dramatic Lactobacillus amylovorus bloom, and decreased abundance of Arsenicicoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Devosia, Paracoccus, Psychrobacter, and Weissella. The beneficial effect of LGG correlated with the moderate expansion of L. amylovorus, L. agilis, and several members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. S. Infantis translocation to the liver was decreased in the LGG-pretreated piglets. An in vitro model of LGG and S. Infantis co-incubation (involving the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was established, and nalidixic acid was used to kill the extracellular S. Infantis. LGG suppressed the initial S. Infantis invasion in the IPEC-J2 cells and deceased the rate of cell death. LGG inhibited S. Infantis-induced autophagy and promoted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Akt phosphorylation in both the ileum and IPEC-J2 cells. Our findings suggest that LGG inhibited S. Infantis-induced autophagy by promoting EGFR-mediated activation of the negative mediator Akt, which, in turn, suppressed intestinal epithelial cell death and thus restricted systemic S. Infantis infection. LGG can restore the gut microbiota balance and preserve the autophagy-related intestinal epithelial barrier, thereby controlling infections.

  14. Western diet induces a shift in microbiota composition enhancing susceptibility to Adherent-Invasive E. coli infection and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Allison; Denizot, Jérémy; Thévenot, Jonathan; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Massier, Sébastien; Sauvanet, Pierre; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Denis, Sylvain; Hofman, Paul; Bonnet, Richard; Billard, Elisabeth; Barnich, Nicolas

    2016-01-08

    Recent advances have shown that the abnormal inflammatory response observed in CD involves an interplay among intestinal microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors. The escalating consumption of fat and sugar in Western countries parallels an increased incidence of CD during the latter 20(th) century. The impact of a HF/HS diet in mice was evaluated for the gut micro-inflammation, intestinal microbiota composition, function and selection of an E. coli population. The HF/HS diet created a specific inflammatory environment in the gut, correlated with intestinal mucosa dysbiosis characterized by an overgrowth of pro-inflammatory Proteobacteria such as E. coli, a decrease in protective bacteria, and a significantly decreased of SCFA concentrations. The expression of GPR43, a SCFA receptor was reduced in mice treated with a HF/HS diet and reduced in CD patients compared with controls. Interestingly, mice treated with an agonist of GPR43 were protected against DSS-induced colitis. Finally, the transplantation of feces from HF/HS treated mice to GF mice increased susceptibility to AIEC infection. Together, our results demonstrate that a Western diet could aggravate the inflammatory process and that the activation of the GPR43 receptor pathway could be used as a new strategy to treat CD patients.

  15. Effect of thyme oil on small intestine integrity and antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and gastrointestinal microbiota in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placha, Iveta; Chrastinova, Lubica; Laukova, Andrea; Cobanova, Klaudia; Takacova, Jana; Strompfova, Viola; Chrenkova, Maria; Formelova, Zuzana; Faix, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of 0.5 g thyme oil per kg dry matter (DM) of diet on duodenal tissue integrity, antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and selected microbiota in the caecum and faeces of rabbits were studied. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into two groups and were fed a commercial granulated diet for growing rabbits (CD) with access to water ad libitum. The first group was fed the CD, while to the CD of the second group thyme oil was added. Intestinal integrity was tested by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thyme oil significantly increased the value of total antioxidant status (TAS) in the blood plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver, and it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the duodenal tissue. Thyme oil resulted in strengthened intestinal integrity, as the essential oil supplementation significantly increased TEER values in the experiment. The faecal microbiota of rabbits was almost completely balanced in both groups, and only a slight decrease was found in the microbial population at day 42 of the trial. In both groups, the bacterial counts were generally lower in the caecum than in the faecal samples. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.5 g/kg DM thyme oil may improve intestinal integrity, and it may have an antioxidant effect. A tendency was also found for thyme oil to stimulate the abundance of some microbes beneficial in the rabbit gut.

  16. Light/Dark Shifting Promotes Alcohol-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Possible Role of Intestinal Inflammatory Milieu and Microbiota

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    Faraz Bishehsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption—a frequent habit of majority of modern societies—increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption—another modern life style habit—in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. Method: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APClox468 mice underwent (a an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle. Mice were sacrificed after eight weeks of full alcohol and/or LD shift to collect intestine samples. Tumor number, size, and histologic grades were compared between animal groups. Mast cell protease 2 (MCP2 and 6 (MCP6 histology score were analyzed and compared. Stool collected at baseline and after four weeks of experimental manipulations was used for microbiota analysis. Results: The combination of alcohol and LD shifting accelerated intestinal polyposis, with a significant increase in polyp size, and caused advanced neoplasia. Consistent with a pathogenic role of stromal tryptase-positive mast cells in colon carcinogenesis, the ratio of mMCP6 (stromal/mMCP2 (intraepithelial mast cells increased upon LD shifting. Baseline microbiota was similar between groups, and experimental manipulations resulted in a significant difference in the microbiota composition between groups. Conclusions: Circadian disruption by Light:dark shifting exacerbates alcohol-induced polyposis and CRC. Effect of circadian disruption could, at least partly, be mediated by promoting a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory milieu via changes in microbiota.

  17. Ecological Effect of Ceftaroline-Avibactam on the Normal Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Rosenborg, Staffan; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Söderberg-Löfdal, Karin; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2015-08-01

    Ceftaroline-avibactam is a new combination of the antibiotic ceftaroline with a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ceftaroline-avibactam on the human intestinal microbiota. Fourteen healthy volunteers received ceftaroline-avibactam (600 mg ceftaroline fosamil and 600 mg avibactam) intravenously over 2 h every 8 h on days 1 to 6 and as a single dose on day 7. Fecal samples were collected on day -1 (within 24 h of the first infusion on day 1) and on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 21. Escherichia coli numbers decreased during the study and normalized on day 21. An increased number of Klebsiella bacteria appeared on day 14 and normalized on day 21. The number of other enterobacteria decreased during the study, and the number of enterococci decreased from days 2 to 7 and normalized on day 9. Candida numbers increased from days 5 to 9 and normalized after day 14. The number of lactobacilli decreased during the study and recovered on day 14. The number of bifidobacteria decreased on day 2 and normalized on day 21. The number of Bacteroides bacteria was unchanged. Clostridium difficile numbers decreased on days 7 and 9 and increased on days 14 and 21. A toxigenic C. difficile strain was detected in one volunteer on day 21 with no reported adverse events. Plasma samples were collected on days -1, 2, 5, and 7. Ceftaroline and avibactam concentrations were 0 to 34.5 mg/liter and 0 to 61.6 mg/liter, respectively, in plasma and 0 to 35.4 mg/kg and 0 to 98.5 mg/kg, respectively, in feces. (This study is registered in the European Clinical Trials Database [https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/] under number EudraCT 2012 004921-25.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Bifidobacterium strains suppress in vitro the pro-inflammatory milieu triggered by the large intestinal microbiota of coeliac patients

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    Calabuig Miguel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coeliac disease (CD is an enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to cereal-gluten proteins. Although gluten peptides and microorganisms activate similar pro-inflammatory pathways, the role the intestinal microbiota may play in this disorder is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the faecal microbiota of coeliac patients could contribute to the pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of CD and the possible benefits of bifidobacteria. Methods The effect of faeces of 26 CD patients with active disease (mean age 5.5 years, range 2.1–12.0 years, 18 symptom-free coeliac disease (SFCD patients (mean age 5.5 years, range 1.0–12.3 years on a gluten-free diet for 1–2 years; and 20 healthy children (mean age 5.3 years, range 1.8–10.8 years on induction of cytokine production and surface antigen expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were determined. The possible regulatory roles of Bifidobacterium longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 co-incubated with faecal samples were also assessed in vitro. Results Faeces of both active CD and SFCD patients, representing an imbalanced microbiota, significantly increased TNF-α production and CD86 expression in PBMCs, while decreased IL-10 cytokine production and CD4 expression compared with control samples. Active CD-patient samples also induced significantly higher IFN-γ production compared with controls. However, Bifidobacterium strains suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern induced by the large intestinal content of CD patients and increased IL-10 production. Cytokine effects induced by faecal microbiota seemed to be mediated by the NFκB pathway. Conclusion The intestinal microbiota of CD patients could contribute to the Th1 pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of the disease, while B. longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 could reverse these deleterious effects. These findings hold future perspectives of interest in CD therapy.

  19. In vitro effects of inulin and soya bean oligosaccharide on skatole production and the intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Hou, R; Yang, G Q; Zhao, F; Dong, W G

    2017-11-03

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the in vitro effects of inulin and soya bean oligosaccharide (SBO) on the metabolism of L-tryptophan (L-try) to skatole production, and the intestinal microbiota in broilers. Treatments were as follows: caecal microbiota control (Cc), Cc + inulin, Cc + SBO, rectal microbiota control (Rc), Rc + inulin and Rc + SBO. Microbial suspensions were anaerobically incubated at 38°C for 24 hr. The results showed that concentrations of skatole and acetic acid were significantly lower in caecal microbiota fermentation broth (MFB) than those in rectal MFB (p inulin or SBO significantly decreased the concentrations of indole and skatole and rate of L-try degradation (p Inulin groups had lower indole than SBO groups (p inulin or SBO decreased the microbiota richness (p  .05). Four distinct bands were detected in inulin and SBO groups, which were related to two of Bacteroides, one of Firmicutes and Bifidobacteria. Six bands were detected only in control groups, which represented uncultured Rikenellaceae, Roseburia, Escherichia/Shigella dysenteriae, Bacteroides uniformis (T), Parabacteroides distasonis and Enterobacter aerogenes. Populations of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and total bacteria in inulin groups were higher than those in control groups (p  .05). These results suggest that reduced concentrations of skatole and indole in the presence of inulin and SBO may be caused by decrease in L-try degradation rate, which were caused by change in microbial ecosystem and pH value. Uncultured B. uniformis (T) and E. aerogenes may be responsible for degradation of L-try to skatole. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The microbial metabolite butyrate regulates intestinal macrophage function via histone deacetylase inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pamela V.; Hao, Liming; Offermanns, Stefan; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Given the trillions of microbes that inhabit the mammalian intestines, the host immune system must constantly maintain a balance between tolerance to commensals and immunity against pathogens to avoid unnecessary immune responses against otherwise harmless bacteria. Misregulated responses can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The mechanisms by which the immune system maintains this critical balance remain largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate, which is secreted in high amounts by commensal bacteria, can modulate the function of intestinal macrophages, the most abundant immune cell type in the lamina propria. Treatment of macrophages with n-butyrate led to the down-regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, IL-6, and IL-12, but did not affect levels of TNF-α or MCP-1. These effects were independent of toll-like receptor signaling and activation of G-protein–coupled receptors, two pathways that could be affected by short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that suggest that these effects are due to the inhibition of histone deacetylases by n-butyrate. These findings elucidate a pathway in which the host may maintain tolerance to intestinal microbiota by rendering lamina propria macrophages hyporesponsive to commensal bacteria through the down-regulation of proinflammatory effectors. PMID:24390544

