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  1. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detached intestinal epithelial cells in hypothermia group showed ... of apoptosis than those in normothermia group at 4 h (17.30 ± 2.56 vs. ... intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, which could be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia.

  2. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  3. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that SAB may protect the intestine by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response and hence, may be potentially for treating IIRI. Keywords: Salvianolic acid B, Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion, Antioxidants, Inflammation, Intestinal permeability ...

  4. The treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspyropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 57 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up length was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patients status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery.

  5. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplantation, strangulated hernias due to gastric barrier ... using pentabarbital sodium at the dose of 50 ..... prevents iodinated contrast media-induced acute renal injury in rats via ... mesenchymal stem cells reduce rat intestinal ischemia-.

  6. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  7. Local intravascular coagulation and fibrin deposition on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Ivo G.; Levi, Marcel; Roossink, E. H. Paulina; Bijlsma, Pieter B.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Background. This study investigates intravascular coagulation and thrombotic obstruction in the splanchnic vasculature after intestinal ischemia in relation to epithelial integrity and function. Methods. Intestinal ischemia was induced in rats by superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 20 or 40

  8. Metabolomic profiling to characterize acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. Acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (AII/R is an adaptive response to shock. The high mortality rate from AII/R is due to the severity of the disease and, more importantly, the failure of timely diagnosis. The objective of this investigation is to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis to characterize urine metabolomic profile of AII/R injury in a mouse model. Animals were exposed to sham, early (30 min or late (60 min acute intestinal ischemia by complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 2 hrs of reperfusion. Urine was collected and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Urinary metabolite concentrations demonstrated that different profiles could be delineated based on the duration of the intestinal ischemia. Metabolites such as allantoin, creatinine, proline, and methylamine could be predictive of AII/R injury. Lactate, currently used for clinical diagnosis, was found not to significantly contribute to the classification model for either early or late ischemia. This study demonstrates that patterns of changes in urinary metabolites are effective at distinguishing AII/R progression in an animal model. This is a proof-of-concept study to further support examination of metabolites in the clinical diagnosis of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in patients. The discovery of a fingerprint metabolite profile of AII/R will be a major advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of systemic injury in critically ill patients.

  9. Effect Of Ischemia-Reperfusion On Healing In Intestinal Anastomosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of reperfusion injury on the healing of intestinal anastomotic wound directly subjected to ischemia-reperfusion stress was investigated in dogs. Three groups of dogs were utilized for the study. In group A (Control) cranial mesenteric artery and collateral blood supply were isolated but not occluded. In groups B and ...

  10. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control group; intestinal .... excitation wavelength (485 nm) and emission wavelength (528 nm). The results ... Ethanolic phase of the tissue homogenate was extracted using ...

  11. Chronic intestinal ischemia and splanchnic blood-flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle Damgaard; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Abrahamsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake in healthy-subjects and patients and to relate the findings to body-composition. METHODS: The total splanchnic blood flow (SBF) and oxygen uptake (SO₂U) were measured in 20 healthy volunteers (10 women) and 29 patients with suspected...... arteries was performed during the same investigation. A whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan was performed in healthy volunteers to determine body composition. RESULTS: Angiography revealed no atherosclerotic lesions in the intestinal arteries. The mean baseline SBF was 1087 mL/min (731...... chronic intestinal ischemia (15 women), age 40-85 years, prior to and after a standard meal. The method is based on the Fick principle using the continuous infusion of an indicator (99mTechnetium-labelled mebrofenin) and catheterization of an artery and the hepatic vein. An angiography of the intestinal...

  12. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and

  13. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Onal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  14. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens J Ceulemans

    Full Text Available The farnesoid X receptor (FXR is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury.In a validated rat model of intestinal IRI (laparotomy + temporary mesenteric artery clamping, 3 conditions were tested (n = 16/group: laparotomy only (sham group; ischemia 60min+ reperfusion 60min + vehicle pretreatment (IR group; ischemia 60min + reperfusion 60min + OCA pretreatment (IR+OCA group. Vehicle or OCA (INT-747, 2*30mg/kg was administered by gavage 24h and 4h prior to IRI. The following end-points were analyzed: 7-day survival; biomarkers of enterocyte viability (L-lactate, I-FABP; histology (morphologic injury to villi/crypts and villus length; intestinal permeability (Ussing chamber; endotoxin translocation (Lipopolysaccharide assay; cytokines (IL-6, IL-1-β, TNFα, IFN-γ IL-10, IL-13; apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3; and autophagy (LC3, p62.It was found that intestinal IRI was associated with high mortality (90%; loss of intestinal integrity (structurally and functionally; increased endotoxin translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production; and inhibition of autophagy. Conversely, OCA-pretreatment improved 7-day survival up to 50% which was associated with prevention of epithelial injury, preserved intestinal architecture and permeability. Additionally, FXR-agonism led to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and alleviated autophagy inhibition.Pretreatment with OCA, an FXR-agonist, improves survival in a rodent model of intestinal IRI, preserves the gut barrier function and suppresses inflammation. These results turn

  15. Inhibition of coagulation and inflammation by activated protein C or antithrombin reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Ivo G.; Levi, Marcel; van Vliet, Arlène K.; Maas, Adrie M.; Roossink, E. H. Paulina; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether administration of activated protein C or antithrombin reduces local splanchnic derangement of coagulation and inflammation and attenuates intestinal dysfunction and injury following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. Design: Randomized prospective animal study. Setting:

  16. Assessment of anastomotic reliability with pulse oximetry in graded intestinal ischemia: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyilmaz, Z; Sönmez, K; Başaklar, A C; Demiroğullari, B; Numanoğlu, V; Ekingen, G; Dursun, A; Altin, M A; Kale, N

    1997-12-01

    Pulse oximetry has been proposed as an appropriate and feasible technique in the assessment of intestinal ischemia in recent years. In this study the authors aimed to assess the reliability of anastomoses in the dog small intestine in which there is graded irreversible ischemia as measured by pulse oxymeter. In a control group of four dogs, without any devascularization, three small bowel anastomoses were formed in each dog. The study group consisted of 12 dogs. In each animal three intestinal segments with different levels of ischemia were created by ligating the marginal vessels proximally and distally in sequence beginning from the midpoint of the segmental vascular arcade. Preanastomotic pulse oximeter readings between 80% and 90% were assigned to mild ischemia, 70% and 80% to moderate, and 60% and 70% to severe ischemia group. Pulse oximetry measurements were obtained from probes applied to the antimesenteric serosal surfaces at the midpoint of small intestinal segments. A total of 48 intestinal segments (12 nonischemic in the control group and 36 with three different levels of ischemia in the study group) were transected in the midpoint and anastomosed in double layers. Postanastomotic SaO2 values were also noted. The anastomoses were evaluated 48 hours later macroscopically if there was any leakage, and biopsy specimens were obtained for histopathologic ischemic gradings. All results were studied statistically. Histopathologic grades between each group were statistically different (P .05), worsening as the level of ischemia increased. Pre- and postanastomotic pulse oximetry measurements correlated very well with the histological gradings (r = -0.90, P anastomoses) in severe ischemia groups. In the moderate ischemia group with an average preanastomotic pulse reading of 76.75%, each of the leaking anastomoses had a postanastomotic pulse measurement of lower than 70%. The finding that the difference between histopathologic grades of control and mild ischemia

  17. Multi-detector CT features of acute intestinal ischemia and their prognostic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-05-28

    Acute intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency occurring in nearly 1% of patients presenting with acute abdomen. The causes can be occlusive or non occlusive. Early diagnosis is important to improve survival rates. In most cases of late or missed diagnosis, the mortality rate from intestinal infarction is very high, with a reported value ranging from 60% to 90%. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a fundamental imaging technique that must be promptly performed in all patients with suspected bowel ischemia. Thanks to the new dedicated reconstruction program, its diagnostic potential is much improved compared to the past and currently it is superior to that of any other noninvasive technique. The increased spatial and temporal resolution, high-quality multi-planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, vessel probe, surface-shaded volume rending and tissue transition projections make MDCT the gold standard for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, with reported sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 64%-93%, 92%-100%, 90%-100% and 94%-98%, respectively. MDCT contributes to appropriate treatment planning and provides important prognostic information thanks to its ability to define the nature and extent of the disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnostic and prognostic role of MDCT in bowel ischemia with special regard to the state of art new reconstruction software.

  18. The jagged-2/notch-1/hes-1 pathway is involved in intestinal epithelium regeneration after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    Full Text Available Notch signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation and regeneration of intestinal epithelium after intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation or I/R by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA for 20 min. Intestinal tissue samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after reperfusion. Proliferation of the intestinal epithelium was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch signaling components were examined using Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Immunofluorescence was also performed to detect the expression and location of Jagged-2, cleaved Notch-1, and Hes-1 in the intestine. Finally, the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT and the siRNA for Jagged-2 and Hes-1 were applied to investigate the functional role of Notch signaling in the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in an in vitro IEC-6 culture system.I/R injury caused increased intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation and increased mRNA and protein expression of Jagged-2, Notch-1, and Hes-1. The immunofluorescence results further confirmed increased protein expression of Jagged-2, cleaved Notch-1, and Hes-1 in the intestinal crypts. The inhibition of Notch signaling with DAPT and the suppression of Jagged-2 and Hes-1 expression using siRNA both significantly inhibited the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.The Jagged-2/Notch-1/Hes-1 signaling pathway is involved in intestinal epithelium regeneration early after I/R injury by increasing crypt epithelial cell proliferation.

  19. The effect of ozone and naringin on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Gursul, Cebrail; Sayar, Ilyas; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Ismayil; Demiryilmaz, Ismail

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaulate the effect of ozone and naringin on the intestine after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion(II/R) injury. Thirty five rats divided into 5 groups of 7 animals: control, II/R, ozone, naringin and naringin + ozone. Only laparotomy and exploration of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were done in control group. In the experimental groups, SAM was occluded for 1 h and reperfused for 1 h. 15 min after ischemia, ozone (25 μg/ml, 0.5 mg/kg), naringin (80 mg/kg) and naringin + ozone(80 mg/kg + 25 μg/ml, 0.5 mg/kg) were infused intraperitoneally to each groups. Ileum tissues were harvested to determine intestinal mucosal injury and oxidative stress markers. For SMA occlusion, different than literature, silk suture binding was used. Oxidative stress markers were significantly low in experimental groups compared with II/R group (p < 0.05). Histopathologically, the injury score was significantly low at experimental groups compared with II/R group (p < 0.05). The lowest injury score was encountered at naringine + ozone group. Ozone alone or combined with naringin has a protective effect for mesenteric ischemia. Instead of using instruments such as clamps in the II/R rat model, silk binding may be used safely. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion and lymph drainage on distant organs in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Kai-Guo; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yu-Kang; Chen, Xue-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and lymph drainage on distant organs in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 280-320 g, were randomly divided into blank, sham, I/R, and ischemia/reperfusion and drainage (I/R + D) groups (n = 8). All rats were subjected to 60 min ischemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. The rats in the I/R + D group received intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. In the sham group, the abdominal cavity was opened for 180 min, but the rats received no treatment. The blank group served as a normal and untreated control. A chromogenic limulus assay kit was used for quantitative detection of serum endotoxin. The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1), and high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Histological evaluations of the intestine, liver, kidney, and lung were performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. HMGB1 protein expression was assayed by western blot analysis. RESULTS: The serum levels of endotoxin and HMGB1 in the I/R and I/R + D groups were significantly higher than those in the sham group (endotoxin, I/R and I/R + D vs sham: 0.033 ± 0.004 EU/mL, 0.024 ± 0.003 EU/mL vs 0.017 ± 0.009 EU/mL, respectively, P drainage could block the “gut-lymph” pathway, improve intestinal barrier function, and attenuate distant organ injury incurred by intestinal I/R. PMID:23326132

  1. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto; Teruya, Roberto; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's 't' test, p < 0.05). The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue

  2. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto; Teruya, Roberto; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. Objective To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Methods Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's "t" test, p < 0.05). Results The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Conclusion Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue. PMID:24346830

  3. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados - UFGD, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Teruya, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Fagundes, Djalma José, E-mail: fsomaio@cardiol.br; Taha, Murched Omar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's 't' test, p < 0.05). The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue.

  4. Dynamic alteration of the colonic microbiota in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R plays an important role in critical illnesses. Gut flora participate in the pathogenesis of the injury. This study is aimed at unraveling colonic microbiota alteration pattern and identifying specific bacterial species that differ significantly as well as observing colonic epithelium change in the same injury model during the reperfusion time course.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to monitor the colonic microbiota of control rats and experimental rats that underwent 0.5 hour ischemia and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours following reperfusion respectively. The microbiota similarity, bacterial diversity and species that characterized the dysbiosis were estimated based on the DGGE profiles using a combination of statistical approaches. The interested bacterial species in the gel were cut and sequenced and were subsequently quantified and confirmed with real-time PCR. Meanwhile, the epithelial barrier was checked by microscopy and D-lactate analysis. Colonic flora changed early and differed significantly at 6 hours after reperfusion and then started to recover. The shifts were characterized by the increase of Escherichia coli and Prevotella oralis, and Lactobacilli proliferation together with epithelia healing.This study shows for the first time that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion results in colonic flora dysbiosis that follows epithelia damage, and identifies the bacterial species that contribute most.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells increase antioxidant capacity in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, M; Bakar, E; Cerkezkayabekir, A; Sanal, F; Ulucam, E; Subaşı, C; Karaöz, E

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have beneficial effects in reversing intestinal damage resulting from circulatory disorders. The hypothesis of this study is that MSCs increase antioxidant capacity of small bowel tissue following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage. A total of 100 rats were used for the control group and three experimental groups, as follows: the sham control, local MSC, and systemic MSC groups. Each group consisted of 10 animals on days 1, 4, and 7 of the experiment. Ischemia was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 45min; following this, reperfusion was carried out for 1, 4, and 7days in all groups. In the local and systemic groups, MSCs were administered intravenously and locally just after the ischemia, and they were investigated after 1, 4, and 7days. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein levels, were measured. Histopathological analysis was performed using light and electron microscopy. The indicators of proliferation from the effects of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. MDA was increased (Pcytokines interleukin-1β (IL1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL6, MIP2, and MPO decreased (Pcytokines EP3 and IL1ra increased (poxygen radicals, suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of partial and complete arterial occlusion models for studying intestinal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, D.A.; Grogaard, B.; Granger, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Mucosal albumin clearance was measured in jejunal segments of dogs under control conditions and following complete or partial arterial occlusion of varying durations (1, 2, 3, or 4 hours). The rate of albumin clearance was estimated from the luminal perfusion rate and the activity of protein bound 125 I in the perfusate and plasma. Partial and total arterial occlusions of 60 minutes to 4 hours' duration produced significant increases in mucosal albumin clearance. The magnitude of the rise in albumin clearance was directly related to the duration of ischemia in both total and partial arterial occlusion models. However, the magnitude of the increase in albumin clearance was significantly greater with total arterial occlusion for any given duration of ischemia. The albumin clearance results obtained in the present study compare favorably with previously reported morphologic changes in the intestinal mucosa produced by both total and partial occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. The agreement between morphologic and physiologic measurements indicates that mucosal albumin clearance may be a useful tool for studying the pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia

  7. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  8. Erdosteine and ebselen as useful agents in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Turan; Uysal, Bulent; Atabek, Cuneyt; Kesik, Vural; Caliskan, Bahadir; Oztas, Emin; Ersoz, Nail; Oter, Sukru; Guven, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated during reperfusion of the tissue are characteristic of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether erdosteine and ebselen, molecules with antioxidant properties and peroxynitrite scavenging capability, respectively, can reduce oxidative stress and histological damage in the rat small bowel subjected to mesenteric I/R injury. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups equally: sham, I/R, I/R plus erdosteine, I/R plus ebselen, and I/R plus erdosteine and ebselen. Intestinal ischemia for 45 min and reperfusion for 3 d were carried out. Ileal specimens were obtained to determine the tissue levels of malondialdehide (MDA), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) level and histological changes. Intestinal I/R resulted in increased tissue MDA, PCC, and NO(x) levels and decreased SOD and GPx activities. Both erdosteine and ebselen alone significantly decreased MDA, PCC, and NO(x) levels and increased antioxidant enzymes activities, but all values were different from control. These changes almost returned to control values in the group treated with erdostein and ebselen. Histopathologically, the intestinal injury in rats treated with erdosteine and ebselen as well as combination were less than I/R group. Both erdosteine and ebselen were able to attenuate I/R injury of the intestine via inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, maintenance of antioxidant, and free radical scavenger properties. Nevertheless, combination treatment showed more promising results, suggesting that scavenging peroxynitrite nearby antioxidant activity is important in preventing intestinal I/R injury.

  9. Rapid reversal of human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced damage by shedding of injured enterocytes and reepithelialisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep P M Derikx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR is a phenomenon related to physiological conditions (e.g. exercise, stress and to pathophysiological events (e.g. acute mesenteric ischemia, aortic surgery. Although intestinal IR has been studied extensively in animals, results remain inconclusive and data on human intestinal IR are scarce. Therefore, an experimental harmless model for human intestinal IR was developed, enabling us to clarify the sequelae of human intestinal IR for the first time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 30 patients undergoing pancreatico-duodenectomy we took advantage of the fact that in this procedure a variable length of jejunum is removed. Isolated jejunum (5 cm was subjected to 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (I-FABP arteriovenous concentration differences across the bowel segment were measured before and after ischemia to assess epithelial cell damage. Tissue sections were collected after ischemia and at 25, 60 and 120 minutes reperfusion and stained with H&E, and for I-FABP and the apoptosis marker M30. Bonferroni's test was used to compare I-FABP differences. Mean (SEM arteriovenous concentration gradients of I-FABP across the jejunum revealed rapidly developing epithelial cell damage. I-FABP release significantly increased from 290 (46 pg/ml before ischemia towards 3,997 (554 pg/ml immediately after ischemia (p<0.001 and declined gradually to 1,143 (237 pg/ml within 1 hour reperfusion (p<0.001. Directly after ischemia the intestinal epithelial lining was microscopically normal, while subepithelial spaces appeared at the villus tip. However, after 25 minutes reperfusion, enterocyte M30 immunostaining was observed at the villus tip accompanied by shedding of mature enterocytes into the lumen and loss of I-FABP staining. Interestingly, within 60 minutes reperfusion the epithelial barrier resealed, while debris of apoptotic, shedded epithelial cells was observed in the lumen

  10. Agmatine attenuates intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Inci; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Ozacmak, V Haktan; Barut, Figen; Araslı, Mehmet

    2017-11-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are major factors causing several tissue injuries in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Agmatine has been reported to attenuate I/R injury of various organs. The present study aims to analyze the possible protective effects of agmatine on intestinal I/R injury in rats. Four groups were designed: sham control, agmatine-treated control, I/R control, and agmatine-treated I/R groups. IR injury of small intestine was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for half an hour to be followed by a 3-hour-long reperfusion. Agmatine (10mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before reperfusion period. After 180min of reperfusion period, the contractile responses to both carbachol and potassium chloride (KCl) were subsequently examined in an isolated-organ bath. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in intestinal tissue. Plasma cytokine levels were determined. The expression of the intestinal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with agmatine appeared to be significantly effective in reducing the MDA content and MPO activity besides restoring the content of GSH. The treatment also attenuated the histological injury. The increases in the I/R induced expressions of iNOS, IFN-γ, and IL-1α were brought back to the sham control levels by the treatment as well. Our findings indicate that the agmatine pretreatment may ameliorate reperfusion induced injury in small intestine mainly due to reducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age- and gender-related hemorheological alterations in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Anita; Magyar, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Akos; Somogyi, Viktoria; Tanczos, Bence; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a life-threatening clinical disorder. During I/R, the microrheological parameters of blood (red blood cell deformability and aggregation) worsen, which may contribute to microcirculatory deterioration. Age and gender also have a great influence on hemorheological parameters. We aimed to investigate the gender and age-related microrheological alterations during intestinal I/R. After the cannulation of the left femoral artery, median laparotomy was performed in Crl:WI rats under general anesthesia. In the young control animals there were no other interventions (female n = 7; male n = 7). In the young (female n = 7; male n = 7) and older I/R groups (female n = 6; male n = 6), the superior mesenteric artery was clipped for 30 min, and a 120-min reperfusion period was observed afterward. Blood samples were taken before and at the 30-min ischemia, in the 30th, 60th, and 120th min of the reperfusion. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation were determined. Hematocrit increased significantly in the younger female I/R group. Red blood cell count was higher in male and older animals. In case of white blood cell count, male animals had higher values compared with females. Platelet count elevated in the younger male and older female I/R animals. Red blood cell deformability worsened, mainly in the male and older I/R groups. Enhanced erythrocyte aggregation was seen in all groups, being more expressed in the female I/R groups. Microrheological parameters show gender and age-related differences during intestinal I/R. These observations have importance in the planning and evaluation of experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does sucralfate prevent apoptosis occurring in the ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, A; Yilmaz, O; Ozer, E; Günşar, C; Genç, K; Ulukuş, C; Taneli, C; Mir, E

    2003-08-01

    We have shown in a previous study that sucralfate is beneficial in the prophylaxis and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention of apoptosis in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury. Rats were randomized into three groups. Group 1 and 2 were subjected to I/R. Group 1 (treatment group) received sucralfate while group 2 (treatment control group) did not. Group 3 served as a normal control group (sham group). The terminal ileum was harvested for histopathologic investigation by light microscopy. The presence of apoptotic enterocytes (DNA fragmentation in cell nuclei) was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) reaction. In treatment control group, 3 of 7 rats had severe inflammation. None of the sucralfate-treated rats showed severe inflammation, 6 of them only showed mild inflammatory changes (p < 0.05). The apoptotic percentage was found to be 37.1 +/- 9.4 in the sucralfate-treated group (group 1), whereas it was 45.4 +/- 3.9 in the untreated group (group 2) (p < 0.05). The sham group had a completely normal intestinal architecture. The present study shows that 1) the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury induces enterocyte apoptosis; 2) sucralfate decreases enterocyte apoptosis in the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury which may play a key role in the pathophysiological events leading to failure of the intrinsic gut barrier defense mechanisms.

  13. The alteration in intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A and its secreting cells during ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-qun SUN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change in intestinal secretion immunoglobulin A (sIgA level and IgA-secreting cells during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Methods Forty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups in accordance with different reperfusion times (R2h, R6h, R12h, R24h, and R72h group, and one sham group (n=8. Bacterial translocation to distant organs (lung, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes was observed. The sIgA level of the intestinal tract was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The B cell subgroup in the lymphocytes related to the intestinal tract was measured by flow cytometry. Results The bacterial translocation occurred during I/R injury, and the intestinal sIgA level decreased, and they showed an obvious negative correlation (r2=0.729. With the increase in intestinal I/R injury, the ratio of IgM+B220+ cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue increased, whereas the proportion of IgA+B220+ cells decreased. The most significant change was found in R12h group (P < 0.01. Conclusions The proportion of IgM+ B cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue increased, whereas that of IgA+ B cells reduced during I/R injury. These phenomena may cause sIgA level to reduce and bacterial translocation of the distant organs to occur.

  14. The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia: results of a recent series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspiropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G

    2004-04-01

    Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 56 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up duration was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patient's status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery.

  15. Induction of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury by portal vein outflow occlusion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, M.; Behrends, M.; Hirose, Ryutaro; Liu, T.; Niemann, C.U.; Dang, K.; Park, Y.H.; Blasi-Ibanez, A.; Serkova, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia can occur from mesenteric artery (MA) occlusion and portal vein (PV) occlusion. The degree and mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in these conditions may differ. Metabolic changes are seen early in I/R. This study compares tissue histology, inflammation, and metabolic response during small bowel I/R due to superior MA or PV occlusion. Anesthetized male Wistar rats (250-300 g) underwent laparotomy followed by MA or PV occlusion for 40 min. After 120 min of reperfusion, small bowel tissue was collected. The expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-32 and HSP70 was evaluated to compare physiological stress responses between groups. Metabolic profiles were obtained using 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based quantitative metabolomics. Histological injury of small bowel was graded from 0 (normal) to 4 (extensive ischemic damage). Protein expression of HSP32 and HSP70 increased when compared to sham but was not different in the MA I/R and PV I/R groups. Metabolic profiles demonstrated decreased glucose levels and highly elevated tissue lactate and amino acids and fatty acids following I/R, with more pronounced changes with PV occlusion. Lipid peroxidation was equally increased in both groups, while depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) was more severe with MA occlusion. The epithelial necrosis score was higher with MA (3.5±0.6) than with PV occlusion (2.3±0.8). Histological injury of the intestine is less pronounced following PV occlusion, most likely due to higher oxygen and substrate availability during I/R by PV occlusion. This conclusion is supported by a more pronounced metabolic synthetic response (increased glycolysis and fatty acid and amino acid accumulation) with PV occlusion, while oxidative stress was higher with MA occlusion. The inflammatory response showed little difference between the groups. (author)

  16. Comparative Effects of Triflusal, S-Adenosylmethionine, and Dextromethorphan over Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Cámara-Lemarroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is a condition that stimulates an intense inflammatory response. No ideal treatment exists. Triflusal is an antiplatelet salicylate derivative with anti-inflammatory effects. S-adenosylmethionine is a metabolic precursor for glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant. Dextromethorphan is a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor. There is evidence that these agents modulate some of the pathways involved in I/R physiopathology. Intestinal I/R was induced in rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Rats either received saline or the drugs studied. At the end of the procedure, serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, malonaldehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were determined and intestinal morphology analyzed. I/R resulted in tissue damage, serum TNF-alpha and MDA elevations, and depletion of TAC. All drugs showed tissue protection. Only triflusal reduced TNF-alpha levels. All drugs lowered MDA levels, but only triflusal and S-adenosylmethionine maintained the serum TAC.

  17. The Protective Effect of Curcumin versus Sodium Nitroprusside on Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia M Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a signi and #64257;cant complication in abdominal vascular surgery. Various treatment modalities have been applied, however, the role of nitric oxide (NO in this type of injury is still controversial. Aim of the work: To compare the protective effect of curcumin vs sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor on intestine and remote organs following intestinal I/R injury. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups (sham-control, I/R, curcumin+I/R, SNP+I/R. I/R was induced by 30 min clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA then 60 min reperfusion. Rats were pretreated with either curcumin (80 mg/kg/day with food for one week or SNP (5 mg/kg, i.p prior to I/R. Intestinal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitrite/nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH were measured. The sections from jejunum, lungs and liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E for histopathological examination. Immunohistochemical stains for eNOS expression in the jejunum and cleaved caspase-3 for apoptosis in the lungs and liver were done. Results: I/R resulted in both local and remote organs in and #64258;ammation associated with signi and #64257;cant increase in MDA and nitrate/nitrite and significant decrease in SOD and GSH levels. These histological and biochemical changes were improved by pretreatment with curcumin and to less extent by SNP. Immunohistochemical examination showed significant decrease in eNOS activity in the I/R group which was improved by curcumin pretreatment not by SNP. Liver apoptosis was improved by curcumin while lung apoptosis was improved by SNP. Conclusion: Curcumin ameliorates I/R-induced local and remote organs damage through its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effect. SNP may be beneficial in I/R injury but not as significant as curcumin. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 74-87

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of infliximab in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergel, Ahmet; Kanter, Mehmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Aydin, Ibrahim; Erboga, Mustafa; Guzel, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of infliximab on oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat intestinal mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ infliximab; each group comprised 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. I/R groups after undergoing laparotomy, 1 hour of superior mesenteric artery ligation occurred, which was followed by 1 hour of reperfusion. In the infliximab group, 3 days before I/R, infliximab (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. All animals were killed at the end of reperfusion and intestinal tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no biochemical and histopathological changes have been reported regarding intestinal I/R injury in rats due to infliximab treatment. Infliximab treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in intestinal tissues samples. I/R caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Infliximab treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury, inhibiting I/R-induced apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, infliximab pretreatment may have protective effects on the experimental intestinal I/R model of rats.

  19. The role of curcumin on intestinal oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Kanter, Mehmet; Pergel, Ahmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Guzel, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of curcumin on oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat intestinal mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ curcumin; each group contain 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. After I/R groups animals underwent laparotomy, 1 h of superior mesenteric artery ligation were followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the curcumin group, 3 days before I/R, curcumin (100 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and intestinal tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. Curcumin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased of reduced superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in intestinal tissues samples. I/R caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions and villous congestion and hemorrhage. Curcumin treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury, with inhibiting of I/R-induced apoptosis and cell proliferation. These results suggest that curcumin treatment has a protective effect against intestinal damage induced by intestinal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  20. Intraperitoneal xenon for the detection of early intestinal ischemia: effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; LaFrance, N.; Zuidema, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Significant delay in the washout of intraperitoneal xenon ( 133 Xe) in rats and dogs with decreased splanchnic blood flow (bowel strangulation, superior mesenteric artery and vein occlusion) has been previously demonstrated as the basis for radionuclide imaging to detect early (prenecrotic) intestinal ischemia. In this study, the effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections on the validity of this technique is evaluated. Xenon-133 (0.6 mCi) in 3 ml saline was injected into the peritoneal cavity of anesthetized rats and the washout of gamma activity monitored externally for 90 min. Gamma camera images were obtained at 30-min intervals. After 60 min, only 12 +/- 2% of injected activity remained in the controls. Sham option (13 +/- 1%) and simple obstruction (12 +/- 2) had been previously shown not to significantly slow washout, but segmental strangulation had done so dramatically (32 +/- 2%, P less than 0.0001). In these experiments, ascitic fluid (Ringer's lactate) in volumes of 10 ml (13 +/- 1%), 20 ml (13 +/- 1%), and 40 ml (13 +/- 1%), did not significantly slow washout in nonischemic rats. Sixty and eighty milliliters produced very tense ascites and slight but significant delay in washout (14 +/- 1%, 17 +/- 1%, respectively, P less than 0.05). Moderate (11 +/- 1%) and severe (11 +/- 1%) adhesions produced by serosal scarification did not delay washout nor affect imaging. Injections of isotope intentionally misdirected into the abdominal wall (32 +/- 2%), bowel wall (18 +/- 1%), and bowel lumen (19 +/- 2%), each significantly (P less than 0.001) slowed washout. However, such misdirected injections were easily recognizable as such on the 1-min gamma camera images and could thereby be excluded as artifactual. It is concluded that the intraperitoneal xenon technique is not invalidated by mild to moderate ascites nor by moderate to severe adhesions

  1. Intraperitoneal xenon for the detection of early intestinal ischemia: effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; LaFrance, N.; Zuidema, G.D.

    1983-06-01

    Significant delay in the washout of intraperitoneal xenon (/sup 133/Xe) in rats and dogs with decreased splanchnic blood flow (bowel strangulation, superior mesenteric artery and vein occlusion) has been previously demonstrated as the basis for radionuclide imaging to detect early (prenecrotic) intestinal ischemia. In this study, the effect of ascites, adhesions, and misdirected injections on the validity of this technique is evaluated. Xenon-133 (0.6 mCi) in 3 ml saline was injected into the peritoneal cavity of anesthetized rats and the washout of gamma activity monitored externally for 90 min. Gamma camera images were obtained at 30-min intervals. After 60 min, only 12 +/- 2% of injected activity remained in the controls. Sham option (13 +/- 1%) and simple obstruction (12 +/- 2) had been previously shown not to significantly slow washout, but segmental strangulation had done so dramatically (32 +/- 2%, P less than 0.0001). In these experiments, ascitic fluid (Ringer's lactate) in volumes of 10 ml (13 +/- 1%), 20 ml (13 +/- 1%), and 40 ml (13 +/- 1%), did not significantly slow washout in nonischemic rats. Sixty and eighty milliliters produced very tense ascites and slight but significant delay in washout (14 +/- 1%, 17 +/- 1%, respectively, P less than 0.05). Moderate (11 +/- 1%) and severe (11 +/- 1%) adhesions produced by serosal scarification did not delay washout nor affect imaging. Injections of isotope intentionally misdirected into the abdominal wall (32 +/- 2%), bowel wall (18 +/- 1%), and bowel lumen (19 +/- 2%), each significantly (P less than 0.001) slowed washout. However, such misdirected injections were easily recognizable as such on the 1-min gamma camera images and could thereby be excluded as artifactual. It is concluded that the intraperitoneal xenon technique is not invalidated by mild to moderate ascites nor by moderate to severe adhesions.

  2. Successful intestinal ischemia treatment by percutaneus transluminal angioplasty of visceral arteries in a patient with abdominal angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenezić Dragoslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Abdominal angina, also known as chronic mesenteric ischemia or intestinal angina, is a rare disease caused by intestinal flow reduction due to stenosis or occlusion of mesenteric arteries. A case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal angina by percutaneous transuliminal angioplasty of high-grade superior mesenteric artery and coeliac trunk stenosis was presented. Case Outline. A 77-year-old male patient was admitted at our Clinic for severe postprandial abdominal pains followed by frequent diarrhoeas. Extensive gastrointestinal investigations were performed and all results were normal. Multislice computerized (MSCT arteriography was indicated which revealed ostial celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery subocclusion. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the superior mesenteric artery and coeliac trunk was done with two stents implantation. Just a few hours following the intervention, after food ingestion, there were no abdominal pains. Six months later, the patient described a significant feeling of relief after food ingestion and no arduousness at all. Conclusion. High-grade visceral arteries stenoses in patients with intestinal ischemia symptoms can be treated by either surgical procedures or percutaneus transluminal angioplasty. In cases when a low operative risk is anticipated, surgical treatment is recommended due to a better anatomical outcome, while percutaneus angioplasty is advised to elderly patients in whom increased operative risks can be expected.

  3. Does liver-intestine significantly degrade circulating endogenous substance P in man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P was determi......Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P....... The results indicate that degradation of circulating endogenous substance P in man is not confined to liver-intestine or kidney but may take place in many tissues....

  4. Pretreatment with remifentanil protects against the reduced-intestinal contractility related to the ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat

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    Hale Sayan-Ozacmak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serious functional and structural alterations of gastrointestinal tract are observed in failure of blood supply, leading to gastrointestinal dismotility. Activation of opioid receptors provides cardioprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not remifentanil could reduce I/R injury of small intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar Albino rats were subjected to mesenteric ischemia (30 min followed by reperfusion (3 h. Four groups were designed: sham control; remifentanil alone; I/R control; and remifentanil + I/R. Animals in remifentanil + I/R group were subjected to infusion of remifentanil (2 ug kg-1 min-1 for 60 min, half of which started before inducing ischemia. Collecting the ileum tissues, evaluation of damage was based on contractile responses to carbachol, levels of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and observation of histopathological features in intestinal tissue. RESULTS: Following reperfusion, a significant decrease in carbachol-induced contractile response, a remarkable increase in both lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and a significant injury in mucosa were observed. An average contractile response of remifentanil + I/R group was significantly different from that of the I/R group. Lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration were also significantly suppressed by the treatment. The tissue samples of the I/R group were grade 4 in histopathological evaluation. In remifentanil + I/R group, on the other hand, the mucosal damage was moderate, staging as grade 1. CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment with remifentanil can attenuate the intestinal I/R injury at a remarkable degree possibly by lowering lipid peroxidation and leukocyte infiltration.