  1. Aqualase, a yeast-based in-feed probiotic, modulates intestinal microbiota, immunity and growth of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Safari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Yeast probiotics have great promise, yet they received little attention in fish. This study investigated the influence of Aqualase, a yeast-based commercial probiotic composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces elipsoedas, on health and performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...... performance parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration specifically at inclusion rate 1.5% and above. Taken together, the results revealed that Aqualase is a promising yeast-based probiotic for rainbow trout with the capability of modulating the intestinal microbiota, immunity...

  2. Neuroimmune interaction and the regulation of intestinal immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijden, Simon; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2018-01-01

    Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion, and blood flow, are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuroimmune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function. In addition, both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms control intestinal immune homeostasis in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release. In this mini-review, we discuss recent insights on immunomodulation by intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic innervation, with a particular focus on intestinal macrophages. In addition, we discuss the relevance of these novel mechanisms for intestinal immune homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions, mainly focusing on motility disorders (gastroparesis and postoperative ileus) and inflammatory disorders (colitis).

  3. Mining the human intestinal microbiota for biomarkers associated with metabolic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Gerben

    2016-01-01

    After birth, our gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a highly complex assemblage of microbes, collectively termed the GI microbiota, that develop intimate interactions with our body. Recent evidence indicates that the GI microbiota and its products may contribute to the development of

  4. Effects of Lactococcus lactis on composition of intestinal microbiota: Role of nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Licht, Tine Rask; Brogren, Carl-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    in the rat fecal microbiota were observed after dosage with nisin. Pearson cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the 16S rRNA genes present in the fecal microbial population revealed that the microbiota of animals dosed with either of the two L. lactis strains were different...

  5. Correlation between early-life regulation of the immune system by microbiota and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensollen, Thomas; Blumberg, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Early postnatal life is a key time for development of the immune system and colonization of the host by microbiota. Recent studies have shown that specific limbs of the immune system can be regulated by microbiota in a time-restricted period during early life. Studies in mouse models have shown that perturbations of the microbiota during early life can cause immune effects that can persist into adulthood and create increased host susceptibility to certain diseases. Here we discuss the role of early-life regulation of the immune system by the microbiota and how it can be related to allergy development. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

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    Eleonora Distrutti

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  7. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Serena Schippa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF. CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. METHODS: Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. RESULTS: Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1 presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2 disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  8. Soluble Dietary Fiber Reduces Trimethylamine Metabolism via Gut Microbiota and Co-Regulates Host AMPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Tao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ruijun

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggests that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner. Results demonstrated that SDF-diets could reduce TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by 40.6 and 62.6%, respectively. DF feeding, particularly fermented SDF, reshaped gut microbial ecology and promoted the growth of certain beneficial microflora species. SDF-diet decreased energy intake, weight gain, intestinal pH values, and serum lipid and cholesterol levels. SDF-diet also enhanced the production of short chain fatty acids with activation of the intestinal epithelial adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These findings suggest a central mechanism via which SDF-diet may control TMA metabolism by gut microflora and co-regulate the AMPK pathways of the host. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Maternal exposure to a Western-style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J

    2017-01-01

    The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2-week-old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western-style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet-exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2-week-old offspring. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  11. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.; Baarlen, van P.; Derrien, M.; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D.J.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Levenez, F.; Dore, J.; Dekker, J.; Samsom, J.N.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced,

  12. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant non-obese diabetic mice leads to altered gut microbiota and intestinal immunological changes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo-Badia, N; Håkansson, Å; Vasudevan, K; Molin, G; Ahrné, S; Cilio, C M

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota is important for tolerance induction through mucosal immunological responses. The composition of the gut microbiota of an infant is affected by environmental factors such as diet, disease and antibiotic treatment. However, already in utero, these environmental factors can affect the immunological development of the foetus and influence the future gut microbiota of the infant. To investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers on the offspring's gut microbiome and diabetes development, we treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with a cocktail of antibiotics during gestation and the composition of the gut microbiota, diabetes incidence and major gut-related T lymphocyte populations were investigated in the offspring. We observed a persistent reduction in the general diversity of the gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. In addition, by clustering the present bacterial taxa with principal component analysis, we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. Offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation also showed some immunological alterations in the gut immune system, which could be related to the diversity of the gut microbiome and influence modulation of diabetes development at 20 weeks. Our data point out maternal derangement of the intestinal microbiota as a potential environmental risk factor for T1D development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The influence of whole grain products and red meat on intestinal microbiota composition in normal weight adults: a randomized crossover intervention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Foerster

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is related to obesity and serum lipid levels, both risk factors for chronic diseases constituting a challenge for public health. We investigated how a diet rich in whole grain (WG products and red meat (RM influences microbiota. During a 10-week crossover intervention study, 20 healthy adults consumed two isocaloric diets, one rich in WG products and one high in RM. Repeatedly data on microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. A blood sample and anthropometric data were collected. Mixed models and logistic regression were used to investigate effects. Microbiota showed interindividual variability. However, dietary interventions modified microbiota appearance: 8 bands changed in at least 4 participants during the interventions. One of the bands appearing after WG and one increasing after RM remained significant in regression models and were identified as Collinsella aerofaciens and Clostridium sp. The WG intervention lowered obesity parameters, while the RM diet increased serum levels of uric acid and creatinine. The study showed that diet is a component of major relevance regarding its influence on intestinal microbiota and that WG has an important role for health. The results could guide investigations of diet and microbiota in observational prospective cohort studies. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01449383.

  14. Claudins, dietary milk proteins, and intestinal barrier regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine presents a huge surface area to the outside environment, a property that is of critical importance for its key functions in nutrient digestion, absorption, and waste disposal. As such, the intestine is constantly exposed to dietary and microbial-derived foreign antigens, to which im...... of the role these subsets play in the regulation of intestinal immune homeostasis and inflammation will help to define novel strategies for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and contribute to improved rational design of mucosal vaccines....... immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive...... immune responses. In the intestinal mucosa, DCs are located diffusely throughout the intestinal lamina propria, within gut-associated lymphoid tissues, including Peyer's patches and smaller lymphoid aggregates, as well as in intestinal-draining lymph nodes, including mesenteric lymph nodes...

  16. Effects of Gliadin consumption on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Andersen, Daniel; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2017-01-01

    compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed. Mice fed the gliadin-containing HFD displayed higher glycated hemoglobin and higher insulin resistance as evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment......, more hepatic lipid accumulation and smaller adipocytes than mice fed the gliadin-free HFD. This was accompanied by alterations in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota, gut barrier function, urine metabolome, and immune phenotypes within liver and adipose tissue. Our results reveal...... that gliadin disturbs the intestinal environment and affects metabolic homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting a detrimental effect of gluten intake in gluten-tolerant subjects consuming a high-fat diet....

  17. CLMP-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Homeostasis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    family including Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) and CAR-Like Membrane Protein (CLMP) (1, 2). Unlike...months 1-3): CLMP regulation of intestinal epithelial cells barrier properties CLMP is structurally related to Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor...the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) structurally related to Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and has been reported to play a role in intestine

  18. Dietary soybean protein concentrate-induced intestinal disorder in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar is associated with alterations in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Smullen, Richard; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-27

    The aquaculture industry has made substantial progress in reducing the fishmeal content of feeds for carnivorous species, driven by demand for improved sustainability and reduced cost. Soybean protein concentrate (SPC) is an attractive replacement for fishmeal, but intestinal disorders have been reported in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed these diets at high seawater temperatures, with preliminary evidence suggesting SPC induces these disorders by altering the intestinal microbiota. We compared the intestinal microbiota of marine-farmed S. salar fed experimental diets with varying levels of SPC in mid- and late-summer. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA clone library analysis revealed the microbiota adherent to the intestinal tract of salmon is complex at the population level, but simple and highly variable at the individual level. Temporal changes were observed with the bacterial diversity increasing in the intestinal tract in late summer. A Verrucomicrobia was the most frequently observed ribotype in early summer, whilst an Aliivibrio was the most frequently observed ribotype in late summer. Feeding SPC to salmon increased the bacterial diversity of the intestinal tract and resulted in the presence of bacteria not normally associated with marine fish (Escherichia and Propionibacterium). These diet-induced changes to the intestinal-microbiome could be ameliorated by inclusion of a prebiotic (mannan-oligosaccharide or MOS) to the diet. None of the experimental diets induced inflammation of the intestine as assessed by histopathology and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our results support the "dysbiosis" hypothesis that SPC adversely affects the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal integrity and Akkermansia muciniphila: a mucin-degrading member of the intestinal microbiota present in infants, adults and elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collado, M.C.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Isolauri, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Salminen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila were performed to determine its presence in the human intestinal tract. These techniques revealed that an A. muciniphila-like bacterium is a common member of the human intestinal

  20. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M Cattadori

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control. Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  1. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Isabella M; Sebastian, Aswathy; Hao, Han; Katani, Robab; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  2. Multifunctions of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of “gut health promotion,” polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction. Owing to incessant exposure to external stress factors including food substances, bacteria, and environmental chemicals, intestines are always inflammatory to some extent, which may cause damage to and dysfunction of intestinal tissues depending on the situation. We identified food factors that could suppress immoderate inflammation in the intestines. In addition to certain amino acids and peptides, polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and isoflavones were found to suppress inflammation in intestinal cells. Intestinal inflammation is caused by various factors in diverse mechanisms. Recent studies revealed that activation of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, in epithelial cells triggers intestinal inflammation. Intracellular receptors or signaling molecules controlling the intestinal detoxification system are also involved in the regulation of inflammation. Differentiation of regulatory T cells by activating a transcription factor Foxp-3 is known to suppress intestinal inflammation. A variety of phytochemicals including polyphenols modulate these receptors and signaling molecules, and are thus anti-inflammatory. Polyphenols affect epigenetic changes occurring in intestinal tissues by interacting with the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation and histone acetylation

  3. Intestinal microbiota and oral administration of Enterococcus faecium associated with the growth performance of new-born piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y B; Du, W; Fu, A K; Zhang, X P; Huang, Y; Lee, K H; Yu, K; Li, W F; Li, Y L

    2016-09-01

    The oral administration of Enterococcus faecium EF1 to new-born suckling and weaning piglets along with their growth performances and intestinal microbiota was investigated in this study. Twenty-four new-born piglets were initially divided into 2 groups. The probiotics group received 2 ml of 10% sterilised skimmed milk by oral gavage supplemented with 6×10(8) cfu/ml viable E. faecium EF1 at the first, the third and the fifth day after birth, while the control group received 2 ml of 10% sterilised skimmed milk without probiotics at the same time. Results showed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was associated with a remarkable increase on the body weight of piglets for both suckling and weaning periods, by 30.73% (Pfaecium EF1 did not have any influence on the relative abundance of Firmicutes in weaning piglets rather than increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreasing the relative abundance of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, at the level of the Firmicutes phylum, the relative abundance of Lactobacillales in the probiotic group increased significantly. These findings suggest that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 to new-born piglets could improve the growth performance and intestinal microbiota of piglets for both suckling and weaning periods.

  4. Ecological Effect of Solithromycin on Normal Human Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Rosenborg, Staffan; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Holm, Johan; Söderberg Löfdal, Karin; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-07-01

    Solithromycin is a new fluoroketolide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of orally administered solithromycin on the human oropharyngeal and intestinal microbiota. Thirteen healthy volunteers (median age, 27.3 years) received oral solithromycin at 800 mg on day 1 followed by 400 mg daily on days 2 to 7. Fecal and saliva samples were collected at baseline and on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 21 for pharmacokinetic and microbiological analyses. Plasma samples were collected predose on days 2, 5, and 7 as proof of exposure, and solithromycin concentration ranges were 21.9 to 258 ng/ml, 18.0 to 386 ng/ml, and 16.9 to 417 ng/ml, respectively. The solithromycin concentrations in feces were 15.8 to 65.4 mg/kg, 24.5 to 82.7 mg/kg, 21.4 to 82.7 mg/kg, 12.1 to 72.4 mg/kg, 0.2 to 25.6 mg/kg, and 0 to 0.5 mg/kg on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 21, respectively. The numbers of enterobacteria and enterococci decreased and were normalized on day 14. The numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria decreased from day 2 to day 14 and were normalized on day 21. The clostridia decreased on days 2, 7, and 14 and were normalized on day 21. No Clostridium difficile strains or toxins were detected during the study period. The number of Bacteroides strains was not significantly changed. The solithromycin concentrations in saliva were 0 to 1.2 mg/liter, 0 to 0.5 mg/liter, 0 to 0.5 mg/liter, and 0 to 0.1 mg/liter on days 2, 5, 7, and 9, respectively. The numbers of streptococci decreased on day 2 and were normalized on day 5. The numbers of lactobacilli, prevotellae, fusobacteria, and leptotrichiae decreased from day 2 and were normalized on day 21. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Association between intestinal permeability and faecal microbiota composition in Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, Claudio; Martina, Alessia; Corradi, Massimiliano; Quarella, Sara; Nori, Nicole; Torriani, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Contreas, Giovanna; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic organ-specific autoimmunity in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased intestinal permeability and an aberrant gut microbiota, but these factors have not yet been simultaneously investigated in the same subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess both intestinal permeability and gut microbiota composition in an Italian sample of children at risk for T1D. Ten Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for T1D and 10 healthy children were involved in a case-control study. The lactulose/mannitol test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Analysis of microbiota composition was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, based on the 16S rRNA gene. Intestinal permeability was significantly higher in children at risk for T1D than in healthy controls. Moreover, the gut microbiota of the former differed from that of the latter group: Three microorganisms were detected - Dialister invisus, Gemella sanguinis and Bifidobacterium longum - in association with the pre-pathologic state. The results of this study validated the hypothesis that increased intestinal permeability together with differences in microbiota composition are contemporaneously associated with the pre-pathological condition of T1D in a sample of Italian children. Further studies are necessary to confirm the microbial markers identified in this sample of children as well as to clarify the involvement of microbiota modifications in the mechanisms leading to increased permeability and the autoimmune mechanisms that promote diabetes onset. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-15

    There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  7. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a growing realisation that the gut–brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age‐related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long‐term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics. PMID:27641441

  8. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Synthesize Glucocorticoids and Regulate T Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Igor; Corazza, Nadia; Dick, Bernhard; Fuhrer, Andrea; Herren, Simon; Jakob, Sabine; Ayuni, Erick; Mueller, Christoph; Brunner, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important steroid hormones with widespread activities in metabolism, development, and immune regulation. The adrenal glands are the major source of GCs and release these hormones in response to psychological and immunological stress. However, there is increasing evidence that GCs may also be synthesized by nonadrenal tissues. Here, we report that the intestinal mucosa expresses steroidogenic enzymes and releases the GC corticosterone in response to T cell activation. T cell activation causes an increase in the intestinal expression of the steroidogenic enzymes required for GC synthesis. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that these enzymes are confined to the crypt region of the intestinal epithelial layer. Surprisingly, in situ–produced GCs exhibit both an inhibitory and a costimulatory role on intestinal T cell activation. In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo, activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. We conclude that the intestinal mucosa is a potent source of immunoregulatory GCs. PMID:15596520

  9. The intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal environment and colorectal cancer: a putative role for probiotics in prevention of colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate-Peril, M Andrea; Sikes, Michael; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2011-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, and, even though 5-15% of the total CRC cases can be attributed to individual genetic predisposition, environmental factors could be considered major factors in susceptibility to CRC. Lifestyle factors increasing the risks of CRC include elevated body mass index, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Additionally, a number of dietary elements have been associated with higher or lower incidence of CRC. In this context, it has been suggested that diets high in fruit and low in meat might have a protective effect, reducing the incidence of colorectal adenomas by modulating the composition of the normal nonpathogenic commensal microbiota. In addition, it has been demonstrated that changes in abundance of taxonomic groups have a profound impact on the gastrointestinal physiology, and an increasing number of studies are proposing that the microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. High-throughput sequencing and molecular taxonomic technologies are rapidly filling the knowledge gaps left by conventional microbiology techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of the human intestinal microbiota and their associated metabolic repertoire. The information provided by these studies will be essential to identify agents capable of modulating the massive amount of gut bacteria in safe noninvasive manners to prevent CRC. Probiotics, defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host" (219), are capable of transient modulation of the microbiota, and their beneficial effects include reinforcement of the natural defense mechanisms and protection against gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics have been successfully used to manage infant diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease; hence, the purpose of this review was to examine probiotic metabolic activities that may have an effect

  10. Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Migration in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-02-08

    The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit. Enterocyte migration rate was decreased from 24-96 hours following sepsis. BrdU was not detectable on villi 6 days after sham laparotomy, meaning all cells had migrated the length of the gut and been exfoliated into its lumen. However, BrdU positive cells were detectable on villi 10 days after sepsis. Multiple components of gut integrity altered enterocyte migration. Sepsis decreased crypt proliferation, which further slowed enterocyte transit as mice injected with BrdU after the onset of sepsis (decreased proliferation) had slower migration than mice injected with BrdU prior to the onset of sepsis (normal proliferation). Decreasing intestinal apoptosis via gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented sepsis-induced slowing of enterocyte migration. In contrast, worsened intestinal hyperpermeability by genetic deletion of JAM-A increased enterocyte migration. Sepsis therefore significantly slows enterocyte migration, and intestinal proliferation, apoptosis and permeability all affect migration time, which can potentially be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically.