  5. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eduardo Silvio Gouveia; Rabelo, Camila Menezes; Prado Neto, Alberico Ximenes do; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Guimarães, Sérgio Botelho; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6) and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa) or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 and G5 were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Ischemia was achieved by clamping the small intestine and its mesentery, delimiting a segment of bowel 5 cm long and 5 cm apart from the ileocecal valve. In addition, G5 rats underwent reperfusion for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected at the end of the laparotomy (G1), after 30 minutes (G2, G4) and 60 minutes (G3, G5) to determine concentrations of metabolites (pyruvate, lactate), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH). There was a significant decrease in tissue pyruvate and lactate and plasma CPK levels in OKG-treated rats at the end of reperfusion period. GSH levels did not change significantly in ischemia and reperfusion groups. However, TBARS levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in tissue samples in OKG-treated rats subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Short-term pretreatment with OKG before induction of I/R decreases tissue damage, increases pyruvate utilization for energy production in the Krebs cycle and does not attenuate the oxidative stress in this animal model.

  6. In vivo imaging of brain ischemia using an oxygen-dependent degradative fusion protein probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youshi Fujita

    Full Text Available Within the ischemic penumbra, blood flow is sufficiently reduced that it results in hypoxia severe enough to arrest physiological function. Nevertheless, it has been shown that cells present within this region can be rescued and resuscitated by restoring perfusion and through other protective therapies. Thus, the early detection of the ischemic penumbra can be exploited to improve outcomes after focal ischemia. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 is a transcription factor induced by a reduction in molecular oxygen levels. Although the role of HIF-1 in the ischemic penumbra remains unknown, there is a strong correlation between areas with HIF-1 activity and the ischemic penumbra. We recently developed a near-infrared fluorescently labeled-fusion protein, POH-N, with an oxygen-dependent degradation property identical to the alpha subunit of HIF-1. Here, we conduct in vivo imaging of HIF-active regions using POH-N in ischemic brains after transient focal cerebral ischemia induced using the intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion technique in mice. The results demonstrate that POH-N enables the in vivo monitoring and ex vivo detection of HIF-1-active regions after ischemic brain injury and suggest its potential in imaging and drug delivery to HIF-1-active areas in ischemic brains.

  7. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine in adult mice.

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    Toshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 recognizes conserved molecular patterns associated with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and detects some endogenous ligands. Previous studies demonstrated that in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury of the small intestine, the TLR2-dependent signaling exerted preventive effects on the damage in young mice, but did not have a significant effect in neonatal mice. We investigated the role of TLR2 in adult ischemia-reperfusion injury in the small intestine. Wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice at 16 weeks of age were subjected to intestinal I/R injury. Some wild-type mice received anti-Ly-6G antibodies to deplete circulating neutrophils. In wild-type mice, I/R induced severe small intestinal injury characterized by infiltration by inflammatory cells, disruption of the mucosal epithelium, and mucosal bleeding. Compared to wild-type mice, TLR2 knockout mice exhibited less severe mucosal injury induced by I/R, with a 35%, 33%, and 43% reduction in histological grading score and luminal concentration of hemoglobin, and the numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells, respectively. The I/R increased the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the levels of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the small intestine of the wild-type mice by 3.3-, 3.2-, and 13.0-fold, respectively. TLR2 deficiency significantly inhibited the I/R-induced increase in MPO activity and the expression of mRNAs for TNF-α and ICAM-1, but did not affect the expression of COX-2 mRNA. I/R also enhanced TLR2 mRNA expression by 2.9-fold. TLR2 proteins were found to be expressed in the epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells. Neutrophil depletion prevented intestinal I/R injury in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that TLR2 may mediate I/R injury of the small intestine in adult mice via induction of inflammatory

  8. Reduced Ischemia-Reoxygenation Injury in Rat Intestine After Luminal Preservation With a Tailored Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskott, A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Leuvenink, H.G.D.; Dijkstra, G.; Ottens, P.; de Jager, M.H.; Pereira, P.G.D.; Fidler, V.; Groothuis, G.M.M.; Ploeg, R.J.; de Graaf, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The intestine is extremely sensitive to ischemic preservation and reoxygenation injury. Current vascular perfusion and cold storage with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution neglect the intestinal lumen and the ongoing mucosal metabolism during hypothermia. This study was designed to

  9. Bovine intestinal bacteria inactivate and degrade ceftiofur and ceftriaxone with multiple beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Cerniglia, Carl E; Erickson, Bruce D

    2011-11-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.

  10. Bovine Intestinal Bacteria Inactivate and Degrade Ceftiofur and Ceftriaxone with Multiple β-Lactamases▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Erickson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle. PMID:21876048

  11. Conventional alpha beta (αβ) T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Feng, Xiaoyan; Vieten, Gertrud; Dippel, Stephanie; Imvised, Tawan; Gueler, Faikah; Ure, Benno M; Kuebler, Jochen F; Klemann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut. Adult wild-type (WT) and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI. Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  12. Conventional alpha beta (αβ T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut.Adult wild-type (WT and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI.Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable.An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  13. Antioxidative protection of dietary bilberry, chokeberry and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 in mice subjected to intestinal oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion

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    Ahrné Siv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R in the intestines is an inflammatory condition which activates leukocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS and leads to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Bilberry and chokeberry fruits are rich sources of polyphenols which may act as antioxidants and prevent lipid peroxidation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB may improve microbial status in the intestines and increase the metabolic activity towards polyphenolic degradation. The aim of the study was to clarify antioxidative effects of bilberry and chokeberry fruits alone and with addition of a LAB-strain, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19, in an I/R-model in mice. Methods Male BALB/cJ mice were fed the experimental diets for 10 days. Diets consisted of standard chow supplemented with either bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus or chokeberry (Aronia × prunifolia powder alone or in combination with the LAB-strain Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19. I/R-injury was induced by holding superior mesenteric artery clamped for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 240 minutes. Thereafter, colonic and caecal tissues and contents were collected. Malondialdehyde (MDA was used as indicator of lipid peroxidation and was measured by a calorimetric assay, lactobacilli were cultured on Rogosa agar plates and Enterobacteriaceae on VRBG agar plates, anthocyanins and phenolic acids were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Results MDA was significantly decreased in the colon of groups fed bilberry alone (p = 0.030 and in combination with L. plantarum HEAL19 (p = 0.021 compared to the IR-control but not in chokeberry-fed groups. Supplementation with bilberry or chokeberry alone reduced the total number of lactobacilli on the mucosa. Higher concentrations of anthocyanins were found in the colon than in the caecum content of mice. A more varied composition of different anthocyanins was also observed in the colon content compared to the caecum of bilberry-fed mice. Phenolic acids formed by

  14. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Di Grezia, G.; Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical interven...

  15. The Mechanism of Sevoflurane Preconditioning-Induced Protections against Small Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Is Independent of Mast Cell in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Gan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate whether sevoflurane preconditioning can protect against small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR injury and to explore whether mast cell (MC is involved in the protections provided by sevoflurane preconditioning. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to sevoflurane or treated with MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium (CS were subjected to 75-minute superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2-hour reperfusion in the presence or absence of MC degranulator compound 48/80 (CP. Small intestinal ischemia reperfusion resulted in severe intestinal injury as demonstrated by significant elevations in intestinal injury scores and p47phox and gp91phox, ICAM-1 protein expressions and malondialdehyde and IL-6 contents, and MPO activities as well as significant reductions in SOD activities, accompanied with concomitant increases in mast cell degranulation evidenced by significant increases in MC counts, tryptase expression, and β-hexosaminidase concentrations, and those alterations were further upregulated in the presence of CP. Sevoflurane preconditioning dramatically attenuated the previous IIR-induced alterations except MC counts, tryptase, and β-hexosaminidase which were significantly reduced by CS treatment. Furthermore, CP exacerbated IIR injury was abrogated by CS but not by sevoflurane preconditioning. The data collectively indicate that sevoflurane preconditioning confers protections against IIR injury, and MC is not involved in the protective process.

  16. Influência do antibiótico nas lesões de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos The influence of antibiotics on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion: experimental study in rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Muito se tem questionado sobre os efeitos da isquemia intestinal seguida de reperfusão (I/R, chamando a atenção para o papel dos leucócitos na patobiologia da I/R. A fisiopatogenia das lesões está intimamente ligada à geração de radicais de oxigênio durante o período em que se processa a reperfusão. A ruptura da barreira intestinal permitindo a translocação bacteriana agravaria ainda mais estas lesões. Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as lesões intestinais na vigência de isquemia e na reperfusão com e sem antibioticoterapia. Submeteram-se 42 ratos Wistar à anestesia e laparotomia mediana. Obteve-se isquemia intestinal por clampeamento das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal por 30 minutos. Após reperfundiu-se por igual tempo. Metade destes animais receberam 50 mg/kg de eritromicina por via oral nas 24 horas que antecederam o procedimento. Cada um destes grupos foi subdividido em outros 3, constituíndo os subgrupos de controle, isquemia e isquemia/reperfusão. Ao final, ressecaram-se segmentos do intestins delgado para processamento histológico. Avaliaram-se os resultados pela escala de CHIU e col. e submeteram-se os resultados à tratamento estatístico. Observou-se que a mucosa intestinal apresentava-se com padrão normal nos grupos de controle, tanto com antibioticoprofilaxia como sem. Os intestinos submetidos à isquemia com ou se antibioticoprofilaxia mostraram, lesões com descolamento e perda de vilosidades até infartamento transmucoso. Os intestinos reperfundidos apresentavam lesões semelhantes. Verificou-se que os intestinos reperfundidos que receberam antibioticoprofilaxia apresentavam lesões mais graves do que os que sofreram isquemia sem antibioticoprofilaxia (p=0,0303. Concluiu-se que o uso de antibióticos pré-isquemia não diminui a gravidade das lesões histopatológicas da mucosa intestinal, não protegendo das lesões após a reperfusão.The role of the white blood cells in the ischemia and

  17. The expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptosis in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury under the action of ischemic preconditioning and pentoxifylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresinha Regina Ribeiro de; Oliveira, Geraldo Ferreira de; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Feitosa, Suellen Maurim; Tikazawa, Eduardo Hiroshi; Monteiro, Hugo Pequeno; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and apoptosis associated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and pentoxifylline (PTX) in intestinal ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury. Thirty male rats were assigned to 5 groups: (CG), no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery (90 minutes); (IR-SS) saline + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IR-PTX) PTX + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IPC-IR-SS) 5 minutes of ischemia + 5 minutes of reperfusion (IPC) + saline + I(30 minutes)+R(60 minutes); and (IPC-IR-PTX) IPC + PTX + I(30 minutes)+ R(60 minutes). The application of IPC and PTX showed a significantly lower immunohistochemistry reaction for active caspase-3 (P0.05). The NOS-2 expression (qRTPCR) in the IR-PTX group (P<0.05) was higher than the values for the IPC+IR-SS and IPC-IR-PTX groups. The NOS-3 expression was significantly upper in the IPC-IR-PTX group than in the CG (P<0.05), the IR-SS (P<0.05) and the IR-PTX (P<0.05) groups. The BCL-2 and active caspase-3 showed beneficial effects on PTX and IPC. The expression of NOS-2 and NOS-3 in the IPC and IPC-PTX groups showed no synergistic effect.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of infliximab on acute lung injury in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Ahmet; Kanter, Mehmet; Guzel, Aygul; Pergel, Ahmet; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of infliximab on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ infliximab; each group contain 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. After I/R groups animals underwent laparotomy, 1 h of superior mesenteric artery ligation were followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the infliximab group, 3 days before I/R, infliximab (3 mg/kg) was administered by intravenously. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and lung tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more biochemical and histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by infliximab treatment have been reported. Infliximab treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased of reduced superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in lung tissues samples. Intestinal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including edema, hemorrhage, increased thickness of the alveolar wall and a great number of inflammatory cells that infiltrated the interstitium and alveoli. Infliximab treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury. Furthermore, there is a significant reduction in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and arise in the expression of surfactant protein D in lung tissue of acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R with infliximab therapy. It was concluded that infliximab treatment might be beneficial in acute lung injury, therefore, shows potential for clinical use. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, infliximab pretreatment may have protective effects in acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe in a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Daniela Impellizzeri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  20. Mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion injury: clearly improved hemodynamics but only minor protection of the rat small intestine by (sub)therapeutic heparin sodium and enoxaparin doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensi, Mikolaj; de Groot, Herbert; Schulz, Rainer; Hartmann, Matthias; Petrat, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Tissue protection against ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) injury by heparins can be due to their anticoagulant and/or non-anticoagulant properties. Here we studied the protective potential of the anticoagulant and the non-anticoagulant features of heparin sodium (HepSo) and enoxaparin (Enox) against mesenteric I/R injury in a rat model. Mesenteric I/R was induced in rats (n = 6 per group) by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO; 90 min) and reopening (120 min). Therapeutic/clinical and subtherapeutic/non-anticoagulant doses of HepSo (0.25 mg/kg bolus + 0.25 mg/kg × h; 0.05 mg/kg bolus + 0.1 mg/kg × h) or Enox (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 0.5 mg/kg × h; 0.05 mg/kg bolus + 0.1 mg/kg × h) were administered intravenously starting 30 min before SMAO to the end of reperfusion. Systemic/vital and intestinal microcirculatory parameters were measured during the whole experimental procedure, those of small intestine injury at the end. During intestinal reperfusion, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rates were significantly increased by HepSo and, less effectively, by Enox, in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal microcirculation was only affected by the therapeutic HepSo dose, which decreased the microvascular flow and S(O2) during reperfusion. The subtherapeutic Enox treatment, as opposed to any HepSo dose, most effectively diminished I/R-induced intestinal hemorrhages, myeloperoxidase activity (as a measure of neutrophil invasion), and histopathological changes. Therapeutic but, to a lesser extent, also the subtherapeutic doses of both HepSo and Enox clearly improve hemodynamics during mesenteric reperfusion, while intestinal protection is exclusively provided by Enox, especially at its subtherapeutic dose. Alterations in intestinal microcirculation are not responsible for these effects. Thus, non-anticoagulant Enox doses and, preferably, heparin(oid)s unable to affect coagulation, could diminish clinical risks of I/R-induced gastrointestinal complications. Copyright

  1. Contribution of intestinal- and cereal-derived phytase activity on phytate degradation in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2015-07-01

    There is little consensus as to the capability of poultry to utilize dietary phytate without supplemental phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to examine the extent to which endogenous phytase of intestinal and cereal origin contributes to phytate degradation in birds aged 0 to 14 d posthatch. Ross 308 broilers (n = 720) were fed one of 4 experimental diets with differing dietary ingredient combinations and approximate total phytate levels of 10 g/kg, dietary phytase activity analyzed at 460 U/kg, dietary calcium (Ca) levels of 11 g/kg, and nonphytate-phosphorus (P) levels of 4 g/kg. Broiler performance, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum and ileum pH, Ca and P digestibility and solubility, amount of dietary phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard, jejunum, and ileal digesta phytase activity were analyzed at d 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 posthatch. Intestinal endogenous phytase activity increased significantly (P Phytase activity and phytate hydrolysis continued to increase with age, with a greater phytase activity and associated increase in phytate hydrolysis and mineral utilization between d 10 and 12. Gizzard and jejunum Ca and P solubility and ileal Ca and P digestibility increased significantly (P phytase activity recovered in the ileum was approximately 45 U/kg. There were strong correlations between phytase activity measured in the ileum and phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard (r = 0.905, P phytase activity is responsible for phytate-P hydrolysis in broilers. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy. PMID:28638830

  3. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Grezia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  4. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, G; Gatta, G; Rella, R; Donatello, D; Falco, G; Grassi, R; Grassi, R

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  5. Effect of nuclear factor kappa B on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and neutrophil infiltration in lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-Feng; Yao, Ji-Hong; Li, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Song; Feng, Bing-An; Yang, Chun-Ming; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and its effect on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and neutrophil infiltration. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided randomly into control, I/R and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) treatment groups, n = 8 in each. I/R group and PDTC treatment group received superior mysenteric artery (SMA) occluding for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h. PDTC group was administrated with intraperitoneal injection of 2% 100 mg/kg PDTC 1 h before surgery. Lung histology and bronchia alveolus lung fluid (BALF) protein were assayed. Serum IL-6, lung malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as well as the expression level of NF-κB and ICAM-1 were measured. RESULTS: Lung injury induced by intestinal I/R, was characterized by edema, hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration as well as by the significant rising of BALF protein. Compared to control group, the levels of serum IL-6 and lung MDA and MPO increased significantly in I/R group (P = 0.001). Strong positive expression of NF-κB p65 and ICAM-1 was observed. After the administration of PDTC, the level of serum IL-6, lung MDA and MPO as well as NF-κB and ICAM-1 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to I/R group. CONCLUSION: The activation of NF-κB plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by intestinal I/R through upregulating the neutrophil infiltration and lung ICAM-1 expression. PDTC as an inhibitor of NF-κB can prevent lung injury induced by intestinal I/R through inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. PMID:16489637

  6. In vitro ischemia suppresses hypoxic induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by inhibition of synthesis and not enhanced degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama F; Ma, Thong C; Speer, Rachel E; Smirnova, Natalya A; Gazaryan, Irina G; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2013-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediates a broad, conserved adaptive response to hypoxia, and the HIF pathway is a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the mechanism by which in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation; OGD) affects canonical hypoxic HIF-1α stabilization. We validated the use of a reporter containing the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α fused to firefly luciferase (ODD-luc) to monitor quantitatively distinct biochemical events leading to hypoxic HIF-1α expression or stabilization in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). When OGD was imposed following a 2-hr hypoxic stabilization of ODD-luc, the levels of the reporter were reduced, consistent with prior models proposing that OGD enhances HIF prolylhydroxylase (PHD) activity. Surprisingly, PHD inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors do not stabilize ODD-luc in OGD. Furthermore, OGD does not affect the half-life of ODD-luc protein following hypoxia, suggesting that OGD abrogates hypoxic HIF-1α induction by reducing HIF-1α synthesis rather than by enhancing its degradation. We observed ATP depletion under OGD vs. hypoxia and propose that ATP depletion enhances translational suppression, overcoming the selective synthesis of HIF concurrent with global decreases in protein synthesis in hypoxia. Taken together, these findings biochemically characterize a practical reporter for monitoring HIF-1α levels and support a novel model for HIF regulation in an in vitro model of human ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Time-dependent alterations in serum NO concentration after oral administration of L-arginine, L-NAME, and allopurinol in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia E Yanni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Amalia E Yanni1, Eleutherios Margaritis2, Nikolaos Liarakos2, Alkisti Pantopoulou2, Maria Poulakou2, Maria Kostakis2, Despoina Perrea2, Alkis Kostakis31Department of Science of Dietetics and Nutrition, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 2Laboratory of Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 32nd Department of Propedeutic Surgery, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: To study the effect of oral administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor L-arginine (L-Arg, a NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, allopurinol (Allo, on serum NO concentration and catalase activity after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R in rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats received per os L-Arg (800 mg/kg or L-NAME (50 mg/kg or Allo (100 mg/kg 24 hrs, 12 hrs and 1 hr before underwent 1 hr occlusion of superior mesenteric artery followed by 1 hr of reperfusion (L-Arg(IR1, L-NAME(IR1 and Allo(IR1 respectively or 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (L-Arg(IR8, L-NAME(IR8 and Allo(IR8 respectively. There was one group underwent 1 hr occlusion (I, a group underwent 1 hr occlusion followed by 1 hr reperfusion (IR1, a group subjected to 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (IR8 and a last group that served as control (C. Serum NO concentration and catalase activity were measured.Results: After 1 hr of reperfusion serum NO concentration was elevated in IR1 and L-Arg(IR1 groups compared with group C but not in L-NAME(IR1 and Allo(IR1 group. Catalase activity was enhanced in L-NAME(IR1 group. Interestingly, serum NO concentration was increased after 8 hrs of reperfusion in all groups (IR8, L-Arg(IR8, L-NAME(IR8 and Allo(IR8 compared with control while catalase activity did not show significant difference in any group.Conclusions: The results of the

  8. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Eduardo Silvio Gouveia; Rabelo,Camila Menezes; Prado Neto,Alberico Ximenes do; Garcia,José Huygens Parente; Guimarães,Sérgio Botelho; Vasconcelos,Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6) and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa) or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 ...

  9. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

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    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  10. Gluten-degrading bacteria are present in the human small intestine of healthy volunteers and celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José María; Casqueiro, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Gluten is the only known environmental factor that triggers celiac disease. Several studies have described an imbalance between the intestinal microbiota of different individuals based on diagnoses. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that human bacteria may play an important role in gluten hydrolysis. However, there has been no research focusing on the small intestine. This study aimed to characterize the adult small intestine microbiota possibly implicated in gluten hydrolysis. Duodenal biopsies from different diagnosed individuals were cultured in a gluten-containing medium, and the grown microbiota was analyzed by culture dependent/independent methods. Results showed that gluten-degrading bacteria can be found in the human small intestine. Indeed, 114 bacterial strains belonging to 32 species were isolated; 85 strains were able to grow in a medium containing gluten as the sole nitrogen source, 31 strains showed extracellular proteolytic activity against gluten protein and 27 strains showed peptidolytic activity towards the 33 mer peptide, an immunogenic peptide for celiac disease patients. We found that there are no differences based on the diagnosis, but each individual has its own population of gluten-hydrolyzing bacteria. These bacteria or their gluten-degrading enzymes could help to improve the quality of life of celiac disease patients'. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats Efeitos do pré-tratamento em curto prazo com ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusão intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6 and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 and G5 were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Ischemia was achieved by clamping the small intestine and its mesentery, delimiting a segment of bowel 5 cm long and 5 cm apart from the ileocecal valve. In addition, G5 rats underwent reperfusion for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected at the end of the laparotomy (G1, after 30 minutes (G2, G4 and 60 minutes (G3, G5 to determine concentrations of metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and glutathione (GSH. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in tissue pyruvate and lactate and plasma CPK levels in OKG-treated rats at the end of reperfusion period. GSH levels did not change significantly in ischemia and reperfusion groups. However, TBARS levels increased significantly (pOBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da administração enteral preventiva de ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato (OKG em modelo de isquemia-reperfusão no rato. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos foram randomizados em cinco grupos (G1-G5, n=12. Cada grupo foi redistribuído em dois subgrupos (n=6 e tratado com carbonato de cálcio (CaCa ou OKG por gavagem. Trinta minutos mais tarde, os animais foram anestesiados com xilazina 1mg+cetamina 15mg i.p. e submetidos à laparotomia. Os ratos dos grupos G4-G5 foram submetidos à isquemia por 30 minutos. A isquemia foi obtida por pinçamento do intestino delgado, delimitando um segmento com 5 cm de comprimento e distando 5 cm da válvula ileocecal. O

  12. Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in high-protein feedstuffs commonly used in dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, H A; Klopfenstein, T J; Hostetler, D; Fernando, S C; Castillo-Lopez, E; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and AA, and AA composition of the rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) from 3 sources of blood meal (BM1, BM2, and BM3), canola meal (CM), low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LFDG), soybean meal (SBM), and expeller soybean meal (ESBM). Two Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and proximal duodenal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of 16h and for the mobile bag technique. To correct for bacterial contamination of the RUP, 2 methods were used: purines and DNA as bacterial markers. Ruminal degradations of CP were 85.3, 29.8, 40.7, 75.7, 76.9, 68.8, and 37.0 ± 3.93% for BM1, BM2, BM3, CM, LFDG, SBM, and ESBM, respectively. Ruminal degradation of both total essential AA and nonessential AA followed a similar pattern to that of CP across feedstuffs. Based on the ratio of AA concentration in the RUP to AA concentration in the original feedstuff, ruminal incubation decreased (ratio 1) the concentrations of Ile and Met across feedstuffs. Compared with purines, the use of DNA as bacterial marker resulted in a higher estimate of bacterial CP contamination for CM and lower estimates for LFDG and ESBM. Intestinal digestibility of RUP could not be estimated for BM1, BM3, and SBM due to insufficient recovery of residue. For the remaining feedstuffs, intestinal digestibility of RUP was highest for ESBM, followed by BM2 and LFDG, and lowest for CM: 98.8, 87.9, 89.7, and 72.4 ± 1.40%, respectively. Intestinal absorbable dietary protein was higher for BM2 compared with CM and LFDG, at 61.7, 17.9, and 20.7 ± 2.73% CP, respectively. As prices fluctuate, intestinal absorbable protein or AA may be used as a tool to aid in the selection among feedstuffs with different protein quality. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits post-ischemic NAD(+) degradation and dramatically ameliorates brain damage following global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Long, Aaron; Owens, Katrina; Kristian, Tibor

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential cofactor for multiple cellular metabolic reactions and has a central role in energy production. Brain ischemia depletes NAD(+) pools leading to bioenergetics failure and cell death. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is utilized by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme, nicotinamide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) to generate NAD(+). Therefore, we examined whether NMN could protect against ischemic brain damage. Mice were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia and treated with NMN or vehicle at the start of reperfusion or 30min after the ischemic insult. At 2, 4, and 24h of recovery, the proteins poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR), hippocampal NAD(+) levels, and expression levels of NAD(+) salvage pathway enzymes were determined. Furthermore, animal's neurologic outcome and hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was assessed after six days of reperfusion. NMN (62.5mg/kg) dramatically ameliorated the hippocampal CA1 injury and significantly improved the neurological outcome. Additionally, the post-ischemic NMN treatment prevented the increase in PAR formation and NAD(+) catabolism. Since the NMN administration did not affect animal's temperature, blood gases or regional cerebral blood flow during recovery, the protective effect was not a result of altered reperfusion conditions. These data suggest that administration of NMN at a proper dosage has a strong protective effect against ischemic brain injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, L; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Stern, M D; Martinsson, K

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (pruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (pruminants.

  15. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  16. Stem-cell-specific endocytic degradation defects lead to intestinal dysplasia in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Nagy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG is a tumor suppressor involved in autophagy, endocytosis and DNA damage repair, but how its loss contributes to colorectal cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that UVRAG deficiency in Drosophila intestinal stem cells leads to uncontrolled proliferation and impaired differentiation without preventing autophagy. As a result, affected animals suffer from gut dysfunction and short lifespan. Dysplasia upon loss of UVRAG is characterized by the accumulation of endocytosed ligands and sustained activation of STAT and JNK signaling, and attenuation of these pathways suppresses stem cell hyperproliferation. Importantly, the inhibition of early (dynamin-dependent or late (Rab7-dependent steps of endocytosis in intestinal stem cells also induces hyperproliferation and dysplasia. Our data raise the possibility that endocytic, but not autophagic, defects contribute to UVRAG-deficient colorectal cancer development in humans.

  17. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel are reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. The blockage of arteries ... death of the bowel tissue may require a colostomy or ileostomy. This may be short-term or ...

  18. An assessment of differences in the ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in brewer’s grains and maize draff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Majer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The submitted thesis aims to assess the differences between the ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein contained in brewer’s grains (BG and maize draff (AMG. The effectiveness of ruminal degradability was tested using the “in sacco” method on 3 dry Holstain cows fitted with rumen cannulas. The dynamics of ruminal degradability of crude protein (CP was detected after 0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours of samples incubation in the rumen. The intestinal digestibility of crude protein undegradable in the rumen was determined using the “mobile bag” method on 3 dry Holstain cows fitted with duodenal cannulas. The crude protein degradability of BG was detected in the above-mentioned hours (%: 4.06; 18.16; 32.40; 38.56, and 50.70; crude protein degradability of AMG: 42.04; 63.56; 84.47; 85.16, and 87.19. The effectiveness of rumen degradability of BG crude protein at the rate of passage of rumen content 6 % per hour was calculated at 35.33 % and that of AMG, at 76.29 %. Intestinal digestibility of BG crude protein and dry matter at the rate of passage of intestinal content 6 % per hour was calculated at 79.41 % and 22.84 %, respectively, and that of AMG, at 57.01 % and 11.33 %, respectively. The differences between the indicators of both feedstuffs were significant (P < 0.05. The results show that BG are mostly a source of crude protein with higher intestinal digestibility than AMG.

  19. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria......, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content...... for Pelvetia (90 g/kg DM). Spring samples were higher in CP than autumn samples. The effective degradability estimated at 5% rumen passage rate (ED5) of CP varied between species (P Ulva (240 g...

  20. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content......The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria....../kg CP). Digestible rumen escape protein (DEP) varied significantly between species (P Laminaria, Mastocarpus and Palmaria can supply...

  1. Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Toohey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session is appropriate for emergency medicine residents at any level or medical students. Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain. Practitioners must recognize the diagnosis quickly. The clinical course rapidly advances from bowel ischemia to infarction, sepsis, and frequently death. Mesenteric ischemia accounts for approximately 1% of all ED cases of abdominal pain in the elderly, but the mortality is as high as 93%. Objectives: At the end of this simulation session, the learner will: 1 Recognize signs and symptoms of mesenteric ischemia; 2 order appropriately imaging and labs in the workup of an elderly patient with abdominal pain; 3 manage a patient with mesenteric ischemia, a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain in the elderly; 4 discuss anchoring bias, specifically related to patients referred to the ED with an established diagnosis by outside specialists. Methods: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.

  2. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (pspiral magnesium and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia

  3. Lactose in diet influences the degradation of mixed linked β(1-3;1-4)-D-glucan in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    The objective of the current study was to investigate if lactose in diet would influence the degradation of mixed linked β(1–3;1–4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) in the small intestine. Β-glucan is an important cell wall (dietary fiber, DF) component of the endosperm of barley and oats. The digestibility...... of β-glucan in the small intestine from both cereals is among the highest of all DF components, but in one particular study with oat-based diets it was significantly lower than what was found in other studies. In this study whey protein containing lactose was used as protein supplement. Lactose...... is slowly digestible in the small intestine. To investigate if lactose could be causative for the lower digestibility of β-glucan in the study with whey protein, it was decided to quantify the content of lactose in the diets and to analyze for lactose in digesta samples from the small intestine (the small...

  4. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats Efeitos do pré-tratamento em curto prazo com ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusão intestinal em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia Gonçalves; Camila Menezes Rabelo; Alberico Ximenes do Prado Neto; José Huygens Parente Garcia; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6) and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa) or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 ...

  5. Breakdown of mucin as barrier to digestive enzymes in the ischemic rat small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Chang

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the epithelial/mucosal barrier in the small intestine has been associated with different pathologies that originate and/or develop in the gastrointestinal tract. We showed recently that mucin, the main protein in the mucus layer, is disrupted during early periods of intestinal ischemia. This event is accompanied by entry of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the intestinal wall. We hypothesize that the mucin-containing mucus layer is the main barrier preventing digestive enzymes from contacting the epithelium. Mucin breakdown may render the epithelium accessible to pancreatic enzymes, causing its disruption and increased permeability. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mucin as a protection for epithelial integrity and function. A rat model of 30 min splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO was used to study the degradation of two mucin isoforms (mucin 2 and 13 and two epithelial membrane proteins (E-cadherin and toll-like receptor 4, TLR4. In addition, the role of digestive enzymes in mucin breakdown was assessed in this model by luminal inhibition with acarbose, tranexamic acid, or nafamostat mesilate. Furthermore, the protective effect of the mucin layer against trypsin-mediated disruption of the intestinal epithelium was studied in vitro. Rats after SAO showed degradation of mucin 2 and fragmentation of mucin 13, which was not prevented by protease inhibition. Mucin breakdown was accompanied by increased intestinal permeability to FITC-dextran as well as degradation of E-cadherin and TLR4. Addition of mucin to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro protected against trypsin-mediated degradation of E-cadherin and TLR4 and reduced permeability of FITC-dextran across the monolayer. These results indicate that mucin plays an important role in the preservation of the mucosal barrier and that ischemia but not digestive enzymes disturbs mucin integrity, while digestive enzymes actively mediate epithelial cell

  6. A novel serine protease, Sep1, from Bacillus firmus DS-1 has nematicidal activity and degrades multiple intestinal-associated nematode proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ce; Nie, Xiangtao; Tang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuyang; Lin, Jian; Sun, Ming; Peng, Donghai

    2016-04-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause serious harm to agricultural production. Bacillus firmus shows excellent control of PPNs and has been produced as a commercial nematicide. However, its nematicidal factors and mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we showed that B. firmus strain DS-1 has high toxicity against Meloidogyne incognita and soybean cyst nematode. We sequenced the whole genome of DS-1 and identified multiple potential virulence factors. We then focused on a peptidase S8 superfamily protein called Sep1 and demonstrated that it had toxicity against the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and M. incognita. The Sep1 protein exhibited serine protease activity and degraded the intestinal tissues of nematodes. Thus, the Sep1 protease of B. firmus is a novel biocontrol factor with activity against a root-knot nematode. We then used C. elegans as a model to elucidate the nematicidal mechanism of Sep1, and the results showed that Sep1 could degrade multiple intestinal and cuticle-associated proteins and destroyed host physical barriers. The knowledge gained in our study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of B. firmus against PPNs and will aid in the development of novel bio-agents with increased efficacy for controlling PPNs.

  7. Degradabilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína de capim-elefante com três idades de corte Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein of elephant-grass at three cutting ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G. Soares

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a degradabilidade potencial (DP e a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não degradada no rúmen (DIPNDR do capim-elefante em diferentes idades de rebrote (30, 45 e 60 dias e comparou-se a técnica do saco de náilon móvel (in situ com o método de três estádios (in vitro. Para tanto, utilizaram-se seis novilhos mestiços canulados no rúmen e duodeno alimentados exclusivamente com capim-elefante picado. O ensaio de degradabilidade foi realizado com amostras do capim incubadas no rúmen por 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120h. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada utilizando-se os resíduos de incubação por 24 horas. Na técnica in situ os resíduos em sacos de náilon foram colocados no duodeno e recuperados nas fezes. No método in vitro, os resíduos foram submetidos à digestão com HCl-pepsina-pancreatina. Em amostras de capim com idades de 30, 45 e 60 dias foram observados valores de DP da proteína de 87,5; 87,8 e 83,8%, respectivamente. A DIPNDR variou com a idade do capim e foi semelhante entre os métodos in situ e in vitro somente para o capim com 60 dias. O método in situ apresentou estimativa de digestibilidade intestinal mais coerente com as mudanças na composição química do capim-elefante decorrentes do envelhecimento.The potential degradability (PD and intestinal digestibility of ruminal escape protein (IDREP of elephant-grass at 30, 45, and 60 days of regrowth were determined and the mobile bag technique (in situ was compared to the three-stage method (in vitro. Thus, six cross-bred steers with rumen and duodenum canulas were used and fed exclusively with chopped elephant grass. The degradability trial was carried out with grass samples incubated in rumen by 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. The intestinal digestibility was determined using 24-h ruminal incubation residue. In the in situ technique, residues in nylon bags were placed in duodenum and recovered in feces. In the in vitro

  8. Entamoeba histolytica EhCP112 Dislocates and Degrades Claudin-1 and Claudin-2 at Tight Junctions of the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Patricia Cuellar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During intestinal invasion, Entamoeba histolytica opens tight junctions (TJs reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER dropping. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this, we studied in vitro and in vivo the damage produced by the recombinant E. histolytica cysteine protease (rEhCP112 on TJ functions and proteins. rEhCP112 reduced TEER in Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and EhCP112-overexpressing trophozoites provoked major epithelial injury compared to control trophozoites. rEhCP112 penetrated through the intercellular space, and consequently the ion flux increased and the TJs fence function was disturbed. However, macromolecular flux was not altered. Functional in vitro assays revealed specific association of rEhCP112 with claudin-1 and claudin-2, that are both involved in regulating ion flux and fence function. Of note, rEhCP112 did not interact with occludin that is responsible for regulating macromolecular flux. Moreover, rEhCP112 degraded and delocalized claudin-1, thus affecting interepithelial adhesion. Concomitantly, expression of the leaky claudin-2 at TJ, first increased and then it was degraded. In vivo, rEhCP112 increased intestinal epithelial permeability in the mouse colon, likely due to apical erosion and claudin-1 and claudin-2 degradation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that EhCP112 causes epithelial dysfunction by specifically altering claudins at TJ. Thus, EhCP112 could be a potential target for therapeutic approaches against amoebiasis.

  9. Ischemia-reperfusion histopathology alterations of the rabbit intestinal wall with and without ischemic preconditioning Alterações histopatológicas da parede intestinal de coelhos na isquemia-reperfusão com e sem precondicionamento isquêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otoni Moreira Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the histopathology alterations of the intestinal mucosa of rabbits submitted to mesenteric artery ischemia and reperfusion with and without ischemic preconditioning. METHODS: Two groups of ten male New Zealand white rabbits body (weight 2.2-3.0, average 2.5 kg. For mesenteric ischemia induction in all animals the small bowel and mesentery were cut 30cm and 60cm far from the gastroduodenal pyloric transition before the proximal mesenteric artery occlusion. In the Group 1 animals, the proximal mesenteric artery was occluded for 45 min with an atraumatic vascular clamp, followed by reperfusion for 30 min. In the Group 2 the 45 min ischemic phase was preceded by three cycles of ischemia (2 minutes each alternated with three cycles of reperfusion (2 minutes each. For istopathology study small bowel biopsies were obtained before ischemia (control, after 45 min of mesenteric ischemia and at 30 min. of mesenteric artery reperfusion. RESULTS: In the Group I animals, the followings histopathology grade results were observed: t1, mean 2,8; t2, mean 3,3. Using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parameter test, differences between t0 and t1 and t0 and t2 were significants (p0.05. In the Group 2 animals histopathology grade results were: t1 mean 2,6 and t2, mean 2,1. Differences between t0 and t1, t0 and t2 were significant (p0.05 between results of t1 in both groups but histopathology injury observed in Group 1 t2 biopsies were higher (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histopatológicas da mucosa intestinal de coelhos submetidos a isquemia-reperfusão com e sem precondicionamento isquêmicol. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de dez coelhos Nova Zelândia machos com pesos variáveis entre 2,2 e 3,0 kg (média de 2,5 kg de peso corpóreo. Para indução da isquemia, em todos os animais, o intestino delgado e o mesentério foram seccionados 30 cm e 60 cm após a transição pilórica gastroduodenal, antes da oclusão da artéria mesent

  10. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  11. Molecular basis of structural makeup of hulless barley in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle: A novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, D; Yu, P

    2011-10-01

    To date, no study has been done of molecular structures in relation to nutrient degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to (1) reveal molecular structures of hulless barley affected by structural alteration using molecular spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) as a novel approach, and (2) quantify structure features on a molecular basis in relation to digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in cattle. The modeled feeds in this study were 4 types of hulless barley (HB) cultivars modified in starch traits: (a) normal starch cultivar, (b) zero-amylose waxy, (c) waxy, and (d) high-amylose. The molecular structural features were determined using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (ca. 4,000-800 cm(-1)) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The items assessed included infrared intensity attributed to protein amide I (ca. 1,715-1,575 cm(-1)), amide II (ca. 1,575-1,490 cm(-1)), α-helix (ca. 1,648-1,660 cm(-1)), β-sheet (ca. 1,625-1,640 cm(-1)), and their ratio, β-glucan (ca. 1,445-1,400 cm(-1)), total carbohydrates (CHO; ca. 1,188-820 cm(-1)) and their 3 major peaks, structural carbohydrates (ca. 1,277-1,190 cm(-1)), and ratios of amide I to II and amide I to CHO. The results show that (1) the zero-amylose waxy was the greatest in amide I and II peak areas, as well as in the ratio of protein amide I to CHO among HB; (2) α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio differed among HB: the high-amylose was the greatest, the zero-amylose waxy and waxy were the intermediate, and the normal starch was the lowest; (3) HB were similar in β-glucan and CHO molecular structural makeup; (4) altered starch HB cultivars were similar to each other, but were different from the normal starch cultivar in protein molecular makeup; and (5) the rate and extent of rumen degradation of starch and protein were highly related to the molecular structural

  12. Clinical effectiveness of percutaneous angioplasty for acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia: a six case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Min; Jo, Yun Ju; Ahn, Sang Bong; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Young Sook; Bae, June Ho; Cho, Young Kwon

    2011-04-01

    Intestinal ischemia is divided into three categories, namely, acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI), chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI), and colonic ischemia. AMI can result from arterial or venous thrombi, emboli, and vasoconstriction secondary to low-flow states. It is an urgent condition which can result in high mortality rate. The predominant causative factor of CMI is stenosis or occlusion of the mesenteric arterial circulation, and it is characterized by postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Surgery is the treatment of choice for intestinal ischemia. However, it has been recently reported that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement and/or thrombolysis is an effective therapy in various types of mesenteric ischemia. We report six cases of mesenteric ischemia which were successfully treated by percutaneous angioplasty, and review the literature from South Korea.

  13. Ischemia-reperfusion histopathology alterations of the rabbit intestinal wall with and without exclusion of the collateral mesenteric circulation supply Alterações histopatológicas da parede intestinal de coelhos na isquemia-reperfusão com e sem exclusão da circulação mesentérica colateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otoni Moreira Gomes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the histopathology alterations of the intestinal mucosa of rabbits submitted to different times of mesenteric artery ischemia and reperfusion with and without celiac artery collateral circulation supply. METHODS: Two groups of eight male New Zealand white rabbits (weight 2.2-3.5 kg were used in this study. In the Group 1 animals, the proximal mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min with an atraumatic vascular clamp, followed by reperfusion for 60 min. In the Group 2 animals the small bowel and mesentery were cut 30cm and 60cm far from the gastroduodenal pyloric transition before the proximal mesenteric artery occlusion. Small bowel biopsies were obtained before ischemia (control, after 30 min and 60 min of mesenteric ischemia and at 30 and 60 min. of mesenteric artery reperfusion. RESULTS: In the Group I animals, the followings histopathology grade results were observed: t1, mean 0.4 + 0.29; t2, mean 1.9 ± 0.38; t3, 1.9 ± 0.33; t4, 1.2 ± 0.36 and t5, 1.2 ± 0.32. Differences between t0 and t2 and between t3 and t4 were statistically significant (p0.5. In the Group II animals, it was observed: t1, mean 1.6 ± 0.33; t2, 2.4 ± 0.36; t3, 3.0 ± 0.35; t4 3.4 ± 0.31; t5, 3 ± 031. Differences between t0 and t1, t1 and t2, and t2 and t3 were significant (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histopatológicas da mucosa intestinal de coelhos submetidos à isquemia-reperfusão com e sem exclusão da circulação mesentérica colateral. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de oito coelhos Nova Zelândia machos com pesos variáveis entre 2,2 e 3,5 kg de peso corpóreo. Nos animais do Grupo 1, a artéria mesentérica proximal foi ocluida por pinçamento atraumático durante 60 min, seguido de reperfusão por 60 min. No Grupo 2 o intestino delgado e o mesentério foram seccionados 30 cm e 60 após a transição pilórica gastroduodenal antes da oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial. Biópsias da parede intestinal foram obtidas

  14. Intestinal toxicity evaluation of TiO2 degraded surface-treated nanoparticles: a combined physico-chemical and toxicogenomics approach in caco-2 cells

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    Fisichella Matthieu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used due to their specific properties, like UV filters in sunscreen. In that particular case TiO2 NPs are surface modified to avoid photocatalytic effects. These surface-treated nanoparticles (STNPs spread in the environment and might release NPs as degradation residues. Indeed, degradation by the environment (exposure to UV, water and air contact … will occur and could profoundly alter the physicochemical properties of STNPs such as chemistry, size, shape, surface structure and dispersion that are important parameters for toxicity. Although the toxicity of surface unmodified TiO2 NPs has been documented, nothing was done about degraded TiO2 STNPs which are the most likely to be encountered in environment. The superoxide production by aged STNPs suspensions was tested and compared to surface unmodified TiO2 NPs. We investigated the possible toxicity of commercialized STNPs, degraded by environmental conditions, on human intestinal epithelial cells. STNPs sizes and shape were characterized and viability tests were performed on Caco-2 cells exposed to STNPs. The exposed cells were imaged with SEM and STNPs internalization was researched by TEM. Gene expression microarray analyses were performed to look for potential changes in cellular functions. Results The production of reactive oxygen species was detected with surface unmodified TiO2 NPs but not with STNPs or their residues. Through three different toxicity assays, the STNPs tested, which have a strong tendency to aggregate in complex media, showed no toxic effect in Caco-2 cells after exposures to STNPs up to 100 μg/mL over 4 h, 24 h and 72 h. The cell morphology remained intact, attested by SEM, and internalization of STNPs was not seen by TEM. Moreover gene expression analysis using pangenomic oligomicroarrays (4x 44000 genes did not show any change versus unexposed cells after exposure to 10 μg/ mL, which

  15. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... group, animals underwent identical anesthetic and surgical procedures without VF, CPR or defibrillation. ..... focused on this topic and whether TH has the potential of ... thesis proposed by Deitch (1989) is the most popular.

  16. Intestinal transplantation: The anesthesia perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation is a complex and challenging surgery. It is very effective for treating intestinal failure, especially for those patients who cannot tolerate parenteral nutrition nor have extensive abdominal disease. Chronic parental nutrition can induce intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). According to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, children with intestinal failure affected by liver disease secondary to parenteral nutrition have the highest mortality on a waiting list when compared with all candidates for solid organ transplantation. Intestinal transplant grafts can be isolated or combined with the liver/duodenum/pancreas. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has defined intestinal donor criteria. Living donor intestinal transplant (LDIT) has the advantages of optimal timing, short ischemia time and good human leukocyte antigen matching contributing to lower postoperative complications in the recipient. Thoracic epidurals provide excellent analgesia for the donors, as well as recipients. Recipient management can be challenging. Thrombosis and obstruction of venous access maybe common due to prolonged parenteral nutrition and/or hypercoaguability. Thromboelastography (TEG) is helpful for managing intraoperative product therapy or thrombosis. Large fluid shifts and electrolyte disturbances may occur due to massive blood loss, dehydration, third spacing etc. Intestinal grafts are susceptible to warm and cold ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Post-reperfusion syndrome is common. Cardiac or pulmonary clots can be monitored with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Vasopressors maybe used to ensure stable hemodynamics. Post-intestinal transplant patients may need anesthesia for procedures such as biopsies for surveillance of rejection, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, postoperative hemorrhage, anastomotic leaks, thrombosis of grafts etc. Asepsis

  17. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (pRUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  18. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  19. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury Perfil da expressão gênica do estresse oxidativo em camundongos isogênicos após lesão de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Bertoletto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. METHODS: Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6 were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60min of small bowel ischemia and 60min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. RESULTS: On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2% had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8% showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7% were up-regulated and 04 (6.3% were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04% showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04% were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9% genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6% or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%. CONCLUSION: The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil de expressão dos genes associados com estresse oxidativo e contribuir para estabelecer parâmetros sobre o papel das familias de enzimas relacionadas com a lesão de isquemia / reperfusão intestinal. MÉTODOS: Doze camundongos machos isogênicos (C57BL/6 foram distribuídos aleatoriamente: Grupo Controle (CG submetido à laparotomia anestesia, e observado por 120min; Grupo isquemia/reperfusão (IRG

  20. Role of autophagy and its molecular mechanisms in mice intestinal tract after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan Y; Qiu, Wei; Jin, PeiS; Wang, Peng; Sun, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Severe burn can lead to hypoxia/ischemia of intestinal mucosa. Autophagy is the process of intracellular degradation, which is essential for cell survival under stresses, such as hypoxia/ischemia and nutrient deprivation. The present study was designed to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice and further to explore the effect and molecular mechanisms of autophagy on intestinal injury. This study includes three experiments. Kunming species mice were subjected to 30% total body surface area third-degree burn. First, we determined protein of LC3 (light chain 3), beclin-1, and cleaved-caspase3 by Western blotting and immunohistochemical (paraffin) staining to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice. Then, changes of the status of enteric damage postburn were measured by observing intestinal mucosa morphology under a magnifier, hematoxylin and eosin staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting under the condition that the intestinal autophagy was respectively activated by rapamycin and inhibited by 3-methyladenine. Finally, protein of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, LC3-II and beclin-1 were assayed, and mice were treated with compound C before burn. The protein of LC3 and beclin-1 were observed at 1 hour postburn and increased to peak-point at 24 hours, reaching the normal level at 96 hours. The cleaved caspase-3 expression increased at 1 hour postburn, but the peak point occurred at 12 hours and had dropped to normal level at 72 hours. In addition, rapamycin enhanced intestinal autophagy and alleviated burn-induced gut damage, while 3-methyladenine showed the against behavior. The AMPK/mTOR pathway which was inhibited decreased the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, LC3-II, and beclin-1, increasing the expression of phosphorylated mTOR. Intestinal autophagy is activated and response to intestinal

  1. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  3. A influência do azul de metileno na prevenção da lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal The role of the methylene blue as a lung protector after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ação do azul de metileno como supressor da produção de radicais livres de oxigênio, atuando como receptor alternativo de elétrons na enzima xantina oxidase. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia divididos em 2 grupos de 16 animais, os quais foram denominados grupos: experimento e controle. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial por 60 minutos. A reperfusão foi confirmada por meio da verificação do reaparecimento da pulsação na arcada mesentérica. Foi então administrado no grupo experimento 2 ml de azul de metileno 1 % estéril intraperitonealmente, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado solução salina isotônica estéril em mesmo volume e pela mesma via de administração. Após 4 horas de reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados. Amostras dos pulmões foram obtidas para: análise histopatológica, avaliação do edema e para determinação da atividade da xantina oxidase. RESULTADOS: O dano pulmonar encontrado no grupo controle foi superior ao encontrado no grupo experimento. Observou-se uma maior formação de edema nos pulmões do grupo controle. A atividade da xantina oxidase foi semelhante em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O azul de metileno diminui a lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal.PURPOSE: To study the role of methylene blue as an inibitor of superoxide production by xantine oxidase. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups of 16 animals: the control group and the experimental group. All the animals were submitted to a laparotomy for the occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery during 60 minutes. The reperfusion was confirmed by the 'pulsation of the artery after releasing the temporary ligature. In the animals of the control group, 2 ml of saline were injected in the peritoneal cavity and in the animals of the experimental group 2 ml of methylene

  4. Intestinal intraluminal injection of glutamine increases trolox total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion Injeção na luz intestinal de glutamina aumenta a capacidade anti-oxidante total em equivalência ao trolox (TEAC na isquemia-reperfusão hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bicudo Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of intraluminal injection of glutamine on the serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion of the liver observing the applicability of modifications on the original assay method. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats underwent laparotomy to perform a 20 cm blind sac of small bowel and occlusion of the hepatic hilo for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 5 minutes. Into the gut sac it was injected glutamine (glutamine group, n=10 or distilled water (control group, n=10. Ten other animals (sham group underwent laparotomy without artery occlusion. Blood samples were collected for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays in different temperature conditions, reagent quantities and time for spectrophotometer readings. RESULTS: Total antioxidant capacity was significantly greater in glutamine group than in both control group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,44[1,27-1,53] and sham group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,48[1,45-1,59]. CONCLUSION: Glutamine enhanced serum antioxidant capacity. The assay technique consistently reflected the changes in the antioxidant defenses in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar em um modelo experimental de isquemia-reperfusão hepática os efeitos da injeção intraluminal de glutamina na capacidade anti-oxidante total em equivalência ao trolox (TEAC do plasma, verificando a aplicabilidade de modificações ao método original de dosagem. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram submetidos a laparotomia e confecção de uma alça fechada de 20 cm de comprimento envolvendo o intestinal delgado distal seguido do clampeamento do hilo hepático por 30 minutos e reperfusão por 5 minutos. Na alça fechada foi injetada glutamina (grupo glutamina; n=10 ou água destilada (grupo controle; n=10. Em dez animais (grupo sham não foi realizado clampeamento hilar. Coletou-se sangue para dosagem da capacidade antioxidante total em equivalência ao trolox em condições modificadas

  5. Cocaine-associated lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Chris G

    2011-07-25

    Cocaine-associated thrombosis has been reported in the literature with reports of vascular injuries to cardiac, pulmonary, intestinal, placental, and musculoskeletal vessels; however, injury of the pedal vessels is rare. We report on a 31-year-old man who presented 2 months following a cocaine binge with limb-threatening ischemia without an otherwise identifiable embolic source. Angiography confirmed extensive occlusive disease of the tibioperoneal vessels. The patient improved following therapy with heparin and a prostacyclin analogue. Cocaine-induced thrombosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute arterial insufficiency in the lower limb without any other identifiable cause.

  6. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  7. Use of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Inulin as a Marker for Intestinal Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Caturegli, Giorgio; Munoz-Abraham, Armando Salim; Judeeba, Sami; Patron-Lozano, Roger; Morotti, Raffaella; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Geibel, John P

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal ischemia is observed in conditions such as mesenteric ischemia, or during traumatic events such as intestinal transplantation. Intestinal ischemia leads to pathophysiologic disruptions that present as increased fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. We propose a novel method to detect real-time ischemic injury that is used in an in vitro model applicable to intestinal transplantation. Small intestine segments from rats were procured. The segments were attached to customized perfusion chambers. Both intestines were perfused on the vascular side with a Ringer buffer solution. The experimental buffer solution was bubbled with 100% nitrogen to mimic ischemia. Both lumens were perfused with 3 mL HEPES-Ringer solution containing 50 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. Intraluminal samples were collected at 15-minute intervals to measure FITC-inulin concentration using a nanofluorospectrophotometer. Intestinal tissue samples were processed and evaluated by a blinded pathologist using the Park/Chiu scoring system for grading intestinal ischemia. Samples collected from the ischemic intestine showed a significant decrease in FITC-inulin fluorescence compared with the control intestine, indicating enhanced fluid secretion. Histopathologic samples from the experimental arm exhibited higher scores of ischemic injury in comparison with the control arm, confirming the FITC-inulin as a correlation to ischemia. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin can be used as a real-time volume marker to monitor the ischemic state of intestinal tissue. A positive correlation between the degree of fluid shift and presence of ischemic injury. The changes in fluorescence signal provide a potential selective method to measure real-time fluid changes inside an intestinal graft to evaluate viability. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Crohn Disease Additional Content Medical News Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (Idiopathic Hypoproteinemia) By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, ... Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal ... Intolerance Short Bowel Syndrome Tropical Sprue Whipple ...

  9. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colostomy ) is required to relieve an obstruction. Understanding Colostomy In a colostomy, the large intestine (colon) is cut. The part ... 1 What Causes Intestinal Strangulation? Figure 2 Understanding Colostomy Gastrointestinal Emergencies Overview of Gastrointestinal Emergencies Abdominal Abscesses ...

  10. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  11. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  12. Apical-to-basolateral transepithelial transport of cow's milk caseins by intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers: MS-based quantitation of cellularly degraded α- and β-casein fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nao; Nishio, Shunsuke; Akiyama, Yuka; Miyata, Shinji; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2018-02-27

    Casein is the major milk protein to nourish infants but, in certain population, it causes cow's milk allergy, indicating the uptake of antigenic casein and their peptides through the intestinal epithelium. Using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apical-to-basal transepithelial transport of casein was investigated. Confocal microscopy using component-specific antibodies showed that αs1-casein antigens became detectable as punctate signals at the apical-side cytoplasm and reached to the cytoplasm at a tight-junction level within a few hours. Such intracellular casein signals were more remarkable than those of the other antigens, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, colocalized in part with an early endosome marker protein, EEA1, and decreased in the presence of cytochalasin D or sodium azide and also at lowered temperature at 4 °C. LC-MS analysis of the protein fraction in the basal-side medium identified the αs1-casein fragment including the N-terminal region and the αs2-casein fragment containing the central part of polypeptide at 100∼1000 fmol per well levels. Moreover, β-casein C-terminal overlapping peptides were identified in the peptide fraction below 10 kDa of the basal medium. These results suggest that caseins are partially degraded by cellular proteases and/or peptidases and immunologically active casein fragments are transported to basal side of the cell monolayers.

  13. Migraine and ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wammes-van der Heijden, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    An association between migraine and ischemic events, especially ischemic stroke, has been debated for many years. Whether migraine is a risk factor for ischemic events or ischemia triggers migraine, or both, is still unclear. This thesis explores different relationships between migraine and

  14. Intestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  16. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  17. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  18. Rumen Degradation Characteristics and Intestinal Digestibility of Whole Corn Silages from Different Areas%不同产地全株玉米青贮的瘤胃降解特性与小肠消化率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 李春雷; 赵洪波; 张永根

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同产地全株玉米青贮的营养价值、瘤胃降解特性以及小肠消化率的差异. 选取产自于甘肃( A)、山东( B)、四川( C)、陕西( D)和沈阳( E) 5个地区的全株玉米青贮样品,进行常规营养成分和氨基酸组成分析. 选用3头体重为550 kg左右、安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的荷斯坦奶牛,采用尼龙袋法测定5 个产地的全株玉米青贮的干物质( DM )、粗蛋白质( CP)、中性洗涤纤维( NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维( ADF)的瘤胃降解参数以及 DM、CP 和氨基酸( AA)的小肠消化率. 结果表明:不同产地的全株玉米青贮常规营养成分存在差异. 5 个产地的全株玉米青贮的DM、CP、NDF、ADF瘤胃有效降解率之间存在差异,其高低顺序分别为B>E>A>D>C、C>A>D>B>E、B>A>D>C>E、D>A>C>B>E. 5个产地的全株玉米青贮的DM、CP和各AA小肠消化率之间存在差异,其中DM、CP和总氨基酸( TAA)小肠消化率的高低顺序分别为C>A>D>B>E、C>A>B>D>E、A>D>B>C>E. 由此得出,不同产地的全株玉米青贮的营养成分含量、瘤胃降解参数以及小肠消化率存在较大差异,在全株玉米青贮的使用中应快速准确地测量其中各种营养成分的含量,以便更有效地利用饲料资源,避免浪费.%The objective of this study was to research the differences in nutritional value, rumen degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of whole corn silages from different areas. Five whole corn silage sam?ples were collected from Gansu ( A) , Shandong ( B) , Sichuan ( C) , Shaanxi ( D) and Shenyang ( E) , and the common nutritional components and amino acid composition of feed samples were analysed. Three perma?nent ruminal cannulated Holstein cows with around 550 kg of body weight were used to evaluate rumen degra?dation characteristics of dry matter ( DM) , crude protein ( CP) , neutral detergent fiber ( NDF) and acid deter

  19. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  20. Development of a hydrogel-based carbon dioxide sensor : a tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a new type of CO2 sensor is described. The main application of the sensor is measuring the partial pressure of CO2 in the stomach to diagnose gastrointestinal ischemia, which occurs when blood flow is insufficient to deliver oxygen to the stomach and intestines.

  1. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  2. Pathophysiological appraisal of a rat model of total hepatic ischemia with an extracorporeal portosystemic shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Nakamura, S; Sakaguchi, T; Mitsuoka, H; Tsuchiya, Y; Kojima, Y; Konno, H; Baba, S

    1998-11-01

    Animal models of total hepatic ischemia (THI) and reperfusion injury are restricted by concomitant splanchnic congestion. This study was performed to determine the requirement suitable for an extracorporeal portosystemic shunt (PSS) to maintain the intestinal integrity in a rat model of THI. Using a polyethylene tube (0.86 or 1 mm i.d.), PSS was placed between the mesenteric and jugular veins. Comparison was done between THI models with or without PSS and a partial ischemia model with hepatectomy of the nonischemic lobes. Well-tolerated hepatic ischemic period, portal pressure after 10 min of hepatic ischemia, portal endotoxin levels at 1 h after reperfusion, histological features of the small bowel just before reperfusion, and local jejunal and ileal blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation index (ISO2) were compared among the models. Animals without PSS poorly tolerated 30 min of THI. Animals receiving THI with PSS or partial hepatic ischemia tolerated a longer ischemic period (60 min) with a significantly higher small bowel ISO2, lower portal pressure and endotoxin levels (P tube as well as partial hepatic ischemia were significantly lower than those after THI with PSS using a 0.86-mm i.d. tube. THI with PSS using a 1-mm i.d. tube was strikingly similar to partial hepatic ischemia in the pathophysiological profile during hepatic ischemia. PSS with a tube 1 mm or more in inner diameter offers pathophysiological advantages in experiments on THI and reperfusion. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Intestinal malrotation as a cause for abdominal pain in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guillermo Lubinus Badillo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We show the case of a 63 year old woman complaining of chronicabdominal pain and bilious vomiting. The patient was admitted tothe hospital with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction which got better by medical treatment. After performing an abdominal computarized tomography, a midgut volvulus was diagnosed and later confirmed by an intestinal transit time. The patient was discharged with out symptoms after medical treatment and an elective procedure was scheduled (Ladd procedure and to reduce the risk of volvulusand intestinal ischemia. We discuss the clinical presentation of thedisease, the diagnostic methods used and the treatment optionsavailable.

  4. Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Moyses de Oliveira; Figueiredo, Geraldo L.; Simoes, Marcus V.; Pyntia, Antonio O.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and explains the occurrence of angina, in about 50% of patients. The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia may be explained by the increase of the ventricular mass and relative paucity of the coronary microcirculation; the elevated ventricular filling pressures and myocardial stiffness causing a compression of the coronary microvessels; the impaired coronary vasodilator flow reserve caused by anatomic and functional abnormalities; and the systolic compression of epicardial vessel (myocardial bridges). Myocardial ischemia must be investigated by perfusion scintigraphic methods since its presence influences the prognosis and has relevant clinical implications for management of patients. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and documented myocardial ischemia usually need to undergo invasive coronary angiography to exclude the presence of concomitant atherosclerotic coronary disease. (author)

  5. Antithrombin III prevents deleterious effects of remote ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of colonic anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Koray; Aytekin, Faruk; Ozden, Akin; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Erdem, Ergün; Sungurtekin, Ugur; Güney, Yildiz

    2002-08-01

    Antithrombin III is known as the most important natural inhibitor of thrombin activity and has been shown to attenuate local harmful effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury in many organs. In recent animal studies, delaying effect of remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of intestinal anastomoses has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated whether antithrombin III reduces deleterious systemic effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. Anastomosis of the left colon was performed in 24 rats that were divided into three groups: sham operated control (group I, n = 8), 30 minutes of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group II, n = 8), antithrombin III treated group (250 U/kg before and after the ischemia-reperfusion, group III, n = 8). On postoperative day 6, all animals were sacrificed, and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline content of the anastomoses were assessed and compared. On postoperative day 6 the mean bursting pressures were 149.6 +/- 4.8, 69.8 +/- 13.5, and 121.8 +/- 8.7 mm Hg for groups I, II, and III, respectively (P = 0.000). Mean tissue hydroxyproline concentration values were 389.5 +/- 29.6, 263.1 +/- 10.0, and 376.0 +/- 33.8 microg/mg for groups I, II, III respectively (P = 0.005). This study showed that, antithrombin III treatment significantly prevented the delaying effect of remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury on anastomotic healing in the colon. Further clinical studies are needed to clarify whether antithrombin may be a useful therapeutic agent to increase the safety of the anastomosis during particular operations where remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury takes place.

  6. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  7. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  8. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  9. Intestinal myiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  10. Acute bowel ischemia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Giuseppe; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Rotondo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia represents one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies and, despite the fact it is more and more frequently observed in clinical practice, its mortality rate remains very high. In recent years Computed Tomography (CT) has proved to be a valid diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal syndrome and in the visualization of early signs of bowel ischemia. This paper reviews the aetiological and pathophysiological aspects as well as a broad spectrum of CT findings of this clinical condition

  11. Experimental mesenteric ischemia. Radioisotopic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, Carlos; Dallaglio, Juan; Sarra, Luis; Obiols, Eugenio; Rodriguez Santos, Emilio; Delgado, Eduardo; Castelleti, Luis

    1995-01-01

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique with 99-Tc-DMP for the early diagnosis of small bowel infarction due to mesenteric artery compression, was evaluated. The usefulness of 99-Tc-DMP and critical pressure of mesenteric artery were demonstrated. The diagnosis was performed before one hour had passed from the beginning of the ischemia

  12. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  13. Degradation of structurally different non-digestible oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria: glycosylhydrolases of Bifidobacterium adolescentis = Afbraak van in structuur verschillende niet-verteerbare oligosacchariden door darmbacteriën : glycosylhydrolasen van Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laere, Van K.

    2000-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are oligosaccharides, which resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and which are fermented in the colon by intestinal bacteria. Some NDOs are considered bifidogenic, meaning that they selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in

  14. [Adult intestinal malrotation associated with intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Almudí, Ernesto; Cerdán-Pascual, Rafael; Vallejo-Bernad, Cristina; Martín-Cuartero, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rubio, María; Casamayor-Franco, Carmen

    Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age. Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons. Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kurz, Nadja Rebecca; Nitschke, Claudia; Odeh, Siad F; Möslein, Gabriela; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2018-03-16

    About 100 000 ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience. Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. More than 75% of all stomata are placed as part of the treatment of colorectal cancer. The incidence of stoma-related complications is reported to be 10-70%. Skin irritation, erosion, and ulceration are the most common early complications, with a combined incidence of 25-34%, while stoma prolapse is the most common late complication, with an incidence of 8-75%. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. In 19% of cases, an ostomy that was initially planned to be temporary becomes permanent. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications. Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers.

  16. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references

  17. Myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    The detection of myocardial ischemia is essential for evaluation of patients with Kawasaki disease, especially who have had coronary artery lesions. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after dipyridamole infusion (maximum dose 0.70 mg/kg) for detecting myocardial ischemia, 44 patients with Kawasaki disease aged 7.7±4.8 years at the study and 10 age matched controls were observed. In the Kawasaki disease group, significant coronary artery stenosis was observed in 14, coronary aneurysm without stenosis in 18, the regression of the coronary aneurysms in 2 and without coronary lesions in 10 patients. In 24 of 44 patients, treadmill exercise stress test was also performed at the same period. Myocardial ischemic changes were observed in 11 patients, all combined with significant coronary artery stenosis. The sensitivity of SPECT for detection of overall coronary stenosis was 79%, coronary that of treadmill exercise test was only 33% (p<0.001). Furthermore, among the patients having significant coronary stenosis, the severity score was significantly elevated in patients who had electrocardiographic abnormal Q wave compared to those without abnormal Q wave (51.0±38.8 versus 20.0±12.1, p<0.05). These data suggest that the pharmacological stress scintigraphy using dipyridamole injection provides not only the accurate detection but quantitative evaluation of myocardial ischemia in these patients. This noninvasive technique may become one of the most useful index for detection and follow-up of myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease. (author)

  18. Intestinal tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described

  19. Portal-venous gas unrelated to mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Ros, Pablo R.; Glickman, Jonathan N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on 8 patients with all different non-ischemic etiologies for portal-venous gas and to discuss this rare entity and its potentially misleading CT findings in context with a review of the literature. The CT examinations of eight patients who presented with intrahepatic portal-venous gas, unrelated to bowel ischemia or infarction, were reviewed and compared with their medical records with special emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical impact of portal-venous gas caused by non-ischemic conditions. The etiologies for portal-venous gas included: abdominal trauma (n=1); large gastric cancer (n=1); prior gastroscopic biopsy (n=1); prior hemicolectomy (n=1); graft-vs-host reaction (n=1); large paracolic abscess (n=1); mesenteric recurrence of ovarian cancer superinfected with clostridium septicum (n=1); and sepsis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1). The clinical outcome of all patients was determined by their underlying disease and not negatively influenced by the presence of portal-venous gas. Although the presence of portal-venous gas usually raises the suspicion of bowel ischemia and/or intestinal necrosis, this CT finding may be related to a variety of non-ischemic etiologies and pathogeneses as well. The knowledge about these conditions may help to avoid misinterpretation of CT findings, inappropriate clinical uncertainty and unnecessary surgery in certain cases. (orig.)

  20. Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Small Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein of Six Feed Ingredients%6种饲料原料瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质的小肠消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连生; 牛俊丽; 徐元君; 王芳; 郑琛; 李发第; 郭江鹏; 卜登攀

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal degradation characteristics and small intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) of six feed ingredients for dairy cows from Xinjiang, including corn silage, cottonseed hulls, alfalfa meal, alfalfa hay, grape seed meal and tomato sauce residue.Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulas were selected to estimate the ruminal degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and small intestinal digestibility and intestinal digestible crude protein (IDCP) content of RUP by nylon-bag technique and modified three-step in vitro method.The results showed as follows:1) DM effective degradability of alfalfa meal and corn silage was higher, which was significantly higher than that of alfalfa hay and tomato sauce residue (P alfalfa meal > corn silage > alfalfa hay > cottonseed hulls > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P alfalfa meal > cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > grape seed meal, and the differences among feed ingredients were significant (P cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > alfalfa meal > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P苜蓿草粉>玉米青贮>苜蓿干草>棉籽壳>葡萄籽粕,各原料间差异显著(P苜蓿草粉>棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>苜蓿草粉>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P0.05),显著高于依次降低的玉米青贮、番茄酱渣、葡萄籽粕、棉籽壳(P<0.05).综上所述,不同饲料原料具有不同的瘤胃降解特性,进入小肠IDCP的含量也不同.玉米青贮的DM、NDF和ADF在瘤胃的有效降解率较高,苜蓿草粉RUP的Idg较高,苜蓿草粉和苜蓿干草的IDCP含量较高.

  1. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying in bed for long periods of time (bedridden). Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include ... be tried: Colonoscopy may be used to remove air from the large intestine. Fluids can be given ...