  11. [Changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y X; Yu, L; Liu, H J; Cheng, M L

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Microbial DNA was extracted from intestinal contents in different segments of the lower digestive tract (ileum and colon) and feces and then were amplified using PCR. The regions of 16S V3-V4 were subjected to high-throughput sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analyses, including OTU hierarchical clustering, species annotation, alpha-diversity analysis, and LEfSe (LDA Effect Size) analysis. Comparison of continuous data was made using t-test, while comparison of categorical data was made using χ2 test. Results: A total of 10 mice survived in the two groups, with 80% mortality rate in the model group. The alpha-diversity analysis revealed increased bacterial diversity and abundance in the ileum, increased bacterial diversity and reduced bacterial abundance in the colon, and reduced bacterial diversity and insignificantly changed bacterial abundance in feces in the model group compared with the control group. Based on the optimized classification level, significantly reduced abundance of Clostridiaceae (44.95% ± 19.28% vs 7.51% ± 16.57%, P = 0.011) in the ileum, whereas significantly increased abundance of Rikenellaceae (1.08% ± 1.01% vs 4.18% ± 2.39%, P = 0.028), S24-7 (4.75% ± 4.87% vs 22.77% ± 13.05%, P = 0.020), and F16 (0.24% ± 0.28% vs 2.18% ± 1.61%, P = 0.029) in the colon were found in model group compared with the control group. The LEfSe analysis demonstrated that there were significant differences in Staphylococcaceae and S24-7 between the two groups, and S24

  12. Streptozotocin-induced type-1-diabetes disease onset in Sprague-Dawley rats is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and decreased diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; Marques, Tatiana M; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that microbiota composition can significantly affect host health and play a role in disease onset and progression. This study assessed the impact of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1-diabetes (T1D) on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in Sprague-Dawley rats, compared with healthy controls over time. T1D was induced by injection of a single dose (60 mg STZ kg(-1)) of STZ, administered via the intraperitoneal cavity. Total DNA was isolated from faecal pellets at weeks 0 (pre-STZ injection), 1, 2 and 4 and from caecal content at week 5 from both healthy and T1D groups. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to investigate intestinal microbiota composition. The data revealed that although intestinal microbiota composition between the groups was similar at week 0, a dramatic impact of T1D development on the microbiota was apparent post-STZ injection and for up to 5 weeks. Most notably, T1D onset was associated with a shift in the Bacteroidetes : Firmicutes ratio (Pmicrobiota composition and reduced microbial diversity over time. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

    2015-02-03

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  14. Blood Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Originates from Microbiota Mediated Breakdown of Phosphatidylcholine and Absorption from Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stremmel

    Full Text Available Elevated serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO was previously reported to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events. TMAO originates from the microbiota-dependent breakdown of food-derived phosphatidylcholine (PC to trimethylamine (TMA, which is oxidized by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases to TMAO. Our aim was to investigate the predominant site of absorption of the bacterial PC-breakdown product TMA. A healthy human proband was exposed to 6.9 g native phosphatidylcholine, either without concomitant treatment or during application with the topical antibiotic rifaximin, or exposed only to 6.9 g of a delayed-release PC formulation. Plasma and urine concentrations of TMA and TMAO were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (plasma and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (urine. Native PC administration without concomitant treatment resulted in peak plasma TMAO levels of 43 ± 8 μM at 12 h post-ingestion, which was reduced by concomitant rifaximin treatment to 22 ± 8 μM (p < 0.05. TMAO levels observed after delayed-release PC administration were 20 ± 3 μM (p < 0.001. Accordingly, the peak urinary concentration at 24 h post-exposure dropped from 252 ± 33 to 185 ± 31 mmol/mmol creatinine after rifaximin treatment. In contrast, delayed-release PC resulted in even more suppressed urinary TMAO levels after the initial 12-h observation period (143 ± 18 mmol/mmol creatinine and thereafter remained within the control range (24 h: 97 ± 9 mmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 24 h vs. 12 h, indicating a lack of substrate absorption in distal intestine and large bowel. Our results showed that the microbiota in the small intestine generated the PC breakdown product TMA. The resulting TMAO, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was suppressed by topical-acting antibiotics or when PC was presented in an intestinally delayed release preparation.

  15. Maternal exposure to a Western-style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, Wilma T.; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G.M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Heijning, van de Bert J.M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results: In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota

  16. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  17. The microbiota and the gut-brain axis : insights from the temporal and spatial mucosal alterations during colonisation of the germfree mouse intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, S; Kunze, W; Bienenstock, J; Kleerebezem, M

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on the nervous system, brain development and behaviour, in particular during microbial colonisation of the host, has recently been receiving profound interest. Our time-resolved mining of combined data analyses of the ex-germfree mouse intestine during a 30-day

  18. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Teng, Chunying; Yu, Sumei; Wang, Xin; Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Xin; Dong, Liying; Song, Tao; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P X ), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-P X and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-P X and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.

  19. Psychological stress exacerbates NSAID-induced small bowel injury by inducing changes in intestinal microbiota and permeability via glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kurihara, Chie; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Yasutake, Yuichi; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Tomita, Kengo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro; Tajiri, Hisao; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are popular painkillers, but they have serious side effects, not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract but also in the small intestine. It is well known that psychological stress may exacerbate various gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychological stress exacerbates NSAID enteropathy and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms for this. Experiment 1: mice were exposed to water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress for 1 h per day for 8 consecutive days, and then enteropathy was induced by indomethacin. Experiment 2: cecal contents from stress (-) or (+) mice were transplanted into mice that had received antibiotics and in which NSAID enteropathy had been induced without WAS. Experiment 3: mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, was injected before WAS for 8 days. Small intestinal injury, mRNA expression of TNFα, intestinal permeability, and the microbial community were assessed. Psychological stress exacerbated NSAID enteropathy and increased intestinal permeability. Psychological stress induced changes in the ileal microbiota that were characterized by increases in the total number of bacteria and the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria. The increased susceptibility to NSAIDs and intestinal permeability due to WAS was transferable via cecal microbiota transplantation. The increased permeability and aggravation of NSAID enteropathy caused by WAS were blocked by the administration of mifepristone. This study demonstrated a relationship between NSAID enteropathy and psychological stress, and showed the utility of studying the intestinal microbiota in order to elucidate the pathophysiology of NSAID enteropathy. It also showed the impact of stress on the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal barrier in gastrointestinal diseases.

  20. Gut Microbiota Richness and Composition and Dietary Intake of Overweight Pregnant Women Are Related to Serum Zonulin Concentration, a Marker for Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, Kati; Röytiö, Henna; Munukka, Eveliina; Pietilä, Sami; Ekblad, Ulla; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Eerola, Erkki; Laiho, Asta; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2016-09-01

    Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown. The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (zonulin (primary outcome) was determined by using ELISA, gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients from 3-d food diaries. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparisons and linear regression and Spearman's nonparametric correlations for relations between serum zonulin and other outcome variables. Women were divided into "low" (zonulin groups on the basis of the median concentration of zonulin (46.4 ng/mL). The richness of the gut microbiota (Chao 1, observed species and phylogenetic diversity) was higher in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group (P = 0.01). The abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Veillonellaceae, Bacteroides and Blautia, and Blautia sp. were lower and of Faecalibacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii higher (P zonulin group than in the high zonulin group. Dietary quantitative intakes of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals were higher (P zonulin group than those in the high zonulin group. The richness and composition of the gut microbiota and the intake of n-3 PUFAs, fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals in overweight pregnant women are associated with serum zonulin concentration. Modification of the gut microbiota and diet may beneficially affect intestinal permeability, leading to improved metabolic health of both the mother and fetus. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  1. Role of the microbiome in energy regulation and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwdorp, Max; Gilijamse, Pim W.; Pai, Nikhil; Kaplan, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal microbes regulate metabolic function and energy balance; an altered microbial ecology is believed to contribute to the development of several metabolic diseases. Relative species abundance and metabolic characteristics of the intestinal microbiota change substantially in those who are

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation and bacterial consortium transplantation have comparable effects on the re-establishment of mucosal barrier function in mice with intestinal dysbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a promising therapy, despite some reports of adverse side effects. Bacterial consortia transplantation (BCT for targeted restoration of the intestinal ecosystem is considered a relatively safe and simple procedure. However, no systematic research has assessed the effects of FMT and BCT on immune responses of intestinal mucosal barrier in patients. We conducted complementary studies in animal models on the effects of FMT and BCT, and provide recommendations for improving the clinical outcomes of these treatments. To establish the dysbiosis model, male BALB/c mice were treated with ceftriaxone intra-gastrically for 7 days. After that, FMT and BCT were performed on ceftriaxone-treated mice for 3 consecutive days to rebuild the intestinal ecosystem. Post-FMT and post-BCT changes of the intestinal microbial community and mucosal barrier functions were investigated and compared. Disruption of intestinal microbial homeostasis impacted the integrity of mucosal epithelial layer, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. These outcomes were accompanied by overexpression of Muc2, significant decrease of SIgA secretion, and overproduction of defensins and inflammatory cytokines. After FMT and BCT, the intestinal microbiota recovered quickly, this was associated with better reconstruction of mucosal barriers and re-establishment of immune networks compared with spontaneous recovery (SR. Although based on a short-term study, our results suggest that FMT and BCT promote the re-establishment of intestinal microbial communities in mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, and contribute to the temporal and spatial interactions between microbiota and mucosal barriers. The effects of BCT are comparable to that of FMT, especially in normalizing the intestinal levels of Muc2, SIgA, and defensins.

  3. The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D; Washington, Mary K; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P; Reddy, Vishruth K; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F; Engel, Michael E; Hiebert, Scott W; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-01

    Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1(-/-) mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1(-/-) intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1(-/-) whole intestines and Mtgr1(-/-) enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1(-/-) intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. © FASEB.

  4. Fatty acids from diet and microbiota regulate energy metabolism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Alcock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-fat diet and elevated levels of free fatty acids are known risk factors for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and visceral obesity. Although these disease associations are well established, it is unclear how different dietary fats change the risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Here, we review emerging evidence that insulin resistance and fat storage are linked to changes in the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, in turn, are highly influenced by the composition of fat in the diet. We review findings that certain fats (for example, long-chain saturated fatty acids are associated with dysbiosis, impairment of intestinal barrier function, and metabolic endotoxemia. In contrast, other fatty acids, including short-chain and certain unsaturated fatty acids, protect against dysbiosis and impairment of barrier function caused by other dietary fats. These fats may promote insulin sensitivity by inhibiting metabolic endotoxemia and dysbiosis-driven inflammation. During dysbiosis, the modulation of metabolism by diet and microbiota may represent an adaptive process that compensates for the increased fuel demands of an activated immune system.