  2. Global brain ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B C; Grossman, L I; O'Neil, B J; DeGracia, D J; Neumar, R W; Rafols, J A; Krause, G S

    1996-05-01

    Brain damage accompanying cardiac arrest and resuscitation is frequent and devastating. Neurons in the hippocampus CA1 and CA4 zones and cortical layers III and V are selectively vulnerable to death after injury by ischemia and reperfusion. Ultrastructural evidence indicates that most of the structural damage is associated with reperfusion, during which the vulnerable neurons develop disaggregation of polyribosomes, peroxidative damage to unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane, and prominent alterations in the structure of the Golgi apparatus that is responsible for membrane assembly. Reperfusion is also associated with vulnerable neurons with prominent production of messenger RNAs for stress proteins and for the proteins of the activator protein-1 complex, but these vulnerable neurons fail to efficiently translate these messages into the proteins. The inhibition of protein synthesis during reperfusion involves alteration of translation initiation factors, specifically serine phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (elF-2 alpha). Growth factors--in particular, insulin--have the potential to reverse phosphorylation of elF-2 alpha, promote effective translation of the mRNA transcripts generated in response to ischemia and reperfusion, enhance neuronal defenses against radicals, and stimulate lipid synthesis and membrane repair. There is now substantial evidence that the insulin-class growth factors have neuron-sparing effects against damage by radicals and ischemia and reperfusion. This new knowledge may provide a fundamental basis for a rational approach to "cerebral resuscitation" that will allow substantial amelioration of the often dismal neurologic outcome now associated with resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

  3. Myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, A.P.; Fox, K.M.; Jonathan, A.; Lavender, P.; Watson, I.

    1981-01-01

    Ambulatory monitoring of ST segment changes was performed in 60 patients presenting with angina, positive ECG stress tests and coronary artery disease, 85% of ischemic ECG events were asymptomatic, 37% occurred with no increase in heart rate and 15% of episodes either lasted 20 minutes or more or fluctuated in severity. A controlled pilot study in ten patients showed depression. Radionuclide studies in 50 patients with angina and coronary artery disease have shown that stress (i.e., atrial pacing) produced different patterns of disturbed regional myocardial perfusion related to the patient's exercise capacity and eventually leading to a decrease in regional myocardial perfusion during the ischemic episode. ST segment depression appeared only after the decrease in regional myocardial perfusion. These findings combined with past research suggest that patients with angina and coronary artery disease can suffer frequent asymptomatic disturbances of the regional myocardial perfusion. The frequency of these episodes and the time course for the recovery of the metabolic consequences mean that segments of ventricular myocardium may be constantly abnormal. The relative importance of changes in coronary tone and malfunction of platelets in the diseased coronary tree needs to be examined in clinical research. Pilot studies of antiplatelet agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on episodes of ischemia occurring at night and those occurring without any increase in heart rate. The techniques and observations in these patients with coronary artery disease all suggest that acute transient regional myocardial ischemia is caused by a variety of mechnisms. Further research using objective methods is required to discover the causes of ischemia and to rationalize treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryer, Evan J; Kalra, Manju; Oderich, Gustavo S; Duncan, Audra A; Gloviczki, Peter; Cha, Stephen; Bower, Thomas C

    2012-06-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) remains difficult to diagnose, carries a high rate of complications, and is associated with significant mortality. We evaluated our experience with AMI over the last 2 decades to evaluate changes in management and assess current outcomes. Data from consecutive patients who underwent arterial revascularization for AMI over a 20-year period (January 1990-January 2010) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, treatment modalities, and outcomes over the last decade (2000-2010) were compared with those of the preceding decade (1990-1999) previously reported. Over the last 2 decades, 93 patients with AMI underwent emergency arterial revascularization. Forty-five patients were treated during the 1990s and 48 during the 2000s. The majority of these patients were transferred from outside facilities. Patient demographics and risk factors were similar between the 2 decades with the exception that the more contemporary patients were significantly older (65.1 ± 14 vs 71.3 ± 14; P = .04). Etiology remained constant between the groups with in situ thrombosis being the most common followed by arterial embolus. The majority of patients were treated with open revascularization. Endovascular therapy alone or as a hybrid procedure was used in 11 total patients, eight of which were treated in the last 10 years. The use of second-look laparotomy was much more liberal in the last decade (80% vs 48%; P = .003) Thirty-day mortality was 27% in the 1990s and 17% during the 2000s (P = 0.28). Major adverse events occurred in 47% of patients with no difference between decades. There was no significant difference in outcomes between open and endovascular revascularization. On univariate analysis, elevated SVS comorbidity score, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease predicted early death, while a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia appeared protective. On multivariate analysis, no factor independently predicted perioperative

  5. Chick embryo partial ischemia model: a new approach to study ischemia ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamantak Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4(th day incubated chick embryo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha, creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1alpha, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1alpha expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1alpha expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1alpha in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in

  6. Hemorheological changes in ischemia-reperfusion: an overview on our experimental surgical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Norbert; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessel occlusions of various origin, depending on the duration and extension, result in tissue damage, causing ischemic or ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Necessary surgical clamping of vessels in vascular-, gastrointestinal or parenchymal organ surgery, flap preparation-transplantation in reconstructive surgery, as well as traumatological vascular occlusions, all present special aspects. Ischemia and reperfusion have effects on hemorheological state by numerous ways: besides the local metabolic and micro-environmental changes, by hemodynamic alterations, free-radical and inflammatory pathways, acute phase reactions and coagulation changes. These processes may be harmful for red blood cells, impairing their deformability and influencing their aggregation behavior. However, there are still many unsolved or non-completely answered questions on relation of hemorheology and ischemia-reperfusion. How do various organ (liver, kidney, small intestine) or limb ischemic-reperfusionic processes of different duration and temperature affect the hemorheological factors? What is the expected magnitude and dynamics of these alterations? Where is the border of irreversibility? How can hemorheological investigations be applied to experimental models using laboratory animals in respect of inter-species differences? This paper gives a summary on some of our research data on organ/tissue ischemia-reperfusion, hemorheology and microcirculation, related to surgical research and experimental microsurgery.

  7. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  8. [Brain protection against cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical trials failed to show the benefit of several potentially protective drugs in acute ischemic stroke. However, there would be three main approaches for brain protection against stroke. The first is to develop a novel thrombolytic agent which is more efficient and safer than alteplase. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are in progress as a new thrombolytic drug. The second strategy is to augment collateral circulation through leptomeningeal anastomosis. Administration of G-CSF could enhance arteriogenesis, but it takes several days to develop functional collateral. For this purpose, partial aortic balloon clumping or stimulation of pterygopalatine ganglion may be promising. The third one is to protect neurovascular unit against reperfusion injury. Brain hypothermia is the most effective strategy in experimental ischemia, and the clinical trial for hypothermia combined with thrombolysis therapy is in progress. Activation of endogenous protective response, as presented by ischemic tolerance, has focused on remote ischemic conditioning. Although the precise mechanisms of remote preconditioning remain unclear, intermittent limb ischemia is a safe approach. Remote ischemic conditioning is now investigated in acute patients with thrombolysis therapy.

  9. [Management of Acute Type A Dissection Complicated with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomonobu; Usui, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia as malperfusion syndrome associated with acute aortic dissection is a difficult situation. The incidence is approximately 3~4% in acute type A dissection. Traditionally, most of these patients underwent immediate simple central aortic repair expecting that mesenteric artery obstruction and intestinal ischemia would be resolved by simple central aortic repair. However, short term mortality has been reported very high in this strategy. With the aid of rapidly progressing imaging techniques and newer endovascular repair techniques, results seem to be improving in recent years. Newer management strategy include aggressive and patient specific revascularization to the mesenteric arteries, delayed central aortic repair, and meticulous intensive care. Diagnosis and management of this condition require high level of expertise. Cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists, general surgeons, anesthesiologists, intensivists must corporate to save these patients' lives. Since this is a relatively rare condition, scientific evidence is insufficient to make robust recommendations. Further studies are warranted.

  10. Initial results from an agressive roentgenological and surgical approach to acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, S J; Sprayregan, S; Siegelman, S S; Veith, F J

    1977-12-01

    The 70% to 80% mortality rate of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) has remained unchanged over the past 40 years. We report here the initial results using an aggressive approach to this problem. This included the earlier and more liberal use of angiography in patients at risk and the intra-arterial infusion of papaverine for the relief of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) vasoconstriction in both nonocclusive and occlusive forms of AMI. Of the first 50 patients managed by this approach, 35 (70%) had AMI demonstrated by SMA angiography, Nineteen (54%) of these 35 patients survived, including nine of 15 patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, seven of 16 with SMA embolus, two of three patients with SMA thrombosis, and the one patient with mesenteric venous thrombosis. Seventeen of the 19 survivors lost no bowel or had excision of less than 3 feet of small intestine.

  11. Acute mesenteric ischemia: guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Kashuk, Jeffry; Moore, Ernest E; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Rubinstein, Chen; Balogh, Zsolt J; Civil, Ian; Coccolini, Federico; Leppaniemi, Ari; Peitzman, Andrew; Ansaloni, Luca; Sugrue, Michael; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention are the cornerstones of modern treatment and are essential to reduce the high mortality associated with this entity. The advent of endovascular approaches in parallel with modern imaging techniques may provide new options. Thus, we believe that a current position paper from World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) is warranted, in order to put forth the most recent and practical recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of AMI. This review will address the concepts of AMI with the aim of focusing on specific areas where early diagnosis and management hold the strongest potential for improving outcomes in this disease process. Some of the key points include the prompt use of CT angiography to establish the diagnosis, evaluation of the potential for revascularization to re-establish blood flow to ischemic bowel, resection of necrotic intestine, and use of damage control techniques when appropriate to allow for re-assessment of bowel viability prior to definitive anastomosis and abdominal closure.

  12. The novel guanylhydrazone CPSI-2364 ameliorates ischemia reperfusion injury after experimental small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Websky, Martin von; Fujishiro, Jun; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Praktiknjo, Michael; Wehner, Sven; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Kitamura, Koji; Kalff, Joerg C; Schaefer, Nico; Pech, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    Resident macrophages within the tunica muscularis are known to play a crucial role in initiating severe inflammation in response to ischemia reperfusion injury after intestinal transplantation contributing to graft dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and possibly, acute rejection. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is a key player in the signaling of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CPSI-2364, an apparent macrophage-specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in an isogenic intestinal rat transplantation model. Recipient and donor animals were treated perioperatively with CPSI-2364 (1 mg/kg, intravenously) or vehicle solution. Nontransplanted animals served as control. Animals were killed 30 min, 3 hr, and 18 hr after reperfusion. CPSI-2364 treatment resulted in significantly less leukocyte infiltration and significantly improved graft motor function (18 hr). Messenger RNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6) and kinetic active mediators (NO) was reduced by CPSI-2364 in the early phase after transplantation. Histologic evaluation revealed the protective effects of CPSI-2364 treatment by a significantly less destruction of mucosal integrity at all time points. Perioperative treatment with CPSI-2364 improves graft motor function through impaired inflammatory responses to ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and suppression of nitric oxide production in macrophages. CPSI-2364 presents as a promising complementary pharmacological approach preventing postoperative dysmotility for clinical intestinal transplantation.

  13. Regional blood flow distribution and oxygen metabolism during mesenteric ischemia and congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ruy J; Garrido, Alejandra G; Ribeiro, Cristiane M F; Harada, Tomoyuki; Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is a potentially fatal vascular emergency with mortality rates ranging between 60% and 80%. Several studies have extensively examined the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of superior mesenteric artery occlusion. On the other hand, the cardiocirculatory derangement and the tissue damage induced by intestinal outflow obstruction have not been investigated systematically. For these reasons we decided to assess the initial impact of venous mesenteric occlusion on intestinal blood flow distribution, and correlate these findings with other systemic and regional perfusion markers. Fourteen mongrel dogs were subjected to 45 min of superior mesenteric artery (SMAO) or vein occlusion (SMVO), and observed for 120 min after reperfusion. Systemic hemodynamics were evaluated using Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters. Regional blood flow (ultrasonic flow probes), intestinal O(2)-derived variables, and mesenteric-arterial and tonometric-arterial pCO(2) gradients (D(mv-a)pCO(2) and D(t-a)pCO(2)) were also calculated. SMVO was associated with hypotension and low cardiac output. A significant increase in the regional pCO(2) gradients was also observed in both groups during the ischemic period. After reperfusion, a progressive reduction in D(mv-a)pCO(2) occurred in the SMVO group; however, no improvement in D(t-a)pCO(2) was observed. The histopathologic injury scores were 2.7 +/- 0.5 and 4.8 +/- 0.2 for SMAO and SMVO, respectively. SMV occlusion promoted early and significant hemodynamic and metabolic derangement at systemic and regional levels. Additionally, systemic pCO(2) gradient is not a reliable parameter to evaluate the local intestinal oxygenation. Finally, the D(t-a)pCO(2) correlates with histologic changes during intestinal congestion or ischemia. However, minor histologic changes cannot be detected using this methodology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1989-01-01

    To investigate myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia, we performed exercise stress myocardial tomography with thallium-201 (Tl) in 85 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise stress myocardial tomography was obtained both immediately after exercise and three hours later. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence (Symptomatic Group, n=36) or absence (Silent Group, n=49) of chest pain during exercise stress. Clinical features (age, gender and history of myocardial infarction) and arteriographically determined severity of CAD were the same in both groups. The extent of myocardial ischemia (% Ischemia) estimated by exercise stress myocardial tomography was the same in each group (30±10 % in Silent Group, 28±12 % in Symptomatic Group, NS). The severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was expressed as a minimal value of myocardial Tl washout rate (minimal WOR) of each patient. Although exercise heart rate was identical in both groups, minimal WOR in Silent Group was significantly higher than that of Symptomatic Group (4±10% vs -16±14%, p<0.001). The study in patients who exhibited both silent and symptomatic ischemia showed the same results. These findings suggest that the severity of ischemia is a fundamental factor in determining the presence or absence of pain during exercise induced ischemia. (author)

  15. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Somaio Neto, Frederico; Chaves, José Carlos; Teruya, Roberto; Bertoletto, Eduardo Rodrigues; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José

    2012-11-01

    To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120 min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60 min of small bowel ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters) for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2%) had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8%) showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7%) were up-regulated and 04 (6.3%) were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04%) showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04%) were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9%) genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6%) or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%). The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.

  16. 6种肉牛常用粗饲料瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质的小肠消化率%Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Small Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein of Six Kinds of Commonly Used Roughages for Steers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 张晓明; 王之盛; 彭全辉; 邹华围

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究黑麦草、牛鞭草、甘薯蔓、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草共6种肉牛常用粗饲料的瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)的小肠消化率。选用3头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的宣汉阉公牛为试验动物,采用尼龙袋技术评定6种粗饲料的干物质( DM)、粗蛋白质( CP)、中性洗涤纤维( NDF)和酸性洗涤纤维( ADF)瘤胃降解率,并用改进三步法评价RUP的小肠消化率。结果表明:1)黑麦草和甘薯蔓DM有效降解率较高,并与依次降低的牛鞭草、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草差异显著( P<0.05)。CP有效降解率和 ADF有效降解率以黑麦草最高,且与依次降低的甘薯蔓、牛鞭草、玉米秸青贮、玉米秸秆和稻草差异显著( P<0.05)。NDF有效降解率为黑麦草>甘薯蔓>玉米秸青贮>牛鞭草>稻草>玉米秸秆,各粗饲料间差异显著(P<0.05)。2)牛鞭草、玉米秸秆和稻草RUP的小肠消化率差异不显著( P>0.05),并显著高于依次降低的玉米秸青贮、黑麦草和甘薯蔓( P<0.05)。小肠可消化粗蛋白质含量为黑麦草>甘薯蔓>牛鞭草>玉米秸青贮>玉米秸秆>稻草,各粗饲料间差异显著( P<0.05)。由此可见,不同粗饲料瘤胃降解特性不同,为小肠提供可消化粗蛋白质的潜力也不同。黑麦草的 DM、CP、NDF 和ADF在瘤胃的有效降解率最高,牛鞭草、玉米秸秆和稻草RUP的小肠消化率较高,黑麦草和甘薯蔓小肠可消化粗蛋白质含量较高。%This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal degradation characteristics and small intesti-nal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein( RUP)of 6 kinds of commonly used roughages:ryegrass,hem-arthria compressa,sweet potato stem,corn stover silage,corn stover and rice straw. Three Xuanhan steers fit-ted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used. Nylon

  17. An Investigation into the Gastrointestinal Stability of Exenatide in the Presence of Pure Enzymes, Everted Intestinal Rings and Intestinal Homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Wang, Mengshu; Sun, Bingxue; Li, Feng; Liu, Shubo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal stability of exenatide to determine the key factor(s) contributing to peptide degradation during the oral delivery process. The effects of pH and various digestive enzymes on the degradation kinetics of exenatide were determined. Moreover, the degradation clearances of peptide were also examined using rat everted intestinal rings and intestinal homogenates from various intestinal locations. Exenatide was comparatively stable within a pH range of 1.2-8. However, obvious degradation was observed in the presence of digestive enzymes. The order of enzymes, in terms of ability to degradate exenatide, was chymotrypsin>aminopeptidase N>carboxypeptidase A>trypsin>pepsin. Chymotrypsin showed the greatest ability to degrade exenatide (half-life t1/2, 5.784×10(-2) h), whereas aminopeptidase N and carboxylpeptidase A gave t1/2 values of 3.53 and 10.16 h, respectively. The degradation of exenatide was found to be peptide concentration- and intestinal site-dependent, with a lower clearance in the upper part of the duodenum and the lower part of the ileum. When using intestinal homogenates as enzyme sources, the order, in terms of peptide degradation ability, was ileum>jejunum>duodenum. However, no significant difference was observed in the remaining peptide concentrations throughout 2 h of incubation, which may be due to the involvement of cytosolic enzymes. These results revealed key factors contributing to peptide degradation, and suggest that the inhibition of chymotrypsin and site-specific delivery of exenatide might be advantageous in overcoming metabolic obstacles during its oral delivery.

  18. Degradation of blood in the human digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerup, S.; Johansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of human faeces from patients suffering from intestinal bleeding have been studied by use of Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that it is possible to follow the degradation of blood in the digestive tract. (Auth.)

  19. MR of experimental cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaPaz, R.; Steinberg, G.; Rocklage, S.; Glover, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on MR imaging of cerebral ischemia and treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in an animal model. Forty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent 1-hour transorbital ICA-MCA-ACA occlusion and pretreatment or immediate posttreatment with systemic dextromethorphan (DM, n = 14), dextrorphan (DX, n = 14), or normal saline (NS, n = 16). Serial MR studies (1.5 T) were performed 1--6 hours after occlusion with T1- and T2-weighted spinecho, IVIM (b = 1,352), gradient recalled acquisition in a steady-state, and chemical shift sequences (for magnetic susceptibility, T2* and T2') and DyDTPA-BMA intravenous contrast material (Salutar). Spatial correlation between MR findings, histologic findings (ischemic neuronal damage), and regional cerebral blood flow (microspheres) was done

  20. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wahbi AM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-Wahbi1, Shaza Elmoukaied2 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Surgery, Dr Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. Keywords: varicocele, varicocelectomy, complications, vascular injuries

  1. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in brain ischemia: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Margarida V; Salazar, Ivan L; Curcio, Michele; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Duarte, Carlos B

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a catalytic machinery that targets numerous cellular proteins for degradation, thus being essential to control a wide range of basic cellular processes and cell survival. Degradation of intracellular proteins via the UPS is a tightly regulated process initiated by tagging a target protein with a specific ubiquitin chain. Neurons are particularly vulnerable to any change in protein composition, and therefore the UPS is a key regulator of neuronal physiology. Alterations in UPS activity may induce pathological responses, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Brain ischemia triggers a complex series of biochemical and molecular mechanisms, such as an inflammatory response, an exacerbated production of misfolded and oxidized proteins, due to oxidative stress, and the breakdown of cellular integrity mainly mediated by excitotoxic glutamatergic signaling. Brain ischemia also damages protein degradation pathways which, together with the overproduction of damaged proteins and consequent upregulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, contribute to the accumulation of ubiquitin-containing proteinaceous deposits. Despite recent advances, the factors leading to deposition of such aggregates after cerebral ischemic injury remain poorly understood. This review discusses the current knowledge on the role of the UPS in brain function and the molecular mechanisms contributing to UPS dysfunction in brain ischemia with consequent accumulation of ubiquitin-containing proteins. Chemical inhibitors of the proteasome and small molecule inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes, which promote the degradation of proteins by the proteasome, were both shown to provide neuroprotection in brain ischemia, and this apparent contradiction is also discussed in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  3. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  4. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  5. The effect of melatonin on bacterial translocation following ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozban, Murat; Aydin, Cagatay; Cevahir, Nural; Yenisey, Cigdem; Birsen, Onur; Gumrukcu, Gulistan; Aydin, Berrin; Berber, Ibrahim

    2015-03-08

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency resulting in tissue destruction due to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Melatonin, the primary hormone of the pineal gland, is a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, as well as singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether melatonin prevents harmful effects of superior mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion on intestinal tissues in rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, each having 10 animals. In group I, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was isolated but not occluded. In group II and group III, the SMA was occluded immediately distal to the aorta for 60 minutes. After that, the clamp was removed and the reperfusion period began. In group III, 30 minutes before the start of reperfusion, 10 mg/kg melatonin was administered intraperitonally. All animals were sacrified 24 hours after reperfusion. Tissue samples were collected to evaluate the I/R-induced intestinal injury and bacterial translocation (BT). There was a statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels and in the incidence of bacterial translocation in group II, along with a decrease in glutathione levels. These investigated parameters were found to be normalized in melatonin treated animals (group III). We conclude that melatonin prevents bacterial translocation while precluding the harmful effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on intestinal tissues in a rat model of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  6. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  7. Nuclear cardiology procedures to diagnose ischemia in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is equipped with a broad spectrum of diagnostic capabilities which allow the evaluation of ventricular performance, perfusion and metabolism of the heart. The principle of nuclear medicine procedures consists in the administration of free radioisotopes or radiopharmaceuticals to detect their spatial distribution within the body by detecting their y-rays from outside by gamma cameras. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is the most important procedure in nuclear cardiology and is performed on a routine basis with 201 Thallium-Chloride ( 201 Tl) since 1975. With the Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) technique it is possible to diagnose ischemia of the left ventricle on the basis of coronary artery disease with a sensitivity of 90-95% and a specificity of about 55%. Recently 99m Tc-tracers were developed for this purpose, which have many advantages due to their better physical properties, their easy handling and availability. The diagnostic accuracy is the same compared to ( 201 Tl). Free fatty acids labeled with 123 Iodine like 123 IPPA are alternative tracers to diagnose ischemia by the metabolic alteration and are pathognomonic tracers to diagnose the heart involvement in myopathies or metabolic defects related to fatty acid degradation which are the main fuel of the normal myocytes. Finally we should not forget the radionuclide ventriculography (RNVG) which is one of the oldest nuclear cardiology procedures providing us with very objective, reliable results of ventricular performance. (orig.)

  8. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.

  9. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  10. [Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dugan D j; Spuran, Milan; Alempijević, Tamara; Krstić, Miodrag; Djuranović, Srdjan; Kovacević, Nada; Damnjanović, Svetozar; Micev, Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  11. Curcumin Protects Neuron against Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Inflammation through Improving PPAR-Gamma Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is the most common cerebrovascular disease worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin had beneficial effect to attenuate cerebral ischemic injury. However, it is unclear how curcumin protects against cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, using rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model, we found that curcumin was a potent PPARγ agonist in that it upregulated PPARγ expression and PPARγ-PPRE binding activity. Administration of curcumin markedly decreased the infarct volume, improved neurological deficits, and reduced neuronal damage of rats. In addition, curcumin suppressed neuroinflammatory response by decreasing inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2, NO, COX-2, and iNOS induced by cerebral ischemia of rats. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed IκB degradation that was caused by cerebral ischemia. The present data also showed that PPARγ interacted with NF-κB-p65 and thus inhibited NF-κB activation. All the above protective effects of curcumin on cerebral ischemic injury were markedly attenuated by GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ. Our results as described above suggested that PPARγ induced by curcumin may play a critical role in protecting against brain injury through suppression of inflammatory response. It also highlights the potential of curcumin as a therapeutic agent against cerebral ischemia.

  12. Memantine mediates neuroprotection via regulating neurovascular unit in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhen; Yang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Zhan; Yan, Hui; Ji, Juan; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2016-04-01

    Memantine is a low-moderate affinity and uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, which is also a potential neuroprotectant in acute ischemic stroke for its particular action profiles. The present study was to reveal the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection of memantine. We used a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via middle cerebral artery occlusion to verify our hypothesis. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to compare infarct size. The amount of astrocytes and the somal volume of the microglia cell body were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and stereological estimates. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expressions. Memantine prevented cerebral ischemia-induced brain infarct and neuronal injury, and reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, memantine reduced the amount of the damaged astrocytes and over activated microglia after 24h of ischemia. In the early phase of ischemia, higher production of MMP-9 was observed, and thereby collagen IV was dramatically disrupted. Meanwhile, the post-synaptic density protein 95(PSD-95) was also severely cleavaged. Memantine decreased MMP-9 secretion, prevented the degradation of collagen IV in mouse brain. PSD-95 cleavage was also inhibited by memantine. These results suggested that memantine exerted neuroprotection effects in acute ischemic brain damage, partially via improving the functions of neurovascular unit. Taking all these findings together, we consider that memantine might be a promising protective agent against ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Gastric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ayush; Mukewar, Saurabh; Chari, Suresh T; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

    2017-12-01

    Gastric ischemia is a rare condition associated with poor prognosis. Our study aim was to highlight the clinical features and outcomes of patients with gastric ischemia. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with isolated gastric ischemia at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 5, 2016, was performed. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and outcome variables were abstracted for analysis. Seventeen patients (65% men) with mean age of 69.3 ± 11.3 years and body mass index of 28.8 ± 11.1 were identified. The etiologies for gastric ischemia included local vascular causes (n = 8), systemic hypoperfusion (n = 4), and mechanical obstruction (n = 5). The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), and altered mental status (23%). The typical endoscopic appearance was mucosal congestion and erythema with or without ulceration. Gastric pneumatosis and portal venous air were more commonly seen on CT imaging. Radiologic and/or surgical intervention was needed in 9 patients, while the remaining 8 patients were managed conservatively with acid suppression, antibiotics, and nasogastric tube decompression. The median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (range 1-36 days). There were no cases of rebleeding and the mortality rate as a direct result of gastric ischemia was 24% within 6 months of diagnosis. Although uncommon, gastric ischemia is associated with significant mortality. Endoscopy and CT imaging play an important role in its diagnosis. The management of gastric ischemia is dictated by its severity and associated comorbidities.

  14. Colonic carcinoma with multiple small bowel perforations mimicking intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Rahul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the colon may present with perforation proximal to the site of malignancy. Caecum is the commonest site of perforation if the ileocecal valve is patent and the jejunal and ileal perforations are very rare. Case presentation A 35 year male presented with intestinal obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed carcinoma of the transverse colon with multiple pinpoint perforations along antimesenteric border of ileum, which were wrapped with omentum, and no peritoneal contamination was present. Extended right hemicolectomy with jejunocolic anastomosis was done. Patient made uneventful recovery in postoperative period and was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion Patients with colonic carcinoma and incompetent ileocecal valve may present with intestinal perforation. Increased intraluminal pressure and closed loop obstruction may lead to ischemia and perforation of the small bowel.

  15. Designing of peptides with desired half-life in intestine-like environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Arun; Singla, Deepak; Rashid, Mamoon; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    hindered mainly because of their high susceptibility towards proteases degradation. We have developed an in silico method to predict the half-life of peptides in intestine-like environment and to design better peptides having optimized physicochemical

  16. Human intervention study to investigate the intestinal accessibility and bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dolores; Jung, Kathrin; Winter, Manuel; Rogoll, Dorothee; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the importance of the large intestine on the bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries in humans with/without a colon. Low bioavailability of anthocyanins in plasma and urine was observed in the frame of this study. Anthocyanins reached the circulation mainly as glucuronides. Analysis of ileal effluents (at end of small intestine) demonstrated that 30% of ingested anthocyanins were stable during 8h passage through the upper intestine. Only 20% degradants were formed and mostly intact anthocyanins were absorbed from the small intestine. Higher amounts of degradants than anthocyanins reached the circulation after bilberry extract consumption in both groups of subjects. Comparison of the bioavailability of anthocyanins in healthy subjects versus ileostomists revealed substantially higher amounts of anthocyanins and degradants in the plasma/urine of subjects with an intact gut. The results suggested that the colon is a significant site for absorption of bioactive components such as anthocyanins and their degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... the probes were processed for histological examination. RESULTS: Large intra- and inter-group differences in the relative recovery were found between all locations. Absolute values of metabolites showed no significant changes during the study period. The lactate in blood was 25-30% of the intra-tissue values...

  18. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsumoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  19. Use of rapid sampling microdialysis for intraoperative monitoring of bowel ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, S; Corcoles, E P; Hanna, G B; Hanna, B G; Pareskevas, P; Aziz, O; Boutelle, M G; Darzi, A

    2008-09-01

    Intestinal ischemia is a major cause of anastomotic leak and death and remains a clinical challenge as the physician relies on several nonspecific signs, biologic markers, and radiologic studies to make the diagnosis. This study used rapid sampling online microdialysis to evaluate the biochemical changes occurring in a segment of human bowel during and after resection, and assessed for the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique in monitoring intestinal ischemia. A custom made, rapid sampling online microdialysis analyzer was used to monitor the changes in the bowel wall of specimens being resected intraoperatively. Two patients were recruited for the pilot study to optimize the analyzer and seven patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited for the data collection and analysis. The concentration of glucose in the extracellular bowel wall fluid decreased transiently after division of individual feeding arteries followed by a rebound increase in the concentration back to baseline concentrations. After completion of resection, glucose concentrations continued to decrease while lactate concentrations increased constantly. Rapid sampling microdialysis was feasible in the clinical environment. These results suggest that tissue responds to ischemic insult by mobilizing glucose stores which later decrease again, whereas lactate concentrations constantly increased.

  20. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin influences intestinal structure and absorptive function.36 The favourable effect of .... lipid emulsions, micronutrients provison and cyclic infusion.3 The guidelines on PN .... Classification, epidemiology and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin ...

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijen, P.C. van.

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  2. Postcircumcisional Ischemia of the Glans Penis Treated with Pentoxifylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersagun Karaguzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia of the glans penis is a rare postcircumcision complication. We describe a four-year-old boy developing ischemia of the glans penis 48 h after circumcision. The ischemia completely resolved following treatment with iv pentoxifylline (PTX for six days, and the patient was discharged without any problems. PTX treatment should be kept in mind as an alternative treatment modality in ischemia of the glans penis which is a serious potential post-circumcision complication.

  3. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  4. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration.

  5. Injectable skeletal muscle matrix hydrogel promotes neovascularization and muscle cell infiltration in a hindlimb ischemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA DeQuach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD currently affects approximately 27 million patients in Europe and North America, and if untreated, may progress to the stage of critical limb ischemia (CLI, which has implications for amputation and potential mortality. Unfortunately, few therapies exist for treating the ischemic skeletal muscle in these conditions. Biomaterials have been used to increase cell transplant survival as well as deliver growth factors to treat limb ischemia; however, existing materials do not mimic the native skeletal muscle microenvironment they are intended to treat. Furthermore, no therapies involving biomaterials alone have been examined. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix and examine its potential for treating PAD as a stand-alone therapy by studying the material in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. We tested the mitogenic activity of the scaffold’s degradation products using an in vitro assay and measured increased proliferation rates of smooth muscle cells and skeletal myoblasts compared to collagen. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, the femoral artery was ligated and resected, followed by injection of 150 µL of skeletal muscle matrix or collagen 1 week post-injury. We demonstrate that the skeletal muscle matrix increased arteriole and capillary density, as well as recruited more desmin-positive and MyoD-positive cells compared to collagen. Our results indicate that this tissue-specific injectable hydrogel may be a potential therapy for treating ischemia related to PAD, as well as have potential beneficial effects on restoring muscle mass that is typically lost in CLI.

  6. Impact of Diet on Human Intestinal Microbiota and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate

  7. A rare cause of chronic mesenteric ischemia from fibromuscular dysplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senadhi Viplove

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a condition that is classically associated with significant atherosclerosis of the abdominal arteries, causing postprandial abdominal pain out of proportion to physical examination. The abdominal pain is exacerbated after meals due to the shunting of blood away from the intestines to the stomach, causing relative ischemia. More than 95% of chronic mesenteric ischemia cases are due to atherosclerosis. We report the first known case of chronic mesenteric ischemia from fibromuscular dysplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first known case in the literature where postprandial abdominal pain was the presenting symptom of fibromuscular dysplasia. Case presentation A 44-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension and preeclampsia, who had taken oral contraceptive pills for 15 years, presented with an intractable, colicky abdominal pain of two weeks duration. This abdominal pain worsened with oral intake. It was also associated with diarrhea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed stage III hypertension out of proportion to her risk factors and diffuse abdominal pain without peritoneal signs. An abdominal computed tomography scan, completed in the emergency room, revealed nonspecific colitis. Laboratory work revealed leukocytosis with a left shift, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 79 and a C-reactive protein level of 100. She was started on intravenous flagyl and intravenous ciprofloxacin. However, all microbial cultures were negative including three cultures for clostridium difficile. Urine analysis revealed nephritic range proteinuria. The laboratory profile was within normal limits for perinuclear-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, cytoplasmic-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody, antinuclear antibody test, celiac profile, lactate, carbohydrate antigen-125 and thyroid stimulating hormone. A colonoscopy was completed

  8. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  9. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  10. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  11. Renal ischemia reperfusion causes brain hippocampus oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The acute kidney injury (AKI) may do damage to remote organs. Objective of the study is to investigate effect of seaweed extract (SE) on brain oxidative damage in kidney ischemia/reperfusion rats. Material and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into five groups. SE pre-fed to rats. Results: Kidney I/R ...

  12. Models of antimicrobial pressure on intestinal bacteria of the treated host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, V V; Cazer, C L; Gröhn, Y T

    2017-07-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are used to treat pathogenic bacterial infections in animals and humans. The by-stander enteric bacteria of the treated host's intestine can become exposed to the drug or its metabolites reaching the intestine in antimicrobially active form. We consider which processes and variables need to be accounted for to project the antimicrobial concentrations in the host's intestine. Those include: the drug's fraction (inclusive of any active metabolites) excreted in bile; the drug's fractions and intestinal segments of excretion via other mechanisms; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's absorption and re-absorption; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's abiotic and biotic degradation in the intestine; the digesta passage time through the intestinal segments; the rates, mechanisms, and reversibility of the drug's sorption to the digesta and enteric microbiome; and the volume of luminal contents in the intestinal segments. For certain antimicrobials, the antimicrobial activity can further depend on the aeration and chemical conditions in the intestine. Model forms that incorporate the inter-individual variation in those relevant variables can support projections of the intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in populations of treated host, such as food animals. To illustrate the proposed modeling framework, we develop two examples of treatments of bovine respiratory disease in beef steers by oral chlortetracycline and injectable third-generation cephalosporin ceftiofur. The host's diet influences the digesta passage time, volume, and digesta and microbiome composition, and may influence the antimicrobial loss due to degradation and sorption in the intestine. We consider two diet compositions in the illustrative simulations. The examples highlight the extent of current ignorance and need for empirical data on the variables influencing the selective pressures imposed by antimicrobial treatments on the host's intestinal bacteria.

  13. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  14. Acute mesenteric ischemia: a vascular emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Ernst; Rahmanian, Parwis B; Bücker, Arno; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Luther, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is still fatal in 50% to 70% of cases. This consensus paper was written with the participation of physicians from all of the involved specialties for the purpose of improving outcomes. Mesenteric ischemia must be recognized as a vascular emergency requiring rapid and efficient clinical evaluation and treatment. We reviewed pertinent literature that was retrieved by a PubMed search on the terms "mesenteric ischemia" AND "arterial" OR "venous" OR "clinical presentation" OR "diagnosis" OR "therapy" OR "surgery" OR " interventional radiology." Our review also took account of the existing guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. Intensive discussions among the participating physicians, representing all of the specialties involved in the management of mesenteric ischemia, led to the creation of this interdisciplinary paper. Biphasic contrast-enhanced computerized tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice for the detection of arterial or venous occlusion. If non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is suspected, angiography should be performed, with the option of intraarterial pharmacotherapy to induce local vasodilation. Endovascular techniques have become increasingly important in the treatment of arterial occlusion. Embolic central mesenteric artery occlusion requires surgical treatment; surgery is also needed in case of peritonitis. Portal-vein thrombosis can be treated by local thrombolysis through a transhepatically placed catheter. This should be done within 3 to 4 weeks of the event to prevent later complications of portal hypertension. Rapid diagnosis (within 4 to 6 hours of symptom onset) and interdisciplinary cooperation in the provision of treatment are required if the poor outcome of this condition is to be improved.

  15. Primary Volvulus of the Small Intestine Exhibiting Chylous Ascites: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tamuro; Shioya, Takeshi; Hankyo, Meishi; Shimizu, Takao; Shibuya, Hajime; Komine, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Nanbu, Kotaro; Yamada, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Primary volvulus of the small intestine associated with chylous ascites is very rare, with only four reported cases. In this paper, we report a new case of primary volvulus associated with chylous ascites. The patient was a 70-year-old man. After experiencing bloating and abdominal pain for several hours, he called an ambulance and underwent an emergency examination at our hospital. Abdominal distension, pressure pain, and rebound tenderness were observed throughout his entire abdomen. The patient had a history of hypertension for which he was receiving oral treatment. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an edematous change in the intestinal membrane and volvulus of the small intestine. As findings suggestive of ischemia were observed in part of the intestines, emergency surgery was performed on the day of admission. Open surgery revealed approximately 500 mL of chylous ascites in the abdominal cavity. The small intestine had twisted 180° in a counter-clockwise direction at the root of the superior mesenteric artery, and the mesentery appeared milky white with edematous changes extending 75 to 240 cm from the ligament of Treitz. There was no evidence of intestinal necrosis; therefore intestinal resection was not performed. The volvulus of the small intestine was corrected. Moreover, because there was no other underlying disease observed, surgery was completed. The ascites collected during surgery revealed high levels of triglycerides at 332 mg/dL, and chylous ascites was diagnosed. An abdominal CT performed on the third day after surgery showed an improvement in intestinal edema, and primary volvulus of the small intestine associated with chylous ascites was diagnosed. Postoperative progress was good, and the patient was discharged on hospital day 10.

  16. A new method to measure intestinal secretion using fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin in small bowel of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Abraham, Armando Salim; Judeeba, Sami; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alfadda, Tariq; Patron-Lozano, Roger; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Geibel, John P

    2015-08-01

    Small intestine ischemia can be seen in various conditions such as intestinal transplantation. To further understand the pathologic disruption in ischemia-reperfusion injury, we have developed a method to measure fluid changes in the intestinal lumen of rats. Two 10-cm rat intestine segments were procured, connected to the terminal apertures of a perfusion device, and continuously infused with 3 mL of HEPES solution (control solution) containing 50 μM of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. The perfusion device consists of concentric chambers that contain the perfused bowel segments, which are maintained at 37°C via H₂O bath. The individual chamber has four apertures as follows: two fill and/or drain the surrounding HEPES solution on the blood side of the tissue. The others provide flow of HEPES solution containing FITC-inulin through the lumens. The experimental intestine was infused with the same solution with 100 μM of Forskolin. A pump continuously circulated solutions at 6 mL/min. Samples were collected at 15-min intervals until 150 min and were measured by the nanoflourospectrometer. A mean of 6-μM decrease in the FITC-inulin concentration in the Forskolin-treated experimental intestine was observed in comparison with that in the control intestine. The FITC-inulin count dilution in the experimental intestine is a result of an increase of fluid secretion produced by the effect of Forskolin, with P values inulin to allow real-time determinations of fluid and/or electrolyte movement along the small intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  18. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  19. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  20. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  1. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O'Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. 133 Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of 133 Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia

  2. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O' Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-04-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. /sup 133/Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of /sup 133/Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia.

  3. Biotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica by Rat Intestinal Microflora and Cardioprotective Effects of Diosgenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the biotransformation of natural products by intestinal microflora is an important approach to understanding how and why some medicines—particularly natural medicines—work. In many cases, the active components are generated by metabolic activation. This is critical for drug research and development. As a means to explore the therapeutic mechanism of Dioscorea nipponica (DN, a medicinal plant used to treat myocardial ischemia (MI, metabolites generated by intestinal microflora from DN were identified, and the cardioprotective efficacy of these metabolites was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that diosgenin is the main metabolite produced by rat intestinal microflora from DN. Further, our results show that diosgenin protects the myocardium against ischemic insult through increasing enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels in vivo and by decreasing oxidative stress damage. These mechanisms explain the clinical efficacy of DN as an anti-MI drug.

  4. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  5. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  6. Intestinal health in carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge on the influence of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota on the health status of humans and animals is rapidly expanding. A balanced microbiome may provide multiple benefits to the host, like triggering and stimulation of the immune system, acting as a barrier against possible pathogenic

  7. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  8. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition.

  9. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  10. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  11. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1989-10-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole-{sup 201}Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging.

  13. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole- 201 Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging

  14. Endovascular Management of Acute Limb Ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2011-09-14

    Despite major advances in pharmacologic and endovascular therapies, acute limb ischemia (ALI) continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of ALI may be as high as 13-17 cases per 100,000 people per year, with mortality rates approaching 18% in some series. This review will address the contemporary endovascular management of ALI encompassing pharmacologic and percutaneous interventional treatment strategies.

  15. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  16. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGUE OCTREOTIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paran Haim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin has an inhibitory effect on the endocrine and exocrine secretions of the gut. It may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of intestinal obstruction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of octreotide in mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats. Method: Intestinal obstruction was induced in rats by ligation of a segment of the distal ileum. Animals were treated with the somatostatin analogue octreotide (n=16, or saline (n=16. Eight rats were operated but their intestine was not ligated (n=8 serving as sham controls. Forty eight hours after the operation, the animals were operated upon again and blood samples from the femoral vein were tested for electrolytes, urea, glucose, lactic acid, amylase, ph and bicarbonate. Portal vein blood samples were also obtained and tested for lactic acid and amylase. Results: Intestinal obstruction resulted, after 48 hours, in severe dilatation of bowel loops. A significant increase in plasma levels of urea, amylase and lactic acid was observed. Plasma pH decreased. In blood samples from the portal vein, a significant increase in lactic acid was observed, indicating metabolic acidosis, probably secondary to bowel ischemia. Octreotide treatment, resulted in less acidosis, with concomitant lower urea and lactic acid levels in the plasma and especially in the portal vein. Conclusion: Octreotide treatment may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of selected cases of intestinal obstruction.

  18. The study of the tolerance to skeletal muscle ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubo, Masahiko; Takai, Hiroaki; Ikata, Takaaki; Sogabe, Takayuki; Miura, Iwao.

    1988-01-01

    A model of amputated and replanted legs were used for the study on the energy metabolism during long-period skeletal muscle ischemia. The energy metabolic changes and intracellular pH were measured continuously and non-invasively by 31 P-MRS technique. Immediately following ischemia, phosphocreatine declined and inorganic phosphate rose. However, ATP was maintained for 2 hours. During ischemia, phosphocreatine was not detected after about 3.5 hours and ATP was no longer detectable after about 5 hours. On the other hand, intracellular pH began declining linearly after 30 minutes. All cases of 4-hour ischemia and 57 % of 5-hour ischemia recovered. And all cases of 6-hour ischemia did not recover. (author)

  19. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  20. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  1. AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF and Endonuclease G (EndoG While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/− mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and endonuclease G (EndoG, both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited.

  2. Effect of roasting on ruminal degradation, intestinal digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 4 Crude protein (CP) disappearance from polyester bags and digestibility of rumen-undegraded dietary protein. (UDP) from control and heat processed cottonseed oilcake. (CSOC) and soyabean oilcake (SBOC) together with % ADIN values. CP disappearance (7.o) from. ControlCSOC. I 30/60. I 30/90 r,s0/30 r 50i40.

  3. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of eight plant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    made more effective if the properties of the feed are known and can be ... Three ruminally fistulated Jersey cows were fed Coast cross 2 hay (K11) ad libitum. .... absence of properly prepared animals for the implementation of the mobile bag.

  4. Noninvasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with heart problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nikseresht

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: It seems that the higher risk of myocardial ischemia in men aged 60-77 years, as compared to men aged 45-59 years, might be related to aging process and imbalance in the risk factors. Promoting physical activity can favorably affect the risk of myocardial ischemia in the middle-aged or elderly men. It is concluded that physical activity effectively decreased the risk of myocardial ischemia.

  5. Comments and hypotheses on the mechanism of methane against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, methane is a kind of fuel. Previous studies have shown that methanogens in the colon can react with carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane. In a recent study, the anti-inflammatory effects of methane were shown in a dog model of small intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. The mechanism of this anti-inflammatory effect needs further investigation. Recently, studies have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects of methane on different organic injuries. According to the results of these studies, we hypothesize that the initial effects of methane are to react with free radicals and enhance expression of antioxidase through forkhead box transcription factor class O pathway. The anti-inflammatory effect is following the anti-oxidative effect, and the anti-apoptotic effect relies on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  6. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  7. Severity of exercise-induced ischemia with chest pain and recovery from ischemia after the disappearance of chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Shinozuka, Akira; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Yamanaka, Hideyuki; Katagiri, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The severity of exercise-induced painful ischemia and its recovery after the disappearance of pain are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in severity of ischemia at both exercise and postexercise between painful ischemia and painless ischemia. After injections of technetium-99m tetrofosmin at peak ergometer exercise and thallium-201 at 3 minutes postexercise, dual-isotope single photon emission tomography was performed in 78 patients with angiographically proven ischemic heart disease. The extent of ischemic areas (the number of areas), the depth of ischemia in the ischemic area (the severity score of ischemia) and the extension of ischemia toward long axis of the left ventricle (the number of left ventricular levels with ischemic areas in apical, middle, and basal levels) at both exercise and postexercise were compared on the basis of the presence of pain and a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The symptoms improved within 3 minutes postexercise in all painful ischemia patients. Of 59 patients with reversible ischemia, except for 4 painful ischemia patients with DM, the extent and depth of ischemia at postexercise were more severe in 14 painful ischemia patients without DM and 13 painless ischemia patients with DM than 28 painless ischemia patients without DM (extent; 2.9±1.7 areas, 3.5±2.8 areas versus 1.4±1.8 areas, P=0.005, depth; 3.8±3.1 scores, 5.8±5.4 scores versus 1.9±3.0 scores, P=0.0084, respectively) despite a comparable severity of ischemia at peak exercise (extent; 5.4±2.6 areas, 6.0±2.4 areas versus 4.3±3.3 areas, depth; 9.3±5.7 scores, 10.7±7.3 scores and 7.5±8.1 scores, all NS). The extension of ischemia toward long-axis of the left ventricle at both peak exercise and postexercise was more severe in the former 2 groups than the latter group (peak exercise; 2.4±0.6 levels, 2.5±0.7 levels versus 1.9 ±0.8 levels, P=0.0263, postexercise: 1.8±0.7 levels, 1.5±0.9 levels versus 0.8±0.8 levels, P=0

  8. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  9. CT perfusion during delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: distinction between reversible ischemia and ischemia progressing to infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Charlotte H.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, PO Box 85500, Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vos, Pieter C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, PO Box 85500, Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) can be reversible or progress to cerebral infarction. In patients with a deterioration clinically diagnosed as DCI, we investigated whether CT perfusion (CTP) can distinguish between reversible ischemia and ischemia progressing to cerebral infarction. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients, we included those with DCI, CTP on the day of clinical deterioration, and follow-up imaging. In qualitative CTP analyses (visual assessment), we calculated positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) with 95 % confidence intervals (95%CI) of a perfusion deficit for infarction on follow-up imaging. In quantitative analyses, we compared perfusion values of the least perfused brain tissue between patients with and without infarction by using receiver-operator characteristic curves and calculated a threshold value with PPV and NPV for the perfusion parameter with the highest area under the curve. In qualitative analyses of 33 included patients, 15 of 17 patients (88 %) with and 6 of 16 patients (38 %) without infarction on follow-up imaging had a perfusion deficit during clinical deterioration (p = 0.002). Presence of a perfusion deficit had a PPV of 71 % (95%CI: 48-89 %) and NPV of 83 % (95%CI: 52-98 %) for infarction on follow-up. Quantitative analyses showed that an absolute minimal cerebral blood flow (CBF) threshold of 17.7 mL/100 g/min had a PPV of 63 % (95%CI: 41-81 %) and a NPV of 78 % (95%CI: 40-97 %) for infarction. CTP may differ between patients with DCI who develop infarction and those who do not. For this purpose, qualitative evaluation may perform marginally better than quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Value of computed tomography in diagnosis of intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Yamane, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Miura, Yoshio; Kato, Yoshitaka; Yahata, Noriko; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 46 cases with inflammatory and other nontumoral bowel diseases were retrospectively studied. Patients were given 500 to 1000 ml of lukewarm water orally or rectally to distend the intestinal lumen. In all cases water-soluble iodine contrast media was administered intravenously. The CT findings in Crohn's disease included mural thickening, luminal narrowing, bowel wall enhancement, wall rigidity, serration of intestinal border, dilatation of mesenteric vessels, periintestinal blurring (inflamatory reaction of mesentery), fibrofatty proliferation, effusion, abscess and fistula. Many of these findings suggested the transmural nature of the disease and gave diagnostic clues of the disease. In cases with ulcerative colitis, thickening of bowel wall was insignificant and extraintestinal complications were absent. CT appears to play an important role in distinguishing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Luminal narrowing and mural thickening were also observed in a case with intestinal ischemia, but these mural changes were not accompanied by mesenteric abnormalities to the degree of Crohn's disease. In cases with penetrating peptic ulcer and diverticulitis, CT demonstrated inflammatory reactions of surrounding tissue such as thickening of neighboring fascia, increase in attenuation value of mesenteric fat, effusion and abscess. Even in cases with confusing clinical symptoms, appendicitis was easily diagnosed on CT which showed swelling of appendix and inflammatory changes of surrounding structures. Mechanical obstruction of the intestine could be identified on CT by a notable change of luminal sizes at the site of obstruction. CT appearances of intussusception were distinctive and a soft tissue mass (intussusceptum) and mesenteric fat was seen within a markedly dilated intussuscipiens. CT could also reveal pancreatitis and splenic infarction as the causes of clinically-undiagnosed paralytic ileus. (J.P.N.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Kogure, Kyuya; Ohtomo, Hitoshi

    1986-01-01

    In the spectroscopic experiment on excised rat brain (cortex, white matter, hippocampus and thalamus for normal and ischemia-laden brain), T1 and T2 relaxation times and water content were determined. The ischemic insult was induced for 60 min by the method of Pulsinelli followed by 60 min of reperfusion. All of the T1, T2, and water content significantly increased in the ischemic tissue. Gray-white difference was evident in T1 and T1 was linearly correlated with the water content of the tissue. T2 way by far prolonged in the ischemic tissue compared with the increase in the water content, showing greater sensitivity of T2 for detection of ischemia. In the imaging experiment, coronal NMR imaging at 0.5 tesla was performed employing proton density-weighted saturation recovery (TR = 1.6 s, TE = 14 ms), T1-weighted inversion recovery (TR = 1.6 s, TI = 300 ms, TE = 14 ms) and T2-weighted spin echo (TR = 1.6 s, TE = 106 ms) pulse sequences. Spatial resolution of the images was excellent (0.3 - 0.5 mm) and the imaging of a gerbil brain clearly delineated anatomy separating cortex, white matter, hippocampus and thalamus. Hemispheric ischemia of a gerbil brain was detected as early as 30 min after occlusion of the carotid artery in T2-weighted images and the evolution of the lesion was clearly picturized in T1- and T2-weighted images. On the other hand. SR images were far less sensitive. Caluculated T1 and T2 relaxation times by the pixel-to-pixel computation indicated progress of the lesion and excellently correlated with the water content of the tissue (r = 0.892 and 0.744 for T1 and T2, respectively). (J.P.N.)

  12. Anterior Segment Ischemia after Strabismus Surger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Seyhan Göçmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with complaints of diplopia and esotropia in his right eye that developed after a car accident. The patient had right esotropia in primary position and abduction of the right eye was totally limited. Primary deviation was over 40 prism diopters at near and distance. The patient was diagnosed with sixth nerve palsy and 18 months after trauma, he underwent right medial rectus muscle recession. Ten months after the first operation, full-thickness tendon transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles (with Foster suture was performed. On the first postoperative day, slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema, 3+ cells in the anterior chamber and an irregular pupil. According to these findings, the diagnosis was anterior segment ischemia. Treatment with 0.1/5 mL topical dexamethasone drops (16 times/day, cyclopentolate hydrochloride drops (3 times/day and 20 mg oral fluocortolone (3 times/day was initiated. After 1 week of treatment, corneal edema regressed and the anterior chamber was clean. Topical and systemic steroid treatment was gradually discontinued. At postoperative 1 month, the patient was orthophoric and there were no pathologic symptoms besides the irregular pupil. Anterior segment ischemia is one of the most serious complications of strabismus surgery. Despite the fact that in most cases the only remaining sequel is an irregular pupil, serious circulation deficits could lead to phthisis bulbi. Clinical properties of anterior segment ischemia should be well recognized and in especially risky cases, preventative measures should be taken.

  13. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  14. Chronic intestinal ischemia and splanchnic blood-flow: Reference values and correlation with body-composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Abrahamsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    -induced increase in SBF was equal to 282 mL/min + 5.4 mL/min × bodyweight, (P = 0.025). The SO₂U in healthy volunteers and patients was 50.7 mL/min and 48.0 mL/min, respectively, and these values increased to 77.5 mL/min and 75 mL/min postprandially, respectively. Both baseline and postprandial SO₂U were directly...

  15. Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) Therapy for Intestinal Injury: Application and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jixin; Su, Yanwei; Zhou, Yu; Besner, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, we have been investigating the potential therapeutic roles of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, in various models of intestinal injury including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Our studies have demonstrated that HB-EGF acts as an effective mitogen, a restitution-inducing reagent, a cellular trophic factor, an anti-apoptotic protein and a vasodilator, via its effects on various cell types in the intestine. In the current paper, we have reviewed the application and therapeutic effects of HB-EGF in three classic animal models of intestinal injury, with particular emphasis on its protection of the intestines from NEC. Additionally, we have summarized the protective functions of HB-EGF on various target cells in the intestine. Lastly, we have provided a brief discussion focusing on the future development of HB-EGF clinical applications for the treatment of various forms of intestinal injury including NEC. PMID:24345808

  16. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  17. Oxidative stress in ischemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk; Clemmensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates......, the different mechanisms through which myocardial protection can be addressed, like ischemic postconditioning in myocardial infarction or adjunctive measures like targeted temperature management as well as new theories, including the role of iron in I/R injury, will be discussed....

  18. Intracoronary levosimendan during ischemia prevents myocardial apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eMalmberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing inotropic agent that prevents myocardial contractile depression following cardiac surgery. Levosimendan has also anti-apoptotic properties, but the role of this mechanism is not clear. We studied whether levosimendan prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and post-operative stunning after either intracoronary administration or intravenous infusion in an experimental model. Methods. Pigs (n=24 were subjected to 40 minutes of global, cardioplegic ischemia under cardiopulmonary bypass and 240 minutes of reperfusion. L-IV group received intravenous infusion of levosimendan (65 μg/kg 40 minutes before ischemia and L-IC group received levosimendan (65 μg/kg during ischemia administered intracoronary. Control group was operated without levosimendan. Echocardiography was performed to all animals. Apoptosis was determined from transmyocardial biopsies taken from left ventricle using TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry of active caspace-3. Results. Apoptosis was induced after ischemia-reperfusion in all groups (pre L-IV 0.002±0.004 % vs. post L-IV 0.020±0.017 % p=0.02, pre L-IC 0.001±0.004 % vs. post L-IC 0.020±0.017 % p<0.001, pre control 0.007±0.013 % vs. post control 0.062±0.044 % p=0.01. The amount of apoptosis was higher in the controls, compared with the L-IV (p=0.03 and the L-IC (p=0.03 groups. Longitudinal left ventricular contraction was significantly reduced in the L-IC and the control groups when compared to the L-IV group (L-IV 0.75±0.12 mm vs. L-IC 0.53±0.11 mm p=0.003, L-IV vs. control 0.54±0.11 p=0.01. Conclusions. Both intracoronary administration and pre-ischemic intravenous infusion of levosimendan equally prevented apoptosis, but intravenous administration was required for optimal preservation of the post-operative systolic left ventricle function.

  19. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahid; Jivad; Zahra; Rabiei

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and reperfusion is the leading cause of serious and long-range disability in the world. Clinically significant changes in central nervous system function are observed following brain ischemia and reperfusion. Stroke patients exhibit behavioral, cognitive,emotional, affective and electrophysiological changes during recovery phase. Brain injury by transient complete global brain ischemia or by transient incomplete brain ischemia afflicts a very large number of patients in the world with death or permanent disability. In order to reduce this damage, we must sufficiently understand the mechanisms involved in brain ischemia and reperfusion and repair to design clinically effective therapy.Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids.A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  20. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  1. CSF transthyretin neuroprotection in a mouse model of brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Sofia Duque; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2010-01-01

    Brain injury caused by ischemia is a major cause of human mortality and physical/cognitive disability worldwide. Experimentally, brain ischemia can be induced surgically by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Using this model, we studied the influence of transthyretin in ischemic stroke. ...

  2. Ergotamine-induced upper extremity ischemia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Gun [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon (China); Shin, Sung Wook [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Ergotamine-induced limb ischemia is an extremely rare case. We present a case of a 64-year-old man, who developed ischemia on the right upper extremity due to long-term use of Ergot for migraine headache. Angiography revealed diffused, smooth, and tapered narrowing of the brachial artery. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous nitroprusside.

  3. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  4. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  5. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cursio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

  6. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

  7. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  8. β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated HIF-1α Upregulation Mediates Blood Brain Barrier Damage in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB within the thrombolytic time window is an antecedent event to intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic stroke. Our recent studies showed that 2-h cerebral ischemia induced BBB damage in non-infarcted area and secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 accounted for this disruption. However, the factors that affect MMP-2 secretion and regulate BBB damage remains unknown. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α was discovered as a mater regulator in hypoxia, we sought to investigate the roles of HIF-1α in BBB damage as well as the factors regulating HIF-1α expression in the ischemic brain. in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD models were used to mimic ischemia. Pretreatment with HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 significantly inhibited 2-h MCAO-induced BBB damage, which was accompanied by suppressed occludin degradation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA upregulation. Interestingly, β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. Double immunostaining showed that HIF-1α was upregulated in ischemic neurons but not in astrocytes andendothelial cells. Of note, HIF-1α inhibition with inhibitor YC-1 or siRNA significantly prevented OGD-induced VEGF upregulation as well as the secretion of VEGF and MMP-2 in neurons. More importantly, blocking β2-AR with ICI 118551 suppressedHIF-1α upregulation in ischemic neurons and attenuated occludin degradation induced by the conditioned media of OGD-treatedneurons. Taken together, blockade of β2-AR-mediated HIF-1α upregulation mediates BBB damage during acute cerebral ischemia. These findings provide new mechanistic understanding of early BBB damage in ischemic stroke and may help reduce thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic complications.

  9. Análise da degradação de dieta microencapsulada por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887 através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088 Degradation analysis of microencapsulated diet in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 larvae intestine through scanning electron microscopy (SEM - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Portella

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o grau de degradabilidade de dietas microencapsuladas por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os seguintes tratamentos alimentares foram testados: AMD - larvas alimentadas por 6 dias, com náuplios de Artemia, com transição brusca para dieta microencapsulada; C6MD - alimentação inicial com Artemia por 6 dias, 6 dias de co-alimentação e o restante do tempo (8 dias somente com dieta microencapsulada; e C9MD - idêntico ao tratamento anterior, porém, com 9 dias de co-alimentação. O conteúdo presente no trato digestório das larvas foi coletado e processado para análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os grânulos provenientes das larvas do tratamento de transição brusca (AMD possuíam poucas áreas de degradação, semelhantes às dietas secas. Já as dietas coletadas das larvas durante o período de co-alimentação possuíam uma maior área degradada. Os resultados sugerem uma influência dos náuplios de Artemia sobre a degradação das dietas microencapsuladas.This research analyzed the microencapsulated diet degradation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae intestine. The pacu larvae received the following feeding treatments: AMD- larvae fed initially Artemia nauplii for six days, followed by microencapsulated diet; C6MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by six days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (8 days with microencapsulated diet; C9MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by nine days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (5 days with microencapsulated diet. The pacu digestive tract contents were removed, processed and analyzed under scanning electronic microscopy. Diets from AMD larvae treatment showed few degradation areas, when compared to original dry diets. On the other hand, diets removed during co-feeding period showed the highest degradation areas. The

  10. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  11. Electrocardiographically and symptomatically silent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Chinori; Tawarahara, Kei; Sakata, Kazuyuki; Taguchi, Takahisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Noboru; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Certain patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) may have neither ST depression nor chest pain during exercise despite the presence of myocardial ischemia. The frequency and characteristics of such electrocardiographically and symptomatically silent ischemia were studied in 171 patients with both angiographically documented CAD and scintigraphically documented ischemia. Fifty-six (33%) of 171 patients had neither ST depression nor chest pain (Group N), and 115 (67%) had ST depression and/or chest pain (Group P). The two groups were similar with respect to age, gender, the prevalence of prior infarction, and peak systolic blood pressure. Group N patients, however, had a higher mean peak heart rate and rate-pressure product, less severe scintigraphic ischemia, a lower lung thallium-201 uptake, and a smaller number of diseased vessels. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed a history of effort angina, lung thallium-201 uptake, and scintigraphic severity of ischemia to be significant discriminators between Groups N and P. In conclusion, electrocardiographically and symptomatically silent ischemia may be common during exercise in patients with CAD, and less severe ischemia may be one of important determinants. (author)

  12. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for

  13. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  14. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jivad

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  15. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  16. degradation or cerebral perfusion? Divergent effects of multifunctional enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Palmer, Jennifer C; Tayler, Hannah; Palmer, Laura E; Ashby, Emma; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that deficient clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to its accumulation in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Several Aβ-degrading enzymes, including neprilysin (NEP), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduce Aβ levels and protect against cognitive impairment in mouse models of AD. In post-mortem human brain tissue we have found that the activity of these Aβ-degrading enzymes rise with age and increases still further in AD, perhaps as a physiological response that helps to minimize the build-up of Aβ. ECE-1/-2 and ACE are also rate-limiting enzymes in the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II), two potent vasoconstrictors, increases in the levels of which are likely to contribute to reduced blood flow in AD. This review considers the possible interdependence between Aβ-degrading enzymes, ischemia and Aβ in AD: ischemia has been shown to increase Aβ production both in vitro and in vivo, whereas increased Aβ probably enhances ischemia by vasoconstriction, mediated at least in part by increased ECE and ACE activity. In contrast, NEP activity may help to maintain cerebral perfusion, by reducing the accumulation of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels and lessening its toxicity to vascular smooth muscle cells. In assessing the role of Aβ-degrading proteases in the pathogenesis of AD and, particularly, their potential as therapeutic agents, it is important to bear in mind the multifunctional nature of these enzymes and to consider their effects on other substrates and pathways.

  17. Transport of nattokinase across the rat intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Misawa, S; Takeuchi, N; Kariya, K; Nishimuro, S

    1995-09-01

    Intraduodenal administration of nattokinase (NK) at a dose of 80 mg/kg, resulted in the degradation of fibrinogen in plasma suggesting transport of NK across the intestinal tract in normal rats. The action of NK on the cleavage of fibrinogen in the plasma from blood samples drawn at intervals after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting analysis with an anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody. The 270 kDa fragment carrying antigenic sites for the binding of the anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody appeared within 0.5 h and was then degraded gradually to a 105 kDa fragment via a 200 kDa fragment. This suggests that fibrinogen was degraded to a 105 kDa fragment via several intermediates (270 and 200 kDa). In parallel with the degradation process, plasma recalcification times were remarkably prolonged NK was also detected in the plasma from blood samples drawn 3 and 5 h after administration of the enzyme by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis with an anti-NK antibody. The results indicate that NK is absorbed from the rat intestinal tract and that NK cleaves fibrinogen in plasma after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme.

  18. Risk Factors for Mortality in Lower Intestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L.; Ayanian, John Z.; Kotler, Gregory; Syngal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of Lower Intestinal Bleeding (LIB) have limited power to study mortality. We sought to identify characteristics associated with in-hospital mortality in a large cohort of patients with LIB. Methods We used the 2002 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to study a cross-sectional cohort of 227,022 hospitalized patients with discharge diagnoses indicating LIB. Predictors of mortality were identified using multiple logistic regression. Results In 2002, an estimated 8,737 patients with LIB (3.9%) died while hospitalized. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were age (age >70 vs. <50, odds ratio (OR) 4.91; 95% CI 2.45–9.87), intestinal ischemia (OR 3.47; 95% CI 2.57–4.68), comorbid illness (≥ 2 vs. 0 comorbidities, OR 3.00; 95% CI 2.25–3.98), bleeding while hospitalized for a separate process (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.81–3.04), coagulation defects (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.50–3.65), hypovolemia (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.69–2.90), transfusion of packed red blood cells (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.23–2.08), and male gender (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.21–1.92). Colorectal polyps (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.15–0.45), and hemorrhoids (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.28–0.64) were associated with a lower risk of mortality, as was diagnostic testing for LIB when added to the multivariate model (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.28–0.48; p<0.001). Hospital characteristics were not significantly related to mortality. Predictors of mortality were similar in an analysis restricted to patients with diverticular bleeding. Conclusions The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate in LIB is low (3.9%). Advanced age, intestinal ischemia and comorbid illness were the strongest predictors of mortality. PMID:18558513

  19. Evaluation of outcome in Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is an infrequent but a complicated life threatening condition. It is the leading causes of mortality with the rate of 60-100%. The purpose of our study is to investigate demographic outcomes of the patients referred to the emergency department of Imam Reza hospital with the diagnosis of AMI. Methods and materials: All patients with the diagnosis of AMI from March 2014 to March 2016 who were referred to emergency department of Imam Reza hospital, were studied. Demographic characteristics (age, sex, the period from symptom onset till laparotomy, risk factors and the last outcomes of patients were noted in the check lists for each patient. P value less than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: from 111 patients, 76 cases (68.8% were male, 35 cases (31.5% were female. Chief complaint of all patients was stomachache. Period of arriving to the emergency room in 5 cases (4.5% was 1-6 hours, in 3 cases (2.7% was 6-12 hours, and in 103 cases (92.8% has taken more than 12 hours. In 55 cases (49.5%, there was a significant relationship between clinical signs and physical examination findings, whereas in 56 cases (50.5% there was no relation. In our study 42 cases (37.8% were treated, whereas the morbidity and mortality rate were respectively 7 (6.3% and 62 (55.9%. According to the results of our study the most important finding was pain which was disproportionate to physical examination findings (P value< 0.052. Conclusion: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a severe and progressive disease so early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. One of the main reasons of higher mortality rate in AMI is difficulty in early diagnosis, before necrosis occurrence. Major factor that determines the survival rate is the accurate diagnosis before necrosis and peritonitis happens.

  20. Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

  1. Ultrasound of selected pathologies of the small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestines, especially the small bowel, are rarely subject to US assessment due to the presence of gases and chyme. The aim of this paper was to analyze ultrasound images in selected pathologies of the small intestine in adults, including the aspects of differential diagnosis. Material and methods: In 2001–2012, abdominal ultrasound examinations were conducted in 176 patients with the following small bowel diseases: Crohn’s disease (n=35, small bowel obstruction (n=35, yersiniosis (n=28, infectious diarrhea (n=26, bacterial overgrowth syndrome (n=25, coeliac disease (n=15 and small bowel ischemia (n=12. During examinations patients were fasting and no other particular preparations were needed. Convex transducers of 3.5–6 MHz and linear ones of 7–12 MHz were used. The assessment of the small intestine in four abdominal quadrants constituted an integral element of the examination. The following features of the small bowel ultrasound presentation were subject to analysis: thickness and perfusion of the walls, presence of thickened folds in the jejunum, reduction of their number, presence of fluid and gas contents in the intestine, its peristaltic activity, jejunization of the ileum and enteroenteric intussusception. Furthermore, the size of the mesenteric lymph nodes and the width of the superior mesenteric artery were determined and the peritoneal cavity was evaluated in terms of the presence of free fluid. Results: Statistically significant differences were obtained between the thickness of the small intestine in Crohn’s disease or in ischemic conditions and the thickness in the remaining analyzed pathological entities. Small bowel obstruction was manifested by the presence of distended loops due to gas and fluid as well as by severe peristaltic contractions occurring periodically. In the course of ischemic disease, the intestinal walls were thickened without the signs of increased perfusion and

  2. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  3. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  4. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  5. [Dolichomegacolon of the Andes and intestinal volvulus due to altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a frequent cause of emergencies in hospitals in the Andean area, representing more than 50% of all intestinal obstructions. Andean dolichomegacolon (DCMA) and retractile mesocolonitis are the main contributing factors for volvulus. The mesocolonitis nears the proximal and distal segment of the sigmoid handle, favoring its torsion. Copious intake of fermentable food is the precipitating factor for volvulus. The majority of patients are seen during sowing and harvest periods, in which the consumption of this type of food increases. Andean people who live at an altitude of 3,000 m have a larger and thicker colon than coastal residents. We call this acquired characteristic the Andean dolichomegacolon (DCMA). A fiber-rich diet may inhibit the histological phenomenon known as elastogenesis, developing--over the years--the megacolon. Another important factor may be the lower atmospheric pressure in the altitude, and according to Boyle and Mariotte's physical law, the expansion of intraluminal gas may have an influence on intestinal enlargement. DCMA has many special anatomic, clinical, radiological, histological and serological features which make it different from the . chagasic megacolon. Mild emergency procedures may be performed to treat the sigmoid volvulus, such as endoscopic disvolvulation. Changing the colon rotation is helpful in diminishing abdominal pressure and restore complete blood circulation. An emergency surgery treatment must take the patient's general condition and the colon handle condition during surgery as a guiding point. High rates of mortality are found in relation to elderly patients, disease evolution time and stage of intestinal ischemia. Other new therapeutic procedures such as percutaneous sigmoidpexy, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and mesosigmoplasty are under review, and have precise indications. Wider series are needed to evaluate them better.

  6. Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Isquemia miocardica na cardiomiopatia hipertrofica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Moyses de Oliveira; Figueiredo, Geraldo L.; Simoes, Marcus V.; Pyntia, Antonio O.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia

    2000-08-01

    Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and explains the occurrence of angina, in about 50% of patients. The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia may be explained by the increase of the ventricular mass and relative paucity of the coronary microcirculation; the elevated ventricular filling pressures and myocardial stiffness causing a compression of the coronary microvessels; the impaired coronary vasodilator flow reserve caused by anatomic and functional abnormalities; and the systolic compression of epicardial vessel (myocardial bridges). Myocardial ischemia must be investigated by perfusion scintigraphic methods since its presence influences the prognosis and has relevant clinical implications for management of patients. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and documented myocardial ischemia usually need to undergo invasive coronary angiography to exclude the presence of concomitant atherosclerotic coronary disease. (author)

  7. Quantitative Ischemia Detection During Cardiac MR Stress Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraitchman, D

    2001-01-01

    .... During a second ischemic episode, conventional cine wall motion images were acquired. The time from occlusion to the detection of ischemia by each MR technique, as well as ECG ischemic alterations, was determined...

  8. Current technology in assessing painless and painful ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent technologic advances have yielded diverse techniques for studying myocardial ischemia, a useful functional expression of coronary artery disease. These techniques have revealed new characteristics and expanded our understanding of myocardial ischemia. In turn this has led to the establishment of more realistic and discriminating criteria on which to base diagnostic and management decisions. Many of the techniques are noninvasive and can be performed in the cardiologist's office. These include treadmill exercise testing; radioisotope techniques, including ejection fraction studies, stress thallium scintigraphy, and tomographic imaging; and ambulatory monitoring. Other, newer techniques include provocative tests that induce ischemia in patients who cannot exercise. These new noninvasive tests should be used to detect transient ischemia, estimate its severity, and thus record a measure of the patient's risk for adverse coronary events

  9. MICROCIRCULATORY ISCHEMIA AND STATINS: LESSONS OF INTERVENTION CARDIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An. A. Alexandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the pathogenesis of microcirculatory ischemia. Microcirculatory dysfunction has been identified in different groups of patients including syndrome X, diabetes mellitus 2 type, coronary heart disease. In coronary patients after transluminal angioplasty microcirculatory dysfunction is the reason of phenomenon of “non-reflow”. In result the procedure of revascularization is less effective. Therapy by statins can be beneficial for patients with microcirculatory ischemia.