  5. Effect of yogurt containing deep sea water on health-related serum parameters and intestinal microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun Moon; Jhoo, Jin Woo; Pak, Jae In; Kwon, Ill Kyoung; Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Gur Yoo

    2015-09-01

    Deep sea water (DSW) has health benefits and is widely used as food supplement; however, its effect in fermented products has not been explored. Here, we investigated the effect of DSW-containing yogurt on health-related serum parameters and intestinal microbiota in mice. Animals were assigned to 3 feeding groups, which received water (control), normal yogurt (N-yogurt), or DSW-containing yogurt (DSW-yogurt) with a basal diet. Mice were killed at wk 4 or 8 of feeding and analyzed for serum parameters and microbial population in the small intestine. Both yogurt groups demonstrated increased populations of intestinal lactic acid bacteria compared with the control group. The activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was markedly decreased in the DSW-yogurt and N-yogurt groups, and triglyceride level tended to be lower in the DSW-yogurt group compared with that in the control mice. Furthermore, the DSW-yogurt group showed a more significant decrease in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than did the N-yogurt group. These findings suggest that DSW supplementation of yogurt can increase its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    BC), a public repository of bacterial strains and associated genomes from the mouse gut, and studied host-specificity of colonization and sequence-based relevance of the resource. The collection includes several strains representing novel species, genera and even one family. Genomic analyses showed that certain...... of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (mi...... and molecular studies. The resource is available at www.dsmz.de/miBC....

  7. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  8. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  9. Effects of the antibiotic growth promoters flavomycin and florfenicol on the autochthonous intestinal microbiota of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × O. aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Suxu; Zhou, Zhigang; Liu, Yuchun; Cao, Yanan; Meng, Kun; Shi, Pengjun; Yao, Bin; Ringø, Einar

    2010-12-01

    The 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE and rpoB quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) techniques were used to evaluate the effects of dietary flavomycin and florfenicol on the autochthonous intestinal microbiota of hybrid tilapia. The fish were fed four diets: control, dietary flavomycin, florfenicol and their combination. After 8 weeks of feeding, 6 fish from each cage were randomly chosen for the analysis. The total number of intestinal bacteria was determined by RQ-PCR. The results showed that dietary antibiotics significantly influenced the intestinal microbiota and dramatically reduced the intensity of total intestinal bacterial counts. The intensity of some phylotypes (EU563257, EU563262 and EU563255) were reduced to non-detectable levels by both dietary antibiotics, while supplementation of florfenicol to the diet also reduced the intensity of the phylotypes EU563242 and EU563262, uncultured Mycobacterium sp.-like, uncultured Cyanobacterium-like and uncultured Cyanobacterium (EU563246). Dietary flavomycin only reduced the OTU intensity of one phylotype, identified as a member of the phylum Fusobacteria. The antibiotic combination only reduced the phylotypes EU563242 and EU563262. Based on our results, we conclude that the reduced effect of florfenicol on intestinal microbiota was stronger than that of flavomycin, and when flavomycin and florfenicol were added in combination, the effect of florfenicol overshadowed that of flavomycin.

  10. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  12. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Needell

    Full Text Available We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  13. Maternal treatment with short-chain fatty acids modulates the intestinal microbiota and immunity and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, James C; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E; Kroehl, Miranda E; Frank, Daniel N; Zipris, Danny

    2017-01-01

    We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.

  14. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Zákostelská

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF, broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB-treated or conventional (CV BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response.

  16. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life : the INCA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N B M M; Rijkers, G T; Meijssen, C B; Crijns, C E; Oudshoorn, J H; van der Ent, C K; Vlieger, A M; van der Ent, CK

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acquisition and development of infant gut microbiota can be influenced by numerous factors, of which early antibiotic treatment is an important one. However, studies on the effects of antibiotic treatment in early life on clinical outcomes and establishment and development of the gut

  17. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 10(9)/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (Pcoagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect.

  18. Comparison of the accuracy and mechanism of data mining identification of the intestinal microbiota with 7 restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Fujiwara, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota compositions of 92 Japanese men were identified following consumption of identical meals for 3 days, and collected feces were analyzed through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and subjects' smoking and drinking habits, which had 2 nominal partitions, yes or no, were analyzed by Data mining software. Identification of subjects for each habit was successfully performed and reported previously, but the identification accuracy was closely dependent on the species of the applied restriction enzymes for PCR. For the sake of better selection of enzymes and understanding the mechanisms of Data mining analysis, 516f-BslI and 516f-HaeIII, 27f-MspI and 27f-AluI and 35f-HhaI, 35f-MspI and 35f-AluI, altogether 7 enzymes, were examined comparatively. Data mining analysis provides a Decision tree for identification of subjects and their dividing pathways that is produced using a limited number of OTUs, which affects the accuracy of the results. The present report discusses not only a global comparison of accuracies for characteristics, but also the detailed mechanisms that result in better or worse results and the practical roles and functions of OTUs. The OTU at the 1st step of the constructed Decision tree was the most important for any identification, and for all cases, the combination of subsequent OTUs, which formed later in the Decision tree, was also unignorable. Detailed dividing pathways were traced and compared for the 7 enzymes and the future supporting ideas were provided for better Data mining analysis of the human intestinal microbiota.

  19. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  20. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  1. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moran-Ramos

    Full Text Available Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6 and oxidative stress (ROS, modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA, and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  2. BVES Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Programs and Intestinal Crypt Viability after Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K.; Short, Sarah P.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Keating, Cody E.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Harris, Elizabeth I.; Revetta, Frank; Bader, David M.; Brand, Thomas; Washington, M. Kay; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance (BVES/Popdc1) is a junctional-associated transmembrane protein that is underexpressed in a number of malignancies and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We previously identified a role for BVES in regulation of the Wnt pathway, a modulator of intestinal stem cell programs, but its role in small intestinal (SI) biology remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BVES influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to SI homeostasis after radiation injury. At baseline, Bves−/− mice demonstrated increased crypt height, as well as elevated proliferation and expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. Intercross with Lgr5-EGFP reporter mice confirmed expansion of the stem cell compartment in Bves−/− mice. To examine stem cell function after BVES deletion, we employed ex vivo 3D-enteroid cultures. Bves−/− enteroids demonstrated increased stemness compared to WT, when examining parameters such as plating efficiency, stem spheroid formation, and retention of peripheral cystic structures. Furthermore, we observed increased proliferation, expression of crypt-base columnar “CBC” and “+4” stem cell markers, amplified Wnt signaling, and responsiveness to Wnt activation in the Bves−/− enteroids. Bves expression was downregulated after radiation in WT mice. Moreover, after radiation, Bves−/− mice demonstrated significantly greater small intestinal crypt viability, proliferation, and amplified Wnt signaling in comparison to WT mice. Bves−/− mice also demonstrated elevations in Lgr5 and Ascl2 expression, and putative damage-responsive stem cell populations marked by Bmi1 and TERT. Therefore, BVES is a key regulator of intestinal stem cell programs and mucosal homeostasis. PMID:26891025

  3. Ontogenetic Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota of Channel Catfish through 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Reveals Insights on Temporal Shifts and the Influence of Environmental Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jacob W; Peterson, Brian C; Swanson, Kelly S; Small, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture recently overtook capture fisheries as the largest producer of food fish, but to continue increasing fish production the industry is in search of better methods of improving fish health and growth. Pre- and probiotic supplementation has gained attention as a means of solving these issues, however, for such approaches to be successful, we must first gain a more holistic understanding of the factors influencing the microbial communities present in the intestines of fish. In this study, we characterize the bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of a highly valuable U.S. aquaculture species, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, over the first 193 days of life to evaluate temporal changes that may occur throughout ontogenetic development of the host. Intestinal microbiota were surveyed with high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA V4 gene amplicons derived from fish at 3, 65, 125, and 193 days post hatch (dph), while also characterizing the environmental microbes derived from the water supply and the administered diets. Microbial communities inhabiting the intestines of catfish early in life were dynamic, with significant shifts occurring up to 125 dph when the microbiota somewhat stabilized, as shifts were less apparent between 125 to 193 dph. Bacterial phyla present in the gut of catfish throughout ontogeny include Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria; with the species Cetobacterium somerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides showing the highest abundance in the catfish microbiota after 3 dph. Comparisons of the gut microbiota to the environmental microbes reveals that the fish gut is maintained as a niche habitat, separate from the overall microbial communities present in diets and water-supply. Although, there is also evidence that the environmental microbiota serves as an inoculum to the fish gut. Our results have implications for future research related to channel catfish biology and culture, and increase our

  4. Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takada, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Kensuke; Moriyama, Kaoru; Kawakami, Koji; Hirano, Koichi; Kajimoto, Osami; Nomoto, Koji

    2010-11-01

    The effects of drinking a fermented milk beverage that contains Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) at 40 billion bacterial cells/bottle for 4 weeks (probiotics, 1 bottle/day) on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools were evaluated. Thirty-four healthy adults who had soft stools were randomised into 2 groups, and the effects of a regular 4-week intake of probiotics were evaluated by a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative design. Defecation frequency significantly decreased after the 4-week intake period compared with before the probiotic treatment. The stool quality significantly improved (hardened) compared to the placebo. Also, the water content of the stools was lower in the probiotic group than in the placebo group. Live LcS was recovered at 6.9 ± 1.3 and 7.2 ± 0.8 log(10) CFU per 1g of stool after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of probiotic treatment. The number of bifidobacteria in the stools also increased significantly compared with the level before starting the probiotics. The organic acid levels (total, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) significantly increased compared with the level before intake in both the probiotic and placebo groups, but they returned to the original levels after the end of the intake period. These results suggest that probiotic fermented milk beverage has an intestine-conditioning effect by improving the frequency of defecation and stool quality and increasing the intrinsic bifidobacteria in healthy individuals with soft stool. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aquatic animals promote antibiotic resistance gene dissemination in water via conjugation: Role of different regions within the zebra fish intestinal tract, and impact on fish intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jialun; Yang, Dong; Jin, Min; Liu, Weili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Chenyu; Zhao, Tianyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Gao, Zhixian; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2017-10-01

    The aqueous environment is one of many reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Fish, as important aquatic animals which possess ideal intestinal niches for bacteria to grow and multiply, may ingest antibiotic resistance bacteria from aqueous environment. The fish gut would be a suitable environment for conjugal gene transfer including those encoding antibiotic resistance. However, little is known in relation to the impact of ingested ARGs or antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) on gut microbiota. Here, we applied the cultivation method, qPCR, nuclear molecular genetic marker and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technologies to develop a plasmid-mediated ARG transfer model of zebrafish. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the dissemination of ARGs in microbial communities of zebrafish guts after donors carrying self-transferring plasmids that encode ARGs were introduced in aquaria. On average, 15% of faecal bacteria obtained ARGs through RP4-mediated conjugal transfer. The hindgut was the most important intestinal region supporting ARG dissemination, with concentrations of donor and transconjugant cells almost 25 times higher than those of other intestinal segments. Furthermore, in the hindgut where conjugal transfer occurred most actively, there was remarkable upregulation of the mRNA expression of the RP4 plasmid regulatory genes, trbBp and trfAp. Exogenous bacteria seem to alter bacterial communities by increasing Escherichia and Bacteroides species, while decreasing Aeromonas compared with control groups. We identified the composition of transconjugants and abundance of both cultivable and uncultivable bacteria (the latter accounted for 90.4%-97.2% of total transconjugants). Our study suggests that aquatic animal guts contribute to the spread of ARGs in water environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Resilience of the intestinal microbiota following pathogenic bacterial infection is independent of innate immunity mediated by NOD1 or NOD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Geddes, Kaoru; Maisonneuve, Charles; Streutker, Catherine J; Philpott, Dana J

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, are key regulators of intestinal homeostasis. NOD2 deficiency is linked to increased risk for Crohn's disease, a type of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammatory pathology and dysbiosis within resident microbial communities. However, the relationship between NOD protein-regulated immune functions and dysbiosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that the relationship between NOD1 or NOD2 deficiency and altered community structure during chronic disease may arise via NOD-dependent impairment of community resilience over time. Using the Salmonella ΔaroA model of chronic colitis with littermate mice to control for environmental influences on the microbiota, we show that NOD proteins exert a relatively minor impact on the chronic inflammatory environment and do not significantly contribute to bacterial abundance or community resilience following infection. Rather, temporal shifts in relative abundance of targeted bacterial groups correlated with inflammatory phenotype driven by presence of the pathogen and the ensuing complex immune response. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of intestinal permeability: The role of proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Ceuleers, Hannah; Witters, Leonie; Patteet, Eveline; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; De Meester, Ingrid; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2017-03-28

    The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m 2 - the human body's largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport. Increased intestinal permeability is associated with and suggested as a player in the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous proteases, both in the lumen and in the mucosa. There is increasing evidence to suggest that a dysregulation of the protease/antiprotease balance in the gut contributes to epithelial damage and increased permeability. Excessive proteolysis leads to direct cleavage of intercellular junction proteins, or to opening of the junction proteins via activation of protease activated receptors. In addition, proteases regulate the activity and availability of cytokines and growth factors, which are also known modulators of intestinal permeability. This review aims at outlining the mechanisms by which proteases alter the intestinal permeability. More knowledge on the role of proteases in mucosal homeostasis and gastrointestinal barrier function will definitely contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets for permeability-related diseases.

  8. Intestinal bile acid receptors are key regulators of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Mohamed-Sami; Lestavel, Sophie; Staels, Bart; Collet, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and obesity. This review highlights the growing importance of the bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR in the intestine as key regulators of glucose metabolism and their potential as therapeutic targets.

  9. Effects of dietary soyabean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on intestinal microbiota and epithelial cell stress, apoptosis and proliferation in the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-McKellep, Anne Marie; Penn, Michael H; Salas, Patricia Mora; Refstie, Ståle; Sperstad, Sigmund; Landsverk, Thor; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Ashild

    2007-04-01

    Soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and other salmonids may be considered a model for diet-related mucosal disorders in other animals and man. The role of the intestinal microbiota in its pathogenesis was explored. Compared to diets containing fishmeal (FM) as the sole protein source, responses to extracted SBM or the prebiotic inulin, with or without oxytetracycline (OTC) inclusion, were studied following a 3-week feeding trial. Intestinal microbiota, organosomatic indices and histology, as well as immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and caspase-3-positive cells in the distal intestine, were studied. Distal intestine somatic indices (DISI) were higher in inulin and lower in SBM compared to FM-fed fish. The low DISI caused by SBM corresponded with histological changes, neither of which was affected by OTC, despite a significant decrease in adherent bacteria count. Image analysis of PCNA-stained sections showed a significant increase in the proliferative compartment length in SBM-fed fish, accompanied by apparent increases in reactivity to HSP70 and caspase-3 along the mucosal folds, indicating induction of cellular repair and apoptosis, respectively. Fish fed the SBM diet had higher total number as well as a more diverse population composition of adherent bacteria in the distal intestine. Thus SBM-induced enteritis is accompanied by induction of distal intestinal epithelial cell protective responses and changes in microbiota. Putative involvement of bacteria in the inflammatory response merits further investigation.

  10. Edible Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 for Sprague Dawley Rats through Horizontal Gene Transfer, Allergenicity and Intestinal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available In this study, assessment of the safety of transgenic rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C was carried out by: (1 studying horizontal gene transfer (HGT in Sprague Dawley rats fed transgenic rice for 90 d; (2 examining the effect of Cry1C protein in vitro on digestibility and allergenicity; and (3 studying the changes of intestinal microbiota in rats fed with transgenic rice T1C-1 in acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing either 60% GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein, the parental rice Minghui 63, or a basic diet for 90 d. The GM Bt rice T1C-1 showed no evidence of HGT between rats and transgenic rice. Sequence searching of the Cry1C protein showed no homology with known allergens or toxins. Cry1C protein was rapidly degraded in vitro with simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The expressed Cry1C protein did not induce high levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies in rats. The intestinal microbiota of rats fed T1C-1 was also analyzed in acute and subchronic toxicity tests by DGGE. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles revealed significant individual differences in the rats' intestinal microbiota.

  11. The dysbiosis of the bacterial population of the digestive system ( intestinal microbiota ) in patients with metabolic syndrome improves after two models of healthy diets: a diet rich in complex carbohydrates and a Mediterranean diet. CORDIOPREV study

    OpenAIRE

    Haro Mariscal, Carmen María

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community harbored in the human intestine, commonly known as the gut microbiota, is considered an organ fully integrated in the host which plays an important role in metabolism, physiology, nutrition and the immune function. The gut microbiota has coevolved with us and the changes in its composition and/or structure can have major consequences for human health and disease. At present, it is known that microbial imbalance or dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is assoc...

  12. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zákostelská, Z.; Málková, J.; Klimešová, K.; Rossmann, P.; Hornová, M.; Novosádová, I.; Stehlíková, Z.; Kostovčík, M.; Hudcovič, T.; Štěpánková, R.; Jůzlová, K.; Hercogová, J.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H.; Kverka, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), e0159539 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : altered gut microbiota * delta t- cells * bacterial overgrowth * mucosal barrier Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zákostelská, Zuzana; Málková, Jana; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Hornová, Michaela; Novosádová, Iva; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Kostovčík, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štěpánková, Renata; Jůzlová, K.; Herzogová, J.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Kverka, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), s. 0159539 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-30782A; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ALTERED GUT MICROBIOTA * DELTA T- CELLS * BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-09-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy adults at 480 g/d for 2 wk in a randomized controlled trial. The fecal bacterial compositions of these subjects were examined by culture before and after the intervention. The same fermented milk was also orally fed to BALB/c mice, and immune as well as fecal bacteria analyses were conducted using the same culturing methods. After the intervention, increases in fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were observed among the subjects compared with the subjects in the control group. In contrast, after the intervention, fecal enterobacilli were significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The same effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota were observed in mice. Furthermore, the tested mice were found to have significantly increased delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cells, and half-hemolysis values after the intervention with the fermented milk. In summary, the synbiotic fermented milk containing probiotics and a prebiotic may contribute to improve intestinal health and may have a positive effect on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of host animals. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quagliariello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03 to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD. Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group. Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  16. A survey on the developmental intestinal microbiota research in China: The history, funding, and frontiers of gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui Min; Liu, Xiao Wei; Sun, Rui Juan; Fang, Jing Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Up to 100 trillion bacteria are harbored in the human intestine with a mutualistic and interdependent relationship with the host during a long period of co-evolution. The so-called intestinal microbiota (IM) fulfill important metabolic tasks and the impaired stability may lead to IM-related diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), metabolic syndrome (MS), liver diseases, and so on. Here, we review the past and development of IM research in China, including the achievements that Chinese researchers have made both in basic and clinical scientific field. Moreover, we evaluate the contributions of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the 973 National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), the 863 National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), and funds from the public health industry in the field of IM research. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Milani, Christian; Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Alaez, Lidia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-08-08

    Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure. However, our knowledge on the effects of IAP on the microbiota establishment is still limited. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of IAP investigating a cohort of 40 full-term vaginally delivered infants born after an uncomplicated pregnancy, 18 of which were born from mothers receiving IAP. Fecal samples were collected at 2, 10, 30, and 90 days of age. We analyzed the composition of the fecal microbiota during the first 3 months of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. The presence of genes for resistance to antibiotics was determined by PCR in the samples from 1-month-old infants. Our results showed an altered pattern of intestinal microbiota establishment in IAP infants during the first weeks of life, with lower relative proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes and increased of Preoteobacteria and Firmicutes. A delay in the increase on the levels of acetate was observed in IAP infants. The analyses of specific antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher occurrence of some β-lactamase coding genes in infants whose mothers received IAP. Our results indicate an effect of IAP on the establishing early microbiota during the first months of life, which represent a key moment for the development of the microbiota

  18. A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Henry; Mitra, Suparna; Croden, Fiona C; Taylor, Morag; Wood, Henry M; Perry, Sarah L; Spencer, Jade A; Quirke, Phil; Toogood, Giles J; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise; Loadman, Paul M; Hull, Mark A