  10. Spinal cord ischemia following thoracotomy without epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Aeyal; Avramovich, Aharon; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid A

    2006-06-01

    Paraplegia is an uncommon yet devastating complication following thoracotomy, usually caused by compression or ischemia of the spinal cord. Ischemia without compression may be a result of global ischemia, vascular injury and other causes. Epidural anesthesia has been implicated as a major cause. This report highlights the fact that perioperative cord ischemia and paraplegia may be unrelated to epidural intervention. A 71-yr-old woman was admitted for a left upper lobectomy for resection of a non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient refused epidural catheter placement and underwent a left T5-6 thoracotomy under general anesthesia. During surgery, she was hemodynamically stable and good oxygen saturation was maintained. Several hours following surgery the patient complained of loss of sensation in her legs. Neurological examination disclosed a complete motor and sensory block at the T5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal cord ischemia. The patient received iv steroid treatment, but remained paraplegic. Five months following the surgery there was only partial improvement in her motor symptoms. A follow-up MRI study was consistent with a diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia. In this case of paraplegia following thoracic surgery for lung resection, epidural anesthesia/analgesia was not used. The MRI demonstrated evidence of spinal cord ischemia, and no evidence of cord compression. This case highlights that etiologies other than epidural intervention, such as injury to the spinal segmental arteries during thoracotomy, should be considered as potential causes of cord ischemia and resultant paraplegia in this surgical population.

  11. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Kamacı Şener; Özlem Taşkapılıoğlu; Nermin Kelebek Girgin; Bahattin Hakyemez; Mustafa Bakar; Yakup Tomak

    2012-01-01

    Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  12. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kamacı Şener

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  13. Tratamento da isquemia mesentérica pelo pós-condicionamento isquêmico Mesenteric ischemia's treatment by postconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que o pré-condicionamento isquêmico tem a capacidade de minimizar as lesões decorrentes do processo de isquemia e reperfusão. Recentemente foi descrito que o pós-condicionamento isquêmico apresenta resultados semelhantes em isquemia e reperfusão miocárdica, cerebral, renal e da medula espinhal, mas não há relatos de utilização deste método na isquemia mesentérica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o efeito do pós-condicionamento isquêmico sobre a lesão tecidual na mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos ao processo de isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 20 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo A, em que se realizou isquemia (30 minutos e reperfusão (60 minutos mesentérica; grupo B, isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica e, precedendo o início da reperfusão, foi realizado o pós-condicionamento isquêmico. Ao final, ressecou-se um segmento do intestino delgado para análise histológica. Avaliaram-se os resultados pela classificação de Chiu e procedeu-se o tratamento estatístico. RESULTADO: As médias dos graus de lesão tecidual foram: grupo A, 3,5; grupo B, 1. A diferença entre os grupos foi considerada estatisticamente significativa (p It is known that the preconditioning has the capacity to minimize the current lesions of the ischemia and reperfusion process. Recently it was described that the postconditioning presents similar results in miocardic ischemia and reperfusion, brain, kidneys and of the spinal cord, but there are no reports of use of this method in the mesenteric ischemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the postconditioning on the tissue lesion in the intestinal mucosa of rats submitted to the ischemia and reperfusion process. METHOD: 20 Wistar rats were studied, distributed in two groups: group A, in that was done mesenteric ischemia (30 minutes and reperfusion (60 minutes; group B, mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion

  14. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the beginning to maintain nutrition and good hydration although it is hoped that the small intestine ... life. For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroenterologist in your area please visit our website ...

  15. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  16. Telescoping Intestine in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy.

  17. Ischemia modified albumin as laboratory marker of acute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Miličević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily clinical practice still lacks a marker of acute myocardial ischemia as compared with markers ofmyocardial necrosis. Ischemia modifed albumin (IMA has recently been proposed as a useful biochemicaltool for detection of ischemia – it is a test which determines the inability of N-terminal end ofalbumin to bind cobalt during ischemia. A strong relation between IMA and early myocardial ischemiahas been shown by several studies, in most of which percutaneous coronary intervention was used asa model of myocardial ischemia, where this test showed high sensitivity. IMA values raise during nextfew minutes after the ischemia has occured, and return back to normal levels within next six hours, butthe precise dynamics of its rise and fall are still unknown. Beside defining etiology of acute or sub-acutechest pain in patients with inconclusive electrocardiogram (ECG, in patients with “silent” myocardialischemia with ischemic changes in ECG or in patients with non-ischemic ECG changes during cardiacstress test, this promising marker could also be used as the earliest biochemical indicator of early developmentof myocardial infarction. Relatively low organ-specificity is a limitation of this test, becauseIMA levels are also raised during different ischemic conditions and diseases of other organs. If thisproblem is taken into consideration, IMA test shows good results in diagnosing myocardial ischemiadue to its high sensitivity.

  18. Acute testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert C; Towbin, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    Acute testicular ischemia caused by an incarcerated inguinal hernia usually affects infants. There are few reports of diagnosis using US, and the effect of long-standing reducible hernias on testicular growth in infants and children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of testicular ischemia secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia at scrotal sonography and to determine the effect on testicular size at diagnosis. A hospital database was used to locate scrotal sonography examinations documenting an inguinal hernia, and images were reviewed for signs of testicular ischemia. Testicular volumes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 147 patients were identified with an inguinal hernia (age 1 day to 23 years, average 6 years). Ten patients (6.8%) had associated testicular ischemia (age 3 weeks to 6 months, average 9 weeks) and showed a statistically significant increase in ipsilateral testicular size compared to the contralateral testicle (P = 0.012). Patients without testicular ischemia did not show a significant difference in testicular size, regardless of patient age. An incarcerated inguinal hernia should be considered as a cause of acute testicular ischemia in infants younger than 6 months of age.

  19. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  20. Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, C.M.; Labrunie, E.; Pannaim, V.L.N.; Santos, A.A.S. dos; Pereira, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report. The authors describe a case of intestinal actinomycosis, which was manisfestated by abdominal mass and suggested, clinical and radiologically, a bowel carcinoma. They discuss the pathogenesis, and the clinical and radiological manisfestations of this disease, and its differential diagnosis. This is an infrequent disease which must be considered whenever suggestive clinical aspects are associated with a radiological ''malignant pattern'' of a bowel lesion. (author) [pt

  1. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  2. Usefulness of MR imaging for diseases of the small intestine: comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Sohn, Min Jae; Shin, Byung Suck; Lee, Young Suk; Chung, Soo Yoon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for diseases of the small intestine, emphasizing a comparison with CT. Thirty-four patients who underwent both CT and MR imaging using FLASH 2D and HASTE sequences were analyzed. All patients had various small bowel diseases with variable association of peritoneal lesions. We compared the detectabilities of CT and MR imaging using different MR pulse sequences. The capability for analyzing the characteristics of small intestinal disease was also compared. MR imaging was nearly equal to CT for detecting intraluminal or peritoneal masses, lesions in the bowel and mesentery, and small bowel obstruction, but was definitely inferior for detecting omental lesions. The most successful MR imaging sequence was HASTE for demonstrating bowel wall thickening, coronal FLASH 2D for mesenteric lesions, and axial FLASH 2D for omental lesions. MR imaging yielded greater information than CT in six of 12 inflammatory bowel diseases, while it was equal to CT in six of seven neoplasms and inferior in five of seven mesenteric ischemia. In determining the primary causes of 15 intestinal obstructions, MR imaging was correct in 11 (73%) and CT in nine (60%) patients. MR imaging can serve as an alternative diagnostic tool for patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal neoplasm or obstruction.

  3. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

    2014-01-01

    Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

  4. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  6. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  7. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  8. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (Pcultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (Pculture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group: 1 preterm control (PTC, 2 preterm ventilated (PTV, 3 preterm asphyxiated (PTA, 4 preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV, 5 term control (TC, 6 term ventilated (TV, 7 term asphyxiated (TA, and 8 term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV. We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW, (BrW, (IW, (BrW/BW and (IW/BW]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus and intestine (jejunum/ileum tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP. IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05, and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005. PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex and TA (cortex/hippocampus (P<0.005. I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005 and TA (ileum (P<0.05. I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001. Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  10. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  11. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26103523

  12. Outcomes of lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T; Patel, Virendra I; Judelson, Dejah R; Goodney, Philip P; McPhee, James T; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Cronenwett, Jack L; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia remains one of the most challenging emergencies in vascular surgery. Historically, outcomes following interventions for acute limb ischemia have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine contemporary outcomes following lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia. All patients undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass between 2003 and 2011 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified. Patients were stratified according to whether or not the indication for lower extremity bypass was acute limb ischemia. Primary end points included bypass graft occlusion, major amputation, and mortality at 1 year postoperatively as determined by Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate independent predictors of mortality and major amputation at 1 year. Of 5712 lower extremity bypass procedures, 323 (5.7%) were performed for acute limb ischemia. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for acute limb ischemia were similar in age (66 vs 67; P = .084) and sex (68% male vs 69% male; P = .617) compared with chronic ischemia patients, but were less likely to be on aspirin (63% vs 75%; P < .0001) or a statin (55% vs 68%; P < .0001). Patients with acute limb ischemia were more likely to be current smokers (49% vs 39%; P < .0001), to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (33% vs 24%; P = .004) or a prior ipsilateral percutaneous intervention (41% vs 29%; P = .001). Bypasses performed for acute limb ischemia were longer in duration (270 vs 244 minutes; P = .007), had greater blood loss (363 vs 272 mL; P < .0001), and more commonly utilized prosthetic conduits (41% vs 33%; P = .003). Acute limb ischemia patients experienced increased in-hospital major adverse events (20% vs 12%; P < .0001) including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure exacerbation, deterioration in renal function

  13. Treatment of Digital Ischemia with Liposomal Bupivacaine

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    José Raul Soberón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report describes a case in which the off-label use of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel in a peripheral nerve block resulted in marked improvement of a patient’s vasoocclusive symptoms. The vasodilating and analgesic properties of liposomal bupivacaine in patients with ischemic symptoms are unknown, but our clinical experience suggests a role in the management of patients suffering from vasoocclusive disease. Case Report. A 45-year-old African American female was admitted to the hospital with severe digital ischemic pain. She was not a candidate for any vascular surgical or procedural interventions. Two continuous supraclavicular nerve blocks were placed with modest clinical improvement. These effects were also short-lived, with the benefits resolving after the discontinuation of the peripheral nerve blocks. She continued to report severe pain and was on multiple anticoagulant medications, so a decision was made to perform an axillary nerve block using liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel given the compressibility of the site as well as the superficial nature of the target structures. Conclusions. This case report describes the successful off-label usage of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel in a patient with digital ischemia. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel is currently FDA approved only for wound infiltration use at this time.

  14. Usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Mami

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was assessed in patients with exercise-induced asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (silent ischemia) and compared with exercise-induced symptomatic myocardial ischemia (symptomatic ischemia). Patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (51 with angina pectoris, 40 with old myocardial infarction) and evidence of stress-induced ischemia on thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) underwent successful PTCA. Thirty-seven percent of angina patients and 60% of infarction patients showed asymptomatic exercise-induced ischemia. There was no significant difference in population characteristics between silent and symptomatic patients. Patients with silent angina had significantly higher percentage thallium uptake and washout rate than symptomatic patients. After PTCA, both percentage diameter stenosis and percentage thallium uptake were improved in all patients with angina irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms. There were no significant differences in percentage thallium uptake and washout rate between patients with silent and symptomatic infarction. After PTCA, percentage diameter stenosis, percentage thallium uptake, and washout rate improved in all infarction patients irrespective of the symptoms. Zero percent of silent angina patients, 12% of symptomatic angina patients, 12% of silent infarction patients, 19% of symptomatic infarction patients had cardiac events during about 4.5 years after PTCA. The incidence of cardiac events did not significantly differ in any patient group. PTCA improved myocardial perfusion in all patients, and the incidence of cardiac events did not differ between the silent and symptomatic groups. Revascularization with PTCA is suitable for patients with silent as well as symptomatic ischemia. (author)

  15. PARP Inhibition Attenuates Histopathological Lesion in Ischemia/Reperfusion Renal Mouse Model after Cold Prolonged Ischemia

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    Raimundo M. G. del Moral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1+/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinylbutoxyl]-1(2H-isoquinolinone (DPQ at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ. We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation.

  16. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-02-22

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  17. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  18. Exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia: Evaluation by thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, C.; Sakata, K.; Taguchi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.

    1990-01-01

    Factors associated with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) during exercise testing were studied by means of thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) in 471 patients. Coronary angiography was done in 290, of whom 167 were found to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise-induced ischemia and its severity were defined with ECT. During exercise 108 (62%) of 173 patients with ischemia and 57 (50%) of 115 with ischemia and angiographically documented CAD had no chest pain. One third of the patients showed an inconsistency between scintigraphic ischemia and ischemia ST depression. Age, sex, prior myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus were not related to SMI. Patients with SMI had less severe ischemia despite a higher peak double product compared to those with painful ischemia. Among 91 with prior myocardial infarction and exercise-induced ischemia, 51 with periinfarction ischemia had a higher frequency of SMI than did 14 with ischemia remote from the prior infarct zone despite similarities in the severity of ischemia. In conclusion, factors localized within ischemic myocardium such as less severe ischemia or adjacency to a prior infarct made SMI more prevalent

  19. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  20. [Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S; Bellanger, J

    2017-08-31

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL), Waldmann's disease, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals leading to lymph leakage into the small-bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. The main symptom is bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe including pleural effusion, pericarditis or ascites. Protein-losing enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance and diagnosis by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of biopsies. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Several B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A long-term strictly low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride and liposoluble vitamin supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, have been proposed with an inconsistent efficacy in association with diet. Surgical small-bowel resection is useful in the rare cases with segmental and localized intestinal lymphangiectasia. A prolonged clinical and biological follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

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    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  2. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  3. Mesenteric ischemia after capecitabine treatment in rectal cancer and resultant short bowel syndrome is not an absolute contraindication for radical oncological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpar, Ana; Brecelj, Erik; Kozjek, Nada Rotovnik; Anderluh, Franc; Oblak, Irena; Vidmar, Marija Skoblar; Velenik, Vaneja

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic events, arterial or venous in origin, still remain a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The propensity for their development in oncology patients is partially a consequence of the disease itself and partially a result of our attempts to treat it. One of the rarest and deadliest thromboembolic complications is arterial mesenteric ischemia. The high mortality rate is caused by its rarity and by its non-specific clinical presentation, both of which make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. Hence, most diagnoses and treatments occur late in the course of the disease. The issue survivors of arterial mesenteric ischemia may face is short bowel syndrome, which has become a chronic condition after the introduction of parenteral nutrition at home. We present a 73-year-old rectal cancer patient who developed acute arterial mesenteric thrombosis at the beginning of the pre-operative radiochemotherapy. Almost the entire length of his small intestine, except for the proximal 50 cm of it, and the ascending colon had to be resected. After multiorgan failure his condition improved, and he was able to successfully complete radical treatment (preoperative radiotherapy and surgery) for the rectal carcinoma, despite developing short bowel syndrome (SBS) and being dependent upon home-based parenteral nutrition to fully cover his nutritional needs. Mesenteric ischemia and resultant short bowel syndrome are not absolute contraindications for radical oncological treatment since such patients can still achieve long-term remission

  4. Gene expression in cerebral ischemia: a new approach for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Mónica; Arenillas, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the strongest stimuli for gene induction in the brain. Hundreds of genes have been found to be induced by brain ischemia. Many genes are involved in neurodestructive functions such as excitotoxicity, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. However, cerebral ischemia is also a powerful reformatting and reprogramming stimulus for the brain through neuroprotective gene expression. Several genes may participate in both cellular responses. Thus, isolation of candidate genes for neuroprotection strategies and interpretation of expression changes have been proven difficult. Nevertheless, many studies are being carried out to improve the knowledge of the gene activation and protein expression following ischemic stroke, as well as in the development of new therapies that modify biochemical, molecular and genetic changes underlying cerebral ischemia. Owing to the complexity of the process involving numerous critical genes expressed differentially in time, space and concentration, ongoing therapeutic efforts should be based on multiple interventions at different levels. By modification of the acute gene expression induced by ischemia or the apoptotic gene program, gene therapy is a promising treatment but is still in a very experimental phase. Some hurdles will have to be overcome before these therapies can be introduced into human clinical stroke trials. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Normobaric Oxygen Therapy for Scleral Ischemia or Melt

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    Farideh Sharifipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of normobaric oxygen (NBO therapy for treatment of scleral ischemia or melt. Methods: This prospective interventional case series includes 9 eyes of 8 patients with scleral ischemia or melt of diverse etiologies. Following the failure of conventional medical and/or surgical therapy to improve ischemia or upon clinical deterioration, NBO was initiated. All patients received 100% NBO at flow rate of 10 liters/minute by face mask for 1 hour, twice daily until complete vascularization of ischemic areas. Main outcome measures were improvement of scleral ischemia and healing of conjunctival epithelial defects. Results: NBO therapy led to epithelialization and vascularization of the ischemic sclera in all eyes; the repair process began 3-4 days after NBO had been initiated and was completed in 18.1±4.7 (range, 10-25 days. All patients remained stable over a 9-month follow-up period. Conclusion: NBO therapy seems effective for treatment of scleral ischemia or melt, and hence can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to surgical intervention in these conditions.

  6. The role of platelet factor 4 in local and remote tissue damage in a mouse model of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Peter H Lapchak

    Full Text Available The robust inflammatory response that occurs during ischemia reperfusion (IR injury recruits factors from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. However the contribution of platelets and their products such as Platelet Factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4, during the pathogenesis of IR injury has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that a deficiency in PF4 protects mice from local and remote tissue damage after 30 minutes of mesenteric ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion in PF4-/- mice compared to control B6 mice. This protection was independent from Ig or complement deposition in the tissues. However, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration were decreased in the lungs of PF4-/- mice compared with B6 control mice. Platelet-depleted B6 mice transfused with platelets from PF4-/- mice displayed reduced tissue damage compared with controls. In contrast, transfusion of B6 platelets into platelet depleted PF4-/- mice reconstituted damage in both intestine and lung tissues. We also show that PF4 may modulate the release of IgA. Interestingly, we show that PF4 expression on intestinal epithelial cells is increased after IR at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that may PF4 represent an important mediator of local and remote tissue damage.

  7. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics During Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, María I; Bonazzola, Patricia; Colareda, Germán A

    2017-01-01

    During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca 2+ . Their free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na + (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm. Nevertheless, a better estimation of heart energy consumption is the total heat release associated to ATP hydrolysis, metabolism, and binding reactions, which is measurable either in the presence or the absence of oxygenation or perfusion. Consequently, a mechano-calorimetrical approach on isolated hearts gives a tool to evaluate muscle economy. The mitochondrial role during I/R depends on the injury degree. We investigated the role of the mitochondrial Ca 2+ transporters in the energetic of hearts stunned by a model of no-flow I/R in rat hearts. This chapter explores an integrated view of previous and new results which give evidences to the mitochondrial role in cardiac stunning by ischemia o hypoxia, and the influence of thyroid alterations and cardioprotective strategies, such as cardioplegic solutions (high K-low Ca, pyruvate) and the phytoestrogen genistein in both sex. Rat ventricles were perfused in a flow-calorimeter at either 30 °C or 37 °C to continuously measure the left ventricular pressure (LVP) and total heat rate (Ht). A pharmacological treatment was done before exposing to no-flow I and R. The post-ischemic contractile (PICR as %) and energetical (Ht) recovery and muscle economy (Eco: P/Ht) were determined during stunning. The functional interaction between mitochondria (Mit) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was evaluated with selective mitochondrial inhibitors in hearts reperfused with Krebs-10 m

  8. Cellular infiltrates and injury evaluation in a rat model of warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putte, BP; Kesecioglu, J; Hendriks, JMH; Persy, VP; van Marck, E; Van Schil, PEY; De Broe, ME

    Introduction Beside lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, isolated lung perfusion and sleeve resection result in serious pulmonary ischemia - reperfusion injury, clinically known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Very little is known about cells infiltrating the lung during ischemia -

  9. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

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    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  10. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY IN TRANSITORY MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA

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    Anica Pavlovic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction occurring within subarachnoid hemorrhage named neurogenic stunned myocardium have great impact on intensive care of patients with SAH. Timely diagnosis and treatment of such condition can provide better haemodynamics of damaged brain. The standard follow-up was performed in 30 patients with SAH during two years at the Clinic of Neurosurgery (2005,2006. Serial electrocardiography, echocardiography, as well as laboratory findings of special biomarkers of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed. All patients were treated with Urapidil, Metoprolol, MgSO4 by cheme and ACE inhibitors. Ninety EKG were analyzed in the study, as well as 16 electrocardiographies. The highest levels of CPK, CK-MB and TnI before and after the therapy were also recoded. EKG showed the signs of ischemia in 9 of 30 patients on 1st day and 7 of 30 patients on 3rd day of the therapy. The highest level of CK-MB was present during the 1st day with mean value of 67,80±1,83 IU/L that decreased on 3rd day of therapy with mean value of 66,8±1,83 IU/L, TnI was positive in 16 cases. It showed statistically significant decrease from 0,29 ng/ml till 0,187 ng/ml and p < 0,01. Myocardial ischaemia has been proven to be a very significant complication in SAH. Appropriate treatment of myocardial ischaemia seems to improve systemic haemodynamics, as well as haemodynamics of the damaged brain.

  11. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

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    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  12. TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

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    Kavian Ghandehari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is superior to Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE in detection of atrial septal defects and aneurysm, aortic atheroma, left atrial thrombus and mitral valve abnormalities. TEE is indicated in young adults with cryptogenic ischemic stroke who are suspected of having cardioembolic mechanism despite non-diagnostic TTE. METHODS: A prospective clinical study was conducted in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA who had TTE done in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during 2006-2007. Ischemic cerebrovascular events were detected by stroke neurologist. TEE was performed with VIPI3/GE device, USA and a 7 MHz transesophageal probe by an echocardiologist. Patients who did not have TTE before TEE were excluded. Comparison of TEE to TTE results was performed by the echocardiologist and stroke neurologist in each patient. Influence of TEE on therapeutic decisions in each patient was evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients (20 females, 27 males with a mean age of 42.6±7.3 years were studied. Cardiac and aortic abnormalities were detected in TEE of 35 cases (35/47; 74% with ischemic cerebrovascular events. Cardiac abnormalities of 17 cases (36% were only detectable by TEE. These seventeen cases included 7 patients with PFO, 1 case with ASD, 6 cases with aortic atheroma and 2 patients with clot in the left atrium. Comparing the preventive stroke strategies before and after TEE revealed that it was changed only in two cases (2/47; 4.3% due to performing TEE. These included one patient with a small high-risk PFO and another case with dehicense of mechanical mitral valve. CONCLUSION: TEE revealed cardiac or aortic abnormalities in one-third of the patients with cerebral ischemia and has not been detected by TEE previously. The influence of TEE in therapeutic decisions of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular events is very low.         Keywords: Transesophageal echocardiography, Stroke, Transient Ischemic

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Maria C.; Ortega-Rocha, Elizabeth M.; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Boudin, Helene; Neunlist, Michel; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Riedel, Claudia A.

    2018-01-01

    The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:29593681

  14. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  15. Metabolic Crisis in Severely Head-Injured Patients: Is Ischemia Just the Tip of the Iceberg?

    OpenAIRE

    Carre, Emilie; Ogier, Michael; Boret, Henry; Montcriol, Ambroise; Bourdon, Lionel; Jean-Jacques, Risso

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia and metabolic crisis are frequent post-traumatic secondary brain insults that negatively influence outcome. Clinicians commonly mix up these two types of insults, mainly because high lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) is the common marker for both ischemia and metabolic crisis. However, LPR elevations during ischemia and metabolic crisis reflect two different energetic imbalances: ischemia (Type 1 LPR elevations with low oxygenation) is characterized by a drastic deprivation of energetic s...

  16. Heart Protection by Combination Therapy with Esmolol and Milrinone at Late-Ischemia and Early Reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ming-He; Wu, Yewen; Nguyen, Vincent; Rastogi, Saurabh; McConnell, Bradley K.; Wijaya, Cori; Uretsky, Barry F.; Poh, Kian-Keong; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Fujise, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The present study determined whether late-ischemia/early reperfusion therapy with the β1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker esmolol and phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial infarct size (IS). Methods and Results In an ischemia/reperfusion rat model (30-min ischemia/4-hr reperfusion), esmolol, milrinone or esmolol + milrinone were intravenous (IV) infused over 10 min (from the last 5min of ischemia to the first 5min of reperfusion). LV-I...

  17. Induction profile of MANF/ARMET by cerebral ischemia and its implication for neuron protection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Lian-Cheng; Wang, Fa-Cai; Liang, Yan; Cha, Da-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Shen, Yu-Jun; Wang, Hai-Ping; Fang, Shengyun; Shen, Yu-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia-induced accumulation of unfolded proteins in vulnerable neurons triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Arginine-rich, mutated in early stage tumors (ARMET) is an ER stress-inducible protein and upregulated in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. The purposes of this study were to investigate the characteristics and implications of ARMET expression induced by focal cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion w...

  18. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  19. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fabio Vieira, E-mail: rccury@me.com [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto Caldeira [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  20. Characteristics and significance of ischemia detected by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabel, E.G.; Rocco, M.B.; Selwyn, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) provides a new technique for the assessment of ischemic activity and the evaluation of therapies outside of the hospital. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the majority of patients with CAD have episodes of symptomatic and asymptomatic ST segment depression during routine daily activities. Rubidium-82 positron-emission tomographic studies have provided evidence for decreased myocardial perfusion during these episodes of ST segment depression. The prognostic importance of asymptomatic ischemia has been shown in patients with unstable angina to be a marker for early unfavorable cardiac events. Preliminary results suggest a poorer outcome for those patients with chronic stable angina who show episodes of ischemia as well. Ambulatory monitoring studies suggest that total ischemic activity may be underestimated by conventional testing. Whether all ischemic activity detected by ambulatory monitoring requires treatment awaits further study. 69 references

  1. Myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the exercise stress test in diagnosing asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, exercise radionuclide imaging remains useful for detecting silent ischemia in numerous patient populations, including those who are totally asymptomatic, those who have chronic stable angina, those who have recovered from an episode of unstable angina or an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and those who have undergone angioplasty or received thrombolytic therapy. Studies show that thallium scintigraphy is more sensitive than exercise electrocardiography in detecting ischemia, i.e., in part, because perfusion defects occur more frequently than ST depression and before angina in the ischemic cascade. Thallium-201 scintigraphy can be performed to differentiate a true- from a false-positive exercise electrocardiographic test in patients with exercise-induced ST depression and no angina. The development of technetium-labeled isonitriles may improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging. 11 references

  2. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  3. Update on small intestinal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to id...

  4. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  5. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  6. EFFICACY OF METOPROLOL AND DILTIAZEM IN TREATING SILENT-MYOCARDIAL-ISCHEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PORTEGIES, MCM; SIJBRING, P; GOBEL, JAM; VIERSMA, JW; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies strongly support the prognostic importance of transient silent ischemia. Because patients with silent ischemia are at higher risk of a cardiac event, they are likely to benefit not only from control of symptoms, but also from treatment directed at prevention of ischemia. The efficacy

  7. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabi Shamsaei; Mehdi Khaksari; Sohaila Erfani; Hamid Rajabi; Nahid Aboutaleb

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral isch-emic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction th rough occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic ex-ercise signiifcantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration.

  8. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  9. Treatment of critical lower limb ischemia using a hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wagner da Costa Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical ischemia of a lower limb is a condition that threatens its viability and must be treated promptly to avoid major amputation. Revascularization is the most effective treatment method and is performed using surgical or endovascular techniques. For patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, combining these two approaches into a "hybrid technique" makes it possible to treat patients who could not be adequately treated by either technique in isolation. We report on a case of lower limb critical ischemia treated using a combination of surgery and endovascular techniques, in an application of the hybrid technique in a different arterial bed.

  10. Acute mesenteric ischemia and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Shinobu; Murasawa, Shingo; Yamagata, Satoshi; Kageyama, Kazunori; Nigawara, Takeshi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kimura, Daisuke; Tsushima, Takao; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hakamada, Kenichi; Terui, Ken; Daimon, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome and excess exogenous glucocorticoids have an increased risk for venous thromboembolism, as well as arterial thrombi. The patients are at high risk of thromboembolic events, especially during active disease and even in cases of remission and after surgery in Cushing's syndrome and withdrawal state in glucocorticoid users. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting lung carcinoid tumor. Our patient developed acute mesenteric ischemia after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery despite administration of sufficient glucocorticoid and thromboprophylaxis in the perioperative period. In addition, our patient developed hepatic infarction after surgical resection of the intestine. Then, the patient was supported by total parenteral nutrition. Our case report highlights the risk of microthrombi, which occurred in our patient after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Guidelines on thromboprophylaxis and/or antiplatelet therapy for Cushing's syndrome are acutely needed. The present case showed acute mesenteric thromboembolism and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.Patients with Cushing's syndrome are at increased risk for thromboembolic events and increased morbidity and mortality.An increase in thromboembolic risk has been observed during active disease, even in cases of remission and postoperatively in Cushing's syndrome.Thromboprophylaxis and antiplatelet therapy should be considered in treatment of glucocorticoid excess or glucocorticoid withdrawal.

  11. Use of hypoxia imaging agent 99mTc-HL91 in rat cerebral ischemia models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Qu Wanying; Li Meng; Chen Fang; Yao Zhiming; Zhu Ming; Zhu Lin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of diagnosis for cerebrovascular disease by a novel synthetic hypoxia agent 99m Tc-HL91 used in rat cerebral ischemia models. Methods: Pharmacological experiments of 99m Tc-HL91 were carried out including common properties, radiochemical purity, stability in vitro, anomalous toxicity test and biodistribution in mice. Fifteen cerebral ischemic rat models were established and received 99m Tc-HL91 scintigraphy. Results: 1) HL91 kits were labelled with 99m Tc easily and showed high radiochemical purity and stability. 2) Rapid clearance in blood, heart and lungs and high activity in liver, kidneys and intestines were observed. Relatively low uptake in brain was identified. 3) The radioactivity in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly at 4h postinjection in both rat images and isolated brain images. 4) The radioactivity ratios of lesion to normal brain tissue by drawing ROIs in isolated brain planar images were 0.98 +- 0.06, 0.99 +- 0.05, 1.29 +- 0.03, 1.56 +- 0.14 and 1.66 +- 0.06 at 1,2,4,8 and 12 h postinjection, respectively. There were significant differences among all groups except for 1 h and 2 h, 8 h and 12 h postinjection (P 99m Tc-HL91 in the hypoxic, ischemic brain tissue have been proved. It is appropriate to perform imaging at 4 h postinjection

  12. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  13. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  14. VESGEN Mapping of Bioactive Protection against Intestinal Inflammation: Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Chen, X.; Kelly, C. P.; Reinecker, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Challenges to successful space exploration and colonization include adverse physiological reactions to micro gravity and space radiation factors. Constant remodeling of the microvasculature is critical for tissue preservation, wound healing, and recovery after ischemia. Regulation of the vascular system in the intestine is particularly important to enable nutrient absorption while maintaining barrier function and mucosal defense against micro biota. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular circuits regulating neovascularization, our knowledge of the adaptations of the vascular system to environmental challenges in the intestine remains incomplete. This is in part because of the lack of methods to observe and quantify the complex processes associated with vascular responses in vivo. Developed by GRC as a mature beta version, pre-release research software, VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) maps and quantifies the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching for novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and microvascular remodeling. Here we demonstrate that VESGEN can be used to characterize the dynamic vascular responses to acute intestinal inflammation and mucosal recovery from in vivo confocal microscopic 3D image series. We induced transient intestinal inflammation in mice by DSS treatment and investigated whether the ability of the pro biotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) to protect against intestinal inflammation was due to regulation of vascular remodeling. A primary characteristic of inflammation is excessive neovascularization (angiogenesis) resulting in fragile vessels prone to bleeding. Morphological parameters for triplicate specimens revealed that Sb treatment greatly reduced the inflammatory response of vascular networks by an average of 78%. This resulted from Sb inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling, a major

  15. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  16. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to the intestinal exsorptive DTs. An example is the API sulfasalazine, which is a substrate for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2. Sulfasalazine absorption is found to increase when human volunteers are administered high concentrations together with the inhibitor and spice curcumin. In conclusion...

  17. Radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  19. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  20. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    OpenAIRE

    Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was establi...

  1. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  2. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  3. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Intestinal and Multivisceral Transplantation at a Single Center in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisch, D; Rumbo, C; Echevarria, C; Moulin, L; Niveyro, S; Orce, G; Crivelli, A; Martinez, M I; Chavez, L; Paez, M A; Trentadue, J; Klein, F; Fernández, A; Solar, H; Gondolesi, G E

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) patients received parenteral nutrition (PN) as the only available therapy until intestinal transplantation (ITx) evolved as an accepted treatment. The aim of this article is to report the long-term outcomes of a series of ITx performed in pediatric and adult patients at a single center 9 years after its creation. This is a retrospective analysis of the ITx performed between May 2006 and January 2015. Diagnoses, pre-ITx mean time on PN, indications for ITx, time on the waiting list for types of ITx, mean total ischemia time, and warm ischemia time, time until PN discontinuation, incidence of acute and chronic rejection, and 5-year actuarial patient survival are reported. A total of 42 patients received ITx; 80% had short gut syndrome (SG); the mean time on PN was 1620 days. The main indication for ITx was lack of central venous access followed by intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) and catheter-related infectious complications. The mean time on the waiting list was 188 days (standard deviation, ±183 days). ITx were performed in 26 children and 14 adults. In all, 32 procedures were isolated ITx (IITX); 10 were multiorgan Tx (MOT; 3 combined, 7 multivisceral Tx (MVTx), 1 modified MVTx and 2 with kidney); 2 (4.7 %) were retransplantations: 1 IITx, 1 MVTx, and 5 including the right colon. Thirteen patients (31%) received abdominal rectus fascia. All procedures were performed by the same surgical team. Total ischemia time was 7:53 ± 2:04 hours, and warm ischemia time was 40.2 ± 10.5 minutes. The mean length of implanted intestine was 325 ± 63 cm. Bishop-Koop ileostomy was performed in 67% of cases. In all, 16 of 42 Tx required early reoperations. The overall mean follow-up time was 41 ± 35.6 months. The mean time to PN discontinuation after Tx was 68 days (P = .001). The total number of acute cellular rejection (ACR) episodes until the last follow-up was 83; the total number of grafts lost due to ACR was 4; and the total

  5. Prenatal intestinal volvulus: look for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikh, Taieb; Mottet, Nicolas; Cabrol, Christelle; Chaussy, Yann

    2016-12-21

    Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus. 1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Binici, Orhan; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2015-11-01

    The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg) was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  7. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  8. [The relationship between ischemic preconditioning-induced infarction size limitation and duration of test myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, I O; Galagudza, M M; Vlasov, T D; Nifontov, E M; Petrishchev, N N

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally infarction size reduction by ischemic preconditioning is estimated in duration of test ischemia. This approach limits the understanding of real antiischemic efficacy of ischemic preconditioning. Present study was performed in the in vivo rat model of regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and showed that protective effect afforded by ischemic preconditioning progressively decreased with prolongation of test ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences in infarction size between control and preconditioned animals when the duration of test ischemia was increased up to 1 hour. Preconditioning ensured maximal infarction-limiting effect in duration of test ischemia varying from 20 to 40 minutes.