    2017-09-26

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticolorectal cancer (CRC) activity. The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary omega-3 PUFAs alter the mouse intestinal microbiome compatible with antineoplastic activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on the faecal microbiome in middle-aged, healthy volunteers (n=22). A randomised, open-label, cross-over trial of 8 weeks' treatment with 4 g mixed eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid in two formulations (soft-gel capsules and Smartfish drinks), separated by a 12-week 'washout' period. Faecal samples were collected at five time-points for microbiome analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Both omega-3 PUFA formulations induced similar changes in RBC fatty acid content, except that drinks were associated with a larger, and more prolonged, decrease in omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid than the capsule intervention (p=0.02). There were no significant changes in α or β diversity, or phyla composition, associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, a reversible increased abundance of several genera, including Bifidobacterium , Roseburia and Lactobacillus was observed with one or both omega-3 PUFA interventions. Microbiome changes did not correlate with RBC omega-3 PUFA incorporation or development of omega-3 PUFA-induced diarrhoea. There were no treatment order effects. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation induces a reversible increase in several short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, independently of the method of administration. There is no simple relationship between the intestinal microbiome and systemic omega-3 PUFA exposure. ISRCTN18662143. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  19. The Microbiota Contributes to CD8+ T Cell Activation and Nutrient Malabsorption following Intestinal Infection with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Aleksander; Li, Erqiu; Maloney, Jenny; Singer, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a noninvasive luminal pathogen that impairs digestive function in its host in part by reducing intestinal disaccharidase activity. This enzyme deficiency has been shown in mice to require CD8(+) T cells. We recently showed that both host immune responses and parasite strain affected disaccharidase levels during murine giardiasis. However, high doses of antibiotics were used to facilitate infections in that study, and we therefore decided to systematically examine the effects of antibiotic use on pathogenesis and immune responses in the mouse model of giardiasis. We found that antibiotic treatment did not overtly increase the parasite burden but significantly limited the disaccharidase deficiency observed in infected mice. Moreover, while infected mice had more activated CD8(+) αβ T cells in the small intestinal lamina propria, this increase was absent in antibiotic-treated mice. Infection also led to increased numbers of CD4(+) αβ T cells in the lamina propria and activation of T cell receptor γδ-expressing intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), but these changes were not affected by antibiotics. Finally, we show that activated CD8(+) T cells express gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and granzymes but that granzymes are not required for sucrase deficiency. We conclude that CD8(+) T cells become activated in giardiasis through an antibiotic-sensitive process and contribute to reduced sucrase activity. These are the first data directly demonstrating activation of CD8(+) T cells and γδ T cells during Giardia infections. These data also demonstrate that disruption of the intestinal microbiota by antibiotic treatment prevents pathological CD8(+) T cell activation in giardiasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  1. Suppression of intestinal microbiota-dependent production of pro-atherogenic trimethylamine N-oxide by shifting L-carnitine microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Liepins, Janis; Cirule, Helena; Gustina, Daina; Loza, Einars; Zharkova-Malkova, Olga; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-11-11

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in host liver from trimethylamine (TMA). TMAO and TMA share common dietary quaternary amine precursors, carnitine and choline, which are metabolized by the intestinal microbiota. TMAO recently has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and severity of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effects of anti-atherosclerotic compound meldonium, an aza-analogue of carnitine bioprecursor gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB), on the availability of TMA and TMAO. Wistar rats received L-carnitine, GBB or choline alone or in combination with meldonium. Plasma, urine and rat small intestine perfusate samples were assayed for L-carnitine, GBB, choline and TMAO using UPLC-MS/MS. Meldonium effects on TMA production by intestinal bacteria from L-carnitine and choline were tested. Treatment with meldonium significantly decreased intestinal microbiota-dependent production of TMA/TMAO from L-carnitine, but not from choline. 24hours after the administration of meldonium, the urinary excretion of TMAO was 3.6 times lower in the combination group than in the L-carnitine-alone group. In addition, the administration of meldonium together with L-carnitine significantly increased GBB concentration in blood plasma and in isolated rat small intestine perfusate. Meldonium did not influence bacterial growth and bacterial uptake of L-carnitine, but TMA production by the intestinal microbiota bacteria K. pneumoniae was significantly decreased. We have shown for the first time that TMA/TMAO production from quaternary amines could be decreased by targeting bacterial TMA-production. In addition, the production of pro-atherogenic TMAO can be suppressed by shifting the microbial degradation pattern of supplemental/dietary quaternary amines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of prebiotic intake on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    Ho, Josephine; Reimer, Raylene A; Doulla, Manpreet; Huang, Carol

    2016-07-26

    The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a contributor to disease states. Patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1) have distinct gut microbiota in comparison to non-diabetic individuals, and it has been linked to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and insulin resistance. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that alter gut microbiota and could potentially improve glycemic control in children with DM1. This pilot study aims to determine the feasibility of a 12-week dietary intervention with prebiotics in children with DM1. This pilot study is a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children aged 8 to 17 years with DM1 for at least one year. Participants will be randomized to receive either placebo (maltodextrin 3.3 g orally/day) or prebiotics (oligofructose-enriched inulin 8 g orally/day; Synergy1, Beneo, Mannheim, Germany). Measures to be assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months include: anthropometric measures, insulin doses/regimens, frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis, frequency of severe hypoglycemia, average number of episodes of hypoglycemia per week, serum C-peptide, HbA1c, serum inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-10), GLP-1 and GLP-2, intestinal permeability using urine assessment after ingestion of lactulose, mannitol and 3-O-methylglucose, and stool sample collection for gut microbiota profiling. This is a novel pilot study designed to test feasibility for a fully powered study. We hypothesize that consumption of prebiotics will alter gut microbiota and intestinal permeability, leading to improved glycemic control. Prebiotics are a potentially novel, inexpensive, low-risk treatment addition for DM1 that may improve glycemic control by changes in gut microbiota, gut permeability and inflammation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02442544 . Registered on 10 March 2015.

  3. GUTSS: An Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison Method for Use in Human Intestinal Microbiome and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Analysis.

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    Mitchell J Brittnacher

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of gut microbiomes in clinical studies of human diseases typically rely on identification and quantification of species or genes. In addition to exploring specific functional characteristics of the microbiome and potential significance of species diversity or expansion, microbiome similarity is also calculated to study change in response to therapies directed at altering the microbiome. Established ecological measures of similarity can be constructed from species abundances, however methods for calculating these commonly used ecological measures of similarity directly from whole genome shotgun (WGS metagenomic sequence are lacking.We present an alignment-free method for calculating similarity of WGS metagenomic sequences that is analogous to the Bray-Curtis index for species, implemented by the General Utility for Testing Sequence Similarity (GUTSS software application. This method was applied to intestinal microbiomes of healthy young children to measure developmental changes toward an adult microbiome during the first 3 years of life. We also calculate similarity of donor and recipient microbiomes to measure establishment, or engraftment, of donor microbiota in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT studies focused on mild to moderate Crohn's disease. We show how a relative index of similarity to donor can be calculated as a measure of change in a patient's microbiome toward that of the donor in response to FMT.Because clinical efficacy of the transplant procedure cannot be fully evaluated without analysis methods to quantify actual FMT engraftment, we developed a method for detecting change in the gut microbiome that is independent of species identification and database bias, sensitive to changes in relative abundance of the microbial constituents, and can be formulated as an index for correlating engraftment success with clinical measures of disease. More generally, this method may be applied to clinical evaluation of

  4. GUTSS: An Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison Method for Use in Human Intestinal Microbiome and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Analysis.

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    Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Heltshe, Sonya L; Hayden, Hillary S; Radey, Matthew C; Weiss, Eli J; Damman, Christopher J; Zisman, Timothy L; Suskind, David L; Miller, Samuel I

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of gut microbiomes in clinical studies of human diseases typically rely on identification and quantification of species or genes. In addition to exploring specific functional characteristics of the microbiome and potential significance of species diversity or expansion, microbiome similarity is also calculated to study change in response to therapies directed at altering the microbiome. Established ecological measures of similarity can be constructed from species abundances, however methods for calculating these commonly used ecological measures of similarity directly from whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomic sequence are lacking. We present an alignment-free method for calculating similarity of WGS metagenomic sequences that is analogous to the Bray-Curtis index for species, implemented by the General Utility for Testing Sequence Similarity (GUTSS) software application. This method was applied to intestinal microbiomes of healthy young children to measure developmental changes toward an adult microbiome during the first 3 years of life. We also calculate similarity of donor and recipient microbiomes to measure establishment, or engraftment, of donor microbiota in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) studies focused on mild to moderate Crohn's disease. We show how a relative index of similarity to donor can be calculated as a measure of change in a patient's microbiome toward that of the donor in response to FMT. Because clinical efficacy of the transplant procedure cannot be fully evaluated without analysis methods to quantify actual FMT engraftment, we developed a method for detecting change in the gut microbiome that is independent of species identification and database bias, sensitive to changes in relative abundance of the microbial constituents, and can be formulated as an index for correlating engraftment success with clinical measures of disease. More generally, this method may be applied to clinical evaluation of human microbiomes

  5. Mother-to-infant transmission of intestinal bifidobacterial strains has an impact on the early development of vaginally delivered infant's microbiota.

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    Hiroshi Makino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bifidobacterium species are one of the major components of the infant's intestine microbiota. Colonization with bifidobacteria in early infancy is suggested to be important for health in later life. However, information remains limited regarding the source of these microbes. Here, we investigated whether specific strains of bifidobacteria in the maternal intestinal flora are transmitted to their infant's intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from healthy 17 mother and infant pairs (Vaginal delivery: 12; Cesarean section delivery: 5. Mother's feces were collected twice before delivery. Infant's feces were collected at 0 (meconium, 3, 7, 30, 90 days after birth. Bifidobacteria isolated from feces were genotyped by multilocus sequencing typing, and the transitions of bifidobacteria counts in infant's feces were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Stains belonging to Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, were identified to be monophyletic between mother's and infant's intestine. Eleven out of 12 vaginal delivered infants carried at least one monophyletic strain. The bifidobacterial counts of the species to which the monophyletic strains belong, increased predominantly in the infant's intestine within 3 days after birth. Among infants delivered by C-section, monophyletic strains were not observed. Moreover, the bifidobacterial counts were significantly lower than the vaginal delivered infants until 7 days of age. CONCLUSIONS: Among infants born vaginally, several Bifidobacterium strains transmit from the mother and colonize the infant's intestine shortly after birth. Our data suggest that the mother's intestine is an important source for the vaginal delivered infant's intestinal microbiota.