  9. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  10. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  11. The CT signs of intestinal volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Wang Zufei; Xu Zhaolong; Lv Guijian; Xu Min; Zhao Zhongwei; Su Jinliang; Zhou Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the accuracy rate of spiral CT diagnosing intestinal volvulus. Methods: To analysis the CT findings of 9 cases of intestinal volvulus proved by operation, the main reconstruction techniques were multiplanar reformation (MPR) and sliding thin-slab maximum intensity projection (STS-MIP). Results: All the 9 cases were diagnosed accurately, the main signs were 'whirlpool' of intestine (6 cases) and vessels (9 cases),'target loop' (2 cases),'beak'(6 cases). Conclusion: 'Whirlpool' of vessels is a specific sign to diagnose intestinal volvulus, 'target loop', reduced enhancement of intestinal wall and ascites are the reliable signs to strangulated intestinal obstruction. Spiral CT and reconstructions have important value to diagnose the intestinal volvulus. (authors)

  12. Ligustrazine monomer against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-jun Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligustrazine (2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine is a major active ingredient of the Szechwan lovage rhizome and is extensively used in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of action of ligustrazine use against ischemic cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear at present. This study summarizes its protective effect, the optimum time window of administration, and the most effective mode of administration for clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We examine the effects of ligustrazine on suppressing excitatory amino acid release, promoting migration, differentiation and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells. We also looked at its effects on angiogenesis and how it inhibits thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. We consider that ligustrazine gives noticeable protection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The time window of ligustrazine administration is limited. The protective effect and time window of a series of derivative monomers of ligustrazine such as 2-[(1,1-dimethylethyloxidoimino]methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, CXC137 and CXC195 after cerebral ischemia were better than ligustrazine.

  13. Myocardial Ischemia Screening in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Tomečková, Marie; Anger, Z.; Bultas, J.; Šimek, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2010), s. 2-7 ISSN 1667-9059 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : body surface mapping * stress ECG test * myocardial ischemia * risk factors Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  14. Delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinicoanatomic correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijdra, A.; van Gijn, J.; Stefanko, S.; van Dongen, K. J.; Vermeulen, M.; van Crevel, H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-seven of 176 prospectively studied patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Clinical features included hemispheric focal signs (13), decrease in level of consciousness (14), or both (30), and mutism (15). Forty-seven patients showed hypodense

  15. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.

  16. Nootropics in a Complex Therapy of Chronic Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekman, I.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pharmacological characteristics of nootropics — one of the most productive groups of neuropsychotropic drugs, are considered. Classification of nootropics based on the main mechanism of action is constructed. The examples of clinical use of drugs in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia are presented.

  17. Nootropics in a Complex Therapy of Chronic Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chekman, I.S.; Belenichev, I.F.; Demchenko, A.V.; Bobrova, V.I.; Kucherenko, L.I.; Gorchakova, N.A.; Bukhtiyarova, N.V.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and pharmacological characteristics of nootropics — one of the most productive groups of neuropsychotropic drugs, are considered. Classification of nootropics based on the main mechanism of action is constructed. The examples of clinical use of drugs in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia are presented.

  18. Nitrite enhances liver graft protection against cold ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amani Cherif-Sayadi

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... cold ischemia reperfusion injury through a NOS ... oxidation and lipid peroxidation remained at low levels in both nitrite-treated groups when ... liver graft preservation [15]. ... nitrite activity is dependent on NO production but .... LiversT rat (n = 6) were flushed and preserved in IGL-1 solution ..... The nitrate-.

  19. The need to reduce cold ischemia time in kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypothermic preservation is a prerequisite for kidney exchange in transplantation. The severity of tissue damage caused by hypothermic preservation influences the level of ischemia/reperfusion injury and subsequent graft function. With the purpose of reviewing the implications of

  20. Neonatal cardiac mitochondria and ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milerová, Marie; Charvátová, Zuzana; Škárka, Libor; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Drahota, Zdeněk; Fialová, Martina; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 335, 1-2 (2010), s. 147-153 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neonatal rat heart * tolerance to ischemia * mitochondrial permeability transition pore Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2010

  1. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  2. Changes in functional status after treatment of critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline Alkine; Met, Rosemarie; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in functional status with the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) and in quality of life with the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) in patients treated for critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort

  3. Myocardial Ischemia Screening in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Tomečková, Marie; Anger, Z.; Bultas, J.; Šimek, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2010), s. 352-356 ISSN 1667-8982 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : body surface mapping * stress ECG test * myocardial ischemia * risk factors Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.028, year: 2010

  4. The sterile immune response during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion elicits an immune response that lacks a microbial constituent yet poses a potentially lethal threat to the host. In this sterile setting, the immune system is alarmed by endogenous danger signals that are release by stressed and dying liver cells. The detection of

  5. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted

  6. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  7. Role of myocardial ischemia on exercise-induced ST elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Haze, Kazuo; Fukami, Ken-ichi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1986-01-01

    Exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) has been recognized to be related to left ventricular (LV) asynergy, however it is also recognized that myocardial ischemia can induce ST elevation. In this study, factors which determine the extent of ST elevation, with special reference to myocardial ischemia, was re-evaluated using quantitative analysis of stress myocardial scintigraphy (S-SG). Among 65 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction and documented single vessel disease of left anterior descending artery (LAD), 19 patients who had exercise-induced ST elevation (ΔST ≥ 2.0 mm) had more abnormal Q waves (p < 0.01), lower LV ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01), more severe LV asynergy (p < 0.05) and less incidence of post-MI angina pectoris (AP) (p < 0.01), compared to those with ΔST < 2.0 mm, indicating that ST elevation is primarily related to LV asynergy. Correlation studies among clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic parameters show that ΔST was significantly related to a size of MI represented by Tl score or relative defect Tl activity and number of abnormal Q waves (No.Q), the magnitude of work load expressed by changes in double product (ΔDP) and intervals between the onset and exercise test, as well as myocardial ischemia expressed by the extent of redistribution (%RD) in S-SG. Among 23 patients with post-MI AP, ΔST significantly correlated with %RD (r = 0.47), indicating that myocardial ischemia can be a mechanism of exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous MI. Furtheremore, among those with ST elevation, concave-type ST elevation was more related to myocardial ischemia compared to convex-type ST elevation as expressed by the incidence of post-MI AP and/or significant redistribution. (J.P.N.)

  8. Reperfusion promotes mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the cell death observed after cerebral ischemia, and several mechanisms for this dysfunction have been proposed. Reperfusion after transient cerebral ischemia may cause continued and even more severe damage to the brain. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to observe the features of mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated mitochondria during the reperfusion period following focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated mitochondria were fixed for electron microscopic examination; calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling was quantified using spectrophotometry. Cyclophilin D was detected by Western blotting. Fluorescent probes were used to selectively stain mitochondria to measure their membrane potential and to measure reactive oxidative species production using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Signs of damage were observed in the mitochondrial morphology after exposure to reperfusion. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+ increased gradually with the increasing calcium concentration, and this tendency was exacerbated as the reperfusion time was extended. Cyclophilin D protein expression peaked after 24 hours of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly during the reperfusion period, with the greatest decrease observed after 24 hours of reperfusion. The surge in mitochondrial reactive oxidative species occurred after 2 hours of reperfusion and was maintained at a high level during the reperfusion period. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia induced significant mitochondrial morphological damage and Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial swelling. The mechanism of this swelling may be mediated by

  9. Real time monitoring of rat liver energy state during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro, E; Zurovsky, Y; Mayevsky, A

    1998-11-01

    Hepatic failure is one of the major problems developed during the posttransplantation period. A possible cause of hepatic failure is the prolonged ischemia induced during the implantation procedure. Hepatic ischemia leads to a reduction in oxygen supply, ATP level decline, liver metabolism impairment, and finally organ failure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the functional state of the liver by monitoring liver blood flow and the mitochondrial NADH redox state simultaneously and continuously during in situ liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. Measurements were performed using the multiprobe developed in our laboratory consisting of fibers for the measurement of relative liver blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry) and mitochondrial redox state (NADH fluorescence). The experimental procedure included the temporary interruption of blood flow to the liver using three types of ischemia, hepatic artery occlusion, portal vein occlusion, and simultaneous occlusion of hepatic artery and portal vein, followed by a reperfusion period. These preliminary experiments showed a significant decrease in liver blood flow, following the three types of liver ischemia, and a significant increase in NADH levels. The probe used in this study incorporates the advantage of monitoring NADH and liver blood flow simultaneously and continuously from the same area on the surface of the liver. Since each of these two parameters is not calibrated in absolute units, the simultaneous monitoring decreases possible artifacts. Also, it will allow us to determine of the coupling between tissue blood flow and oxidative phosphorylation. It is believed that the measurements of respiratory chain dysfunction might predict organ viability in clinical organ transplantation situations. Using this probe may also help to decrease the variability in liver blood flow monitoring since liver blood flow monitoring is supported simultaneously with the mitochondrial redox state, which supplies the

  10. Acute limb ischemia in cancer patients: should we surgically intervene?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, Julian S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.

  11. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karaca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005. Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h, shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period.

  12. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  13. Ultrasonographic Demonstration of Intestinal Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hoo; Choi, Hyae Seoun; Kim, S. K.; Han, S.U.; Park, K. S.; Park, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    The cardinal feature of intestinal obstruction is the intraluminal fluid accumulation within the bowel segments. The presence of air simply makes it easier to find dilated fluid-filled bowel loop on plain radiographic films. Distended fluid-filed loop, however, may be obscure on X-ray film when gas is absent, secondary to vomiting, or to cessation of air swallowing. furthermore, in closed loop obstruction, air cannot enter the involved bowel, and thereby in this situation gray scale ultrasonography may be a useful device in making a rapid diagnosis. By sonographic confirmations of intestinal obstruction, a tonic, fluid-filled bowel loops usually were revealed as multiple, circular or cylindrical cystic structures with a finely irregular wall. Valvulae connivente sexhibit a characteristic key-board appearance when they project into the fluid-filled lumen

  14. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  16. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  18. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  19. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  20. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Hoon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa.

  1. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  2. Exploring the fate of liposomes in the intestine by dynamic in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmentier, Johannes; Thomas, Nicky; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    precipitation was detected during the lipolysis assay, despite pronounced lipolytic degradation and change in vesicle size. In conclusion, the tested dynamic in vitro lipolysis model is suitable for the assessment of liposome stability in the intestine. Furthermore, liposomes might be a useful alternative......Liposomes are generally well tolerated drug delivery systems with a potential use for the oral route. However, little is known about the fate of liposomes during exposure to the conditions in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). To gain a better understanding of liposome stability in the intestine......, a dynamic in vitro lipolysis model, which so far has only been used for the in vitro characterisation of other lipid-based drug delivery systems, was applied to different liposomal formulations. Liposome size and phospholipid (PL) digestion were determined as two markers for liposome stability. In addition...

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: biodegradation by gastric agents in vitro and effect on murine intestinal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masyutin, A.; Erokhina, M.; Sychevskaya, K.; Gusev, A.; Vasyukova, I.; Smirnova, E.; Onishchenko, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main questions limiting application of fibrous carbon nanomaterials (CNM) in medicine and food industry concerns presumptive degradation of CNM in living organisms. In this study, we have investigated biodegradation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by gastric agents in vitro and influence of ingested MWCNTs on murine intestine. Using scanning, conventional transmission and analytical electron microscopy, we demonstrated that industrial MWCNTs treated in vitro by 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (pH=1) and gastric juice (pH=2-3) isolated from murine stomach, are subjected to incomplete degradation. After 30 days of oral administration to experimental mice, we did find MWCNTs in the cells of small intestine, and it may indicate that agglomerates of MWCNTs do not penetrate into colon epithelia and do not accumulate in enterocytes. However, we observed local areas of necrotic damages of intestinal villi. It seems likely, therefore, that MWCNTs end up leaving gastrointestinal tract by excretion with the feces. Our results suggest that MWCNTs do not undergo complete degradation in gastrointestinal tract of mice, and passing through non-degraded particles may negatively affect intestinal system.

  4. Kallikrein-like amidase activity in renal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Carattino

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed a kallikrein-like amidase activity probably related to the kallikrein-kinin system, as well as the participation of leukocyte infiltration in renal ischemia and reperfusion. Male C57BL/KSJmdb mice were subjected to 20 or 60 min of ischemia and to different periods of reperfusion. A control group consisted of sham-operated mice, under similar conditions, except for ischemia induction. Kallikrein-like amidase activity, Evans blue extravasation and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in kidney homogenates, previously perfused with 0.9% NaCl. Plasma creatinine concentration increased only in the 60-min ischemic group. After 20 min of ischemia and 1 or 24 h of reperfusion, no change in kallikrein-like amidase activity or Evans blue extravasation was observed. In the mice subjected to 20 min of ischemia, edema was evident at 1 h of reperfusion, but kidney water content returned to basal levels after 24 h of reperfusion. In the 60-min ischemic group, kallikrein-like amidase activity and Evans blue extravasation showed a similar significant increase along reperfusion time. Kallikrein-like amidase activity increased from 4 nmol PNA mg protein-1 min-1 in the basal condition to 15 nmol PNA mg protein-1 min-1 at 10 h of reperfusion. For dye extravasation the concentration measured was near 200 µg of Evans blue/g dry tissue in the basal condition and 1750 µg of Evans blue/g dry tissue at 10 h of reperfusion. No variation could be detected in the control group. A significant increase from 5 to 40 units of DAbs 655 nm g wet tissue-1 min-1 in the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase was observed in the 60-min ischemic group, when it was evaluated after 24 h of reperfusion. Histological analysis of the kidneys showed migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the vascular bed to the interstitial tissue in the 60-min ischemic group after 24 h of reperfusion. We conclude that the duration of ischemia is critical for the development of damage

  5. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

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    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  6. Revascularization and Muscle Adaptation to Limb Demand Ischemia in Diet Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadawi, Hassan; Tzika, Aria; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Crowley, Lindsey M.; Koulopoulos, Michael W.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in humans which can result in lower limb demand ischemia and exercise intolerance. Exercise triggers skeletal muscle adaptation including increased vasculogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether demand ischemia modulates revascularization, fiber size, and signaling pathways in the ischemic hind limb muscles of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Materials and Methods DIO mice (n=7) underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation (FAL) and recovered for 2-weeks followed by 4-weeks with daily treadmill exercise to induce demand ischemia. A parallel sedentary ischemia group (n=7) had FAL without exercise. The contralateral limb muscles of sedentary ischemia served as control. Muscles were examined for capillary density, myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), cytokine levels, and phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2. Results Exercise significantly enhanced capillary density (pdemand ischemia compared to sedentary ischemia. These findings coincided with a significant increase in G-CSF (pDemand ischemia increased the PGC1α mRNA (pdemands ischemia in the setting of DIO causes myofiber atrophy despite an increase in muscle capillary density. The combination of persistent increase in TNFα, lower VEGF and failure to increase PGC1α protein may reflect a deficient adaption to demand ischemia in DIO. PMID:27620999

  7. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  9. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Intermittent peripheral tissue ischemia during coronary ischemia reduces myocardial infarction through a KATP-dependent mechanism: first demonstration of remote ischemic perconditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Smerup, M; Konstantinov, I E

    2006-01-01

    . Intermittent limb ischemia during myocardial ischemia reduces MI, preserves global systolic and diastolic function, and protects against arrhythmia during the reperfusion phase through a K(ATP) channel-dependent mechanism. Understanding this process may have important therapeutic implications for a range...

  11. Autodigestion: Proteolytic Degradation and Multiple Organ Failure in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Angelina E.; Kistler, Erik B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no effective treatment for multiorgan failure following shock other than alleviation supportive care. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of these sequelae to shock is required. The intestine plays a central role in multiorgan failure. It was previously suggested that bacteria and their toxins are responsible for the organ failure seen in circulatory shock, but clinical trials in septic patients have not confirmed this hypothesis. Instead, we review here evidence that the digestive enzymes, synthesized in the pancreas and discharged into the small intestine as requirement for normal digestion, may play a role in multi-organ failure. These powerful enzymes are non-specific, highly concentrated and fully activated in the lumen of the intestine. During normal digestion they are compartmentalized in the lumen of the intestine by the mucosal epithelial barrier. However, if this barrier becomes permeable, e.g. in an ischemic state, the digestive enzymes escape into the wall of the intestine. They digest tissues in the mucosa and generate small molecular weight cytotoxic fragments such as unbound free fatty acids. Digestive enzymes may also escape into the systemic circulation and activate other degrading proteases. These proteases have the ability to clip the ectodomain of surface receptors and compromise their function; for example cleaving the insulin receptor causing insulin resistance. The combination of digestive enzymes and cytotoxic fragments leaking into the central circulation causes cell and organ dysfunction, and ultimately may lead to complete organ failure and death. We summarize current evidence suggesting that enteral blockade of digestive enzymes inside the lumen of the intestine may serve to reduce acute cell and organ damage and improve survival in experimental shock. PMID:26717111

  12. Value of computed tomography in diagnosis of intestinal diseases. CT findings in nontumoral bowel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Yamane, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Miura, Yoshio; Kato, Yoshitaka; Yahata, Noriko; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Katsuta, Shizutomo

    1987-03-01

    CT findings of 46 cases with inflammatory and other nontumoral bowel diseases were retrospectively studied. Patients were given 500 to 1000 ml of lukewarm water orally or rectally to distend the intestinal lumen. In all cases water-soluble iodine contrast media was administered intravenously. The CT findings in Crohn's disease included mural thickening, luminal narrowing, bowel wall enhancement, wall rigidity, serration of intestinal border, dilatation of mesenteric vessels, periintestinal blurring (inflamatory reaction of mesentery), fibrofatty proliferation, effusion, abscess and fistula. Many of these findings suggested the transmural nature of the disease and gave diagnostic clues of the disease. In cases with ulcerative colitis, thickening of bowel wall was insignificant and extraintestinal complications were absent. CT appears to play an important role in distinguishing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Luminal narrowing and mural thickening were also observed in a case with intestinal ischemia, but these mural changes were not accompanied by mesenteric abnormalities to the degree of Crohn's disease. In cases with penetrating peptic ulcer and diverticulitis, CT demonstrated inflammatory reactions of surrounding tissue such as thickening of neighboring fascia, increase in attenuation value of mesenteric fat, effusion and abscess. Even in cases with confusing clinical symptoms, appendicitis was easily diagnosed on CT which showed swelling of appendix and inflammatory changes of surrounding structures. Mechanical obstruction of the intestine could be identified on CT by a notable change of luminal sizes at the site of obstruction. CT appearances of intussusception were distinctive and a soft tissue mass (intussusceptum) and mesenteric fat was seen within a markedly dilated intussuscipiens. CT could also reveal pancreatitis and splenic infarction as the causes of clinically-undiagnosed paralytic ileus. (J.P.N.).

  13. Total intermittent Pringle maneuver during liver resection can induce intestinal epithelial cell damage and endotoxemia.

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    Simon A W G Dello

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The intermittent Pringle maneuver (IPM is frequently applied to minimize blood loss during liver transection. Clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament blocks the hepatic inflow, which leads to a non circulating (hepatosplanchnic outflow. Also, IPM blocks the mesenteric venous drainage (as well as the splenic drainage with raising pressure in the microvascular network of the intestinal structures. It is unknown whether the IPM is harmful to the gut. The aim was to investigate intestinal epithelial cell damage reflected by circulating intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels (I-FABP in patients undergoing liver resection with IPM. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver surgery received total IPM (total-IPM or selective IPM (sel-IPM. A selective IPM was performed by selectively clamping the right portal pedicle. Patients without IPM served as controls (no-IPM. Arterial blood samples were taken immediately after incision, ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, transection, 8 hours after start of surgery and on the first post-operative day. RESULTS: 24 patients (13 males were included. 7 patients received cycles of 15 minutes and 5 patients received cycles of 30 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion. 6 patients received cycles of 15 minutes selective hepatic occlusion and 6 patients underwent surgery without inflow occlusion. Application of total-IPM resulted in a significant increase in I-FABP 8 hours after start of surgery compared to baseline (p<0.005. In the no-IPM group and sel-IPM group no significant increase in I-FABP at any time point compared to baseline was observed. CONCLUSION: Total-IPM in patients undergoing liver resection is associated with a substantial increase in arterial I-FABP, pointing to intestinal epithelial injury during liver surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099475.

  14. Bacterial translocation in an experimental intestinal obstruction model: C-reactive protein reliability? Translocação bacteriana no modelo experimental de obstrução intestinal: A proteína C-reativa é confiável?

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    Saleh Ibrahim El-Awady

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial translocation occurs in preseptic conditions such as intestinal obstruction through unclear mechanism. The C-reactive protein is an acute phase reactant and a marker of ischemia. METHODS: 45 albino male rats were divided into 3 groups each 15 rats. GI control, GII simple intestinal-obstruction and GIII strangulated obstruction. Outcome measures were: (1 Bacteriologic count and typing for intestinal contents, intestinal wall, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes and blood (cardiac and portal (2 Histopathologic: mucosal injury score, inflammatory cell infiltrate in the wall, MLN, liver, (3 Biochemical: serum CRP, IL-10, mucosal stress pattern (glutathione peroxidase-malonyldialdhyde tissue levels. RESULTS: (1 Intestinal obstruction associates with BT precursors (Bact-overgrowth, mucosal-acidosis, immuno-incomptence, (2 Bacterial translocation (frequency and density was found higher in strangulated I.O, that was mainly enteric (aerobic and anaerobic and mostly E.coli, (3 The pathogen commonality supports the gut origin hypothesis but the systemic inflammatory response goes with the cytokine generating one. (4 The CRP median values for GI, II, III were 0.5, 6.9, 8.5 mg/L, for BT +ve 8 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L for BT -ve rats. CONCLUSION: Bacterial translocation occurs bi-directional (systemic-portal in intestinal obstruction and the resultant inflammatory response pathogenesis is mostly 3 hit model. The CRP is a non selective marker of suspected I.O cases. However, it is a reliable marker of BT, BT density and vascular compromise during I.O.OBJETIVO: Translocação bacteriana ocorre em condições pré-sépticas como na obstrução intestinal por mecanismo não esclarecido. A proteína C-reativa é um marcador de ischemia em fase aguda. A proposição é investigar os possíveis efeitos da obstrução intestinal no equilíbrio ecológico microbiano. MÉTODOS: 45 ratos machos albinos foram distribuídos em três grupos de 15 ratos. GI

  15. Avaliação do pós-condicionamento isquêmico no tratamento da isquemia mesentérica: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of ischemic postconditioning effect on mesenteric ischemia treatment: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré e pós-condicionamento isquêmico sobre a lesão tecidual na mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos ao processo de isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em três grupos: grupo A, em que se realizou isquemia (30 minutos e reperfusão (60 minutos mesentérica; grupo B, isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica precedidos pelo pré-condicionamento isquêmico por três ciclos de isquemia e reperfusão com duração de dois minutos cada; grupo C, isquemia e reperfusão mesentérica e, precedendo o início da reperfusão, foi realizado o pós-condicionamento isquêmico por três ciclos de reperfusão e isquemia com duração de dois minutos cada. Ao final, ressecou-se um segmento do intestino delgado para análise histológica. Avaliaram-se os resultados pela classificação de Chiu et al. e procedeu-se ao tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: As médias dos graus de lesão tecidual segundo a classificação de Chiu et al. foram: no grupo A, 3,5; grupo B, 1,2; grupo C, 1. A diferença entre o resultado do grupo A com os resultados dos grupos B e C foi considerada estatisticamente significativa (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the preconditioning and postconditioning effect on intestinal mucosal lesions in rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion procedure. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were studied and divided into three groups: Group A, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia (30 minutes and reperfusion (60 minutes; Group B, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion preceded by ischemic preconditioning for three cycles of ischemia and reperfusion for two minutes each; Group C, 10 rats undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion and, preceding the beginning of reperfusion, ischemic postconditioning was performed for three cycles of reperfusion and ischemia for two minutes each. Then, a segment of small intestine was resected for histological analysis. We

  16. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  17. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  18. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  19. Impaired neutrophil function in intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, R P; Cotter, K L; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis were shown in three patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Abnormalities in cell associated and serum derived activity occurred, and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  20. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Pervez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  1. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Pervez; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  2. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  3. Stability of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C

    2007-11-30

    The degradation kinetics of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol were investigated in simulated gastric (pH 1) and intestinal (pH 7.4) fluids at 37 degrees C. Degradation products were quantitatively determined by HPLC (Lichrospher 60 RP select B column, 5 microm, 125 mm x 4 mm; mobile phase: methanol-water-acetic acid (60:39:1 v/v); flow rate: 0.6 ml/min; detection UV: 280 nm). In simulated gastric fluid (SGF) [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol underwent first-order reversible dehydration and hydration reactions to form [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, respectively. The degradation was catalyzed by hydrogen ions and reached equilibrium at approximately 200 h. In simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) both [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol showed insignificant interconversion between one another. Addition of amino acids glycine, 3-amino propionic acid (beta-alanine) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and ammonium acetate at a range of concentrations of 0.05-0.5mM had no effect on the rate of degradation of [6]-shogaol in SGF and 0.1M HCl solution. However, at exceedingly high concentration (0.5M) of ammonium acetate and glycine, significant amounts of [6]-shogaol ammonia and glycine adducts were detected. The degradation profile of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol under simulated physiological conditions reported in this study will provide insight into the stability of these compounds when administered orally.

  4. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease: Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    According to the TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document on Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease, "there is increasing evidence to support a recommendation for angioplasty in patients with critical limb ischemia and infrapopliteal artery occlusion." Management of infrapopliteal artery disease starts with diagnosis using modern preprocedural noninvasive and invasive imaging. Interventionalists need to learn the role of chronic total occlusion cap analysis and collateral zone recognition in angiosome-directed interventions for management of critical limb ischemia and be familiar with equipment and device selection and a stepwise approach for endovascular interventions. Interventionalists need to know which crossing tools to use to successfully cross-complex chronic total occlusion caps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Silent myocardial ischemia in patients with transient ischemic attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Valiente, S; Mostacero, E; del Río, A; Morales, F

    1994-10-01

    Given evidence that ischemic heart disease is the most frequent cause of death in patients with cerebrovascular disease, we used ergometrics to screen 80 patients with TIA for silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) at the neurological unit of Hospital Clínico Universitario in Zaragoza, Spain. The patients were compared with a control group of 80 with no signs of heart disease. Neither the patients nor the controls had ever shown clinical signs of coronary ischemia and their baseline electrocardiograms were normal. Stress test results were positive in 25 (31%) of the TIA patients, and in 4 (5%) (p Hiperlipidemia (75% testing positive versus 43% negative, p < 0.01) and diabetes (31% testing positive versus 13% negative, p < 0.01) were the risk factors statistically related with a positive stress test.

  7. Diagnostic radiology of apoplexy - imaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, A.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recent enhancements achieved in CT and MR imaging techniques have launched a debate about the techniques preferrably to be applied for diagnostic evaluation of acute cerebral stroke. At present, CT still is the modality of choice for primary evaluation of cerebral ischemia, due to relative cost-effectiveness, high availability, and the capability to reliably differentiate ischemia from hemorrhage. MRI on the other hand is superior to CT in detecting and imaging the infarction area within the first few hours, especially if the technique of diffusion-weighted sequencing is applied. Current research focuses on determining whether MRI with perfusion and diffusion-weighted sequencing will yield images distinctly showing the penumbra on the one hand, and the damaged brain tissue on the other. It remains to be seen whether improved tomographic imaging will lead to novel approaches for therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Oxidative Stress and Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salatti Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury is directly related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, endothelial cell injury, increased vascular permeability, and the activation of neutrophils and platelets, cytokines, and the complement system. Several studies have confirmed the destructiveness of the toxic oxygen metabolites produced and their role in the pathophysiology of different processes, such as oxygen poisoning, inflammation, and ischemic injury. Due to the different degrees of tissue damage resulting from the process of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, several studies in animal models have focused on the prevention of IR injury and methods of lung protection. Lung IR injury has clinical relevance in the setting of lung transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass, for which the consequences of IR injury may be devastating in critically ill patients.

  9. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  10. IDENTIFIKASI SINYAL ECG IRAMA MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA DENGAN PENDEKATAN FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart is one of vital organs in human body. Incidence of heart disease can be fatal for the patient. Myocardial ischemia, the disease that is often suffered by the human, is a disease due to clogged heart arteries blood vessels. One of the ways to detect this disease is by reading the graph output of electrocardiogram (ECG signal. ECG signal represents the condition and activity of the heart. Specialized knowledge, accuration and expertise are required to read ECG graph. To help expert or doctor, expert system based on artificial intelligent, such as Fuzzy Logic approach, can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy and thoroughness. Fuzzy logic can be applied because of it flexibility to understand the linguistic variables used in identifying myocardial ischemia disease.

  11. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  12. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  13. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  14. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  15. Focal ischemia of the brain after neuroprotected carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Steffens, Johann C; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2003-09-17

    This study sought to assess the incidence of cerebral ischemia in nonselected patients undergoing neuroprotected carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) without preceding multiple-vessel diagnostic angiography. Protection devices to prevent distal embolization during CAS are presently under clinical investigation. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes recent ischemia of the brain and may aid in assessing the efficacy of protection devices. Elective CAS was performed in 42 consecutive patients (15 female, 27 male; mean age, 67 +/- 9 years) using six different types of cerebral protection systems. All patients underwent MRI of the brain before and after a total of 44 interventions. Placement and retrieval of the devices and stent deployment was achieved in all procedures. New ischemic foci were seen on postinterventional MRI in 10 cases (22.7%). One patient had sustained a major stroke, whereas no adverse neurological sequelae were associated with the other nine procedures. In the latter, one to three foci (maximum area 43.0 mm(2)) were detected in cerebral regions subtended by the ipsilateral carotid artery in eight cases and by the contralateral carotid artery in one case. In the stroke patient, 12 ischemic foci (maximum area 84.5 mm(2)) were exclusively located in the contralateral hemisphere. Follow-up MRI at 4.1 months (median, n = 7) identified residuals of cerebral ischemia only in this patient. Neuroprotected CAS is associated in about 25% of cases with predominantly silent cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest manipulation of endoluminal equipment in the supraaortic vessels to be a major risk factor for cerebral embolism during neuroprotected CAS.

  16. Effectiveness of sugammadex for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilgin, Sule; Yılmaz, Osman; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Hancı, Volkan; Ozbal, Seda; Yurtlu, Serhan; Gunenc, Sakize Ferim; Kuvaki, Bahar; Kucuk, Burcu Ataseven; Sisman, Ali Rıza

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral ischemia may cause permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The efficacy and mechanisms of pharmacological treatments administered immediately after cerebral damage are not fully known. Sugammadex is a licensed medication. As other cyclodextrins have not passed the necessary phase tests, trade preparations are not available, whereas sugammadex is frequently used in clinical anesthetic practice. Previous studies have not clearly described the effects of the cyclodextrin family on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect against transient global cerebral ischemia. Animals were assigned to control, sham-operated, S 16 and S 100 groups. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by 10-minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, neurological behavior scoring was performed on the rats, followed by evaluation of histomorphological and biochemical measurements. Sugammadex 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg improved neurological outcome, which was associated with reductions in both histological and neurological scores. The hippocampus TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) and caspase results in the S 16 and S 100 treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the I/R group. Neurological scores in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the I/R group. The study showed that treatment with 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect in a transient global cerebral I/R rat model. However, 100 mg/kg sugammadex was more neuroprotective in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Effectiveness of sugammadex for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ozbilgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia may cause permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The efficacy and mechanisms of pharmacological treatments administered immediately after cerebral damage are not fully known. Sugammadex is a licensed medication. As other cyclodextrins have not passed the necessary phase tests, trade preparations are not available, whereas sugammadex is frequently used in clinical anesthetic practice. Previous studies have not clearly described the effects of the cyclodextrin family on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect against transient global cerebral ischemia. Animals were assigned to control, sham-operated, S 16 and S 100 groups. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by 10-minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, neurological behavior scoring was performed on the rats, followed by evaluation of histomorphological and biochemical measurements. Sugammadex 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg improved neurological outcome, which was associated with reductions in both histological and neurological scores. The hippocampus TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and caspase results in the S 16 and S 100 treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the I/R group. Neurological scores in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the I/R group. The study showed that treatment with 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect in a transient global cerebral I/R rat model. However, 100 mg/kg sugammadex was more neuroprotective in rats.

  18. Chronic brain ischemia in patients with arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Kovalenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the pathogenesis of chronic brain ischemia in patients with hypertension and hypothyroidism are studied. Examples of some results of authors’ research are listed. According to the research, patients with hypertensive dyscirculatory encephalopathy and hypothyroidism have deterioration of blood supply to the brain by reducing the reactivity of the vascular wall, decrease in the functional activity of the brain, impairement of cognitive function and increase in the anxiety and depression.

  19. A prototypical Sigma-1 receptor antagonist protects against brain ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Schetz, John A.; Perez, Evelyn; Liu, Ran; Chen, Shiuhwei; Lee, Ivan; Simpkins, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the Sigma-1 ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects the brain from ischemia. Less clear is whether protection is mediated by agonism or antagonism of the Sigma-1 receptor, and whether drugs already in use for other indications and that interact with the Sigma-1 receptor might also prevent oxidative damage due to conditions such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is an antagonist of Sigma-1 receptors and in this s...

  20. Platelets Orchestrate Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Platelet Depletion Two days before I/R injury, mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of a titred affinity purified endotoxin-free rabbit...Egan R, Chen J, le Lucca JJ, Juang YT, Tsokos GC. IL-17 producing CD4 T cells mediate accelerated ischemia/reperfusion- induced injury in...activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 26: 768–771, 2007. 77. Wang Y, Li Y, le Lucca SL, Simovic M, Tsokos GC, le Lucca JJ. Decay accelerating

  1. Spreading depression and focal venous cerebral ischemia enhance cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or “enriched environment” as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham, induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO. As an additional control, 15 naïve rats received no intervention except 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU treatment for 7 days. Sagittal brain slices (40 μm thick were co-stained for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX; new immature neuronal cells on day 9 or NeuN (new mature neuronal cells on day 28. On day 9 after sham operation, cell proliferation and neurogenesis occurred in the cortex in rats. The sole induction of CSD had no effect. But on days 9 and 28, more proliferating cells and newly formed neurons in the ipsilateral cortex were observed in rats subjected to CSD + 2VO than in rats subjected to sham operation. On days 9 and 28, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus was increased in sham-operated rats than in naïve rats. Our data supports the hypothesis that induced cortical neurogenesis after CSD + 2-VO is a direct effect of ischemia, rather than of CSD alone.

  2. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Sergent, Therese; Piront, Neil; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24 h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [ 3 H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-κB, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.

  3. Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Liu, Yanhong; Song, Minho; Lee, Jeong Jae; Gaskins, H Rex; Maddox, Carol Wolfgang; Osuna, Orlando; Pettigrew, James Eugene

    2013-12-20

    An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9 ± 1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it.

  4. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  5. A20 restricts wnt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shao

    Full Text Available Colon carcinogenesis consists of a multistep process during which a series of genetic and epigenetic adaptations occur that lead to malignant transformation. Here, we have studied the role of A20 (also known as TNFAIP3, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that restricts NFκB and cell death signaling, in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We have found that A20 expression is consistently reduced in human colonic adenomas than in normal colonic tissues. To further investigate A20's potential roles in regulating colon carcinogenesis, we have generated mice lacking A20 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells and interbred these with mice harboring a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC(min. While A20(FL/FL villin-Cre mice exhibit uninflamed intestines without polyps, A20(FL/FL villin-Cre APC(min/+ mice contain far greater numbers and larger colonic polyps than control APC(min mice. We find that A20 binds to the β-catenin destruction complex and restricts canonical wnt signaling by supporting ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, acute deletion of A20 from intestinal epithelial cells in vivo leads to enhanced expression of the β-catenin dependent genes cyclinD1 and c-myc, known promoters of colon cancer. Taken together, these findings demonstrate new roles for A20 in restricting β-catenin signaling and preventing colon tumorigenesis.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin and Ischemic Postconditioning Preventing on the Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Budib Dorsa Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A, Ischemic Postconditioning (B, Statin (C, Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D and SHAM (E. After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029. The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P<0.0001. The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P<0.0001. The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006. The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P<0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection.

  7. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  8. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong-Ryong; Kim, Hahn-Young; Hong, Jung-Suk; Baek, Won-Ki; Park, Jong-Wook

    2009-01-01

    Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

  9. 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid mitigates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid can stabilize cell membrane and have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Previous studies mainly focused on peripheral nerve injury, but seldom on the central nervous system. We investigated whether these properties of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid have a neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study established rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury by ischemia for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. At the beginning of reperfusion, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg was injected into the tail vein. Results found that various doses of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid effectively reduced infarct volume, mitigate cerebral edema, and increased the mRNA and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor at 24 hours of reperfusion. The effect was most significant in the 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 40 and 80 mg/kg groups. The findings suggest that 13-methyltetradecanoic acid can relieve focal ischemia/reperfusion injury immediately after reperfusion, stimulate the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to exert neuroprotective effects.

  10. Occurance of apoptosis during ischemia in porcine pancreas islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, V; Schaffellner, S; Iberer, F; Lackner, C; Liegl, B; Zink, B; Kniepeiss, D; Tscheliessnigg, K H

    2003-03-01

    Pancreas islet transplantation is a potential treatment of diabetes mellitus and porcine organs provide an easily available source of cells. Unfortunately quality and quantity of isolated islets are still not satisfactory. Apoptosis occurs in freshly isolated islets and plays a significant role in early graft loss. We evaluated the influence of four storage solutions on porcine pancreas islets. After warm ischemia of 15-20 minutes 12 organs were stored in 4 cold preservation solutions: Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution (HTK), Hank's buffered saline solution (HBSS), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and Ringer-Lactate (R). After cold ischemia for 100 minutes, organs were fixed in 3% formalin. Apoptotic cells were counted on hematocylin-eosin stainings. Most apoptotic cells were found in organs stored in R. Low numbers were found in the other groups. The difference between organs stored in R and organs stored in UW, HTK, or HBSS was highly significant. No significant difference could be found between UW, HTK and HBSS. Cold and warm ischemia of the pancreas seems to induce apoptosis in islet cells. Preservation solutions cause less apoptosis than electrolyte solution. No significant differences could be found among the preservation solutions.

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Postconditioning Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D; Cummings, L J

    2017-11-01

    Reperfusion (restoration of blood flow) after a period of ischemia (interruption of blood flow) can paradoxically place tissues at risk of further injury: so-called ischemia-reperfusion injury or IR injury. Recent studies have shown that postconditioning (intermittent periods of further ischemia applied during reperfusion) can reduce IR injury. We develop a mathematical model to describe the reperfusion and postconditioning process following an ischemic insult, treating the blood vessel as a two-dimensional channel, lined with a monolayer of endothelial cells that interact (respiration and mechanotransduction) with the blood flow. We investigate how postconditioning affects the total cell density within the endothelial layer, by varying the frequency of the pulsatile flow and the oxygen concentration at the inflow boundary. We find that, in the scenarios we consider, the pulsatile flow should be of high frequency to minimize cellular damage, while oxygen concentration at the inflow boundary should be held constant, or subject to only low-frequency variations, to maximize cell proliferation.

  12. Transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of silent ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, P.; Myler, R.K.; Shaw, R.E.; Stertzer, S.H.; Clark, D.A.; Ryan, C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-four asymptomatic patients with positive thallium exercise tests underwent coronary angiography followed by coronary angioplasty (PTCA), as the primary therapy for silent ischemia. The procedure was technically successful in 89% of these patients. Emergency bypass graft surgery was necessary in 2 (3.6%) and q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1 (1.8%) of these. All fifty-four patients have been followed for a mean of 35 months since angioplasty. Of the 48 patients with initially successful PTCA, 12 had either clinical restenosis (9/14 or 19%) or a new lesion (3/48 or 6%) during follow-up, which required a repeat PTCA. At the longest follow-up, 46 (85%) had been successfully treated with on or more PTCA procedures. Two patients (3.6%) had sustained late q-wave myocardial infarction and two additional patients reported angina pectoris. There were no deaths. Angioplasty as a primary therapy for silent ischemia appears efficacious, with success and restenosis rates comparable to those in the symptomatic population. Event-free survival is improved, compared with natural history data for patients with silent ischemia from other studies. Prudent risk/benefit analysis may help to define subgroups most likely to benefit from this intervention

  13. Application of Arterial Spin Labelling in Detecting Retinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Vaghefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Here, we have tried to quantify the chorioretinal blood perfusion in patients who are clinically identified to be suffering from retinal ischemia using arterial spin labelling (ASL MRI. Method: Four participants, diagnosed with retinal ischemia based on their structural OCT and angiography test, were then scanned using anatomical MRI as well as ASL. We optimized MR parameters to maximize resolution and target fixation, blinking, and breathing ques to minimize motion artifacts. Results: Participants had a maximum of ∼50 mL/100 mL/min of blood perfusion, which is below the normal values of ∼200 mL/100 mL/min. It also appeared that thinning of the choroid contributes more to the measured decreased chorioretinal perfusion, compared to slowed arterial filling time. Conclusion: Decreased chorioretinal perfusion is a multifactorial event and has been implicated in several posterior eye pathologies. Based on our current results, it seems that ischemia of the eye could be due to anatomy (tissue volume and/or functionality (arterial flow.

  14. Protective Effects of Flavonoid Pomiferin on Heart Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nečas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present 15-day study was to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of flavonoid pomiferin isolated from the infructences of Maclura pomifera, Moraceae, against ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rat hearts as a model of antioxidant-based composite therapy. Studies were performed with isolated, modifi ed Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ischemia of heart was initiated by stopping the coronary flow for 30 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion (14 ml min-1. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The treated group received pomiferin (5 mg/kg/day in 0.5% Avicel; the placebo group received only 0.5% Avicel; the intact group was left without any applications. Biochemical indicators of oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant activity in serum and myocardium has been evaluated. We also examined the effect of pomiferin on cardiac function (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular pressure, peak positive +dP/dt (rate of pressure development after ischemia and reperfusion. Our results demonstrate that pomiferin attenuates the myocardial dysfunction provoked by ischemiareperfusion. This was confirmed by the increase in both the antioxidant enzyme values and the total antioxidant activity. The cardio-protection provided by pomiferin treatment results from the suppression of oxidative stress and correlates with the improved ventricular function.

  15. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: Report of Five Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, Ulf; Ivancev, Krasnodar; Lindh, Mats; Uher, Petr

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the midterm results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement in stenotic and occluded mesenteric arteries in five consecutive patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Methods: Five patients with 70%-100% obliterations of all mesenteric vessels resulting in chronic mesenteric ischemia (n= 4) and as a prophylactic measure prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (n= 1) underwent PTA of celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenoses (n= 2), primary stenting of ostial celiac occlusions (n= 2), and secondary stenting of a SMA occlusion (n= 1; recoil after initial PTA). All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography (US) (n= 3) and/or angiography (n= 5) during a median follow-up of 21 months (range 8-42 months). Results: Clinical success was obtained in all five patients. Asymptomatic significant late restenoses (n3) were successfully treated with repeat PTA (n= 2) and stenting of an SMA occlusion (n= 1; celiac stent restenosis). Recurrent pain in one patient was interpreted as secondary to postsurgical abdominal adhesions. Two puncture-site complications occurred requiring local surgical treatment. Conclusions: Endovascular techniques may be attempted prior to surgery in cases of stenotic or short occlusive lesions in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Surgery may still be preferred in patients with long occlusions and a low operative risk

  16. Effect of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome on Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sOpioid abuse is still remained a major mental health problem, a criminal legal issue and may cause ischemic brain changes including stroke and brain edema. In the present study, we investigated whether spontaneously withdrawal syndrome might affect stroke outcomes.Materials and MethodsAddiction was induced by progressive incremental doses of morphine over 7 days. Behavioral signs of withdrawal were observed 24, 48 and 72 hr after morphine deprivation and total withdrawal score was determined. Cerebral ischemia was induced 18-22 hr after the last morphine injection by placing a natural clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 2, 24 and 48 hr after ischemia induction, and infarct size and brain edema were determined at 48 hr after stroke.ResultsMorphine withdrawal animals showed a significant increase in total withdrawal score and decrease of weight gain during the 72 hr after the last morphine injection. Compared to the addicted and control animals, infarct volume and brain edema were significantly increased in the morphine deprived animals (P< 0.05 at 48 hr after cerebral ischemia. Also, neurological deficits were higher in the morphine-withdrawn rats at 48 hr after stroke (P< 0.05. ConclusionOur data indicates that spontaneous withdrawal syndrome may worsen stroke outcomes. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of opiate withdrawal syndrome on stroke.

  17. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Mentese, Ahmet; Altunayoglu, Vildan; Turan, Ibrahim; Karahan, Suleyman Caner; Topbas, Murat; Aydin, Murat; Eraydin, Ismet; Akcan, Buket

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ischemic events. It was also recently demonstrated that IMA levels increase in the acute phase of cerebrovascular diseases. Yet the data regarding IMA levels in various types of cerebrovascular events are insufficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate IMA levels in various types of cerebrovascular events such as ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and intracranial hemorrhage. This case-controlled study consisted of 106 consecutive patients, 43 with brain infarction (BI), 11 with brain hemorrhage (ICH), 52 with SAH, and a 43-member control group. We investigated whether there was a statistical correlation between these 3 groups and the control group. The relations among the 3 groups were also examined. Comparisons among groups were done with analysis of variance. Mean serum IMA levels were 0.280 +/- 0.045 absorbance units (ABSU) for BI patients, 0.259 +/- 0.053 ABSU for ICH patients, 0.243 +/- 0.061 ABSU for SAH patients, and 0.172 +/- 0.045 ABSU for the control group.There was a statistically significant difference between the mean IMA levels of BI, ICH, and SAH patients and the mean control patient IMA levels (P b .0001). Ischemia-modified albumin levels are high in cerebrovascular diseases. Ischemia-modified albumin measurement can also be used to distinguish SAH from BI during the acute phase of cerebrovascular event in the emergency department.

  18. Sirtinol abrogates late phase of cardiac ischemia preconditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Fereshteh; Shekarforoosh, Shahnaz; Hashemi, Tahmineh; Namvar Aghdash, Simin; Fekri, Asefeh; Safari, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR. In early and late IPC groups, IS and the number of arrhythmia were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs IR, respectively). In S + early IPC, incidences of arrhythmia and IS were not different compared with the early IPC group. However, in S + late IPC the IS was different from the late IPC group (P < 0.05). In late IPC but not early IPC, transcription levels of catalase (P < 0.01) and Mn-SOD (P < 0.05) increased, although this upregulation was not significant in the S + late IPC group. Our results are consistent with the notion that different mechanisms are responsible for early and late IPC. In addition, sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases may be implicated in late IPC-induced cardioprotection.

  19. [Effects of pressure induced retinal ischemia on ERG in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G; Yang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhang, D

    2001-12-01

    To observe the effects of pressure induced retinal ischemia on electroretinogram(ERG) in rabbit. Retinal ischemia was induced in rabbits by increasing intraocular pressure at 30 mmHg, 60 mmHg, 90 mmHg, 120 mmHg for 45 minutes, and retinal function was monitored by eletroretinography. There was no difference on ERG before or after the experiment both in 30 mmHg group and control one. In 60 mmHg pressure induced ischemia eyes, the amplitudes of the b-wave and OPs wave reduced significantly. Four hours after reperfusion, they were totally recovered. After an ischemic insult of 90 mmHg or 120 mmHg for 45 minutes, there was no response of ERG. Four hours later, the amplitudes of the b-wave and OPs wave were 66.912 +/- 20.157 and 16.423 +/- 3.965 the former, 38.852 +/- 23.438 and 8.610 +/- 12.090 the latter, respectively. These results suggest that higher intraocular pressure causes more severe retina ischemic damage, and less recovery ability.

  20. Identification of proteins regulated by curcumin in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Fawad-Ali; Gim, Sang-Ah; Sung, Jin-Hee; Jeon, Seong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin is known to have a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to identify various proteins that are differentially expressed by curcumin treatment in focal cerebral ischemia using a proteomic approach. Adult male rats were treated with vehicle or curcumin 1 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brain tissues were collected 24 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and cerebral cortices proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We detected several proteins with altered expression levels between vehicle- and curcumin-treated animals. Among these proteins, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, isocitrate dehydrogenase, adenosylhomocysteinase, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A were decreased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment attenuated the injury-induced decreases of these proteins. Conversely, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase was increased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment prevented decreases in this protein. The identified altered proteins are associated with cellular metabolism and differentiation. The results of this study suggest that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating the expression of various proteins in focal cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitric oxide in the rat cerebellum after hypoxia/ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Alonso, David; Serrano, Julia; Fernández-Vizarra, Paula; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Bentura, María Luisa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a regulatory biological substance and an important intracellular messenger that acts as a specific mediator of various neuropathological disorders. In mammals and invertebrates, nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine in the central and peripheral neural structures by the endothelial, neuronal and inducible enzymatic isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide may affect the function of various neurotransmitter-specific systems, and is involved in neuromodulation, reproductive function, immune response, and regulation of the cerebral blood circulation. This makes nitric oxide the main candidate in brain responses to brain ischemia/hypoxia. The cerebellum has been reported to be the area of the brain that has the highest nitric oxide synthase activity and the highest concentration of glutamate and aspartate. By glutamate receptors and physiological action of nitric oxide, cyclic guanisine-5'-monophosphate may be rapidly increased. The cerebellum significantly differs with respect to ischemia and hypoxia, this response being directly related to the duration and intensity of the injury. The cerebellum could cover the eventual need for nitric oxide during the hypoxia, boosting the nitric oxide synthase activity, but overall ischemia would require de novo protein synthesis, activating the inducible nitric oxide synthase to cope with the new situation. The specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis show neuroprotective effects.

  2. Evaluation of thallium-201 imaging in nontransmural ischemia and infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, B.; Oldewurtel, H.A.; Moschos, C.B.; Lee, W.K.; Regan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the validity of thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of nontransmural ischemia and infarction, the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery was partially occluded for 60 minutes with a balloon-tip catheter in intact anesthetized dogs in a basal state or during atrial pacing. In vivo scintigrams of myocardium were compared with those obtained in the isolated heart and in the incised ventricle spread flat. None of the animals with partial occlusion with or without pacing demonstrated abnormal scintiscans in vivo. Removal of background by isolating the heart increased positive images to 30%; positive images were associated with an isotope count ratio between ischemic and normal muscle of less than 0.67. Removal of superimposed nonischemic muscle in the heart enface increased image detection after pacing to 11 of 15. Since animals with subendocardial scar failed to demonstrate a cold area in vivo, unfavorable geometry as well as extent and degree of ischemia appear to be important. Thus, thallium radioactivity in superimposed and adjacent myocardium, as well as background, may limit the detection of nontransmural ischemia and scar

  3. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  4. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  5. Association between aortic valve calcification and myocardial ischemia, especially in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazato, Ryo; Yamamoto, Hideya; Tadehara, Futoshi; Teragawa, Hiroki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Ken; Kunita, Eiji; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Oka, Toshiharu; Kihara, Yasuki

    2012-08-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is recognized as a manifestation of systemic arteriosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether AVC is associated with myocardial ischemia. Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is widely used for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. However, routine MPS is not recommended, particularly in asymptomatic patients. Accordingly, we investigated the hypothesis that the presence of AVC is strongly associated with inducible myocardial ischemia, even among asymptomatic patients. We investigated 669 consecutive patients who underwent both adenosine stress (201)Tl MPS and echocardiography. We evaluated the extent and severity of myocardial ischemia by the summed difference score (SDS). We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as SDS ≥ 3 and moderate to severe ischemia as SDS ≥ 8. We classified the severity of AVC according to the number of affected aortic leaflets. We also compared the mean SDS and the prevalence of SDS ≥ 3 and SDS ≥ 8 among patients stratified by the severity of AVC. The presence of AVC was significantly associated with myocardial ischemia (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23; P = 0.013) and moderate to severe ischemia (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.26-3.80; P = 0.0061). In 311 asymptomatic patients, AVC was strongly associated with moderate to severe ischemia (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.67-12.8; P = 0.0043). However, the SDS value and the prevalence of SDS ≥ 3 and SDS ≥ 8 did not increase with increasing number of affected aortic leaflets. The presence of AVC may be associated with the presence of myocardial ischemia, particularly in asymptomatic patients. However, we found no association between the extent of AVC and inducible myocardial ischemia. The presence of AVC may be a useful anatomic marker to help identify patients at high risk of myocardial ischemia, particularly asymptomatic patients.

  6. A comparison study of PET, NMR, and CT imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babikian, V.L.; Ford, C.S.; Buonanno, F.S.; Kistler, J.P.; Ackerman, R.H.; Alpert, N.M.; Correia, J.A.; Johnson, K.A.; Buxton, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Whether ischemia without infarction produces recognizable changes in relaxation times of ischemic but viable brain is an important, unresolved issue. Therefore, a study was initiated of patients with cerebral ischemia, using positron emission tomography (PET), NMR, and computed tomography (CT) to compare and contrast the pathophysiologic information provided by each and to study the issue of whether cerebral ischemia without infarction can be appreciated by proton NMR imaging. Here the initial results are reported. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table

  7. Microdialysis assessment of peripheral metabolism in critical limb ischemia after endovascular revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzi, Matteo; Muscianisi, Elisa; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Castelli, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization. Methods Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) catheter w...

  8. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  9. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    The fetal small intestine grows dramatically fast during the second and third trimester of human pregnancy. Many intestinal functions are therefore affected by preterm birth, including gastrointestinal motility, digestive and absorptive function, mucosal barrier function, and the intestinal...

  10. Redistribution of intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation during acute hemodilution in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, Lothar A.; Fournell, Artur; van Bommel, Jasper; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) compromizes intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that contributors herein include redistribution of oxygen away from the intestines and shunting of oxygen within the intestines.

  11. Mechanisms of Acupuncture Therapy for Cerebral Ischemia: an Evidence-Based Review of Clinical and Animal Studies on Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Ye, Yang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been shown to be effective in promoting recovery after stroke. In this article, we review the clinical and experimental studies that demonstrated the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia. Clinical studies indicated that acupuncture activated relevant brain regions, modulated cerebral blood flow and related molecules in stroke patients. Evidence from laboratory indicated that acupuncture regulates cerebral blood flow and metabolism after the interrupt of blood supply. Acupuncture regulates multiple molecules and signaling pathways that lead to excitoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, neurons death and survival. Acupuncture also promotes neurogenesis, angiogenesis as well as neuroplasticity after ischemic damage. The evidence provided from clinical and laboratory suggests that acupuncture induces multi-level regulation via complex mechanisms and a single factor may not be enough to explain the beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia.

  12. Intestinal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Rene; Haro, Elfa

    2002-01-01

    The paper present the diagnosic sensitivit of gastro esophagic scintigraphy (GCE) in children with suspiction of gastro esophagic reflux (RGE), as well as to evidence bronchial aspiratin in cases with suspected RGE. There was studied two groups of children: group A: Include 73 childs with documented diagnosis of RGE, by meas of cine esophagography. Group B: Include 22 children with symptoms of suspiction of. (The author)

  13. Planned second-look laparoscopy in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Hakan; Taviloglu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ozcinar, Beyza; Yanar, Fatih; Guloglu, Recep; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of second-look laparoscopy in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2005, 71 patients were operated for the treatment of AMI. The indications for a second-look were low flow state, bowel resection and anastomosis or mesenteric thromboembolectomy performed during the first operation. Regardless of the clinical course of patients, the second-look laparoscopic examination was performed 72 h post-operatively at the bed side in the ICU or operating room. RESULTS: The average time of admission to the hospital after the initiation of symptoms was 3 d (range, 5 h-9 d). In 14 patients, laparotomy was performed. In 11 patients, small and/or large bowel necrosis was detected and initial resection and anastomosis were conducted. A low flow state was observed in two patients and superior mesenteric artery thromboembolectomy with small bowel resection was performed in one patient. In 13 patients, a second-look laparoscopic examination revealed normal bowel viability, but in one patient, intestinal necrosis was detected. In two of the patients, a third operation was necessary to correct anastomotic leakage. The overall complication rate was 42.8%, and in-hospital mortality rate was 57.1% (n = 6). CONCLUSION: Second-look laparoscopy is a minimally invasive, technically simple procedure that is performed for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. The simplicity and ease of this method may encourage wider application to benefit more patients. However, the timing of a second-look procedure is unclear particularly in a patient with anastomosis. PMID:17659674

  14. Does Omegaven have beneficial effects on a rat model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N Cakir; Turkon, Hakan; Albayrak, Aynur; Ovali, Mehmet; Islimye, Mine; Gencer, Meryem; Hacivelioglu, Servet; Cevizci, Sibel; Cesur, Ismet; Cosar, Emine

    2014-10-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, a safe and inexpensive product, on a rat model of ovarian I/R. A group of 39 rats was divided into six groups. Group 1 (Sham Group; n=6) underwent two laparotomies with a 3-h interval and their ovaries were removed 3h later. Group 2 (torsion-detorsion Group; n=7) had their ovaries torsioned clockwise and fixed at 720°; 3h later a detorsion operation was done and after another 3h, their ovaries were removed. Group 3 (n=7) and Group 4 (n=7) received the same treatment as Group 2; however, half an hour prior to detorsion, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. Group 5 (n=6) and Group 6 (n=6) received the same treatment as Group 1; however, half an hour prior to the second laparotomy, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. One ovary from each rat was evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the other ovary was homogenized and evaluated for total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). While we failed to show any significant relationship among groups in oxidative parameters, there was a significant worsening in the torsion-detorsion group in histological evaluation. High Omegaven doses, but not low doses, improved tissue injury scores of torsioned and detorsioned ovaries to the levels observed in the control group. Omegaven improves the detrimental effects of ovarian I/R when used in sufficient doses. Its effects and dose adjustment on women with ovarian torsion must be investigated by further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  16. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  17. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  18. Delayed neuronal cell death in brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuba Nobuhiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the lack of reproducible brainstem ischemia models in rodents, the temporal profile of ischemic lesions in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia has not been evaluated intensively. Previously, we produced a reproducible brainstem ischemia model of Mongolian gerbils. Here, we showed the temporal profile of ischemic lesions after transient brainstem ischemia. Results Brainstem ischemia was produced by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries just before their entry into the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae of Mongolian gerbils. Animals were subjected to brainstem ischemia for 15 min, and then reperfused for 0 d (just after ischemia, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d (n = 4 in each group. Sham-operated animals (n = 4 were used as control. After deep anesthesia, the gerbils were perfused with fixative for immunohistochemical investigation. Ischemic lesions were detected by immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2. Just after 15-min brainstem ischemia, ischemic lesions were detected in the lateral vestibular nucleus and the ventral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and these ischemic lesions disappeared one day after reperfusion in all animals examined. However, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion, ischemic lesions appeared again and clusters of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1(IBA-1-positive cells were detected in the same areas in all animals. Conclusion These results suggest that delayed neuronal cell death took place in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

  19. Metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and reperfusion measured by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Grønbaek, Henning

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Portal triad clamping can cause ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to monitor metabolic changes by microdialysis before, during, and after warm ischemia in the pigliver. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight pigs underwent laparotomy followed by ischemia by Pringle's maneuver. One...... in transaminase levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: During and after warm ischemia, there were profound metabolic changes in the pigliver observed with an increase in lactate, glucose, glycerol, and the lactate-pyruvate ratio. There were no differences between the four liver lobes, indicating the piglivers...

  20. The relation between angina and myocardial ischemia during exercise stress in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1988-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of occurrence of anginal chest pain from the aspect of myocardial ischemia, myocardial Tl-201 SPECT scans were obtained immediately and 3 hr after exercise (Ex) in 35 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent of ischemia was defined as the percentage of ischemic segments to the entire left ventricle. The minimum washout (WO) rate correlated well with the ratio of Tl uptake in the ischemic area to that in the normal area during Ex in the other 9 patients having single vessel CAD without previous history of myocardial infarction. This suggested that the miminum WO rate reflects the severity of Ex-induced ischemia. According to the development of angina during Ex, patients were classified as having either symptomatic ischemia (n = 16) or silent ischemia (n = 19). In regard to age, sex, a history of myocardial infarction, severity of CAD, and the extent of Ex-induced ischemia, there was no difference between the two groups. The minimum WO rate and the incidence of Ex-induced ST depression were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the group with symptomatic ischemia than that with silent ischemia. The severity of Ex-induced ischemia has important implications for the development of anginal chest pain. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ADHESIVE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Haricharan; Murali Krishna; Koti Reddy; Nara Hari

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adhesive intestinal obstruction is an inevitable complication of abdominal surgeries. It has high morbidity with associated poor quality of life and predisposition to repeated hospitalization. Commonest cause of bowel obstruction in developed countries is postoperative adhesions with extrinsic compression of the intestine. Most of them can be managed conservatively. METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 patients admit...

  3. Intestinal lymphangiectasia mimicking primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steines, Jennifer C; Larson, Joshua H; Wilkinson, Neal; Kirby, Patricia; Goodheart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is an obstruction of the lymphatic system. We report on a patient with mesenteric adenopathy and an elevated CA125 level, which were suspicious for peritoneal carcinoma. Further evaluation and bowel resection identified intestinal lymphangiectasia. This disease should be considered in patients with mesenteric adenopathy and a small bowel mass. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  5. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  6. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological image of diseases, development anomalies, various diseases of the small intestine is presented. Roentgenological semiotics of chronic enterocolotis, absorption failure syndrome, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, abdominal actinomycosis, carcenoid, benign tumors, small intestine cancer, is given. To state final correct diagnosis a complex investigation, comprising angiography, computer tomography and ultrasound diagnosis, is necessary

  7. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  8. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  9. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, N.; Matthyssens, L.E.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal malrotation is a congenital intestinal rotation anomaly, which can be treated by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic treatment leads to less small bowel obstruction because of the fewer adhesions in comparison to laparotomy, without increasing the

  10. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Long, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  11. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  12. Intestinal malrotation and volvulus in adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, Bastiaan W.; Bodewitz, Sander T.; Kuijper, Caroline F.; de Widt-Levert, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Midgut volvulus due to intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction when occurring in adult life. This paper documents the difficulties in reaching an early diagnosis. We describe the case of an 85-year-old man with non-specific abdominal complaints for 20 years, who presented

  13. Mitofusin 2 Exerts a Protective Role in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Through Increasing Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and the survival of terminally differentiated cells as neurons. In this study, we aim to investigate whether mitofusin 2, a mitochondrial fusion protein, mediates autophagy in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Methods: Primary cultured neurons were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion to mimic cerebral I/R injury in vitro. Autophagosomes were visualized upon TEM. Autophagy-markers were then detected to monitor autophagy by western-blot and real-time PCR, and the autophagic flux was tracked with a mRFP-GFP-LC3 construct by fluorescence as well as autophagy inhibitors and agonists. The up- and downregulation of Mfn2 were through transfecting a lentivirusexpression vector respectively. And neuronal injury was detected by cell counting kit and TUNEL assay. Results: Results showed I/R increased autophagosome formation and inhibited autolysosome degradation. Furthermore, use of autophagy related agents demonstrated that I/R injury was caused by insufficient autophagy and aggravated by impaired autophagic degradation. The results also indicated that mitofusin 2 could ameliorate I/R injury through increasing autophagosome formation and promoting the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In contrast, downregulation of mitofusin 2 aggravated the I/R injury by inhibiting autophagosome formation and the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Additionly, mitofusin 2 overexpression did not lead to autolysosome accumulation induced by I/R. Conclusions: In summary, this study explicitly demonstrated that mitofusin 2 could ameliorate I/R injury mainly through promoting autophagy, which represented a potential novel strategy for neuroprotection against cerebral I/R damage.

  14. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  15. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  16. Role of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases in the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus during in vitro ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaroni, C; Marchet, S; Carpanese, E; Prandoni, V; Oldrini, R; Bartolini, B; Moro, E; Vigetti, D; Crema, F; Lecchini, S; Frigo, G

    2013-02-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to abnormalities in motility, namely delay of transit, caused by damage to myenteric neurons. Alterations of the nitrergic transmission may occur in these conditions. This study investigated whether an in vitro I/R injury may affect nitric oxide (NO) production from the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum and which NO synthase (NOS) isoform is involved. The distribution of the neuronal (n) and inducible (i) NOS was determined by immunohistochemistry during 60 min of glucose/oxygen deprivation (in vitro ischemia) followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The protein and mRNA levels of nNOS and iNOS were investigated by Western-immunoblotting and real time RT-PCR, respectively. NO levels were quantified as nitrite/nitrate. After in vitro I/R the proportion of nNOS-expressing neurons and protein levels remained unchanged. nNOS mRNA levels increased 60 min after inducing ischemia and in the following 5 min of reperfusion. iNOS-immunoreactive neurons, protein and mRNA levels were up-regulated during the whole I/R period. A significant increase of nitrite/nitrate levels was observed in the first 5 min after inducing I/R and was significantly reduced by N(ω) -propyl-l-arginine and 1400 W, selective inhibitors of nNOS and iNOS, respectively. Our data demonstrate that both iNOS and nNOS represent sources for NO overproduction in ileal myenteric plexus during I/R, although iNOS undergoes more consistent changes suggesting a more relevant role for this isoform in the alterations occurring in myenteric neurons following I/R. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  18. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  19. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  20. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  1. In vivo analysis of intestinal permeability following hemorrhagic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Richter, Michael; Mazor, Rafi; Kistler, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the time course of intestinal permeability changes to proteolytically-derived bowel peptides in experimental hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: We injected fluorescently-conjugated casein protein into the small bowel of anesthetized Wistar rats prior to induction of experimental hemorrhagic shock. These molecules, which fluoresce when proteolytically cleaved, were used as markers for the ability of proteolytically cleaved intestinal products to access the central circulation. Blood was serially sampled to quantify the relative change in concentration of proteolytically-cleaved particles in the systemic circulation. To provide spatial resolution of their location, particles in the mesenteric microvasculature were imaged using in vivo intravital fluorescent microscopy. The experiments were then repeated using an alternate measurement technique, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans 20, to semi-quantitatively verify the ability of bowel-derived low-molecular weight molecules (< 20 kD) to access the central circulation. RESULTS: Results demonstrate a significant increase in systemic permeability to gut-derived peptides within 20 min after induction of hemorrhage (1.11 ± 0.19 vs 0.86 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) compared to control animals. Reperfusion resulted in a second, sustained increase in systemic permeability to gut-derived peptides in hemorrhaged animals compared to controls (1.2 ± 0.18 vs 0.97 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). Intravital microscopy of the mesentery also showed marked accumulation of fluorescent particles in the microcirculation of hemorrhaged animals compared to controls. These results were replicated using FITC dextrans 20 [10.85 ± 6.52 vs 3.38 ± 1.11 fluorescent intensity units (× 105, P < 0.05, hemorrhagic shock vs controls)], confirming that small bowel ischemia in response to experimental hemorrhagic shock results in marked and early increases in gut membrane permeability. CONCLUSION: Increased small bowel permeability in hemorrhagic

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota. PMID:26852926

  3. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  4. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  5. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  6. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  7. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  8. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  9. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  10. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  11. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  12. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  13. Prospective evaluation of radionuclide scanning in detection of intestinal necrosis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, G.M.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Lobe, T.E.; Boles, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of external imaging to demonstrate intestinal infarction in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was prospectively evaluated. The radiopharmaceutical technetium--99m diphosphonate was injected intravenously and the patients subsequently underwent abdominal scanning. Clinical patient care and interpretation of the images were entirely independent throughout the study. Of 33 studies, 7 were positive, 4 were suspicious, and 22 were negative. One false positive study detected ischemia without transmural infarction. The second false positive scan occurred postoperatively and was due to misinterpretation of the hyperactivity along the surgical incision. None of the suspicious cases had damaged bowel. The two false negative studies clearly failed to demonstrate frank intestinal necrosis. The presence of very small areas of infarction, errors in technical settings, subjective interpretation of scans and delayed clearance of the radionuclide in a critically ill neonate may all limit the accuracy of external abdominal scanning. However, in spite of an error rate of 12%, it is likely that this technique will enhance the present clinical, laboratory, and radiologic parameters of patient management in NEC

  14. Experience of 49 longitudinal intestinal lengthening procedures for short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, S; Loff, S; Wirth, H; Rapp, H-J; von Buch, C; Waag, K-L

    2006-06-01

    Forty-nine patients with a mean age of 25 months underwent a longitudinal intestinal lengthening procedure for short bowel syndrome (SBS) in our institution. Indications for the operation were dependence on parenteral nutrition in spite of adequate conservative management. The small bowel was lengthened from a mean of 27 cm to a mean of 51 cm. There was no intraoperative mortality. The following early complications occurred in our early series: ischemia of a short bowel segment of 2 cm, requiring resection in two patients, insufficiency of the longitudinal anastomosis in two patients and an intra-abdominal abscess in one. Four of 9 non-survivors died of liver failure and 3 of sepsis. Follow-up showed that 19 patients were weaned from parenteral nutrition after a mean of 9.1 months. Long-term complications encountered were dismotility with malabsorption due to bacterial overgrowth caused by progressive dilatation of the bowel, d-lactic acidosis, cholelithiasis and urolithiasis. A longitudinal intestinal lengthening procedure is an effective and safe surgical approach for SBS, provided it is performed in time, the patient's preoperative condition is optimized and technical surgical details are taken into account.

  15. Translocation of Candida albicans is related to the blood flow of individual intestinal villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L; Alexander, J W; Fukushima, R; Childress, C P

    1993-08-01

    Splanchnic ischemia is associated with increased bacterial translocation, but previous observations showed that translocation of Candida albicans did not occur uniformly among individual intestinal villi. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the degree of Candida translocation and the microcirculation of individual villi. Thiry-Vella intestinal loops were created in eight guinea pigs. One week later, the distal aorta and right carotid artery were cannulated, and systemic blood pressure was recorded throughout the entire experiment. C. albicans (1 x 10(10)) was introduced into the Thiry-Vella loop, and the animals underwent a 40% full-thickness burn. Systolic hypotension was observed in the first 75 minutes postburn; then the systemic blood pressure returned to a normal range. Four hours after burn, 8 x 10(7) microspheres (10 microns) were injected into the aorta. The animals were sacrificed, and the Thiry-Vella loops were harvested and processed for light microscopy. At the microscopic level, within each villus, both the number of beads trapped in the arterioles and the number of Candida translocated into the enterocytes were counted. An inverse linear correlation between number of beads and number of translocated yeast per individual villus was found (r = -0.78; P flow is an important determinant of the magnitude of microbial translocation, even within individual villi.

  16. Laparoscopic intestinal derotation: original technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Mario; Federici, Orietta; Tarantino, Enrico; Corona, Francesco; Garofalo, Alfredo

    2009-06-01

    The intestinal derotation technique, introduced by Cattel and Valdoni 40 years ago, is carried out using a laparoscopic procedure, which is described here for the first time. The method is effective in the treatment of malign lesions of the III and IV duodenum and during laparoscopic subtotal colectomy with anastomosis between the ascending colon and the rectum. Ultimately, the procedure allows for the verticalization of the duodenal C and the anterior positioning of the mesenteric vessels, facilitating biopsy and resection of the III and IV duodenal portions and allowing anastomosis of the ascending rectum, avoiding both subtotal colectomy and the risk of torsion of the right colic loop. Although the procedure calls for extensive experience with advanced video-laparoscopic surgery, it is both feasible and repeatable. In our experience we have observed no mortality or morbidity.

  17. Concordance between myocardial perfusion scan assessed by SPECT and fractional flow reserve findings for detection of significant ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: FFR and MPI with SPECT techniques showed significant concordance for detection of myocardial ischemia, regardless of the type of diseased coronary arteries. In this context, SPECT has high sensitivity and NPV for detection of ischemia compared with FFR.

  18. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  20. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...