  6. Preliminary Comparison of Oral and Intestinal Human Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study

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    Edda Russo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS was used to analyze and compare human microbiota from three different compartments, i.e., saliva, feces, and cancer tissue (CT, of a selected cohort of 10 Italian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC vs. 10 healthy controls (saliva and feces. Furthermore, the Fusobacterium nucleatum abundance in the same body site was investigated through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR to assess the association with CRC. Differences in bacterial composition, F. nucleatum abundance in healthy controls vs. CRC patients, and the association of F. nucleatum with clinical parameters were observed. Taxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, revealed the presence of three main bacterial phyla, which includes about 80% of reads: Firmicutes (39.18%, Bacteroidetes (30.36%, and Proteobacteria (10.65%. The results highlighted the presence of different bacterial compositions; in particular, the fecal samples of CRC patients seemed to be enriched with Bacteroidetes, whereas in the fecal samples of healthy controls Firmicutes were one of the major phyla detected though these differences were not statistically significant. The CT samples showed the highest alpha diversity values. These results emphasize a different taxonomic composition of feces from CRC compared to healthy controls. Despite the low number of samples included in the study, these results suggest the importance of microbiota in the CRC progression and could pave the way to the development of therapeutic interventions and novel microbial-related diagnostic tools in CRC patients.

  7. Gastrointestinal Hormones, Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Obese Patients: Effect of Bariatric Surgery.

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    Federico, Alessandro; Dallio, Marcello; Tolone, Salvatore; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Patrone, Vania; Romano, Marco; Tuccillo, Concetta; Mozzillo, Anna Licia; Amoroso, Vincenzo; Misso, Gabriella; Morelli, Lorenzo; Docimo, Ludovico; Loguercio, Carmelina

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven efficacy in the modulation of a number of gut peptides that can contribute to improvement of diabetes and its associated metabolic changes. In order to evaluate dietary intake, nutritional assessment and plasma levels of gastrointestinal peptides, we enrolled severely obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. We evaluated food intake, plasma levels of peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1/2 (GLP-1/2), ghrelin (GHR), orexin (ORE) and cholecystokinin (CCK), body composition and fecal microbiota in 28 severely obese patients and 28 healthy normal-weight controls. All parameters were evaluated at 0 time and 6 months after bariatric surgery. In obese patients we found a higher intake of nutrients, a decrease of free fat mass and an increase of BMI (body mass index), a significant decrease of GLP-1 and an increase of GLP-2, GHR and PYY with respect to controls, further increase in GLP-2, GHR and PYY, as well as increase over control values of GLP-1 after bariatric surgery. Obese individuals were found to harbor a community dominated by members of the Clostridial clusters XIVa and IV, whereas prominent bands after surgery were identified as Lactobacillus crispatus and Megasphaera elsdenii-related phylotype. The beneficial effects of bariatric surgery may at least in part be accounted for changes in circulating gastrointestinal (GI) peptides and fecal microbiota. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of microbiota facilitated by host immune regulation: informing probiotic strategies to manage amphibian disease.

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    Küng, Denise; Bigler, Laurent; Davis, Leyla R; Gratwicke, Brian; Griffith, Edgardo; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities can augment host immune responses and probiotic therapies are under development to prevent or treat diseases of humans, crops, livestock, and wildlife including an emerging fungal disease of amphibians, chytridiomycosis. However, little is known about the stability of host-associated microbiota, or how the microbiota is structured by innate immune factors including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) abundant in the skin secretions of many amphibians. Thus, conservation medicine including therapies targeting the skin will benefit from investigations of amphibian microbial ecology that provide a model for vertebrate host-symbiont interactions on mucosal surfaces. Here, we tested whether the cutaneous microbiota of Panamanian rocket frogs, Colostethus panamansis, was resistant to colonization or altered by treatment. Under semi-natural outdoor mesocosm conditions in Panama, we exposed frogs to one of three treatments including: (1) probiotic - the potentially beneficial bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis, (2) transplant - skin washes from the chytridiomycosis-resistant glass frog Espadarana prosoblepon, and (3) control - sterile water. Microbial assemblages were analyzed by a culture-independent T-RFLP analysis. We found that skin microbiota of C. panamansis was resistant to colonization and did not differ among treatments, but shifted through time in the mesocosms. We describe regulation of host AMPs that may function to maintain microbial community stability. Colonization resistance was metabolically costly and microbe-treated frogs lost 7-12% of body mass. The discovery of strong colonization resistance of skin microbiota suggests a well-regulated, rather than dynamic, host-symbiont relationship, and suggests that probiotic therapies aiming to enhance host immunity may require an approach that circumvents host mechanisms maintaining equilibrium in microbial communities.

  9. The intestinal microbiota and host immune interactions in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Poll, van der T.; Vos, de W.M.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex population of microbes that play a fundamental role in the development of the immune system and human health. Besides an important local contribution in the host defense against infections, it has become increasingly clear that intestinal bacteria also

  10. Characterizing microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari, Peyman; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Willems, Rianne H.A.M.; Difilippo, Elisabetta; Schols, Henk A.; Schoterman, Margriet H.C.; Garssen, Johan; Braber, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To

  11. Gastrointestinal Simulation Model TWIN-SHIME Shows Differences between Human Urolithin-Metabotypes in Gut Microbiota Composition, Pomegranate Polyphenol Metabolism, and Transport along the Intestinal Tract.

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    García-Villalba, Rocío; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Pitart, Judit; Romo-Vaquero, María; Espín, Juan C; Grootaert, Charlotte; Selma, María V; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Possemiers, Sam; Van Camp, John; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-07-12

    A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine. The assay also showed that pomegranate phenolics preserved intestinal cell integrity. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced urolithin and propionate production, as well as Akkermansia and Gordonibacter prevalence with the highest effect in the descending colon. The system provides an insight into the mechanisms of pomegranate polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism and absorption through intestinal cells. The results obtained by the combined SHIME/Caco-2 cell system are consistent with previous human and animal studies and show that although urolithin metabolites are present along the gastrointestinal tract due to enterohepatic circulation, they are predominantly produced in the distal colon region.

  12. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions.

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    Bianfang Liu

    Full Text Available Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions.The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE.The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7.

  13. Decrease in lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota of celiac children with a gluten-free diet, and selection of potentially probiotic strains.

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    Lorenzo Pisarello, María J; Vintiñi, Elisa O; González, Silvia N; Pagani, Florencia; Medina, Marcela S

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota would be implicated in pathology associated with celiac disease caused by an abnormal immune system reaction against gluten present in cereal grains. The objectives of this work were to detect through basic methods the changes in the composition of the most common genera of bacteria from the intestinal microbiota of symptom-free celiac disease children with a gluten-free diet compared with healthy children from Tucumán and to select lactobacilli (Lb) strains with probiotic potential from the feces of healthy children. Results demonstrated that the feces of celiac children with a gluten-free diet showed significantly lower counts of Lb (P LC4) showed the highest percentage of autoaggregation while Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) showed high hydrophobicity. Based on these results, LC4 and LC9 were selected, and their use as potential probiotic strains to improve signs and symptoms associated with celiac disease is discussed. This is the first study performed in Argentina concerning the relationship between intestinal microbiota and celiac disease in celiac children with a gluten-free diet. In addition, the development of a probiotic food addressed towards celiac patients and designed with Lb isolated from the feces of healthy children from our province represents a promising alternative to improve the quality of life of celiac patients.

  14. Genomic dissection of conserved transcriptional regulation in intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Colin R Lickwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium serves critical physiologic functions that are shared among all vertebrates. However, it is unknown how the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying these functions have changed over the course of vertebrate evolution. We generated genome-wide mRNA and accessible chromatin data from adult intestinal epithelial cells (IECs in zebrafish, stickleback, mouse, and human species to determine if conserved IEC functions are achieved through common transcriptional regulation. We found evidence for substantial common regulation and conservation of gene expression regionally along the length of the intestine from fish to mammals and identified a core set of genes comprising a vertebrate IEC signature. We also identified transcriptional start sites and other putative regulatory regions that are differentially accessible in IECs in all 4 species. Although these sites rarely showed sequence conservation from fish to mammals, surprisingly, they drove highly conserved IEC expression in a zebrafish reporter assay. Common putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS found at these sites in multiple species indicate that sequence conservation alone is insufficient to identify much of the functionally conserved IEC regulatory information. Among the rare, highly sequence-conserved, IEC-specific regulatory regions, we discovered an ancient enhancer upstream from her6/HES1 that is active in a distinct population of Notch-positive cells in the intestinal epithelium. Together, these results show how combining accessible chromatin and mRNA datasets with TFBS prediction and in vivo reporter assays can reveal tissue-specific regulatory information conserved across 420 million years of vertebrate evolution. We define an IEC transcriptional regulatory network that is shared between fish and mammals and establish an experimental platform for studying how evolutionarily distilled regulatory information commonly controls IEC development

  15. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

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    Sonja N Heinritz

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P0.05. Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05, while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.

  16. HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response by regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

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    Naomie Turgeon

    . Thus, epithelial HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response, by regulating intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Tolerance to the Intestinal Microbiota Mediated by ROR(γt)(+) Cells.

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    Ohnmacht, Caspar

    2016-07-01

    Harmless microbes colonizing the gut require the establishment of a well-equilibrated symbiosis between this microbiota and its host. However, the immune system is primed to recognize both conserved microbial patterns and foreign antigens, and therefore developed strong tolerance mechanisms to prevent potential fatal immune reactivity to symbiotic microbes. The transcription factor RAR-related orphan-like γt [ROR(γt); encoded by Rorc] plays a key role in the gut for lymphoid tissue organogenesis, development of innate lymphoid cells type 3 (ILC3s) and proinflammatory type 17 T helper (Th17) cells. Surprisingly, recent research has revealed a contribution of ROR(γt)-expressing cells in a variety of tolerance mechanisms in both the innate and adaptive immune system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights r