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Sample records for intestinal helminth infections

  1. Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections in Sengerema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections are common health problems among the people of Lake. Victoria basin particularly in Mwanza ... these infections is largely lacking and that biomedical studies give only a partial ... sampling procedure was such that in each sub-village. ' Correspondence: Joseph R.

  2. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  3. intestinal helminth infections among pregnant cameroonian women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 11 November 2011. INTESTINAL HELMINTH ... The pregnant women received mebendazole and iron tablets on the day of enrollment at the antenatal clinic to control helminth ... malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, diarrhoea and iron-deficiency anaemia (3,1). Pregnant women and.

  4. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, ...

  5. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  6. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

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    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural malay children.

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    Huat, Lim Boon; Mitra, Amal K; Jamil, Noor Izani Noor; Dam, Pim Chau; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  8. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

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    Olukayode A. Adeleke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infection sare limited.Aim: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital.Setting: Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load.Results: Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/μL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1% the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/ μLand helminth infection (p = 0.05. No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79 or the mean viral load (p = 0.98.Conclusion: A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care.

  9. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  10. The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences,. Alemaya .... quantity, time, and procedure of collection. ... J.Health Dev. 2005;19(2). Table 1: Prevalence of intestinal helminths among Babile town schoolchildren, Eastern. Ethiopia, 2001. Parasite species. Males.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminth species identified were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia and Trichostrongylus. Ascaris lumbricoides was commonest species observed (40.9%), while Trichostrongylus species was least common (2.3%). Intensity of infection was light. Children aged 6 – 10 years ...

  12. Intestinal Helminthes Infections and Re-Infections with Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    small town of Waja, northern Ethiopia, stool samples were collected from primary school children in two rounds (in .... (mid September 2004), we re-visited the school and re-examined the same children that could be traced. ..... Evidence for the segregation of a major gene in human us-susceptibility/resistance to infection by.

  13. Intestinal helminth infection in an ethnic minority commune in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Hung, Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Giao, Phan T.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2005-01-01

    A program to control intestinal helminth infections, based on stool surveys, mass treatment of children below 17 years, improvement of sanitation and health education was performed between 1997 and 1999 in Phan Tien, an ethnic minority community in mountainous southern Vietnam. Before intervention,

  14. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (Pcommensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  15. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Human infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths in Calbuco County, X Region, Chile, 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Pérez, M

    1997-01-01

    By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children.

  17. Low prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal helminthiasis are endemic in Côte d'Ivoire and represent a real health problem because of health burden particularly in children. In order to eliminate the disease as a public health problem the Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene has been implementing mass drug administration in primary schools since 2012.

  18. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  19. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  20. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  1. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  2. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa, Favour; Ayo, Oguntade Michael; Imade, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  3. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  4. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência dos métodos de Kato-Katz e sedimentação espontânea para o diagnóstico das helmintíases intestinais. A sensibilidade da técnica de sedimentação espontânea foi s...

  5. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  6. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M Cattadori

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control. Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  7. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Isabella M; Sebastian, Aswathy; Hao, Han; Katani, Robab; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  8. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

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    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  9. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoimnazarova Malika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%, whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  12. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  14. Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Intrinsic Deletion of Setd7 Identifies Role for Developmental Pathways in Immunity to Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenery, Alistair L.; Redpath, Stephen A.; Braam, Mitchell J.; Perona-Wright, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    The intestine is a common site for a variety of pathogenic infections. Helminth infections continue to be major causes of disease worldwide, and are a significant burden on health care systems. Lysine methyltransferases are part of a family of novel attractive targets for drug discovery. SETD7 is a member of the Suppressor of variegation 3-9-Enhancer of zeste-Trithorax (SET) domain-containing family of lysine methyltransferases, and has been shown to methylate and alter the function of a wide variety of proteins in vitro. A few of these putative methylation targets have been shown to be important in resistance against pathogens. We therefore sought to study the role of SETD7 during parasitic infections. We find that Setd7 -/- mice display increased resistance to infection with the helminth Trichuris muris but not Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Resistance to T. muris relies on an appropriate type 2 immune response that in turn prompts intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to alter differentiation and proliferation kinetics. Here we show that SETD7 does not affect immune cell responses during infection. Instead, we found that IEC-specific deletion of Setd7 renders mice resistant to T. muris by controlling IEC turnover, an important aspect of anti-helminth immune responses. We further show that SETD7 controls IEC turnover by modulating developmental signaling pathways such as Hippo/YAP and Wnt/β-Catenin. We show that the Hippo pathway specifically is relevant during T. muris infection as verteporfin (a YAP inhibitor) treated mice became susceptible to T. muris. We conclude that SETD7 plays an important role in IEC biology during infection. PMID:27598373

  15. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

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    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  16. Are intestinal helminths risk factors for developing active tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Mengistu, Getahun; Akuffo, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in active tuberculosis patients and their healthy household contacts and to assess its association with active TB in an area endemic for both types of infections. METHODS: Smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and healthy ho......: Intestinal helminth infection may be one of the risk factors for the development of active pulmonary TB in addition to HIV infection. This finding may have important implications in the control of TB in helminth endemic areas of the world....

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated September 2017 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  18. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Adedoja

    Full Text Available Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria.Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4-15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data.Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4% of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%. The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%, Hymenolepis species (9.8%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.9% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%. The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062. The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049 and hookworm (p = 0.034 infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10-15 years recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were

  19. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  20. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

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    Assoumou Aka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%. Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003. The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the

  1. Intestinal Helminths in caregivers working in Orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health knowledge and health care practices of caregivers are important determinants of quality of care of any child. These caregivers in closed institutions such as the orphanages could be a sourceof environmental contamination and transmission of diseases including intestinal helminthic infections.This study was carried ...

  2. intestinal helminthes infestation in relation to some haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-09

    Jul 9, 2015 ... Intestinal parasitic infections caused by protozoa and helminthes are globally endemic and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide ... anaemia by decreasing appetite and thus food and iron intake (Bondevik et al., 2000; Stephenson et al., 2000). Worldwide anemia is an important ...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  4. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  5. reassessment of helminth infections in gulu municipality nothern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Treatment of intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis WHO/CDS/. IPI/CTD/. 2. WHO (2001) Prevention of Soil-transmitted Helminth. Infection. 3. WHO; 2005. World Health organization .Deworming for health and development. Reports on the third global meeting of the partners for parasite control. Geneva:.

  6. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation : consequences and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well

  7. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Malaria and helminthic co-infection among HIV-positive pregnant women: Prevalence and effects of antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Rucogoza, Aniceth T.; Osuwat, Lawrence O.; Munyazesa, Elizaphane; Mutimura, Eugene; Njunwa, Kato J.; Zambezi, Kakoma J. B.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of malaria on anemia and the interplay with helminths underline the importance of addressing the interactions between HIV/AIDS, malaria and intestinal helminth infections in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria-helminth dual infections among HIV

  9. Aspects of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in World Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a seven months (February to August, 2002) prevalence study of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in the New Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria, using both direct and concentration methods six helminth parasites were recorded. These included Hookworm, Strongyloides sp, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Diphylidium ...

  10. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  11. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The latter is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is t...

  12. Virus-helminth co-infection reveals a microbiota-independent mechanism of immuno-modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Nice, Timothy J.; Sutherland, Tara E.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Tran, Sara V.; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey G.; Laughlin, Alice L.; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Wherry, E. John; Bushman, Frederic D.; Allen, Judith E.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Artis, David

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immuno-modulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth co-infection. Helminth co-infection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in the microbiota and STAT6-dependent helminth-induced alternative activation of macrophages. Notably, helminth-induced impairment of antiviral immunity was evident in germ-free mice but neutralization of Ym1, a chitinase-like molecule that is associated with alternatively-activated macrophages, could partially restore antiviral immunity. These data indicate that helminth-induced immuno-modulation occurs independently of changes in the microbiota but is dependent on Ym1. PMID:25082704

  13. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/- or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/- displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb, whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3 by macrophages (MΦ and myofibroblasts (MF within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  14. Helminth infections and allergies in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoah, Abena Serwaa

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a global rise in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders. Several epidemiological studies conducted in countries endemic for parasitic worms (helminths) have reported an inverse association between the presence of helminth infections and allergic

  15. Occurrence of gastro-intestinal helminths of pigs slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the occurrence of gastro intestinal helminthes of pigs slaughtered at the Jos Abattoir was carried out between May and November 2007, to determined sex, age, and breed related rate of infection, and the possible risk factors to the spread of the epidemic, using direct smear and floatation techniques.

  16. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  17. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC with albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Sunish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One third of the world′s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Albendazole (ALB is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu s0 tate h0 ealth d0 epartment, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB. Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%. Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes among pupils of Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suggestions are made for the improvement and maintenance of environmental sanitation and general hygiene for the growth, physical and cognitive ability of the pupils. Keywords: Intestinal helminthes; prevalence; staff school; pupils; Nigeria International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol. 2 (3) 2006: pp. 250- ...

  19. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of intestinal helminth parasites among school pupils was conducted in two primary schools within Ihumudumu community of Ekpoma, in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between December 2012 and February 2013. A total of 380 faecal samples were randomly collected from pupils of both ...

  20. Observations on the intestinal helminth parasites of cichlids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth parasites of five predominant cichlids; Hemichromis fasciatus, Chromidotilapia guentheri, Tilapia mariae, Tilapia zilli and Tilapia aurea of the upper reaches of River Orogodo in Delta State, Southern Nigeria were examined. The water body was randomly sampled using a ...

  1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to control the disease since the high prevalence was found to be associated with unsanitary habits. There is the need to incorporate the control of intestinal helminthiasis into Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Keywords: helminth, parasites, prevalence, Mbaukwu. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  2. Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Mog­han Plain, Northwestern Iran

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    M Zare-Bidaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal hel­minth infec­tions in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran.Methods: Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran.Results: Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic hel­minths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesoces­toides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxas­caris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hook­worms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Be­sides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal sam­ples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species.Conclusion: The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Mog­han plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native peo­ple.

  3. Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Zouzou, Fabien; Ouattara, Mamadou; Schmidlin, Thomas; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Dongo, Kouassi; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Koné, Siaka; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Raso, Giovanna

    2018-02-27

    Preventive chemotherapy with donated anthelminthic drugs is the cornerstone for the control of helminthiases. However, reinfection can occur rapidly in the absence of clean water and sanitation coupled with unhygienic behaviour. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants' knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in nine communities of south-central Côte d'Ivoire to assess people's infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa and KAPB. Subsequently, interventions were targeted to five communities, while the remaining communities served as control. The intervention encouraged latrine construction and an evaluation was done 6-7 months later to determine open defecation status of the respective communities. Anthelminthic treatment was provided to all community members. A follow-up cross-sectional survey was conducted approximately one year later, using the same procedures. Overall, 810 people had complete baseline and follow-up data and were given anthelminthic treatment. The baseline prevalence of hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and Ascaris lumbricoides was 31.1%, 7.0%, 2.0%, 1.0% and 0.3%, respectively. Four of the five intervention communities were classified open-defecation free. For hookworm infection, we observed higher negative changes in terms of proportion of decrease (-0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.16, -0.04) and higher egg reduction rate (64.9 vs 15.2%) when comparing intervention with control communities. For intestinal protozoa, prevalence reduction was higher in intervention compared to control communities (8.2 vs 2.6%) and WASH indicators and

  4. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  5. Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, E; Belayneh, M; Idh, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as wel...

  6. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  7. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  9. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  10. Assessment of intestinal helminths in community school children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also 286 helminth worms were recovered as follows; 127 (44.4%), 114 (40%), 21 (7.3%), 20 (7%), 3 (1%) and 1 (0.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuira, Hookworms, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercolaris and Enterobius vermicularis respectively. There was no significant difference in pattern of infection ...

  11. Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

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    Kourosh ARZAMANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran.Methods: One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Results: Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp. Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.

  12. The Impact of Nutrition, Helminth Infection, and Lifestyle on Elementary School Student’s Achievement

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    Ika Febianti Buntoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of helminth infections and malnutrition cases in Indonesia. Some of the effects of helminth infection are anemia, diarrhea, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction, growth and developmental disorder, and also cognitive impairment. This study aimed to explore the impact of nutrition, helminth infection, and lifestyle on elementary school students’ achievement. An observational analytical study with the cross-sectional design was used. The study was participated by 65 elementary school students grade 3, 4, and 5. The study was conducted in Pasir Panjang Elementary School, Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia. The data was analyzed using chi-square. There were 7 students (10.77% having helminth infections:4 students (57.1% had Ascarislumbricoides infection, 2 students (28.6% had Enterobius vermicularis infection, and 1 student (14.3% had Strongyloides stercoralis infection. There were no differences found on students’ achievement between students with normal and low nutritional state (p = 0.917; p > 0.05 and between different lifestyle habit  (p = 0.768;  p > 0.05. However, a significant difference in students’ achievement was found between students with and without helminth infection (p = 0.036; p < 0.05. Helminth infection had a significant impact on elementary school students’ achievement, but no significant impact found for differences in nutritional state and lifestyle habit.

  13. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal...... to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...... was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P

  14. The Interaction between HIV and Intestinal Helminth Parasites Coinfection with Nutrition among Adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    B. T. Mkhize

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa few studies have examined the effects of the overlap of HIV and helminth infections on nutritional status. This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between HIV and intestinal helminths coinfection with nutritional status among KwaZulu-Natal adults. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic and stratified based on their HIV, stool parasitology, IgE, and IgG4 results into four groups: the uninfected, HIV infected, helminth infected, and HIV-helminth coinfected groups. The nutritional status was assessed using body mass index, 24-hour food recall, micro-, and macronutrient biochemical markers. Univariate and multivariate multinomial probit regression models were used to assess nutritional factors associated with singly and dually infected groups using the uninfected group as a reference category. Biochemically, the HIV-helminth coinfected group was associated with a significantly higher total protein, higher percentage of transferrin saturation, and significantly lower ferritin. There was no significant association between single or dual infections with HIV and helminths with micro- and macronutrient deficiency; however general obesity and low micronutrient intake patterns, which may indicate a general predisposition to micronutrient and protein-energy deficiency, were observed and may need further investigations.

  15. Intestinal helminth coinfection is associated with mucosal lesions and poor response to therapy in American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz G; Pimentel, Maria Inês; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Madeira, Maria F; Cataldo, Jamyra Iglesias; Schubach, Armando O; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Mendonça, Sergio C F

    2016-02-01

    The most severe clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) due to Leishmania braziliensis is mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), characterized by destructive lesions in the facial mucosa. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 109 ATL patients from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where ATL is caused by L. braziliensis, to evaluate the influence of intestinal parasite coinfections in the clinical course of ATL. Parasitological stool examination (PSE) was performed with samples from all patients by the sedimentation, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes methods. The diagnosis of ATL was made from lesion biopsies by direct observation of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained imprints, isolation of Leishmania promastigotes or histopathological examination. All patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Patients with positive PSE had a frequency of mucosal lesions significantly higher than those with negative PSE (p<0.005). The same was observed for infections with helminths in general (p<0.05), with nematodes (p<0.05) and with Ascaris lumbricoides (p<0.05), but not for protozoan infections. Patients with intestinal parasites had poor response to therapy (therapeutic failure or relapse) significantly more frequently than the patients with negative stool examination (p<0.005). A similar difference (p<0.005) was observed between patients with positive and negative results for intestinal helminths, but not for intestinal protozoa. Patients with positive PSE took significantly longer to heal than those with negative PSE (p<0.005). A similar difference was observed for intestinal helminth infections (p<0.005), but not for protozoan infections. Our results indicate a deleterious influence of intestinal helminth infections in the clinical course of ATL and evidence for the first time an association between ML and these coinfections, particularly with nematodes and A. lumbricoides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelbauer Kathrin; Speich Benjamin; Mäusezahl Daniel; Bos Robert; Keiser Jennifer; Utzinger Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths, parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). Roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm infections mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. Because infected individuals excrete ...

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia associated with helminths and asymptomatic malaria infections among rural school children in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olufemi Akanni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the relative contribution of causes of anaemia in the rural communities and evaluate the association between parasitic infections and anaemia. Methods: A total of 292 blood and stool samples of aged 1-15 years school children were collected and analyzed using direct smear saline preparation and concentration methods for examination of ova of parasites in the stool samples with thick and thin blood films stained using Giemsa and Leishman stains as described by World Health Organization. Serum was estimated using ELISA test kit by Syntron Bioresearch, Inc., USA. Results: The overall prevalence rate of parasitic infection was 66.4% with four species of intestinal helminth identified. Ascaris lubricoides (50.0% was the most common followed by hookworm (8.9%, Trichuris trichiura (6.2% and Schistosoma mansoni (1.4%. The mean haemoglobin level of plasmodium positive school children without intestinal helminth infection (10.8 g/dL was slightly higher than those with intestinal helminth (10.0 g/dL. The mean serum ferritin of plasmodium positive without intestinal helminth (23.7 g/L was also higher than those with helminth (22.5 g/ L and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Age and gender also made no significant differences in the distribution of the infections. However, there was a significant effect on weight and height by intestinal helminth infections (P<0.05. Conclusions: It is recommended that the public be adequately health educated on the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infection. A periodic mass treatment of school children with iron supplementation is advocated.

  18. Chronic helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, Elly; Hartgers, Franca C; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections generally do not lead to mortality, however, they are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The regulatory network is associated with chronic helminth infections and is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is thought to also temper responses to non-helminth antigens, like allergens or self-antigens, possibly leading to lower prevalence of allergies and autoimmune diseases in subjects that are chronically infected with helminths. This raises the interesting idea that helminths may bear molecules that have potential therapeutic action against allergies and possibly other inflammatory diseases. However, on the other side of the coin, this would predict that helminth infected subjects might not respond strongly to third party antigens like vaccines. This is an important issue, since most vaccines that are being developed against diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis or malaria will be introduced in areas where helminth infections are highly prevalent. Moreover, these vaccines are proving difficult to develop and are often weak, thus any confounder that would affect their efficacy needs to be taken into consideration. Helminth derived molecules have been identified that induce T helper 2 and regulatory responses via modulation of dendritic cells and some appear to do so via Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling. New insights into these pathways could be useful to antagonize suppression and hence boost vaccine efficacy or to optimize suppression induced by helminth derived molecules and control inflammatory diseases.

  19. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Maskery

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program.An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1 "No Program," 2 U.S. "Domestic Screening and Treatment," 3 "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" presumptive treatment, and 4 "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides". Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs.The "No Program" option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort. The "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" option ($418,824 is less expensive than "Domestic Screening and Treatment" ($3,832,572 or "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides" ($2,182,483. According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin," which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to "No Program".Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost-effective intervention that is less expensive and at least as effective as

  20. Prevalence of intestinal helminths, anemia, and malnutrition in Paucartambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M. Cabada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Methods. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Results. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47% were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5% and Fasciola (9.6% were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8% was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR: 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.81-12.21. Underweight (10% was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72, higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68 and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9. Stunting (31.3% was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95; wasting (2.7% was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25. Conclusions. Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems.

  1. [Seasonal variability of intestinal helminths and Schistosoma haematobium in a rural area of the Sahel in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niangaly, H; Djimde, A A; Traore, B; Sangare, C P O; Guindo, D; Konate, D; Diakite, M; Diallo, N; Maïga-Ascofare, O; Sogoba, N; Dabo, A; Doumbo, O K

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and Schistosoma haematobium before and after the rainy season in Pongonon, Mali. Volunteers aged one year and above were included. The Kato-Katz method was used to detect eggs and cysts in stool samples, and Wattman filtration to detect S. haematobium eggs in urine samples. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in July and November 2007. In July (beginning of the rainy season), 304 volunteers were included; 278 were seen again in November (at the end of the rainy season). We found more intestinal helminths at the end of the rainy season (8.3%) compared to the beginning of the season (2.9%) (P = 0.01). There was no infection with S. haematobium in July but 7.6% in November (P  0.05), but the prevalence of infection with S. haematobium was higher in children aged 6 to 16 years (17/153) than in adults (2/74) (P = 0.02). Infections with helminth and S. Haematobium were both more prevalent at the end of the rainy season. Adults were infected as well as children and may constitute potential reservoirs of parasites. Effective control of these parasitic infections requires mass drug administration programs that take place during the seasons of high parasite egg excretion and that also include adult populations in some areas.

  2. Fatores ambientais associados às helmintoses intestinais em áreas de assentamento subnormal, Juiz de Fora, MG Environmental factors related to intestinal helminth infections in subnormal settled areas, Juiz de Fora, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho são o de caracterizar a morbidade por infecções intestinais por helmintos e o de identificar os fatores associados a estas doenças, com ênfase para os fatores ambientais, em crianças com idade entre um ano completo e cinco anos incompletos residentes em áreas de assentamento subnormal - áreas de invasão. Utilizou-se um delineamento epidemiológico transversal de base populacional em 29 das 78 áreas de assentamento subnormal do município de Juiz de Fora - MG. A amostra foi composta por todas as crianças na faixa etária de interesse residentes nos 29 assentamentos, escolhidos de forma não aleatória. A amostra estudada totalizou 753 crianças. A coleta de dados foi feita mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe ou o responsável pela criança. Utilizou-se o método de Hoffmann-Pons-Janer no exame parasitológico de fezes. Foram usados modelos de regressão logística binária para identificar fatores associados às enfermidades. Da amostra, 161 (21,38% crianças apresentaram infecções intestinais por helmintos. Os fatores associados a estas parasitoses incluíram idade da criança, renda familiar, queixas quanto à qualidade da água do sistema público e deficiências no esgotamento sanitário.The objectives of this study are the characterization of the morbidity by intestinal helminth infections and the identification of the factors associated with these diseases, with emphasis on environmental factors, in children ranging from one to five incomplete years old residing in subnormal settlement areas - invasion areas. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiological design was used in 29 out of the 78 subnormal settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG. The sample consisted of all children at the age of interest residing in the 29 settlement areas, not chosen at random. The assessed sample amounted to 753 children. Data were collected by means of domiciliary interviews with their

  3. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of the major intestinal helminth parasites of man and the relative appearances of multiparasitism. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in seven elementary schools in Chilga. District, Northwest Ethiopia. 687 (282 males and 405 females) pupils ...

  4. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  5. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for zoonotic helminth infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact.

  7. Intestinal Protozoan Infection in HIV Patients in Jimeta, Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incriminated protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolitica, Trichomonas hominis and Entamoeba coli. Helminthes parasites were mainly present in HIV negative patients who constituted the control group. Potential risk factors for intestinal parasite infection revealed that though occupation played ...

  8. Immunological Mechanisms by Which Concomitant Helminth Infections Predispose to the Development of Human Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Helminthic infections afflict over 1.5 billion people worldwide, while Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one third of the world's population, resulting in 2 million deaths per year. Although tuberculosis and helminthic infections coexist in many parts of the world, and it has been demonstrated that the T-helper 2 and T-regulatory cell responses elicited by helminths can affect the ability of the host to control mycobacterial infection, it is still unclear whether helminth infections in fact ...

  9. Site selection by intestinal helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R D; Pung, O J; Richardson, D J

    1999-02-01

    Digestive tract helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were examined for site specificity and interspecific interactions. Thirty opossums were live-trapped at 2 localities in Georgia, killed, and their digestive tracts removed and divided into the following sections; esophagus, stomach, small intestine (20 equal sections), cecum, and large intestine (5 equal sections). Helminths present in each section were identified and counted. Three trematode, 1 cestode, 2 acanthocephala, and 6 nematode species were found. Two parasites (the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus spinosus and the nematode Viannaia hamata) are new state records for Georgia and this is the first report of C. spinosus from an opossum. There was considerable overlap between the spatial distributions of many of the helminth species found in the small intestine though most species had different modal locations. Helminth species locations were unaffected by host sex or trapping locality. There was no evidence that the presence, absence, or intensity of any helminth species affected the location or intensity of other helminth species in the digestive tract.

  10. Chronic helminth infections may negatively influence immunity against tuberculosis and other diseases of public health importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Kassu, Afework

    2007-01-01

    , studies conducted in animals and humans living in worm-endemic areas have shown that helminths impair resistance against a number of infections of major public health importance, including TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Understanding such interactions could assist in the design of vaccines against......Tuberculosis (TB) has once again become a major public health threat owing to the combined effects of deteriorating socioeconomic situations and the emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The only vaccine available against TB, although effective in reducing the burden of childhood TB, shows enormous...... variability in its efficacy against pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of the disease in adults. Most areas of high TB incidence and poor TB vaccine efficacy have a high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. Such infections have been shown to cause a range of immunomodulation characterized...

  11. Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In. Pregnant Women In Lusaka, Zambia. Shinondo1 ... women, and as such geophagy was an unlikely risk factor for geohelminth infections. Other explanations for the ... markets to pregnant women are richer in iron and copper than the dietary supplement pills made by ...

  12. Helminthic infections among farmers in a rural community in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helminthic infections are occupationally-related diseases which potentially undermine farmers' work capacity, productivity and life expectancy. These infections are usually under-reported among this group particularly in the rural areas. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors ...

  13. IL-10- and TGFβ-mediated Th9 Responses in a Human Helminth Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Th9 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that express the protoypical cytokine, IL-9. Th9 cells are known to effect protective immunity in animal models of intestinal helminth infections. However, the role of Th9 cells in human intestinal helminth infections has never been examined.To examine the role of Th9 cells in Strongyloidis stercoralis (Ss, a common intestinal helminth infection, we compared the frequency of Th9 expressing IL-9 either singly (mono-functional or co-expressing IL-4 or IL-10 (dual-functional in Ss-infected individuals (INF to frequencies in uninfected (UN individuals.INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and/or antigen specific frequencies of both mono- and dual-functional Th9 cells as well as Th2 cells expressing IL-9 compared to UN. The differences in Th9 induction between INF and UN individuals was predominantly antigen-specific as the differences were no longer seen following control antigen or mitogen stimulation. In addition, the increased frequency of Th9 cells in response to parasite antigens was dependent on IL-10 and TGFx since neutralization of either of these cytokines resulted in diminished Th9 frequencies. Finally, following successful treatment of Ss infection, the frequencies of antigen-specific Th9 cells diminished in INF individuals, suggesting a role for the Th9 response in active Ss infection. Moreover, IL-9 levels in whole blood culture supernatants following Ss antigen stimulation were higher in INF compared to UN individuals.Thus, Ss infection is characterized by an IL-10- and TGFβ dependent expansion of Th9 cells, an expansion found to reversible by anti-helmintic treatment.

  14. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Emmanuelle; Chauvin, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Helminth parasites are of considerable medical and economic importance. Studies of the immune response against helminths are of great interest in understanding interactions between the host immune system and parasites. Effector immune mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are...

  15. Helminth infections of sheep in North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Batubara, A; Iskander, M; Pandey, V S

    1996-02-01

    Gastrointestinal tracts of 73 indigenous sheep were obtained from the Medan abattoir in North Sumatra, Indonesia, and examined for the presence of helminths. A total of 13 species of helminths, eight nematodes, one cestode and four trematodes were encountered. All sheep were infected by more than one species of nematodes. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei and Haemonchus contortus were the most common species. The intensity of the nematode infections was very high: the average burden was over 7500 worms. Trichostrongylus spp. accounted, on average, for 81.5% of the total nematode burden. No influence of age on total nematode burden could be shown. Eurytrema pancreaticum and Schistosoma spindale were found in 23.3% and 4.1% of the examined sheep, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to common management and helminth control systems.

  16. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not

  17. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2011-02-08

    Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus--helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not previously identified. Moreover, our

  18. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  19. Community-wide reduction in prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths as a collateral benefit of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Direny, Abdel N; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Addiss, David G; Radday, Jeanne; Beach, Michael J; Streit, Thomas G; Dardith, Desire; Lafontant, Jack Guy; Lammie, Patrick J

    2004-10-01

    Annual mass treatment with antifilarial drugs is the cornerstone of the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). Although the primary goal of the program is to interrupt transmission of LF, additional public health benefits also are expected because of the known anthelminthic properties of these drugs. Since rapid re-infection with intestinal helminths occurs following treatment, annual de-worming may not be sufficient to produce a lasting reduction in the prevalence and intensity of these infections. We conducted stool examinations in four sentinel communities before and approximately nine months after each of two rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole in the context of an LF elimination program in Leogane, Haiti. At baseline, overall Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infection prevalences were 20.9%, 34.0%, and 11.2%, respectively (n = 2,716 stools). Nine months after the second MDA, Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm prevalences had decreased significantly, to 14.1%, 14.6%, and 2.0%, respectively (n = 814 stools). Infection intensity decreased significantly for all three parasites as well. These results demonstrate that substantial reductions in intestinal helminth infections are associated with mass treatment of filariasis in Haiti and are consistent with the conclusion that high levels of coverage for the LF program can decrease transmission of geohelminths.

  20. Study on parasitic helminths infecting three fish species from Koka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in three species of fish from Koka reservoir from November 2008 - April 2009 to determine the prevalence of helminth parasites and identify the most common genera infecting fish. A total of 315 fish comprising of 97 (30.8%) Barbus intermedius, 145 (46.0%) African catfish (Clarias ...

  1. epidemiology of single and multiple species of helminth infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 3 March 2000. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SPECIES OF HELMINTH INFECTIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BUSIA DISTRICT, KENYA. S. Brooker, MA, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, ...

  2. Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most women who were interviewed (91.8%) were aware of possible health risks involved in geophagy such as constipation, heartburn, anemia, coughing, infections with worms, and abdominal discomfort. This study sought to recover and identify helminth ova from a total 3.15Kg. Submitted or collected soil types ingested by ...

  3. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...

  4. Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminths infections among schooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Schoo, Ovoko had the highest percent prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 %), hookworm (6.0 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). The least per cent prevalence of A. lumbricoides was recorded in Community Primary School, Iheakpu-Awka (2.3 %), while the least per cent prevalence of hookworm occurred in ...

  5. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  6. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths of faeces from in-door ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in dogs and dog faeces collected from streets in Makurdi, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-September 2013. A total of 400 faecal samples viz 300 from household dogs and 100 from streets were collected and ...

  7. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  8. A survey of intestinal helminthes and blood parasites of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of some zoonotic parasites especially M. moniliformis and Hymenolepis sp. as well as their public health significance in congenial rural villages are discussed. Keywords: intestinal helminthes, blood parasites, giant rats, Crycetomys emini, tropical rain forest, Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances ...

  9. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Smith, Jennifer L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Brooker, Simon J

    2014-01-21

    Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 - 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 - 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations at risk however, the burden

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes among Children in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis were the least prevalent helminth parasites encountered among the study population (1% each). The population in these communities depended largely on poorly built latrines and buckets for faecal disposal although some (49%) used flush toilets despite their being in ...

  11. Intestinal helminths in Luweero district, Uganda | Dumba | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The hygiene practices of the parents/guardians and environmental surroundings in which the child grows play a big part in determining his or her helminth status. The District Health workers, community leaders and extension staff should educate the community on the importance of personal hygiene and ...

  12. Prevalence of intestinal helminths of horses in Sokoto | Alayande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal samples collected from fifty-four stallions, in eleven randomly selected horse stables within Sokoto metropolis were analysed using the direct faecal smear, flotation method and modified McMaster techniques. The helminth ova identified were those of Ascaris sp, Strongylus sp, Strongyloide sp, Panaplocephala sp, ...

  13. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, ...

  14. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Slaughtered Cattle at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthes parasites affecting cattle slaughtered at the Wukari Local Government abattoir, in Taraba State, North-Eastern Nigeria. The Standard saturated salt (NaCl) floatation technique was used, and examined microscopically to determine the parasites and the ...

  15. The immune response to tuberculosis infection in the setting of Helicobacter pylori and helminth infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S; Chang, A H; Sanchez, L; Yang, S; Haggerty, T D; Parsonnet, J

    2013-06-01

    We screened 176 healthy, adult (aged 18-55 years) US refugees from tuberculosis (TB)-endemic countries to evaluate whether cytokine responses to latent TB infection (LTBI) are modified in the setting of concurrent H. pylori and helminth infection. As measured by the Quantiferon-TB GOLD interferon-γ release assay, a total 38 (22%) subjects had LTBI, of which 28 (74%) also were H. pylori seropositive and/or helminth infected. Relative to ten subjects with LTBI only, 16 subjects with concurrent H. pylori infection had significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ, and nine subjects with both H. pylori and helminth infection had significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-13, and IL-5. H. pylori is associated with enhanced IFN-γ responses to TB, even in the setting of concurrent helminth infection. Efficacy of TB vaccines may vary with the co-existence of these three infections in the developing world.

  16. Intestinal helminth communities in the green lizard, lacerta viridis, from bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserkov; Kostadinova

    1998-09-01

    A data set comprising individual host/parasite lists from 100 Lacerta viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) belonging to four isolated populations in Bulgaria was studied. A total of seven helminth species was recovered (Leptophallus nigrovenosus, Plagiorchis molini, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Spauligodon extenuatus, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Physaloptera clausa and Mesocestoides sp.). Lacerta viridis is a new host record for the first five of these species. Communities of intestinal helminths of L. viridis consist of a few species which resulted in a low species richness, abundance and diversity of infracommunities, which exhibit substantial homogeneity among the four samples. A similar pattern of dominance of two nematode species leading to a relatively high community similarity at both infra- and component community levels was observed. While intestinal helminth communities in lizards from 'marginal' habitats were dominated by the host generalist, O. filiformis, those in hosts from 'typical' habitats were dominated by the lizard specialist S. extenuatus. The results indicate that the characteristics of the host's habitat are important in determining the composition rather than structure of intestinal helminth communities in L. viridis.

  17. Intestinal helminths of a landlocked ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) population in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisalo, Tuula; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2003-09-01

    A small, landlocked, endangered ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) population lives as a postglacial relict in Lake Saimaa in eastern Finland. In this study, the intestinal metazoans were examined from a total of 61 Saimaa seals found dead from 1981 to 2001. The helminth fauna was very depauperate. Only one acanthocephalan species, Corynosoma magdaleni, has been able to survive during isolation in the freshwater environment. In addition, only two cestode species were found: Diphyllobothrium ditretum and Schistocephalus sp. However, neither of these larvae developed in the ringed seals. As the newborn pups of Saimaa seals are nursed for about 2 months only one of them was infected by C. magdaleni. At 2-5 months the pups harboured worms; however, the mean intensity did not rise distinctively until the seals were adults. C. magdaleni infection increased with increasing age and the abundances were significantly different between the age groups. There was no correlation between the number of parasites and the adult seal body weight; however, seals weighing 36 kg or more carried the majority of the worms. The distribution of the parasites was aggregated; six seals carried 65% (n=1,182) of all worms (total n=1,809) and 26 seals were uninfected. Variation in the number of worms in individual seals may indicate differences in feeding behaviour and in the diet of seals, and/or variation in the immune status of the seals.

  18. Studies on the interaction between Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and intestinal helminths in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Roepstorff, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    Concomitant infections with helminths and bacteria may affect the course and the resulting disease outcome of the individual infections. Salmonella, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Ascaris coexist naturally in pig herds in Denmark, and possible interactions were studied. Pigs in one experiment were...... trickle infected with low or moderate dose levels of Oesophagostomum spp. and challenge infected with S. Typhimurium. In another experiment, pigs were inoculated with S. Typhimurium followed by a challenge exposure to either Oesophagostomum, Trichuris or Ascaris. Enhancement of the Salmonella infection...... was not demonstrated in either experiment. The helminth effect on the pigs was modest and may explain the lack of influence on the Salmonella infection. A previous experiment with a larger Oesophagostomum infection level resulted in enhancement of the S. Typhimurium infection. A dose dependency of the interaction...

  19. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  20. Helminth infections and practice of prevention and control measures among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Anbesame health center, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2017-07-12

    Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.

  1. Helminth infections on organic dairy farms in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orjales, I.; Mezo, M.; Miranda, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies...... in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques. The prevalence of infections caused by F. hepatica was considerable low...... into account the administration of effective anthelmintics and the number of lactations. Treatment of cows with fasciolicides decreased the risk of F. hepatica infection in multiparous cows, whereas treatment with oxiclozanide or albendazol did not decrease the risk of C. daubneyi infection or O. ostertargi...

  2. Differential human gut microbiome assemblages during soil-transmitted helminth infections in Indonesia and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Supali, Taniawati; Gankpala, Lincoln; Djuardi, Yenny; Sartono, Erliyani; Zhou, Yanjiao; Fischer, Kerstin; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fischer, Peter U; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2018-02-28

    The human intestine and its microbiota is the most common infection site for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which affect the well-being of ~ 1.5 billion people worldwide. The complex cross-kingdom interactions are not well understood. A cross-sectional analysis identified conserved microbial signatures positively or negatively associated with STH infections across Liberia and Indonesia, and longitudinal samples analysis from a double-blind randomized trial showed that the gut microbiota responds to deworming but does not transition closer to the uninfected state. The microbiomes of individuals able to self-clear the infection had more alike microbiome assemblages compared to individuals who remained infected. One bacterial taxon (Lachnospiracae) was negatively associated with infection in both countries, and 12 bacterial taxa were significantly associated with STH infection in both countries, including Olsenella (associated with reduced gut inflammation), which also significantly reduced in abundance following clearance of infection. Microbial community gene abundances were also affected by deworming. Functional categories identified as associated with STH infection included arachidonic acid metabolism; arachidonic acid is the precursor for pro-inflammatory leukotrienes that threaten helminth survival, and our findings suggest that some modulation of arachidonic acid activity in the STH-infected gut may occur through the increase of arachidonic acid metabolizing bacteria. For the first time, we identify specific members of the gut microbiome that discriminate between moderately/heavily STH-infected and non-infected states across very diverse geographical regions using two different statistical methods. We also identify microbiome-encoded biological functions associated with the STH infections, which are associated potentially with STH survival strategies, and changes in the host environment. These results provide a novel insight of the cross

  3. Comprehensive Transcriptome Meta-analysis to Characterize Host Immune Responses in Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578

  4. Survey of intestinal helminth parasites of puppies in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four helminth species, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum and Spirocerca lupi were recovered with the prevalences of 80%, 70%, 12% and 2% respectively. Intensity of infection was measured directly by counting worms recovered after post-mortem. The mean±(SEM) worm burden for T. canis was ...

  5. Intestinal helminths in some cases of acute appendicitis operated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most frequent infectious surgical abdominal emergency and previous studies have noted the presence of parasites in the appendicular lumen. Objective: This study was done to determine the involvement of intestinal worms in the etiology of acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: ...

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes of Dogs That Have Been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitological investigation of dogs disposed off in non-descript abattoirs was carried out in two communities (Basawa and Angwagodo) in Zaria. Intestines from seventy (70) adult dogs were collected, and standard procedures were followed to determine their parasite loads. A total of sixty-three dogs (90.00%) were ...

  7. Immunity against helminths: interactions with the host and the intercurrent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Emmanuelle; Chauvin, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Helminth parasites are of considerable medical and economic importance. Studies of the immune response against helminths are of great interest in understanding interactions between the host immune system and parasites. Effector immune mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  8. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  9. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations.

  10. Parasitic helminths and HIV-1 infection: the effect of immunomodulatory antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, E.E.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In many regions of the world co-infection with parasitic helminths and HIV-1 is common. Both pathogens have major implications for the host immune system, helminths possess immunomodulatory properties whilst HIV-1 infects and kills immune cells. Currently very little is known regarding what effects

  11. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHODS......: A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized...... to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. RESULTS: Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly...

  12. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Brennan, Bradley; Yakob, Laith; Milinovich, Gabriel; Clements, Archie C A; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J

    2017-01-10

    Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. We put forward the hypothesis that gastrointestinal infections with parasitic worms, such as helminths, induce an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, which, in turn, can detrimentally manifest in brain development. Factors supporting this hypothesis are: 1) research focusing on intelligence and school performance in school-aged children has shown helminth infections to be associated with cognitive impairment, 2) disturbances in gut microbiota have been shown to be associated with important cognitive developmental effects, and 3) helminth infections have been shown to alter the gut microbiota structure. Evidence on the complex interactions between extrinsic (parasite) and intrinsic (host-derived) factors has been synthesised and discussed. While evidence in favour of the helminth-gut microbiota-central nervous system hypothesis is circumstantial, it would be unwise to rule it out as a possible mechanism by which gastrointestinal helminth infections induce childhood cognitive morbidity. Further empirical studies are necessary to test an indirect effect of helminth infections on the modulation of mood and behaviour through its effects on the gut microbiota.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPIs due to intestinal protozoa and helminths are re- sponsible for some of the most devastating and preva- lent diseases of humans, i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, collectively referred to as soil- transmitted helminths (STHs), and are the most common intestinal parasites4; while Giardia ...

  14. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particu...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  15. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Divina Barda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania. Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear, whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  16. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  17. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  18. Toxoplasma Co-infection Prevents Th2 Differentiation and Leads to a Helminth-Specific Th1 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norus Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii infection elicits a strong and protective Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG2a antibodies. Co-infected animals displayed significantly higher worm fecundity although worm burden remained unchanged. In line with this, the Th2 response to H. polygyrus in co-infected animals showed a profound reduction of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GATA-3 expressing T cells. Co-infection also resulted in the lack of eosinophilia and reduced expression of the Th2 effector molecule RELM-β in intestinal tissue. In contrast, the Th1 response to the protozoan parasite was not diminished and parasitemia of T. gondii was unaffected by concurrent helminth infection. Importantly, H. polygyrus specific restimulation of splenocytes revealed H. polygyrus-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce a significant amount of IFN-γ in co-infected animals. This was not observed in animals infected with the nematode alone. Increased levels of H. polygyrus-specific IgG2a antibodies in co-infected mice mirrored this finding. This study suggests that polarization rather than priming of naive CD4+ T cells is disturbed in mice previously infected with T. gondii. In conclusion, a previous T. gondii infection limits a helminth-specific Th2 immune response while promoting a shift toward a Th1-type immune response.

  19. Intestinal Helminthes amongst the Hausa and Fulani Settlers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that poor hygienic practices and unsanitary conditions were responsible for the high prevalence recorded in the area and advocated health education through primary health care as a control measure. Keywords: Fulani herdsmen, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, combined infection rate, polyparasitism

  20. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  1. Prevalence of helminth infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L) in a fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasitic infection rates of cultured Oreochromis niloticus in Rock Water Fish Farm; Jos was surveyed for five months (July–November 1996). A total of 250 Oreochromis niloticus were randomly caught from the earthen ponds. The fish were examined for helminth parasites. Three species of helminthes comprising two ...

  2. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  3. Immunological mechanisms by which concomitant helminth infections predispose to the development of human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Helminthic infections afflict over 1.5 billion people worldwide, while Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one third of the world's population, resulting in 2 million deaths per year. Although tuberculosis and helminthic infections coexist in many parts of the world, and it has been demonstrated that the T-helper 2 and T-regulatory cell responses elicited by helminths can affect the ability of the host to control mycobacterial infection, it is still unclear whether helminth infections in fact affect tuberculosis disease. In this review article, current progress in the knowledge about the immunomodulation induced by helminths to diminish the protective immune responses to bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination is reviewed, and the knowledge about the types of immune responses modulated by helminths and the consequences for tuberculosis are summarized. In addition, recent data supporting the significant reduction of both M. tuberculosis antigen-specific Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 expression, and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to TLR2 and TLR9 ligands in individuals with M. tuberculosis and helminth co-infection were discussed. This examination will allow to improve understanding of the immune responses to mycobacterial infection and also be of great relevance in combating human tuberculosis.

  4. Parasitic infections and immune function : Effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, Anna G.C.; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J.; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Eriksson, Ulrika K.

    According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential

  5. Interleukin 4 promotes the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells during immunity to intestinal helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Stephanie M.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Czieso, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex–T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity. Using multigene reporter and fate-reporter systems, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of Th2 cells derive from Foxp3+ cells after Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection and airway allergy. Ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells exhibit characteristic Th2 effector functions and provide immunity to H. polygyrus. Through selective deletion of Il4ra on Foxp3+ cells, we further demonstrate IL-4 is required for the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that converting T reg cells into Th2 cells could concomitantly enhance Th2 cells and limit T reg cell–mediated suppression. PMID:28507062

  6. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2004-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

  9. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

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    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  10. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, B.; Campos Ponce, M.; van de Bor, M.; Doak, C.M.; Polman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. Objective: We aimed to systematically review

  11. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly L. Lynsdale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC. To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores.

  12. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    OpenAIRE

    Guernier, V; Brennan, B; Yakob, L; Milinovich, G; Clements, AC; Soares Magalhaes, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Background Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. Discuss...

  13. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

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    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  14. Gastro-intestinal helminths of goliath frogs (Conraua goliath from the localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock in the Littoral Region of Cameroon

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    Nguiffo Nguete Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of goliath frog (Conraua goliath from the Littoral Region of Cameroon in the Localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock were surveyed. Out of the 30 goliath frogs examined (13 males and 17 females between April and May 2013, 26 (85% contained at least one helminth parasite and yielded a total of nine hundred and seventy three (973 helminths comprising: Nematodes (90.5%, Trematodes (9.4% and Pentastomids (0.1%. Nematodes included: Africana taylori (60%, Oswaldocruzia perreti (0.2%, Aplectana sp. (21%, Gendria sp. (7.1%, Amphibiophilus sp. (0.2%, Strongyluris sp. (0.1%, Physalopteroides sp. (1.6%, and Oxyuridae gen. sp. (0.3%. Trematodes comprised: Mesocoelium sp. (7.3% and Diplodiscus subclavatus (2.1%. Pentastomids were represented by Sebekia sp. (0.1%. The mean species richness and diversity were 1.97±2.12 and 0.41±0.04 respectively. The intensity of parasite infection was correlated with host body weight, positively for Africana taylori, Aplectana sp., Diplodiscus subclavatus, and Mesocoeliumsp. Infection rates were influenced by land-use pattern. Thus higher prevalences were observed in Loum (intensive agricultural area.

  15. Polyparasite helminth infections and their association to anaemia and undernutrition in Northern Rwanda.

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    Denise Mupfasoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections constitute major public health problems in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we examined the functional significance of such polyparasite infections in anemia and undernutrition in Rwandan individuals. METHODS: Three polyparasite infection profiles were defined, in addition to a reference profile that consisted of either no infections or low-intensity infection with only one of the focal parasite species. Logistic regression models were applied to data of 1,605 individuals from 6 schools in 2 districts of the Northern Province before chemotherapeutic treatment in order to correctly identify individuals who were at higher odds of being anaemic and/or undernourished. FINDINGS: Stunted relative to nonstunted, and males compared to females, were found to be at higher odds of being anaemic independently of polyparasite infection profile. The odds of being wasted were 2-fold greater for children with concurrent infection of at least 2 parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Males compared to females and anaemic compared to nonanaemic children were significantly more likely to be stunted. None of the three polyparasite infection profiles were found to have significant effects on stunting. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that the levels of polyparasitism, and infection intensities in the Rwandan individuals examined here may be lower as compared to other recent similar epidemiological studies in different regions across sub-Saharan Africa. Neither the odds of anaemia nor the odds of stunting were found to be significantly different in the three-polyparasite infection profiles. However, the odds of wasting were higher in those children with at least two parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Nevertheless, despite the low morbidity levels indicated in the population under

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed.

  17. The effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to tuberculosis.

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    Dawit Gebreegziabiher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB infections using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT tests, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot on Cord blood Mononuclear Cells, and total IgE and TB specific IgG ELISA on cord blood plasma was performed to investigate the possible effect of maternal helminth and/or latent TB co-infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. RESULT: The prevalence of helminth infections in pregnant women was 27% (n = 23, with Schistosoma mansoni the most common helminth species observed (20% of women were infected. Among the total of 85 study participants 25.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 17% had an indeterminate result. The mean total IgE value of cord blood was significantly higher in helminth positive than negative women (0.76 vs 0.47, p = 0.042. Cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG was significantly higher in helminth positive (21.9 ± 7.9 than negative (12.3 ± 5.1, p = 0.002 Latent TB Infection positive participants. The IFN-γ response of CBMCs to ESAT-6/CFP-10 cocktail (50 vs 116, p = 0.018 and PPD (58 vs 123, p = 0.02 was significantly lower in helminth positive than negative participants. There was no significant difference in IL-4 response of CBMCs between helminth negative and positive participants. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal helminth infection had a significant association with the IFN-γ response of CBMCs, total IgE and cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the effect of these

  18. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

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    Emmanuelle Moreau

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  19. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  20. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (STH infection and exposure to MI, with implications for public health research and interventions.

  1. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

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    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  2. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax . All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  3. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

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    Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection.A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood, and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae.Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1% patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5% patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021.We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of

  4. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  5. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick William Woodburn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes.To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy.The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression.There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities.Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  7. Chronic helminth infection promotes immune regulation in vivo through dominance of CD11cloCD103− dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine A.; Hochweller, Kristin; Hämmerling, Günter J.; Boon, Louis; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminth infections are extremely prevalent in many human populations, and are associated with down-modulated immune responsiveness. In the experimental model system of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a chronic infection establishes in mice, accompanied by a modulated Th2 response and increased regulatory T cell activity. To determine if DC populations in the lymph nodes draining the intestine are responsible for the regulatory effects of chronic infection, we first identified a population of CD11clo non-plasmacytoid DCs which expand following chronic H. polygyrus infection. The CD11clo DCs are under-represented in magnetic bead-sorted preparations, and spared from deletion in CD11c-DTR mice. Following infection, CD11clo DCs did not express CD8, CD103, PDCA, or Siglec H and were poorly responsive to TLR stimuli. In DC:T cell co-cultures, CD11clo DCs from naïve and H. polygyrus-infected mice could process and present protein antigen, but induced lower levels of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and effector cytokine production, and generated higher percentages of Foxp3+ T cells in the presence of TGF-β. Treg generation was also dependent on retinoic acid receptor signaling. In vivo, depletion of CD11chi DCs further favored the dominance of the CD11clo DC phenotype. Following CD11chi DC depletion, effector responses were dramatically inhibited but the expansion in regulatory T cell numbers following H. polygyrus infection barely compromised, showing a significantly higher regulatory:effector CD4+ T cell ratio compared to CD11chi DC-intact animals. Thus, the pro-regulatory environment of chronic intestinal helminth infection is associated with the in vivo predominance of a newly defined phenotype of CD11clo tolerogenic DCs. PMID:21576507

  8. Occurrence of helminths and coccidia in apparently healthy free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smears of intestinal scrapings were examined under light microscope to detect coccidia oocysts. Two hundred and twenty chickens (87.3%) were infested with helminth species, whereas 28 birds (11.1%) were infected with coccidia. Twenty five birds (9.9%) had conjoint infestations with helminth and coccidia. In the present ...

  9. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden...

  10. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayan, M; Zongo, D; Oueda, A; Sorgho, H; Savadogo, B; Drabo, F; Ouedraogo, A; Poda, J N; Kabre, B G; Zhang, Y

    2016-08-01

    To determine the current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among schoolchildren after 10 years of mass treatment with praziquantel. Parasitological surveys were conducted in 2013 in 22 primary schools located in 11 regions of Burkina Faso. Urine filtration methods and Kato-Katz techniques for stool were used to detect the eggs of Schistosoma hæmatobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and STH. 3514 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 11 (1.415 ± 9) years participated in the study. The prevalence of S. hæmatobium was 8.1% and of S. mansoni, 1.2%. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis ranged from 0.6% to 26.2% and that of urinary schistosomiasis from 0.6% to 56.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was 1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides 0.1%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.06%. The arithmetic mean of S. hæmatobium and S. mansoni were respectively 6 eggs/10 mL and 1.07 epg (eggs per gram). The arithmetic means of eggs were 0.07 epg, 0.03 epg, and 1.89 epg respectively for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and Ankylostoma spp. This study shows the current situation for schistosomiasis and STH infections in different regions of Burkina Faso. Elimination of this parasitic disease requires the inclusion of other control methods, in addition to mass treatment.

  11. Social science implications for control of helminth infections in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, Lisa M; Jia, Tie-Wu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Social science perspectives can inform helminth disease control in Southeast Asia. The social science literature offers theoretical and conceptual models; research methods; recommendations for training and capacity building, health education and health care professional training; and practice guidelines, including implementation of evidence-based interventions. Priority themes include poverty, gender differences, health inequities and access to social resources. Implications for helminth control include broadening disease monitoring and surveillance to include social and economic variables and subjective measures of well-being; training for health professionals and researchers in the social determinants of health; and application of social science models, specifically the expanded 'Chronic Care Model', to the planning and evaluation of interventions. The chapter posits that helminth diseases meet the World Health Organization's expanded definition of chronic conditions, and that integrated delivery of multiple interventions is needed to address the full range of risks and outcomes due to helminth infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon Mok; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

  13. How common is intestinal parasitism in HIV-infected patients in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, I; Johari, S; Sim, Benedict L H; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2011-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have greater susceptibility to infections by a myriad of microorganisms which can cause significant morbidity and mortality compared to immunocompetent individuals. Of these microbial infections, intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) however are receiving less attention than bacterial and viral infections, hence, the lack of information of parasitic infections in HIV individuals. Prevalence of IPIs among 346 HIV-infected individuals in Malaysia was determined in this study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 37.9% (131 of 346) with protozoa infections (18.8%) being more common compared to helminth infections (7.5%). Observed protozoa include Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.8%), Cryptosporidium parvum (12.4%), Isospora belli (10.1%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.9%) and Giardia duodenalis (intestinalis) (3.2%) whilst helminthes which were detected comprised of Ascaris lumbricoides (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%) and hookworms (0.6%). Among those 131 infected, 50.4% had multiple infections and 48.9% had single parasitic infection. The CD4 counts were significantly lower (i.e., 200 cells/mm³) in patients harbouring IPIs. Of those individuals infected with intestinal parasites, 49% were intravenous drug users and 58% were not on any antiretroviral therapy. Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These results confirmed that IPIs are ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, especially those presenting with low CD4 T cells counts, and provide useful insights into the epidemiology of these infections among HIV-infected patients in Malaysia. It is therefore recommended, that diagnosis of these intestinal parasitic pathogens should be conducted on a routine basis for better management of gastrointestinal illnesses among HIV individuals.

  14. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  15. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Gelaw, Aschalew

    2012-01-01

    Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls....

  16. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  17. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  18. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchi ldren in Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisit Suntaravitun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in rural areas from Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2017 among 203 schoolchildren in four rural schools using purposive sampling. All stool samples were examined using simple direct smear method and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 14.8% (30/203. Seven intestinal parasite species (two helminths and five protozoa were identified in the stool samples. The most common intestinal protozoa in schoolchildren was Giardia intestinalis (n = 11, 5.4% followed by Blastocystis hominis (n = 9, 4.4%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (n = 5, 2.5%, Entamoeba coli (n = 2, 1.0% and Endolimax nana (n = 1, 0.5%. Hookworm (n = 1, 0.5% and Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1, 0.5% were the most frequent helminths. No significant statistical differences in the prevalence rates of infections were observed by gender, age and school location (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in rural areas of Thailand. Therefore, health education and environmental sanitation improvement are recommended as preventive control measures.

  19. Comparison of parasitic helminth infection between the different age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Acanthocephala of domestic and wild animals. Israel program for scientific Translation Ltd. IPST Cat. No. 5901. Reed W, Burchan J, Hopson AJ, Jennes J, Yaro I (1967). Fish and fisheries of Northern Nigeria. Publ. M.A.N.R. p.22. Roberts RJ (1978). Fish Pathology. Bailliere. London. p.318. Soulsby ELJ (1982). Helminths ...

  20. Helminthic Infections in School Children in Aba | Mba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the degree of this public health nuisance, fresh stool samples from randomly selected school children aged between 5 and 16 years were examined with the microscopes for the common helminthes: Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris Trichuria. Haemoglobin estimation was done on each subject who ...

  1. Epidemiology of parasitism and poly-parasitism involving intestinal helminths among school children from different residential settings in Nandi County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Ruto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal helminthiases present a major public health problem worldwide. In Africa, the prevalence varies in countries and within regions. The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of parasitism and poly-parasitism due to intestinal helminths in rural and urban settings. Settings and Design: A 6-month cross-sectional school-based study was undertaken in Nandi County, Kenya, to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases in school children. Materials and Methods: A total of 2967 fecal samples were collected and analyzed to detect the presence of helminth ova, larvae, segments, or adults. Modified formal-ether concentration technique was used. Results: The study findings revealed that three helminth species were prevalent and were associated with intestinal helminthiases with an overall prevalence of ascariasis 55.8%, trichuriasis 26.9%, and hookworm disease 24.8%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal helminth single infestations among the study sites and between sexes (P > 0.05. The prevalence of multiple infestations was established as 34.7% and was common in estates and villages (40-50% than in towns (18%. Poly-parasitism involving 2-3 helminths was prevalent in 8.4-25.4% than those with 4-5 species of 0.07-0.7%. A statistically significant difference among the different types of poly-helminthic infestations was established (P 0.05. Conclusion: The study confirmed that single and multiple helminth intestinal infestations were prevalent in rural and urban areas. Residential area was found not to be associated with multiple parasitism. The findings support the view that intestinal helminthiases require intervention. Recommendation: Strategic intervention in the form of mass diagnosis and treatment by the use of effective broad spectrum anthelmintic(s and public health education are recommended.

  2. Granulocytes: effector cells or immunomodulators in the immune response to helminth infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, E T; Lawrence, R A

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytes are effector cells in defence against helminth infections. We review the current evidence for the role of granulocytes in protective immunity against different helminth infections and note that for each parasite species the role of granulocytes as effector cells can vary. Emerging evidence also points to granulocytes as immunomodulatory cells able to produce many cytokines, chemokines and modulatory factors which can bias the immune response in a particular direction. Thus, the role of granulocytes in an immunomodulatory context is discussed including the most recent data that points to an important role for basophils under this guise.

  3. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1-89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7-70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3-36.6%), 29.4% (25-31%) and 3.1% (1.8-5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1-18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  5. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  6. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Hosseini-Teshnizi, Saeed; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mizani, Azadeh; Gholami, Sara; Sharif, Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Parasitic infections are a serious public health problem because they cause anemia, growth retardation, aggression, weight loss, and other physical and mental health problems, especially in children. Numerous studies have been performed on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children. However, no study has gathered and analyzed this information systematically. The aim of this study was to provide summary estimates for the available data on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian children. We searched 9 English and Persian databases, unpublished data, abstracts of scientific congresses during 1996-2015 using the terms intestinal parasite, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Enterobiusvermicularis, oxyure, school, children, preschool, and Iran. We conducted meta-analysis using STATA, and for all statistical tests, p-value less than 0.05was considered significant. Among the 68,532 publications searched as a result, 103 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 38% (95% CI- 33%, 43%). Prevalence of protozoa, helminthic intestinal infections, and non-pathogenic parasites was 16.9%, 9.48%, and 18.5%, respectively, which affected 14.27% males and 15.3% females. The rate of infection in preschool and school children was 38.19% and 43.37% respectively. Giardia, Enterobiusvermicularis and Entamoeba coli were the most common among protozoa, helminthic, and non-pathogenic infections (15.1%, 16.5%, and 7.1%, respectively). The data analyses indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is decreasing in Iranian preschool and school children. Improvement of sanitation, personal hygiene, increased awareness of people, seasonal variations, and health education can be effective in reducing parasitic infections in different communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The importance of patient compliance in repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) for the elimination of intestinal helminth transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sam H; Truscott, James E; Anderson, Roy M

    2017-06-12

    Systematic non-compliance to chemotherapeutic treatment among a portion of the eligible population is thought to be a major obstacle to the elimination of helminth infections by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA for helminths is repeated at defined intervals such as yearly or every 2 years, as a consequence of the inability of the human host to develop fully protective immunity to reinfection. As such, how an individual complies to these repeated rounds of MDA can have a significant impact on parasite transmission. The importance of this factor is poorly understood at present. Few epidemiological studies have examined longitudinal trends in compliance in the many communities in areas of endemic helminth infection that are undergoing MDA. Reducing systematic non-compliance will obviously increase the number of individuals treated, but it may also alter the dynamics of parasite transmission. Here we develop an individual-based stochastic model of helminth transmission and MDA treatment to investigate how different patterns of compliance influence the impact of MDA for two groups of helminths, the soil transmitted nematode infections and the schistosome parasites. We study the effect of several alternative treatment and compliance patterns on the dynamics of transmission. We find that the impact of different compliance patterns, ranging from random treatment at each round of chemotherapy to systematic non-compliance by a proportion of the population, is very dependent on both transmission intensity in a defined setting and the type of infection that the treatment is targeted at. Systematic non-compliance has a greater impact on the potential for elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by intensive MDA, than it does on Ascaris lumbricoides. We discuss the implications of our findings for the prioritisation of resources in MDA programmes and for monitoring and evaluation programme design. The key message generated by the analyses is that great care must be

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  10. Intestinal helminths of freshwater stingrays in southeastern Peru, and a new genus and two new species of cestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyda, Florian B

    2008-06-01

    Helminths of the spiral intestine of neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) were examined in Peru for the first time. The stingrays examined for helminths included Paratrygon aiereba, Potamotrygon motoro, and Potamotrygon cf. castexi. Present in P. aiereba were the cestodes Nandocestus guariticus (Marques, Brooks, and Lasso, 2001) n. gen. n. comb., Rhinebothrium copianullum n. sp., Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp., Potamotrygonocestus cf. fitzgeraldae, and 1 species each of Cucullanus and Rhabdochona. Nandocestus n. gen. is erected to house N. guariticus, which is formally transferred from Anindobothrium Marques, Brooks, and Lasso, 2001. The new genus is unique among phyllobothriids in its possession of circummedullary vitelline follicles and a submarginal genital pore, in combination with bothridia with a single apical sucker and marginal bothridial loculi. The helminths of P. motoro included the cestodes Paraoncomegas araya, Acanthobothrium peruviense n. sp., Acanthobothrium cf. ramiroi, Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp. 1, Potamotrygonocestus sp., the nematode Brevimulticaecum regoi, a species of Cucullanus, and a species of the digenean superfamily Diplostomoidea. The helminths of P. cf. castexi included the cestodes P. araya, N. guariticus n. gen. n. comb., Acanthobothrium cf. peruviense, Potamotrygonocestus sp., Rhinebothrium sp. 1, Rhinebothroides sp. 2, the nematode species Echinocephalus daileyi and B. regoi, 1 species each of Cucullanus, Rhabdochona, and Procamallanus, and a species of the digenean superfamily Hemiuroidea. All taxa were examined via light microscopy; the cestode taxa were also examined using scanning electron microscopy. Each helminth species recorded in this study is a first report from Peru. The study suggests that the diversity and host specificity of the cestodes in potamotrygonid stingrays may be greater than previously thought. The known numbers of genera and species of tetraphyllidean cestodes

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  13. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar  belakang:  Infeksi  cacing  usus  yang  ditularkan melalui tanah  (Soil  Transmitted  Helminth-STH merupakan infeksi tersering dan terbanyak di antara infeksi-infeksi parasit. Kunci pemberantasan kecacingan adalah memperbaiki higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang meningkatkan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar (SD.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan sampel purposif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di  suatu SD di  wilayah kerja  Puskesmas  di Yogyakarta  pada  bulan Oktober  sampai Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan survei tinja dan wawancara. Pemeriksaan tinja menggunakan metode Kato Katz dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil:  Di antara  211  subjek,  52  (24,6%  murid  mengidap cacingan dan  yang  terbanyak  adalah  Trichusis trihiura, sedangkan cacingan  Ascaris  lumbricoides,  sedangkan infeksi campuran Trichuris  trichiura  dan Hookworm sangat jarang. Risiko tertinggi (2,8 kali lipat terjadi di antara murid yang mempuyai kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari dibandngkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai kebiasan ini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 2,80; 95% interval kepercayaan  (CI = 1,22-4,04]. Subjek yang tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan atau tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun setelah buang air besar mempunyai risiko 2,2 kali terhadap terinfeksi cacingan.Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari, tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan dan tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun  setelah buang  air  besar mempertinggi  risiko infeksi cacingan.  (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6.AbstractBackground: Intestinal worm infections transmitted through the soil are the most common infection among parasitic infections. The key to worm eradication is to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. This study aimed to identify several risk factors related to occurrence of Soil

  14. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  16. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

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    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  17. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren : A study in Cuba and Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M.; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on

  18. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S.D.; Vereecken, K.; van der Laan, K.; Campos Ponce, M.; Junco Diaz, R.; Nunez, F.A.; Rojas Rivero, L.; Bonet Gorbea, M.; Polman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Methods: We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and

  19. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the

  20. Neither primary nor memory immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is compromised in mice with chronic enteric helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Wasiulla; Bhatt, Kamlesh; Gause, William C; Salgame, Padmini

    2015-03-01

    Previously we had reported that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a helminth with a lung migratory phase, affected host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through the induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Several helminth species do not have an obligatory lung migratory phase but establish chronic infections in the host that include potent immune downregulatory effects, in part mediated through induction of a FoxP3(+) T regulatory cell (Treg) response. Treg cells exhibit duality in their functions in host defense against M. tuberculosis infection since their depletion leads to enhanced priming of T cells in the lymph nodes and attendant improved control of M. tuberculosis infection, while their presence in the lung granuloma protects against excessive inflammation. Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a strictly murine enteric nematode that induces a strong FoxP3 Treg response in the host. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether host immunity to M. tuberculosis infection would be modulated in mice with chronic H. polygyrus infection. We report that neither primary nor memory immunity conferred by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination was affected in mice with chronic enteric helminth infection, despite a systemic increase in FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. The findings indicate that anti-M. tuberculosis immunity is not similarly affected by all helminth species and highlight the need to consider this inequality in human coinfection studies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  2. Helminth Infection Increases the Probability of Indeterminate QuantiFERON Gold in Tube Results in Pregnant Women

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    Dawit Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis and helminths (Kariminia et al. (2009, Walson et al. (2010. Pregnancy and Helminth infection are known to suppress the TH1 response (Kariminia et al. (2009, Elias et al. (2006 on which the QuantiFERON Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT assay, that measures the released IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with mycobacterial antigens, relies on (Thomas et al. (2010. Objective. To determine whether QFT-GIT indeterminate result is significantly associated with helminth infection or not. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, eighty-five pregnant mothers were screened for parasitic and LTBI using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT test-respectively, Result. The prevalence of helminth infection in pregnant mothers was 23 (27% of this 17 (20% was due to Schistosoma mansoni. Among the total of 85 study participants 26.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 14 (17% had indeterminate results. Three samples (21.4% were randomly selected from the indeterminate QFT-GIT results and retested to check the reproducibility of the assay and remained indeterminate. QFT-GIT indeterminate result showed significant association with helminth infection. Conclusion. Helminth infections were significantly associated with indeterminate QFT-GIT results in pregnant mothers. Therefore further study is important to evaluate the possible effect of helminth infection by excluding the effect of pregnancy, as pregnancy also downregulates cellular immunity.

  3. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  5. Relationship between Different Species of Helminths and Atopy: A Study in a Population Living in Helminth-Endemic Area in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supali, Taniawati; Djuardi, Yenny; Wibowo, Heri; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Sartono, Erliyani

    2010-01-01

    Background: The association between allergen skin sensitization and helminth infection has been debated for years. Here, we sought to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization of residents living in area endemic for lymphatic filariasis and intestinal helminths and to investigate the

  6. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

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    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  7. Gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of fish species in Qua Iboe River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal helminth parasites recovered were Amphibiophilus acanthociratus, Rondonia rondoni, Cosmoynemoides aguirrei, Tachygonetria sp, Goezia spinulosa, Buckleynema sp, Metaquimperia sp, Camallanus sp, Procamallanus laevichonchus, Proleptus sp, Bancroftinema dentatum, Cystidicola farioni,, ...

  8. Helminth infection is associated with hen mortality in Danish organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two highly prevalent helminth infections (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis species) are associated with an increased mortality rate for hens at the peak of lay. An observational event study with 11 farms was conducted between 2012 and 2013, with weekly...... that the mortality in organic egg production may be reduced by measures to control A galli and Heterakis species infections....

  9. Interleukin-4 activated macrophages mediate immunity to filarial helminth infection by sustaining CCR3-dependent eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph D; Pionnier, Nicolas; Furlong-Silva, Julio; Sjoberg, Hanna; Cross, Stephen; Halliday, Alice; Guimaraes, Ana F; Cook, Darren A N; Steven, Andrew; Van Rooijen, Nico; Allen, Judith E; Jenkins, Stephen J; Taylor, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection. Post-infection, peritoneal Mϕ populations proliferated and became alternatively-activated (AAMϕ). Filarial AAMϕ development required adaptive immunity and interleukin-4 receptor-alpha. Depletion of Mϕ prior to infection suppressed eosinophilia and facilitated worm survival. Add back of filarial AAMϕ in Mϕ-depleted mice recapitulated a vigorous eosinophilia. Transfer of filarial AAMϕ into Severe-Combined Immune Deficient mice mediated immunological resistance in an eosinophil-dependent manner. Exogenous IL-4 delivery recapitulated tissue AAMϕ expansions, sustained eosinophilia and mediated immunological resistance in Mϕ-intact SCID mice. Co-culturing Brugia with filarial AAMϕ and/or filarial-recruited eosinophils confirmed eosinophils as the larvicidal cell type. Our data demonstrates that IL-4/IL-4Rα activated AAMϕ orchestrate eosinophil immunity to filarial tissue helminth infection.

  10. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  11. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  12. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Obala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797 was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%, but this was not significant (χ2=0.482, P>0.05. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797 and 11.2% (89/797, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797, 3.8% (30/797, and 0.13% (1/797 for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  13. Recent Advances in Type-2-Cell-Mediated Immunity: Insights from Helminth Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicola L; Loke, P'ng

    2017-12-19

    Type-2-cell-mediated immune responses play a critical role in mediating both host-resistance and disease-tolerance mechanisms during helminth infections. Recently, type 2 cell responses have emerged as major regulators of tissue repair and metabolic homeostasis even under steady-state conditions. In this review, we consider how studies of helminth infection have contributed toward our expanding cellular and molecular understanding of type-2-cell-mediated immunity, as well as new areas such as the microbiome. By studying how these successful parasites form chronic infections without overt pathology, we are gaining additional insights into allergic and inflammatory diseases, as well as normal physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in urban and indigenous schoolchildren in Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brasil: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, C; Torti, C; Beltrame, A; Matteelli, A; Castelli, F; Gulletta, M; Ribas, M; Morana, S; Urbani, C

    2000-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem in poor and developing countries. During the period September-October 1998 we conducted an epidemiological survey of STH infections in schoolchildren of an urban area (group A) and an indigenous reserve (group B), in the Municipality of Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brazil, to assess potential benefits of mass treatment. Stool samples were examined for helminth eggs by quantitative (Kato-Katz) technique to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infection. Moreover, we examined the relationship between prevalence and intensity of STH infections and housing/hygienic factors (by means of a 7-item questionnaire). 236 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years were enrolled, 136 in group A and 100 in group B. The prevalence of STH infections was significantly higher in group B (93%) than in group A (22%) (P STH infections and prevalence of high-intensity infections with most housing/hygienic variables. On the basis of these results, mass treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the indigenous community, whereas target treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the urban community. Even in a geographically homogeneous area different epidemiological realities can be found, which in turn can influence infection levels and control programmes.

  15. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  16. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  17. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host–helminth and host–microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota–helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth–microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth–microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24–7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth–microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661

  18. Malaria, helminths, co-infection and anaemia in a cohort of children from Mutengene, south western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njua-Yafi, Clarisse; Achidi, Eric A; Anchang-Kimbi, Judith K; Apinjoh, Tobias O; Mugri, Regina N; Chi, Hanesh F; Tata, Rolland B; Njumkeng, Charles; Nkock, Emmanuel N; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2016-02-06

    Malaria and helminthiases frequently co-infect the same individuals in endemic zones. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth infections have long been recognized as major contributors to anaemia in endemic countries. Several studies have explored the influence of helminth infections on the course of malaria in humans but how these parasites interact within co-infected individuals remains controversial. In a community-based longitudinal study from March 2011 to February 2012, the clinical and malaria parasitaemia status of a cohort of 357 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in Mutengene, south-western region of Cameroon, was monitored. Following the determination of baseline malaria/helminths status and haemoglobin levels, the incidence of malaria and anaemia status was determined in a 12 months longitudinal study by both active and passive case detection. Among all the children who completed the study, 32.5 % (116/357) of them had at least one malaria episode. The mean (±SEM) number of malaria attacks per year was 1.44 ± 0.062 (range: 1-4 episodes) with the highest incidence of episodes occuring during the rainy season months of March-October. Children co-infected with Plasmodium and helminths was higher (p = 0.006) compared to participants infected with Plasmodium or helminths alone. Children below 5 years of age were more susceptible to malaria and anaemia. The high prevalence of anaemia in this community was largely due to malaria parasitaemia. Malaria and helminths co-infection was protective against anaemia.

  19. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host-helminth and host-microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota-helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection ...

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  2. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  3. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  4. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Prasetyani, Margaretta A; Dekkers, Olaf M; May, Linda; Kaisar, Maria M M; Verweij, Jaco J; Guigas, Bruno; Partono, Felix; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smit, Johannes W A

    2015-01-01

    Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections. From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L), insulin (pmol/L), high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml) and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml). The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance. 424 (66%) participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03) and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05). In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01). This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07). STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  5. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  6. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...

  7. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Nausch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.

  8. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  9. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health.

  10. Intestinal helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland, with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthijaree, K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2017-12-01

    1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths. 3. In faeces, FEC values averaged 258 eggs per g of faeces, which were dominated by Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Mean FOC was 80 oocysts/g. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least one nematode species was found in 99.3% of the examined hens. H. gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (95.7%), followed by Capillaria spp. (66.8%) and A. galli (63.6%). Thirty per cent of the chickens were infected with cestodes (tapeworms). Correlation coefficients between worm counts of H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli ranged from 0.41 to 0.51. 5. The helminth prevalence did not differ between conventional and organic farms, whereas total worm burden was higher in organic compared with conventional farms (318.9 vs. 112.0). Prevalence and infection intensity did not differ between farms that used anthelmintic treatments and those that did not. 6. In conclusion, free-range laying hens under the studied mountain farming conditions are at high risk of nematode infection, especially in organic systems. The vast majority of hens are subclinical infected with at least one helminth species.

  12. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing

  13. Blood Values of Some Helminth-Infected Aquacultured Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie Lopez

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils were the principal blood cell types found in the blood of Clarias batrachus, Ophicephalus striatus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Eosinophils and basophils were observed in Ophicephalus striatus but were absent in Clarias batrachus. Eosinophils but no basophils were seen in Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Along with mature erythrocytes, immature, dividing, senile, and disintegrated erythrocytes were also observed from the circulating blood of the four fish species.From Clarias batrachus, eight species of helminths were recovered, namely, Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Actinocleidus sp., Phyllodistomum sp., Opegaster minima, Gauhatiana batrachii, Bovienia serialis, Procamallanus darius, and Philometra sp. The parasites recovered from Ophicephalus striatus were Diplostomulum sp., Camallanus ophicephali, Arqulus indicus, and Lernaea cyprinacea. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Transversotrema laruei were collected from Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus; from the latter, Gyrodactylus medius was also recovered. The average parasite burden was generally low.Parasitized and unparasitized fishes were active and appeared healthy. Blood values of parasitized fishes showed few significant differences from those of unparasitized fish groups. No parasitized fish group showed significant reduction in mean hematocrit and RBC count or significant increase in mean WBC count and mean % neutrophils in comparison with unparasitized group of the same fish species.

  14. Helminths, in Infectious Diseases 4th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminths are the most common parasites infecting humans. While the world population numbers approximately 6 billion, there are probably a similar number of helminthes infections occurring in humans. Helminths are transmitted to humans through food, water, soil, and by arthropo...

  15. Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampongcham, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Bae, Yong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Hun-Joo; Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2002-09-01

    A survey was made to find the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Kampongcham, Cambodia in February 2002. A total of 251 fecal specimens were collected from Tonlebat primary school children and examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 54.2% (males, 57.3%; females, 50.8%). The infection rate of intestinal helminths by the species were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 26.3%, Echinostoma sp. 15.6%, hookworm 6.4%, Opisthorchis sp. 4.0%, Rhabditis sp. 2.4%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.4%. The infection rate of intestinal protozoa were as follows: E. coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples. All the children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel and metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in this area.

  16. Helminth infections, allergic disorders and immune responses : studies in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Sitti

    2006-01-01

    The studies present in this thesis fall into two broad areas: the first focusing on filarial infection, Ig (immunoglobulin)E levels and risk factors for infection, while the second deals with the possible associations between nematode infection and allergy. Compared to ELISA, RAST is superior in

  17. Lessons from helminth infections: ES-62 highlights new interventional approaches in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M A; Al-Riyami, L; Harnett, W; Harnett, M M

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic worms are able to survive in their mammalian host for many years due to their ability to manipulate the immune response by secreting immunomodulatory products. It is increasingly clear that, reflecting the anti-inflammatory actions of such worm-derived immunomodulators, there is an inverse correlation between helminth infection and autoimmune diseases in the developing world. As the decrease in helminth infections due to increased sanitation has correlated with an alarming increase in prevalence of such disorders in industrialized countries, this 'hygiene hypothesis' has led to the proposal that worms and their secreted products offer a novel platform for the development of safe and effective strategies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. In this study we review the anti-inflammatory effects of one such immunomodulator, ES-62 on innate and adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms it exploits to afford protection in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As its core mechanism involves targeting of interleukin (IL)-17 responses, which despite being pathogenic in RA are important for combating infection, we discuss how its selective targeting of IL-17 production by T helper type 17 (Th17) and γδ T cells, while leaving that of CD49b(+) natural killer (NK and NK T) cells intact, reflects the ability of helminths to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host. Exploiting helminth immunomodulatory mechanisms therefore offers the potential for safer therapies than current biologicals, such as 'IL-17 blockers', that are not able to discriminate sources of IL-17 and hence present adverse effects that limit their therapeutic potential. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

  18. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  19. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  20. Coinfection. Virus-helminth coinfection reveals a microbiota-independent mechanism of immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa C; Monticelli, Laurel A; Nice, Timothy J; Sutherland, Tara E; Siracusa, Mark C; Hepworth, Matthew R; Tomov, Vesselin T; Kobuley, Dmytro; Tran, Sara V; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey G; Laughlin, Alice L; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Wherry, E John; Bushman, Frederic D; Allen, Judith E; Virgin, Herbert W; Artis, David

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immunomodulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth coinfection. Helminth coinfection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in the microbiota and STAT6-dependent helminth-induced alternative activation of macrophages. Notably, helminth-induced impairment of antiviral immunity was evident in germ-free mice, but neutralization of Ym1, a chitinase-like molecule that is associated with alternatively activated macrophages, could partially restore antiviral immunity. These data indicate that helminth-induced immunomodulation occurs independently of changes in the microbiota but is dependent on Ym1. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Malaria and intestinal parasites in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In sub-Sahara African countries, both malaria and intestinal helminth infections are endemic and co-infection commonly occurs. It is estimated that over a third of the world's population, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics are infected with parasitic helminths and Plasmodium species thus often leading to co-infections.

  2. Mapping and modelling helminth infections in ruminants in Europe: experience from GLOWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014 funded under the European Commission’s (EC seventh framework programme (FP7. Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area.

  3. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  4. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Ahn, Yung-Kyum; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2000-01-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3%...

  6. Ascaris Suum Infection Downregulates Inflammatory Pathways in the Pig Intestine In Vivo and in Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L. E.; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost 1 billion people. Ascaris is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... data provide an insight into mucosal immune modulation during Ascaris infection, and show that A. suum profoundly suppresses immune and inflammatory pathways...... transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad downregulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and costimulatory molecules. A. suum body fluid (ABF) suppressed...

  7. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  8. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  10. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    62.8% and 44.4% respectively for Strongyloides sp., tapeworms, Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, Trichuris sp., Haemonchus contortus and Schistosoma haematobium. The proportion of animals infected with. Haemonchus contortus was significantly higher in imported goats than those reared locally (p<0.05). The mean.

  11. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to evaluate parasitic infections in small ruminants was conducted in an abattoir in a suburb of Accra from January to March 2015. Samples from various sections of the gut of 35 goats, either reared in Ghana or imported from Burkina Faso, were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique. The overall ...

  12. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  13. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  14. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  15. Helminth infections and gut microbiota - a feline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana M; Jenkins, Timothy P; Latrofa, Maria S; Giannelli, Alessio; Papadopoulos, Elias; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Nolan, Matthew J; Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2016-12-03

    Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited. In this study, we investigate the qualitative and quantitative impact that infections by a widespread parasite of cats (i.e. Toxocara cati) exert on the gut microbiota of feline hosts. The faecal microbiota of cats with patent infection by T. cati (= Tc+), as well as that of negative controls (= Tc-) was examined via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, followed by bioinformatics and biostatistical analyses of sequence data. A total of 2,325,366 useable high-quality sequences were generated from the faecal samples analysed in this study and subjected to further bioinformatics analyses, which led to the identification of 128 OTUs and nine bacterial phyla, respectively. The phylum Firmicutes was predominant in all samples analysed (mean of 53.0%), followed by the phyla Proteobacteria (13.8%), Actinobacteria (13.7%) and Bacteroidetes (10.1%). Among others, bacteria of the order Lactobacillales, the family Enterococcaceae and genera Enterococcus and Dorea showed a trend towards increased abundance in Tc+  compared with Tc- samples, while no significant differences in OTU richness and diversity were recorded between Tc+ and Tc- samples (P = 0.485 and P = 0.581, respectively). However, Canonical Correlation and Redundancy Analyses were able to separate samples by infection status (P = 0.030 and P = 0.015, respectively), which

  16. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (pallergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in the group that remained infected with helminths, even though they had a lowered helminth load; d) The reasons for the increased allergy one year after immigration needs further investigation but probably reflects the combined influence of the decreased helminth load and novel environmental factors.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among village health volunteers in rural communities of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsawad, Chuchard; Phasuk, Nonthapan; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Thongtup, Kanjana; Siripakonuaong, Niramon; Nongnaul, Somchok

    2017-06-09

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain prevalent and constitute a public health problem in certain rural areas of Thailand. Village health volunteers (VHVs), who are members of a Thai healthcare alliance, function as key providers of health prevention measures, disease control, and health education and share national health promotion campaigns with community members. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infection in VHVs in order to design community awareness and health education campaigns for the target population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January to April 2016 among village health volunteers (VHVs) from four sub-districts of Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. Subjects for the study were selected using a simple random sampling method. Socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected by a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques to determine the presence of parasites and modified Kato-Katz thick smear to determine the intensity of infection. A total of 324 VHVs were enrolled. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-13.0). The prevalence of hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura were 8.0% (95% CI: 5.3-11.5), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2-2.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0-1.7), respectively. Mean intensity of hookworm infection was 1732 eggs per gram of stool. The prevalence was lower for protozoan infection than for helminth infection. Blastocystis hominis accounted for the highest percentage of intestinal protozoan infections 4.0% (95% CI: 2.2-6.8), followed by Giardia intestinalis 0.6% (95% CI: 0-2.2). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among sub-districts (p > 0.05). Having dogs at home was associated with soil

  18. Effect of Sanitation on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR  =  0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60–1.00) were determined for T. trichiura

  19. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  20. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  1. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  2. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Abate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.

  3. Protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy. Short-term and long-term implications of transmission of infection from mother to foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    studies the impaired immune response was present as much as two decades after birth. Data from chronic viral infections like Rubella, cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B also show that congenital or perinatal infections may result in a life-long inability to control the infections. Studies of both helminth...

  4. Patho-physiological observations in natural concurrent infections of helminth parasites of zoonotic importance in the wild rodents,Bandicota bengalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, N; Dhar, P; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2016-12-01

    Screening of 83 mature wild rodents of Bandicota bengalensis (52 male and 31 females), live trapped from premises near railway station, fish market and agricultural fields in Ludhiana district of Punjab province, India was carried out to assess the natural occurrence of helminth parasites and their potential as reservoirs of zoonoses. On necropsy, intestine of rats was found infected with adult cestode parasites of Hymenolepis diminuta and H. nana. Liver was found infected with Capillaria hepatica and Cysticercus fasciolaris. These parasites were present either alone or as concurrent infection. In overall, 68.67 % rats were found infected of which 59.65 % were infected with nematode parasite, C. hepatica and 75.44 % with cestode parasites. Grossly, pathognomonic lesions of C. hepatica and C. fasciolaris were seen clearly and microscopic changes were observed only in severely infected cases. Overall investigation on the effect of these parasitic infections on pathophysiology of the host revealed that rodents serve as reservoirs of these parasitic infections without having much pathogenic effect on their vital organs, fecundity and enzyme activities. Because of its close association with human habitations, B. bengalensis may act as an important source of zoonotic infections and thus direct or indirect contact with excrements and carcasses of this rodent species, should be avoided.

  5. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    OpenAIRE

    Chadukura Vivian; Hlerema Gibson; Mudzori James; Brouwer Kimberly C; Mapingure Munyaradzi P; Makware Godfrey; Paul Noah H; Sangweme Davison; Midzi Nicholas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera Sekesai; Mutapi Francisca; Kumar Nirbhay; Mduluza Takafira

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated c...

  6. Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Do-Trung, Dung; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-10-10

    Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April and June 2014 in people aged ≥ 18 years at risk of wastewater exposure from To Lich River: workers maintaining wastewater treatment facilities; urban farmers reusing wastewater; and urban dwellers at risk of flooding events. For comparison, two peri-urban population groups living in close proximity to the Red River were chosen: farmers using river water for irrigation purposes; and people living in the same communities. A single stool sample was subjected to Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors and self-reported signs and symptoms. A total of 681 individuals had complete data records. Highest point-prevalence rates of intestinal parasite infections were observed for peri-urban farmers (30 %). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were the predominant helminth species (25 % and 5 %, respectively). Peri-urban farmers were at higher odds of infection with intestinal parasites than any other groups (adjusted odds ratio 5.8, 95 % confidence interval 2.5 to 13.7). Lack of access to improved sanitation and not receiving deworming within the past 12 months were associated with higher infection risk, while higher educational attainment and socioeconomic status were negatively associated with intestinal parasite infections. Our results suggest that exposure to

  7. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,

  8. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites.

  9. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

  11. Correlation between eosinophil count and soil-transmitted helminth infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syilvia Jiero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection and its correlation with eosinophil counts among elementary school children within the Medan Belawan District, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Methods: Ninety-nine subjects participated in this study (ascariasis, n = 40; trichuriasis, n = 9; mixed infection, n = 50. Stool samples were examined by using the Kato-Katz method, and blood samples were examined by using peripheral blood smears. Results: The prevalence of STH infection in children from two elementary schools was 65.4%; the baseline prevalences of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 37.1%, 21.9%, and 40.8%, respectively. The respective mean eosinophil counts among children with ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 7.18%, 8.11%, and 8.64% (P = 0.32, and the respective prevalences of eosinophilia were 47.5%, 77.8%, and 70% (P = 0.05. The eosinophil counts correlated significantly with the number of eggs per gram of feces; ascariasis correlated strongly (P < 0.001; r = 0.62, and trichuriasis showed correlated weakly (P = 0.04; r = 0.21 with this parameter. The mean eosinophil count correlated significantly with STH infection intensity (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts correlated strongly with ascariasis while weakly with trichuriasis. We determined that eosinophil count may be used as a marker of STH infection.

  12. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Helminth infections and type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomized placebo controlled SUGARSPIN trial in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahapary, D.L.; Ruiter, K. de; Martin, I.; Lieshout, L. van; Guigas, B.; Soewondo, P.; Djuardi, Y.; Wiria, A.E.; Mayboroda, O.A.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Tasman, H.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Supali, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a strong predictor of the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chronic helminth infections might protect against insulin resistance via a caloric restriction state and indirectly via T-helper-2 polarization of the immune system. Therefore the elimination of

  14. Gastro-Intestinal Heminthes among Slaughtered Cattle at Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cattle are a major source of animal protein, hides and skin but the constraint is infection due to gastro-intestinal helminthes. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminthes, parasites affecting cattle slaughtered at abattoir in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The standard saturated salt (NaCl) floatation ...

  15. Original Paper Intestinal Helminthiasis among School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causing widespread chronic disease and morbidity. (Crompton and Nesheim, 2002). Poor people in developing countries endure the burden of disease caused by four common species ... with a variety of helminths, and eating habits that involve the ... intestinal helminths infection in school age children have been estimated ...

  16. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  17. The Prevalence of Helminth Eggs and Protozoan Oocysts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of helminths eggs on vegetables is of public health significance, considering the fact that communities are at risk of infection. Thus, the need to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables sold in markets in Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 150 leafy vegetable samples including cabbage ...

  18. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  19. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  20. Mapping the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Salamat, Maria S; Leonardo, Lydia; Gray, Darren J; Carabin, Hélène; Halton, Kate; McManus, Donald P; Williams, Gail M; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Hernandez, Leda; Yakob, Laith; McGarvey, Stephen T; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection and develop predictive risk maps for each infection. Data on STH infection from 35,573 individuals across the country were geolocated at the barangay level and included in the analysis. The analysis was stratified geographically in two major regions: 1) Luzon and the Visayas and 2) Mindanao. Bayesian geostatistical models of STH prevalence were developed, including age and sex of individuals and environmental variables (rainfall, land surface temperature and distance to inland water bodies) as predictors, and diagnostic uncertainty was incorporated. The role of environmental variables was different between regions of the Philippines. This analysis revealed that while A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections were widespread and highly endemic, hookworm infections were more circumscribed to smaller foci in the Visayas and Mindanao. This analysis revealed significant spatial variation in STH infection prevalence within provinces of the Philippines. This suggests that a spatially targeted approach to STH interventions, including mass drug administration, is warranted. When financially possible, additional STH surveys should be prioritized to high-risk areas identified by our study in Luzon.

  1. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  2. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawer, Sumaiyya; Auret, Jennifer; Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J; Timms, John F; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G C

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths.

  3. Impact of malaria and helminth infections on immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joelle; Baisley, Kathy; Kavishe, Bazil; Changalucha, John; Andreasen, Aura; Mayaud, Philippe; Gumodoka, Balthazar; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-23

    Endemic malaria and helminth infections in sub-Saharan Africa can act as immunological modulators and impact responses to standard immunizations. We conducted a cohort study to measure the influence of malaria and helminth infections on the immunogenicity of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine. We evaluated the association between malaria and helminth infections, and HPV-16/18 antibody responses among 298 Tanzanian females aged 10-25 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Malaria parasitaemia was diagnosed by examination of blood smears, and helminth infections were diagnosed by examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. Geometric mean antibody titres (GMT) against HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitic infections were common; one-third (30.4%) of participants had a helminth infection and 10.2% had malaria parasitaemia. Overall, the vaccine induced high HPV-16/18 GMTs, and there was no evidence of a reduction in HPV-16 or HPV-18 GMT at Month 7 or Month 12 follow-up visits among participants with helminths or malaria. There was some evidence that participants with malaria had increased GMTs compared to those without malaria. The data show high HPV immunogenicity regardless of the presence of malaria and helminth infections. The mechanism and significance for the increase in GMT in those with malaria is unknown. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  5. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  6. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-06-15

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  7. Parasitas gastrointestinais em cães institucionalizados no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Intestinal parasitic helminths in institutionalized dogs of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de parasitas gastrointestinais em cães recolhidos e mantidos em instituto público de medicina veterinária no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Amostras de fezes frescas foram coletadas em março de 2004 e analisadas pelos métodos de flutuação de Willis e centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose. De 204 amostras, 45,6% estavam positivas para helmintos gastrointestinais.The occurrence of intestinal parasitic helminths in dogs from a public institute of veterinary medicine in Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Samples of fresh feces were collected in March 2004 and analyzed by Willis and centrifugal-flotation in sucrose solution methods. Of 204 samples, 45.6% were positive for helminths.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic co-infections in HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Omoregie, Richard

    2012-05-14

    Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminthes is ubiquitous throughout Africa. This study aimed to determine the co-infections of Plasmodium falciparum infection in HIV and intestinal parasitic infections, and their immunological distribution, in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 2,000 stool specimens from HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals) were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites using standard procedures. In addition, patients' blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry and examined for Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy. The prevalence of single parasitic infection among HIV patients was 18.1% in males and 16.9% among females with no significant difference (p = 0.536) while gender was a risk factor in multiple parasitic infections (male versus female: 4.2% and 1.8% OR = 2.384; 95% CI = 1.371, 4.147) (p = 0.0025). Increasing age was not associated with increased risk of both single and multiple parasitic infections (p = 0.083; p = 0.248). CD4 + T cell count less than 200 cells/µl was a risk factor for acquiring single and multiple parasitic infections among HIV patients (OR = 5.565; 95% CI = 4.136, 7.486; p = 0.0001; OR = 4.283; 95% CI = 2.424, 7.566; p = 0.0001). The most common co-infection observed was between Plasmodium falciparum and Ascaris lumbricoides 43% (10) among HIV patients. This study provides evidence of co-infections between Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasites. Diagnosis of parasitic infections among HIV patients is advocated as this will enhance better management of HIV-infected patients.

  9. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... examined for the presence of eggs using the urine sedimentation technique for S. haematobium and the Kato Katz technique for STHs. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to calculate the association and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for the correlation analysis. There was a highly significant...... correlation between S. haematobium and STHs at a school level (Spearman’s correlation coefficient =0.93; pSTHs, respectively. A significant association was found between S. haematobium and STHs (odds ratio =2.05; confidence...

  11. A survey of helminthic infections in the residents of rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Sung; Chung, Byung-Ha; Lee, Nam-Seok; Kim, Joong-Ho

    1999-01-01

    A total of 738 samples was collected to survey the helminthic infections of residents in two rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for 2 weeks from July 23 to August 2, 1998. Among 391 scotch-taped slides of anal swabs of children and of young teenagers, Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in 138 cases (35.3%). With the fecal samples of 206 Kato-Katz thick smear slides from adults, the eggs of E. vermicularis were observed in 9 cases and Taenia sp. in one case, respectively. And by ELISA on 141 blood samples absorbed to blood sampling paper, 12 cases (8.5%) were found to be positive against the hydatid cyst antigen. Enterobiasis and hydatidosis are two major endemic diseases which are related closely to the life style of Mongolian. PMID:10507221

  12. Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian; Liu, Su; Tan, Qiao; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Zeng, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy. In this review, we attempt to discuss (i) the role of maternal microbiome in pregnancy outcomes known to adversely influence neonatal and infant health, including preterm birth, cardiometabolic complications of pregnancy, and gestational weight gain; (ii) the association of microbiome with autoimmunity, allergy diseases, and asthma during pregnancy; and (iii) the impact of helminth infection during pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  16. Micromanagement of Immune System: Role of miRNAs in Helminthic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Naina; Tripathi, Shweta; Singh, Aloukick K; Mondal, Prosenjit; Mishra, Amit; Prasad, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Helminthic infections fall under neglected tropical diseases, although they inflict severe morbidity to human and causes major economic burden on health care system in many developing countries. There is increased effort to understand their immunopathology in recent days due to their immuno-modulatory capabilities. Immune response is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level, however, microRNA-mediated RNA interference is emerging as important regulatory machinery that works at the translation level. In the past decade, microRNA (miRNA/miR) research has advanced with significant momentum. The result is ever increasing list of curated sequences from a broad panel of organisms including helminths. Several miRNAs had been discovered from trematodes, nematodes and cestodes like let-7, miR155, miR-199, miR-134, miR-223, miR-146, and fhe-mir-125a etc., with potential role in immune modulation. These miRs had been associated with TGF-β, MAPK, Toll-like receptor, PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and insulin growth factor regulation. Thus, controlling the immune cells development, survival, proliferation and death. Apart from micromanagement of immune system, they also express certain unique miRNA also like cis- miR-001, cis- miR-2, cis- miR-6, cis- miR-10, cis- miR-18, cis- miR-19, trs-mir-0001, fhe-miR-01, fhe-miR-07, fhe-miR-08, egr-miR-4988, egr-miR-4989 etc. The specific role played by most of these species specific unique miRs are yet to be discovered. However, these newly discovered miRNAs might serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention or biomarkers for parasitic infections.

  17. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

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    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  18. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

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    Pullan Rachel L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children lived in areas of unstable

  19. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Brooker, Simon J

    2012-04-26

    Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children) lived in areas of unstable transmission for at least one STH species. These limits provide

  20. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

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    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    Full Text Available Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels.Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children.A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors.Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%, treatment efficacy studies (8.1% or epidemiological studies (81%. Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences.This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical differences in STH prevalence and these

  1. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical differences in STH prevalence and these findings

  2. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

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    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  3. Risk of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in People with Different Exposures to Wastewater and Fecal Sludge in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fuhrimann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people with different exposures to wastewater and fecal sludge in Kampala, Uganda.A cross-sectional survey was carried out in September and October 2013, enrolling 915 adults from five distinct population groups: workers maintaining wastewater facilities; workers managing fecal sludge; urban farmers; slum dwellers at risk of flooding; and slum dwellers without risk of flooding. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz method and a formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine self-reported signs and symptoms, and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections. Univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and hygiene behaviors, were conducted to estimate the risk of infection with intestinal parasites and self-reported health outcomes, stratified by population group.The highest point-prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was found in urban farmers (75.9%, whereas lowest point-prevalence was found in workers managing fecal sludge (35.8%. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (27.8%. In urban farmers, the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 15% and above. For all investigated parasites, we found significantly higher odds of infection among urban farmers compared to the other groups (adjusted odds ratios ranging between 1.6 and 12.9. In general, female participants had significantly lower odds of infection with soil-transmitted helminths and S. mansoni compared to males. Higher

  4. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Côte d'Ivoire: results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Richard B Yapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty, and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d'Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: More

  5. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  6. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  7. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

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    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  10. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of total, single and multiple intestinal worm infections among the primary school children in Nairobi City. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from ...

  11. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

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    Agathe Nkouawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3% with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined.Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%, 72 (42.8%, and 19 (11.3% persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%, 25 (14.9% and 2 (1.2% of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas.Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment.

  12. Helminth Infections and Cardiovascular Diseases: Toxocara Species is Contributing to the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the “larva migrans” syndrome. The clinical manifestations of toxocariasis are divided into visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and neurotoxocariasis. Subclinical infection is often referred to as covert toxocariasis. One of the primary causes of death all around the world is cardiovascular disease that accounted for up to 30 percent of all-cause mortality. Cardiovascular disease and more precisely atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is predicted to remain the single leading cause of death (23.3 million deaths by 2030). A-quarter of people presenting the disease does not show any of the known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, there is considerable interest in looking for novel components affecting cardiovascular health, especially for those that could improve global cardiovascular risk prediction. This review endeavours to summarize the clinical aspects, new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives of toxocaral disease with cardiovascular manifestations. PMID:27492228

  13. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K J; Ahn, Y K; Yong, T S

    2000-09-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3% in rural areas. The infection rates were 51% with Trichuris trichiura, 40% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 23.4% with hookworm, 15.6% with Iodamoeba butschlii, 14.1% with Endolimax nana, 9.4% with Entamoeba coli and 7.8% with Giardia lamblia. There were 33 cases with multiple infection (51.6%). Mixed infection with more than 3 parasites was observed in 15 cases, all of them being children and adolescents living in rural areas. By this survey, it was conjectured that helminthic infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Legaspi, Philippines.

  14. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...

  15. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...

  16. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    reinfection rates or intensities in children. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for baseline infection status confirmed the effect in adults of iron on A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni reinfection rates. The effect is suggested to be due to reduced risk behaviour, to improved...

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability ...

  18. Helminth Parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae in Lekki Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

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    B Akinsanya

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 360 randomly selected specimens of Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae recovered from Lekki Lagoon were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. Parasite prevalence and worm burden were low; 17 (4.72% of the specimens examined were infected with gastrointestinal helminths. The helminth worms recovered include, three cestodes Polyonchobothrium clarias, S tocksia pujehuni and Wenyonia acuminata and a nematode, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx. There was no statistically significant difference in the infection of the male and female Clarias gariepinus; the infection rates in male and female samples were 5.75% and 3.76% respectively. Parasite prevalence was related to the length and weight of the specimens. The fish samples were observed to show negative allometric growth and smaller samples recorded higher helminth infection. Rev.Biol. Trop. 54(1: 93-99. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  19. Polyclonal and Specific Antibodies Mediate Protective Immunity against Enteric Helminth Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, Kathy D.; Stoel, Maaike; Stettler, Rebecca; Merky, Patrick; Fink, Katja; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schaer, Corinne; Massacand, Joanna; Oderrnatt, Bernhard; Oettgen, Hans C.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Hengartner, Hans; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-helminth immunity involves CD4(+) T cells, yet the precise effector mechanisms responsible for parasite killing or expulsion remain elusive. We now report an essential role for antibodies in mediating immunity against the enteric helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), a natural murine

  20. Contribution of Wastewater Irrigation to Soil Transmitted Helminths Infection among Vegetable Farmers in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Dennis Amoah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Odds ratios were calculated for exposure and non-exposure to wastewater irrigation. The results obtained indicate positive correlation between STH concentrations in irrigation water/soil and STHs ova as measured in the stool of the exposed farmer population. The correlations are based on reinfection during a 3 months period after prior confirmed deworming. Farmers and family members exposed to irrigation water were three times more likely as compared to the control group of non-farmers to be infected with Ascaris (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.15-13.86 and hookworm (OR = 3.07, 95% CI, 0.87-10.82. This study therefore contributes to the evidence-based conclusion that wastewater irrigation contributes to a higher incidence of STHs infection for farmers exposed annually, with higher odds of infection in the wet season.

  1. Contribution of Wastewater Irrigation to Soil Transmitted Helminths Infection among Vegetable Farmers in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Amina; Stenström, Thor Axel; Abaidoo, Robert Clement; Seidu, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Odds ratios were calculated for exposure and non-exposure to wastewater irrigation. The results obtained indicate positive correlation between STH concentrations in irrigation water/soil and STHs ova as measured in the stool of the exposed farmer population. The correlations are based on reinfection during a 3 months period after prior confirmed deworming. Farmers and family members exposed to irrigation water were three times more likely as compared to the control group of non-farmers to be infected with Ascaris (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.15–13.86) and hookworm (OR = 3.07, 95% CI, 0.87–10.82). This study therefore contributes to the evidence-based conclusion that wastewater irrigation contributes to a higher incidence of STHs infection for farmers exposed annually, with higher odds of infection in the wet season. PMID:27923048

  2. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the urban slums of a city in Western India.

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    Shobha, Misra; Bithika, Duttaroy; Bhavesh, Shroff

    2013-04-01

    There is scant information available on the prevalence of parasitic infections in Gujarat, a state in Western India. The present community-based study was undertaken in the urban slums of a city in Gujarat to determine the following parameters: (a) the prevalence and type of pathogenic intestinal parasites and (b) the availability of sanitary facilities in the study population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008, and the study participants were urban slum dwellers. Considering an expected infection prevalence of 30% among slum dwellers, an allowable error of 10% and an anticipated design effect of two, the sample size for the cluster design was set to 1800 participants from 30 clusters and 360 households (HHs). Stool samples were examined using both direct wet mount and the formalin-ether sedimentation concentration technique, followed by trichrome staining for protozoan cysts. Toilet facilities were utilized by 56% of the HHs, while 44% of the HHs resorted to open air defecation. The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 15.19%. Parasitic infections due to protozoa were observed in 70.71% of the study participants. Helminth infections were detected in 25.71% of the participants, and multiple parasitic infections were detected in 3.57%. Diarrhea was the most common complaint (9.56%) in the study population. This study demonstrates that poor sanitation and inadequate environmental conditions are the main determining factors that predispose the population to intestinal parasites. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil.

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    Rocha, C F; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Cunha-Barros, M

    2003-02-01

    We analysed the helminth fauna associated with the lizard Mabuya dorsivittata (Scincidae) from a high-altitude area in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of the 16 lizards examined, 12 (75%) were infected by at least one helminth. Only two helminth species were found: Physaloptera retusa and Skrjabinodon spinosulus (Nematoda), the former with a prevalence of 68.8% and a mean infection intensity of 3.6 +/- 2.8 and the latter with a prevalence of 56.3% and a mean infection intensity of 2.6 +/- 2.6. The helminth fauna of the studied population of Mabuya dorsivittata was considerably poorer than those of other previously studied populations of congeners.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

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    Rina G Kaminsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  5. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  6. Turning poop into profit: Cost-effectiveness and soil transmitted helminth infection risk associated with human excreta reuse in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran-Thi, Ngan; Lowe, Rachel J.; Schurer, Janna M.; Vu-Van, Tu; MacDonald, Lauren E.; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1) a risk e...

  7. Assessing the impact of misclassification error on an epidemiological association between two helminthic infections.

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    Mushfiqur R Tarafder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyparasitism can lead to severe disability in endemic populations. Yet, the association between soil-transmitted helminth (STH and the cumulative incidence of Schistosoma japonicum infection has not been described. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of misclassification error, which occurs when less than 100% accurate tests are used, in STH and S. japonicum infection status on the estimation of this association.Longitudinal data from 2276 participants in 50 villages in Samar province, Philippines treated at baseline for S. japonicum infection and followed for one year, served as the basis for this analysis. Participants provided 1-3 stool samples at baseline and 12 months later (2004-2005 to detect infections with STH and S. japonicum using the Kato-Katz technique. Variation from day-to-day in the excretion of eggs in feces introduces individual variations in the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz to detect infection. Bayesian logit models were used to take this variation into account and to investigate the impact of misclassification error on the association between these infections. Uniform priors for sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test to detect the three STH and S. japonicum were used. All results were adjusted for age, sex, occupation, and village-level clustering. Without correction for misclassification error, the odds ratios (ORs between hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, and S. japonicum infections were 1.28 (95% Bayesian credible intervals: 0.93, 1.76, 0.91 (95% BCI: 0.66, 1.26, and 1.11 (95% BCI: 0.80, 1.55, respectively, and 2.13 (95% BCI: 1.16, 4.08, 0.74 (95% BCI: 0.43, 1.25, and 1.32 (95% BCI: 0.80, 2.27, respectively, after correction for misclassification error for both exposure and outcome.The misclassification bias increased with decreasing test accuracy. Hookworm infection was found to be associated with increased 12-month cumulative incidence of S. japonicum

  8. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoba, Alfred I; Wenzel Geissler, P; Estambale, Benson; Ouma, John H; Alusala, Dorcas; Ayah, Rosemary; Mwaniki, David; Magnussen, Pascal; Friis, Henrik

    2005-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were

  9. High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among primary school children, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sandipan; Barkataki, Sharad; Karmakar, Sumallya; Sanga, Prerna; Boopathi, K; Kanagasabai, K; Kamaraj, P; Chowdhury, Punam; Sarkar, Rituparna; Raj, Dibyendu; James, Leo; Dutta, Shanta; Sehgal, Rakesh; Jha, Priya; Murhekar, Manoj

    2017-10-09

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections often affect the poorest and most deprived communities. In order to generate reliable data for planning a school based deworming program, we conducted a survey among primary school children studying in government schools in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The objectives of our survey were to estimate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among children studying in 130 primary schools from 9 agro-climatic zones, during May - August 2015. Information about socio-demographic details, defecation and hand-hygiene practices, and stool samples were collected from the school children. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz method. Stool samples from 6421 school children were examined. The overall weighted prevalence of any STH in the State was 75.6% (95% CI: 71.2-79.5). The prevalence was more than 50% in six of the nine agro-climatic zones. A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH (prevalence: 69.6%), followed by hookworm (prevalence: 22.6%) and T. trichura (4.6%). The majority of the STH infections were of low intensity. The practice of open defecation and not washing hands with soap after defecation and residence in kutcha house were significant risk factors of STH infection. STH prevalence among primary school children in Uttar Pradesh was high. Given the WHO guidelines on deworming frequency according to STH prevalence, Govt of Uttar Pradesh needs to implement a school-based deworming program with bi-annual frequency. The findings of our survey would also help monitor the performance of school based deworming programme.

  10. Relationships between intestinal parasitosis and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Dane, Senol; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a possible relation between intestinal parasitosis and handedness in patients with suspected intestinal parasitosis. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite. In the present study right-handers had many more helminth infections and left-handers had many more protozoon infections. Lower rate of helminth infections in the present study, and higher asthma incidences in the left-handed population in literature, may be associated with different immune machinery in left-handed people than in right-handed ones.

  11. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon.

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    Mara Jana Broadhurst

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies collected during colonoscopies before and after treatment, we found an induction of a mucosal T(H2 response following helminth treatment that was associated with a decrease in activated CD4(+ Ki67+ cells. In parallel, expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays and real-time PCR analysis revealed reductions in T(H1-type inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of genes associated with IgE signaling, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, alternative activation of macrophages, and worm expulsion. By quantifying bacterial 16S rRNA in pinch biopsies using real-time PCR analysis, we found reduced bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa post-treatment. Finally, deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA revealed changes to the composition of microbial communities attached to the intestinal mucosa following helminth treatment. Thus, the genus Streptophyta of the phylum Cyanobacteria was vastly increased in abundance in three out of five ICD monkeys relative to healthy controls, but was reduced to control levels post-treatment; by contrast, the phylum Tenericutes was expanded post-treatment. These findings suggest that helminth treatment in primates can ameliorate colitis by restoring mucosal barrier functions and reducing overall bacterial attachment, and also by altering the communities of attached bacteria. These results also define ICD in monkeys as a tractable preclinical model for ulcerative colitis in which these effects can be further investigated.

  12. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C; Addiss, David G; Stocks, Meredith E; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-03-01

    Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0

  13. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Eric C Strunz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60. Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41 and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11. Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76, T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74, and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88, but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06. Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds

  14. Intestinal helminths of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus 1758) from an inter-route site in Turkey.

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    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Birlik, Sezen; Senlik, Bayram; Yildirimhan, Hikmet Sami

    2017-06-01

    In Turkey, a study was conducted during the years 2009-2015 to detect the gastrointestinal helminth species of 18 white storks (Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Ciconiiformes) sampled from aquatic or swamp areas of Bursa Province, one of the inter-route sites where storks intensely stay. The results of postmortem examination revealed that 17 (94.44%) white storks harboured one or more helminth species. Eight species of helminths were detected at the following prevalence rates: Dictymetra discoidea (38.88%), Chaunocephalus ferox (37.50%), Schistocephalus solidus (27.77%), Stephanoprora (Monilifer) spinulosa (18.75%), Echinoparyphium sp. (12.50%), Tylodelphys excavata (6.25%), T. clavata (6.25%), and Syncuaria ciconiae (6.25%). This study is the first report on the presence of all the above species except T. excavata from white storks in Turkey. Stephanoprora (M.) spinulosa was found in Ciconiiform birds for the first time in this study.

  15. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Nabil A; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Bulgiba, Awang

    2013-01-28

    In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%), signs and symptoms (29.3%) as well as the prevention (16.3%). Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1), wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1), and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7) as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education programme and community mobilisation to enhance prevention

  16. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices

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    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%, signs and symptoms (29.3% as well as the prevention (16.3%. Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1, wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1, and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7 as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. Conclusion This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education

  17. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

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    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  18. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Sangweme, Davison; Paul, Noah H; Makware, Godfrey; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Mudzori, James; Hlerema, Gibson; Chadukura, Vivian; Mutapi, Francisca; Kumar, Nirbhay; Mduluza, Takafira

    2011-06-22

    The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years) received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). More importantly, the prevalence of STH + schistosomes, P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10

  19. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichiura infections. Conclusion: Prevalence of total, single and multiple infections showed a downward trend when compared to the previous studies with Ascaris lumbricoides persisting with the highest prevalence. Keywords: Intestinal worms, infections, school children, Nairobi City East African Journal of Public Health Vol.

  20. Determining soil-transmitted helminth infection status and physical fitness of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-08-22

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are common. Indeed, more than 1 billion people are affected, mainly in the developing world where poverty prevails and hygiene behavior, water supply, and sanitation are often deficient. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, are the most prevalent STHs. The estimated global burden due to hookworm disease, ascariasis, and trichuriasis is 22.1, 10.5, and 6.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), respectively. Furthermore, an estimated 30-100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected STH species of global significance which arguably also causes a considerable public health impact. Multiple-species infections (i.e., different STHs harbored in a single individual) are common, and infections have been linked to lowered productivity and thus economic outlook of developing countries. For the diagnosis of common STHs, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Kato-Katz technique, which is a relatively straightforward method for determining the prevalence and intensity of such infections. It facilitates the detection of parasite eggs that infected subjects pass in their feces. With regard to the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, there is currently no simple and accurate tool available. The Baermann technique is the most widely employed method for its diagnosis. The principle behind the Baermann technique is that active S. stercoralis larvae migrate out of an illuminated fresh fecal sample as the larvae are phototactic. It requires less sophisticated laboratory materials and is less time consuming than culture and immunological methods. Morbidities associated with STH infections range from acute but common symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pruritus, to chronic symptoms, such as anemia, under- and malnutrition, and cognitive impairment. Since the symptoms are generally unspecific and subtle

  1. Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

    2011-03-01

    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

  2. Factors Related to Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection on Primary School Children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infeksi Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH is the third ranks of the top 10 common infectious diseases in the world with an incidence rate of about 1.4 billion per year. The incidence of STH in Indonesia is still quite high. This figure occurs in primary school students of 60-80%, while for all ages of 40% -60%. The purpose of this study was to determine factors related to STH infection in elementary school children at primary school of Moyudan Sleman. The type of research used was analytic observational with the cross-sectional design. The population in this study were all students of class I, II, and III in Moyudan Sleman primary school with total sampling technique of 60 respondents. Data analysis used chi-square. The test results showed that the habit of hand washing before eating (sig= 0.010; RP= 3.850, the habit of hand washing  after defecating(sig= 0.007; RP= 4.571, nail hygiene (sig= 0.179; RP= 2.138, the habit of wearing footwear (sig= 0.008; RP= 3.714, and bowel habits (sig= 0.004; RP= 4.000. It can be concluded that there was a relationship between hand washing before eating, hand washing after defecating, the habit of wearing footwear, bowel habits and STH infection on the students of Moyudan Sleman primary school but there was no relationship between nail hygiene and STH infection. ABSTRAK Infeksi Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH adalah penyakit yang menempati urutan ketiga dari 10 penyakit menular di dunia dengan tingkat kejadian sekitar 1,4 miliar per tahun. Insiden STH di Indonesia masih cukup tinggi. Angka tersebut terjadi pada siswa di sekolah dasar mencapai 60-80%, sedangkan untuk semua usia berkisar antara 40%-60%. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor yang berhubungan dengan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar di SD Negeri Moyudan Sleman. Penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan rancangan cross sectional. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas I, II, dan III di SD Moyudan

  3. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  4. Soil transmitted helminth infections are not associated with compromised antibody responses to previously administered measles and tetanus vaccines among HIV-1 infected, ART naïve Kenyan adults

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    Helen L. Storey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods. We compared antibody responses to measles and tetanus vaccines in helminth-infected (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and/or Schistosoma mansoni and uninfected adults 18 years and older (n = 100. We also compared measles and tetanus antibody responses in Ascaris only-infected adults receiving 400 mg albendazole daily for 3 days (n = 16 vs. placebo (n = 19 in a separate study. In both cohorts, over 70% of participants had measles and tetanus responses above the protective threshold. Prevalence of measles responses were similar between helminth-infected and uninfected individuals (82%, 95% CI: 71–93% vs 72%, 95% CI: 59–85%, as well as log10 tetanus antibody levels (−0.133 IU/mL vs −0.190 IU/mL, p > 0.05, and did not differ by helminth species. In the Ascaris-infected cohort, changes in measles responses and tetanus responses did not differ between those who received anthelminthic vs. placebo (p > 0.05 for both. In these studies, neither helminth infection, nor deworming, appeared to affect previously administered vaccine responsiveness in HIV-1 infected, ART naïve, adults in Kenya.

  5. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this

  6. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren in different settings of Côte d’Ivoire: effect of diagnostic approach and implications for control

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    Coulibaly Jean T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social-ecological systems govern parasitic infections in humans. Within the frame of assessing the accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test for Schistosoma mansoni in Côte d’Ivoire, three different endemicity settings had to be identified and schoolchildren’s intestinal parasitic infection profiles were characterized. Methods In September 2010, a rapid screening was conducted in 11 schools in the Azaguié district, south Côte d’Ivoire. In each school, 25 children were examined for S. mansoni and S. haematobium. Based on predefined schistosome endemicity levels, three settings were selected, where schoolchildren aged 8–12 years were asked to provide three stool and three urine samples for an in-depth appraisal of parasitic infections. Triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared from each stool sample for S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis, whereas urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Additionally, a formol-ether concentration method was used on one stool sample for the diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between schoolchildren’s parasitic infections, age, sex and study setting. Results The prevalences of S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections in the initial screening ranged from nil to 88% and from nil to 56%, respectively. The rapid screening in the three selected areas revealed prevalences of S. mansoni of 16%, 33% and 78%. Based on a more rigorous diagnostic approach, the respective prevalences increased to 33%, 53% and 92% S. haematobium prevalences were 0.8%, 4% and 65% (rapid screening results: 0.0%, 0.0% and 54%. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma spp., soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoan infections showed setting-specific patterns. Infections with two or more species concurrently were most common in the rural setting (84%, followed by

  8. Effect of Host Condition on Intestinal Parasite Load and Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...

  9. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

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    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  10. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil, using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Schur, Nadine; Bavia, Maria E; Carvalho, Edgar M; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm) negatively impact the health and wellbeing of hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Reliable maps of the spatial distribution and estimates of the number of infected people are required for the control and eventual elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. We used advanced Bayesian geostatistical modelling, coupled with geographical information systems and remote sensing to visualize the distribution of the three soil-transmitted helminth species in Brazil. Remotely sensed climatic and environmental data, along with socioeconomic variables from readily available databases were employed as predictors. Our models provided mean prevalence estimates for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm of 15.6%, 10.1% and 2.5%, respectively. By considering infection risk and population numbers at the unit of the municipality, we estimate that 29.7 million Brazilians are infected with A. lumbricoides, 19.2 million with T. trichiura and 4.7 million with hookworm. Our model-based maps identified important risk factors related to the transmission of soiltransmitted helminths and confirm that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed risk maps, including uncertainty, highlight areas where soil-transmitted helminthiasis control interventions are most urgently required, namely in the North and along most of the coastal areas of Brazil. We believe that our predictive risk maps are useful for disease control managers for prioritising control interventions and for providing a tool for more efficient surveillance-response mechanisms.

  11. Concerted activity of IgG1 antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-dependent effector cells trap helminth larvae in the tissues following vaccination with defined secreted antigens, providing sterile immunity to challenge infection.

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    James P Hewitson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 25% of the world's population are infected with helminth parasites, the majority of which colonise the gastrointestinal tract. However, no vaccine is yet available for human use, and mechanisms of protective immunity remain unclear. In the mouse model of Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection, vaccination with excretory-secretory (HES antigens from adult parasites elicits sterilising immunity. Notably, three purified HES antigens (VAL-1, -2 and -3 are sufficient for effective vaccination. Protection is fully dependent upon specific IgG1 antibodies, but passive transfer confers only partial immunity to infection, indicating that cellular components are also required. Moreover, immune mice show greater cellular infiltration associated with trapping of larvae in the gut wall prior to their maturation. Intra-vital imaging of infected intestinal tissue revealed a four-fold increase in extravasation by LysM+GFP+ myeloid cells in vaccinated mice, and the massing of these cells around immature larvae. Mice deficient in FcRγ chain or C3 complement component remain fully immune, suggesting that in the presence of antibodies that directly neutralise parasite molecules, the myeloid compartment may attack larvae more quickly and effectively. Immunity to challenge infection was compromised in IL-4Rα- and IL-25-deficient mice, despite levels of specific antibody comparable to immune wild-type controls, while deficiencies in basophils, eosinophils or mast cells or CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocytes did not diminish immunity. Finally, we identify a suite of previously uncharacterised heat-labile vaccine antigens with homologs in human and veterinary parasites that together promote full immunity. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccine-induced immunity to intestinal helminths involves IgG1 antibodies directed against secreted proteins acting in concert with IL-25-dependent Type 2 myeloid effector populations.

  12. Concerted Activity of IgG1 Antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-Dependent Effector Cells Trap Helminth Larvae in the Tissues following Vaccination with Defined Secreted Antigens, Providing Sterile Immunity to Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, James P.; Filbey, Kara J.; Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Camberis, Mali; Schwartz, Christian; Murray, Janice; Reynolds, Lisa A.; Blair, Natalie; Robertson, Elaine; Harcus, Yvonne; Boon, Louis; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Yang, Lihua; Tu, Yizheng; Miller, Mark J.; Voehringer, David; Le Gros, Graham; Harris, Nicola; Maizels, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Over 25% of the world's population are infected with helminth parasites, the majority of which colonise the gastrointestinal tract. However, no vaccine is yet available for human use, and mechanisms of protective immunity remain unclear. In the mouse model of Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection, vaccination with excretory-secretory (HES) antigens from adult parasites elicits sterilising immunity. Notably, three purified HES antigens (VAL-1, -2 and -3) are sufficient for effective vaccination. Protection is fully dependent upon specific IgG1 antibodies, but passive transfer confers only partial immunity to infection, indicating that cellular components are also required. Moreover, immune mice show greater cellular infiltration associated with trapping of larvae in the gut wall prior to their maturation. Intra-vital imaging of infected intestinal tissue revealed a four-fold increase in extravasation by LysM+GFP+ myeloid cells in vaccinated mice, and the massing of these cells around immature larvae. Mice deficient in FcRγ chain or C3 complement component remain fully immune, suggesting that in the presence of antibodies that directly neutralise parasite molecules, the myeloid compartment may attack larvae more quickly and effectively. Immunity to challenge infection was compromised in IL-4Rα- and IL-25-deficient mice, despite levels of specific antibody comparable to immune wild-type controls, while deficiencies in basophils, eosinophils or mast cells or CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocytes did not diminish immunity. Finally, we identify a suite of previously uncharacterised heat-labile vaccine antigens with homologs in human and veterinary parasites that together promote full immunity. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccine-induced immunity to intestinal helminths involves IgG1 antibodies directed against secreted proteins acting in concert with IL-25-dependent Type 2 myeloid effector populations. PMID:25816012

  13. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R.; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S.; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z.; Larraondo, Manuel A.; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Background.?An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)?biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection.

  15. Soil-transmitted helminth infections among plantation sector schoolchildren in Sri Lanka: prevalence after ten years of preventive chemotherapy.

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    Kithsiri Gunawardena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plantation sector in Sri Lanka lags behind the rest of the country in terms of living conditions and health. In 1992, a sector-wide survey of children aged 3-12 years and women of reproductive age showed >90% prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Biannual mass de-worming targeting children aged 3-18 years started in 1994 and was continued until 2005. The present study was carried out to assess the status of infection four years after cessation of mass de-worming. METHODS/FINDINGS: A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out. Faecal samples from approximately 20 children from each of 114 schools in five districts were examined using the modified Kato-Katz technique. Data regarding the school, the child's family and household sanitation were recorded after inspection of schools and households. Multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression, to identify risk factors for infection. Faecal samples were obtained from 1890 children. In 4/5 districts, >20% were infected with one or more helminth species. Overall combined prevalence was 29.0%; 11.6% had infections of moderate-heavy intensity. The commonest infection was Ascaris lumbricoides, present in all five districts, as was Trichuris trichiura. Hookworm was not detected in two districts. Multivariate analysis identified low altitude and maternal under-education as risk factors for all three infections. Poor household sanitation was identified as a risk factor for A. lumbricoides and hookworm, but not T. trichiura infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that regular mass de-worming of plantation sector children should be resumed along with more emphasis on better sanitation and health education. They show that even after 10 years of mass chemotherapy, prevalence can bounce back after cessation of preventive chemotherapy, if the initial force of transmission is strong and other long-term control measures are not concomitantly

  16. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physi...

  17. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kelly S; Cliffe, Laura J; Bancroft, Alison J; Forman, Simon P; Thompson, Seona; Booth, Cath; Grencis, Richard K

    2017-06-01

    Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  18. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

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    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  19. Correlation between Soil-Transmitted Helminths Infection and Serum Iron Level among Primary School Children in Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasyid, Nurfida K; Sinambela, Monica Nadya; Tala, Zaimah Z; Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Warli, Syah Mirsya

    2017-04-15

    The latest estimates indicate that more than 2 billion people worldwide are infected by Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH). The burden of STH infection is mainly attributed to the chronic effect on health and quality of life of those infected. It is also contributed to micronutrient deficiencies such as iron-deficiency anaemia. The prevalence of worm infection in Public Primary School students in Medan was quite high (40.3%), and 33.3% was anaemic in the latest study. To determine the correlation between STH infection with serum iron (SI) level on primary school children, as well as to determine the prevalence of SI level and worm infection, and the type of worm that infects the most of them. This study was conducted in the cross-sectional method. Consecutive sampling technique was used and a total of 132 students age 8-12 years old were included. The study took places in Public Primary School 060925 Amplas, Medan and 101747 Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang throughout May-October 2016. Fisher Exact test was used to analyse the correlation between STH infection and SI level. The prevalence of STH infection was 7.6%, and low SI was 11.4%. There was no significant correlation between STH infection and SI level (P = 0.317). The prevalence of low SI level was not significantly dependent on STH infection (RP = 1.877, 95% CI = 0.481-7.181).

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2010 and February 2011 to assess the prevalence of intestinal nematode infections among children aged 1 – 14 years living in two communities of rural Ebonyi State, Nigeria, characterize the risk factors for infection and develop environmental ...

  1. Dietary modulation of the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are still a major health problem, not only in developing countries. Even in Europe and the United States about 10-15 % of the population contracts an intestinal infection each year, mostly of foodborne origin. The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics

  2. Antigen detection of entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection: cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Laboratory diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection is still being made through compound light microscopy in resource limited countries despite the associated flaws. This study is aimed at applying and determining the usefulness of ELISA antigen detection technique for E. histolytica intestinal infection ...

  3. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  4. Diarrhea incidence and intestinal infections among rotavirus vaccinated infants from a poor area in Brazil: a spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. The pathogen most strongly associated with diarrhea is rotavirus followed by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, helminthes and protozoan. Adequate sanitation and water supply contribute to decrease acute diarrhea incidence of most etiologic agents, although vaccination remains the most important intervention to control rotavirus acute diarrhea. This study aimed to describe environmental conditions and analyze spatially the acute diarrhea and intestinal infection among rotavirus vaccinated infants from Laranjeiras-Sergipe, Brazil. Methods Children were enrolled between 2 and 11 months of age and followed through 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from a questionnaire, and immunization data were obtained from children vaccination card. Children stool samples were collected each month in order to run laboratory analyses. The household spatial localization was obtained by using a Global Positioning System (GPS). Spatial analysis was performed using the TerraView computer program and Kernel intensity estimation. Results A total of 1,113 stool samples were collected with 80 being diarrhea associated. Diarrhea incidence rate was 0.5 ± 1.0 episodes/child/year. The overall infection rates by Ascaris lumbricoides, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia and rotavirus were 5.1%, 3.0%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. 3.8% of diarrhea-associated stool samples were positive for rotavirus and 11.3% were positive for helminths and protozoans. There were some changes on spatial distribution of intestinal infections and diarrhea episodes along the four trimesters evaluated. Conclusions The studied infants live equally in precarious conditions of sanitation which probably explain the significant rates of parasitic infections appearing in early life. The low acute diarrhea incidence in the studied rotavirus vaccinated

  5. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  6. Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat was anorexic and depressed with rough hair coat, and died before the commencement of the experiment. Grossly, the intussusception was 7 cm in length and 27 cm caudal to the stomach and 81cm to the ileo-caecal junction. The affected part of the small intestine was moderately distended with worms and the ...

  7. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  8. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis (African Common Toad) in Anyigba were investigated. A total of 120 specimens were examined for helminth parasites, 113(94.17%) toads were infected, while 7(5.8%) were uninfected. Helminth parasites recovered were 1576, comprising of 1 Cestode: ...

  10. Estimation of the number of women of reproductive age in need of preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminth infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupfasoni, Denise; Mikhailov, Alexei; Mbabazi, Pamela; King, Jonathan; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Montresor, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. Globally, as many as 2 billion people are considered to be at risk for soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections. Preschool children (PSAC), school-age children (SAC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of STH-attributable morbidity and preventive chemotherapy (PC) for STH is recommended by the World health Organization (WHO). Over the last five years, PC coverage in PSAC and SAC has gradually increased, while coverage in WRA has lagged. Estimating the numbers of WRA in each endemic country would inform scale-up in this group. A two-step process was used: 1) total numbers of girls and women between 15 and 49 years of age were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects 2015 database; and 2) the proportion in need of PC was obtained primarily from extrapolation from the WHO PC Databank. WRA were divided into four sub-groups reflecting different reproductive life stages, each having a potentially different interface with the health care system and, consequently, presenting different opportunities for intervention strategies. Worldwide, we estimated that 688 million WRA in 102 countries were in need of PC for STH in 2015. The South-East Asia (49%) and Africa regions (26%) had the highest numbers. Adolescent girls accounted for 16%, while pregnant and lactating women each represented 10%. Over 25 million pregnant women alone were estimated living in areas where the prevalence of hookworm and T. trichiura infection was ≥ 20%. Approximately 20% of at-risk WRA had received deworming with albendazole through the Global Programme to Eliminate Filariasis. To close current gaps in coverage, numbers of WRA in need of PC for STH are essential for operational strategies to control STH infection.

  11. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  12. [Prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths and prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorto, Óscar René; Portillo, Alexandra Manoella; Aragón, Miguel Ángel; Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Ade, María Paz; Minero, Miguel Ángel; Hernández, Marta Alicia; Mena, Amada Gloria; Peña, Rodolfo; Mejía, Victor Manuel; Carter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.

  13. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body.

  14. Decreasing prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ritu; Acharya, Lokendra; Karki, Surendra

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades there have been several studies describing the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nepal; however, there is a lack of surveillance data in the country. We searched literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and local peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 2015 for studies describing prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-aged children. We conducted meta-regression to understand the trend over time and pooled the prevalence using 'metaprop' command in STATA 12.1. Thirty-one studies examining 12 080 fecal specimens were included. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections showed a significantly decreasing trend (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.73 for each consecutive 5 years) and was similar in males and females. The pooled prevalence in years 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 was 61.1% (95% CI 51.47-70.26), 53.2% (95% CI 20.94-83.99), 32.7% (95% CI 26.57-39.21) and 20.4% (95% CI 15.04-26.25), respectively. The proportion of helminths among total intestinal parasites was higher in rural areas 57.6% (95% CI 43.54-71.61), and proportion of protozoa among total intestinal parasites was higher in urban areas 68.4% (95% CI 63.23-73.62). Poly-parasitism was observed in 7.7% (95% CI 5.57-9.73) of children. We observed a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal over the last two decades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Helminth infections in faecal samples of Apennine wolf (Canis lupus italicus) and Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in two protected national parks of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Barbara; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Angelucci, Simone; Amicucci, Cristina; Bartolini, Roberto; Marangi, Marianna; Di Cesare, Angela

    This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65.21%), these being the most frequent association: E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Thirty-seven (46.25%) out of the 80 faecal samples from bears were positive for parasite eggs. Fourteen (37.83%) samples were positive for B. transfuga, and six (16.21%) of them also contained Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, one (2.7%) E. aerophilus and one (2.7%) both E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Of the other samples, 19 (51.35%) were positive for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, two (5.4%) for E. aerophilus and two (5.4%) for both. Molecular analysis found the roundworm and capillariid eggs found in wolves and bear samples to be Toxocara canis, Baylisascaris transfuga and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). Considering the high prevalence of zoonotic intestinal helminths detected in this study, it is important to improve the knowledge and awareness of the general public and park operators regarding the potential health risk associated with infections in wildlife.

  16. Distribution and risk factors for Plasmodium and helminth co-infections: a cross-sectional survey among children in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania.

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    Nahya Salim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania.A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura, schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis.Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992, helminth 28.5% (283/992; 5% (50/992 had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001, with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0-2.1], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.3. Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection.The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections.

  17. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  18. Parasitic intestinal infections in humans between 2006 and 2007

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    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006-07 faecal specimens of 2.132 subjects (1.508 adults and 624 children were examined for ova & parasites, using direct and after formalin-ethylacetate concentration microscopy, and permanent specific stains. 380 bubjects (17.8 % were infected: 313 adults (20.8 % and 67 children (10.7 %. 331 cases (15.5 % were infected by pathogens, 275 adults (18.2 % and 56 children (9.0 %. 389 pathogenic or not pathogenic protozoa (18.2 % and 60 helminths (2.8 % were identified, more among adults than children (21.0 % vs 11.5 % and 3.2 % vs 1.8 % respectively.Among protozoa, D. fragilis was in all observed in 145 cases (6.8 %, G. duodenalis in 74 cases (3.5 %, other were very rare.Among helminths nematodes were more frequent than trematodes and cestodes, with S. stercoralis (14 cases and E. vermicularis (13 cases the most frequent ones. 2.302 subjects (1.505 adults and 797 children were examined for microbiological tests because affected by acute or prolonged diarrhoea. 82 cases (3.6 % of protozoal infections were observed, 70 among adults (4.7 % and 12 among children (1.5 %. D. fragilis was in all prevalent (2.0 % in respect of G. duodenalis (1.0 % or other ones (0.6 %. For S. stercoralis specific investigation, modified Baermann method / larvae colture were performed: 20/189 cases (10.6 % od strongyloidiasis was diagnosed in adults. For E. vermicularis investigation, scotch test was performer: 43/179 cases (24.0% of enterobiasis was diagnosed. The Authors underline the application of standard operative procedures for O & P with permanent specific stains in subject affected by enterites too, and the analysis of more specimens for each subjects for good diagnostical performances.

  19. Age and Sex Distribution of Intestinal Parasitic Infection Among HIV Infected Subjects in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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    Herbert Obi Okpala

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215 subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 28.4%. Infection rate among HIV seropositve subjects (42.9% was statistically higher than that among HIV seronegative subjects (25.6% (P0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the parasitic infection between HIV-seropositive males and females and among the various age groups (P>0.05. Adequate treatment, proper health education and good hygiene will help in reducing intestinal parasitic infection

  20. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  1. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...

  2. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in three geographical zones of Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children was assessed in three geographical zones (rural, semi-urban and urban) in Rivers State, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected following ethical approval and consent from parents and teachers of the pupils and analyzed using both wet ...

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  5. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine ...

  7. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Tang, Lin-Hua; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Chen, Ying-Dan; Yang, Yi-Chao; Lin, Shao-Xiong

    2010-10-13

    Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years), from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test). Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ STH moderate-to-heavy intensity infections (OR = 1.93;95%CI:1.19,3.11); (2) anaemia (OR = 3.26;95%CI: 2.02,5.27); (3) education level of mother (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.39,3.25). The overall prevalence of major STH infections was 36.7%, STH moderate-to-heavy intensity infections was 16.7%. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm and co-infection were 18.5%, 11.2%, 14.7% and 9.1% respectively. The prevalence of anaemic children (HB STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order

  8. Intestinal immune response to human Cryptosporidium sp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Guerrant. 2007. Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum...Asgharpour, C. T. Ng, D. P. Calfee, R. L. Guerrant, V. Maro, S. Ole-Nguyaine, and J. F. Shao. 2005. Short report: asymptomatic Cryptosporidium hominis ...JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intestinal immune response to human Cryptosporidium sp. infection 5a

  9. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the acetonemia syndrome in children with severe acute intestinal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriachkin, N I; Chudakova, T K; Buchkova, T N

    2012-12-01

    A total of 55 children suffering from acute intestinal infection severe in age from 3 months to 7 years; of these, 37 patients with atsetonemicheskim syndrome (AS). Found that the development AS in children with acute intestinal infections severe, aggravate the disease. In children with acute intestinal infection with the syndrome, the duration of atsetonemicheskim main symptoms of intoxication in the 1,2-1,5 times longer than those of children suffering from acute intestinal infection without atsetonemicheskogo syndrome.

  10. Faecal egg counts from field experiment reveal density dependence in helminth fecundity: Strongyloides robustus infecting grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, L A; Cauchie, S; Martinoli, A; Matthysen, E; Saino, N; Ferrari, N

    2014-09-01

    Investigation of endo-macroparasite infections in living animals relies mostly on indirect methods aimed to detect parasite eggs in hosts' faeces. However, faecal flotation does not provide quantitative information on parasite loads, whereas faecal egg count (FEC) techniques may not give reliable estimates of parasite intensity, since egg production may be affected by density-dependent effects on helminth fecundity. We addressed this issue using Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and their gastrointestinal nematode Strongyloides robustus to assess the performance of coprological techniques and to investigate factors affecting parasite fecundity. We compared results of gut examination, flotation and McMaster FECs in 65 culled grey squirrels. Sensitivity and specificity of flotation were 81.2% (Confidence Interval, CI 54.3-95.9%) and 85.7% (CI 72.7-94.1%), respectively, resulting in low positive predictive values when infection prevalence is low. Individual parasite fecundity (no. of eggs/adult female worm) was negatively affected by S. robustus intensity, leading to a non-linear relationship between parasite load and eggs/gram of faeces (EPG). As a consequence, whereas flotation may be a valid method to perform the first screening of infection status, FECs are not a reliable method to estimate S. robustus intensity, since diverse values of EPG may correspond to the same number of parasites. Neither the amount of analysed faeces nor the season had any effect on EPG, indicating that the observed reduction in helminth fecundity is likely caused exclusively by density-dependent processes such as competition among worms or host immune response.

  11. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R.; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S.; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z.; Larraondo, Manuel A.; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares; Siracusa, Mark; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)–biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. Methods. The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. Results. Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non–STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. Conclusions. A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection. PMID:26486638

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z; Larraondo, Manuel A; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares; Siracusa, Mark; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)-biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non-STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prevalência de helmintos intestinais em três mesorregiões do Estado de Minas Gerais Prevalence of intestinal helminths in three regions of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das helmintoses intestinais em 18.973 escolares do primeiro grau (7 a 14 anos, da rede pública do Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando o método de Kato-Katz de exame de fezes (duas lâminas por amostra. Foram estudadas 3 mesorregiões: Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba (60 municípios, Noroeste de Minas (13 e Sul/Sudoeste (144. Entre os escolares examinados, 15.545 (82% estavam negativos, 2.863 (15% monoparasitados e 565 (3% poliparasitados. A prevalência de A. lumbricoides foi de 10,3%, de T. trichiura 4,7%, de ancilostomídeos 2,9%, de E. vermicularis 1,2%, de H. nana 0,4% e de Taenia sp 0,2%. As maiores prevalências de helmintos/mesorregião foram de 24,2% para T. trichiura e 18,7% para A. lumbricoides (Sul/Sudoeste e 12,1% para ancilostomídeos e 0,7% para Taenia sp (Noroeste de Minas. As helmintoses intestinais continuam sendo um grave problema de saúde pública, inclusive em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas são mais favoráveis.A parasitological assay of feces, through the Kato-Katz method, was undertaken in 18,973 schoolchildren (7 to 14 years old, at primary school level, from a public school of the State of Minas Gerais. Three mesoregions were studied: Triângulo Mineiro/ Alto Paraíba ( 60 municipalities; northwest Minas Gerais (13 and south/south-west regions of Minas Gerais (144. Among the examined children, 15,545 (82% were negative; 2,863 (15% were infected with a single species of helminthes and 565 (3% were infected by more than one species. The prevalence rates were: A. lumbricoides 10.3%; T. trichiura 4.7%; hookworm 2.9%; E. vermicularis 1.2%; H. nana 0.4% and Taenia sp 0.2%. The largest helminthes prevalence/mesoregion were for T. trichiura (24.2% and A. lumbricoides (18.7% in the south/south-west region; hookworm (12.1% and Taenia sp (0.7% in the northwest region of Minas Gerais. Intestinal helminthiasis is still regarded as a serious public health problem, including regions where

  14. Intestinal helminthiasis in children in a suburb of Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various risk factors have been known to predispose children to intestinal helminths infections. We evaluated the impact of multisectoral risk factors on infection prevalence in school children using questionnaire and stool examination. Pupils' hawking habits, schools, classes, antihelminthic prophylaxis, parents' occupation ...

  15. Life history, immune function, and intestinal helminths: Trade-offs among immunoglobulin E, C-reactive protein, and growth in an Amazonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2010-01-01

    Infection with helminths is associated with shifts in host immunity, including increased production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and reduced inflammation. Given limited energy budgets, these shifts may involve changes in energy allocation toward competing demands. Here we test for potential trade-offs between growth, IgE, and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Dried blood spots and anthropometrics were collected from 162 Shuar forager-horticulturalists from a village in southeastern Ecuador. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to measure IgE and CRP. Relationships among IgE, CRP, and anthropometrics were examined in three groups: children aged 2-7 years (n = 63), children aged 8-15 (n = 61), and adults over age 18 (n = 37). Geometric mean IgE was 1,196 IU ml⁻¹ while geometric mean CRP was 1.33 mg l⁻¹. In children, IgE and CRP were negatively correlated (r = -0.21, P = 0.02, df = 122). Controlling for fat stores and age, IgE was associated with lower stature in children (t = -2.04, P = 0.04, df = 109), and adults (t = -3.29, P < 0.01, df = 33). In children there was a significant interaction between age and CRP, such that in younger children CRP was associated with shorter stature, but in older children was associated with greater stature (t = 2.15, P = 0.04, df = 109). These results suggest that infection with helminths may have hidden costs associated with immunological changes, and that these costs may ultimately affect growth and other life history parameters. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  18. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  19. Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Gregory F; Kenyon, Fiona; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2018-03-09

    Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to investigate how season, age and sex were associated with parasite prevalence and count intensity, while Poisson models were used to quantify individual repeatability within and between sampling seasons. Parasite intensity and prevalence varied according to all investigated factors, with opposing seasonality, age profiles and sex biases between parasite taxa. Repeatability was moderate, decreased between seasons and varied between parasites; both F. hepatica and E. cervi showed significant between-season repeatability, while strongyle nematode counts were only repeatable within-season and showed no repeatability within individuals across the year.

  20. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry M.; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  1. Extracellular vesicles from parasitic helminths contain specific excretory/secretory proteins and are internalized in intestinal host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcilla

    Full Text Available The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30-100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents.

  2. Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.

  3. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and nutritional status in school-age children from rural communities in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76 ± 1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (pHonduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research.

  4. The effect of improved rural sanitation on diarrhoea and helminth infection: design of a cluster-randomized trial in Orissa, India

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    Clasen Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substantially to child mortality and morbidity. Obtaining health impact data for rural sanitation campaigns poses a number of methodological challenges. Here we describe the design of a village-level cluster-randomised trial in the state of Orissa, India to evaluate the impact of an ongoing rural sanitation campaign conducted under the umbrella of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC.We randomised 50 villages to the intervention and 50 villages to control. In the intervention villages the implementing non-governmental organisations conducted community mobilisation and latrine construction with subsidies given to poor families. Control villages receive no intervention. Outcome measures include (1 diarrhoea in children under 5 and in all ages, (2 soil-transmitted helminth infections, (3 anthropometric measures, (4 water quality, (5 number of insect vectors (flies, mosquitoes, (6 exposure to faecal pathogens in the environment. In addition we are conducting process documentation (latrine construction and use, intervention reach, cost and cost-effectiveness analyses, spatial analyses and qualitative research on gender and water use for sanitation. Results Randomisation resulted in an acceptable balance between trial arms. The sample size requirements appear to be met for the main study outcomes. Delays in intervention roll-out caused logistical problems especially for the planning of health outcome follow-up surveys. Latrine coverage at the end of the construction period (55% remained below the target of 70%, a result that may, however, be in line with many other TSC intervention areas in India. Conclusion We discuss a number of methodological problems encountered thus far in this study that may be typical for sanitation trials

  5. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

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    Stefanie Gall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-02-14

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits.

  7. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been estimated that chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites contribute to 17.8% of the global burden of cancer, although only a relatively small proportion of the infection-related cancers can be attributed to helminth infections. These are important because of the high...... and any failure in the control of the immunological components involved in this response can lead to chronic inflammation. This may generate a microenvironment that might be conducive to the initiation and development of cancer. Inflammatory cells generate free radicals and nitrogen species, which can......-malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini...

  8. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computed tomography for diagnosis of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Schonlau, R.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    To check the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the intestine, CT findings in ten patients with coloscopically proven CMV infection were reviewed. All patients were chronically ill men with AIDS. In nine of the ten cases CT scans of the small intestine and/or colon disclosed abnormalities. The predominant alteration (9/9) was a symmetric wall thickening in the bowel segments involved (10-30 mm). The location and extent showed good agreement with the inflammatory areas seen on coloscopy. The cecum and terminal ileum were the regions most frequently affected. In seven of the nine patients with CT abnormalities CT revealed pericolonic inflammation, particularly around the cecum. Lymph nodes were increased but not enlarged. Comparison of the findings in intestinal CMV infection with those in other AIDS-related diseases suggests that CT may be to limit the differential diagnosis. Abdominal CT serves as suitable primary imaging modality for the initial evaluation of patients with AIDS and abdominal symptoms of unknow etiology. (orig.)

  10. Intestinal antimicrobial peptides during homeostasis, infection and disease

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    Luciana R Muniz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including defensins and cathelicidins, constitute an arsenal of innate regulators of paramount importance in the gut. The intestinal epithelium is exposed to myriad of enteric pathogens and these endogenous peptides are essential to fend off microbes and protect against infections. It is becoming increasingly evident that AMPs shape the composition of the commensal microbiota and help maintain intestinal homeostasis. They contribute to innate immunity, hence playing important functions in health and disease. AMP expression is tightly controlled by the engagement of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and their impairment is linked to abnormal host responses to infection and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In this review, we provide an overview of the mucosal immune barriers and the intricate crosstalk between the host and the microbiota during homeostasis. We focus on the AMPs and pay particular attention to how PRRs promote their secretion in the intestine. Furthermore, we discuss their production and main functions in three different scenarios, at steady state, throughout infection with enteric pathogens and IBD.

  11. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR.

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    Phonepasong Ayé Soukhathammavong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg and mebendazole (500 mg for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples were randomly assigned to albendazole (n=100 and mebendazole (n=100. Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment, and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline at 21-23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.8; P=0.01, and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001.

  12. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission...

  13. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  14. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    P. 196-198,Mar-Abr. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência dos métodos de Kato-Katz e sedimentação espontânea para o diagnóstico das helmintíases intestinais. A sensibilidade da técnica de sedimentação espontânea foi superior aquela encontrada pelo método de Kato-Katz para o diagnóstico de todos os helmintos, exceto para Schistosoma mansoni.

  15. Effects of Helminth Eradication on the Immune System

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    Ziva Weisman

    2017-07-01

    missed and did not receive the antihelminth treatment. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that helminth infection is associated with profound immune changes that are normalized within a short time after helminth eradication. They also strengthen the hypothesis that effective antihelminth interventions, in areas endemic for intestinal helminths, may have an impact on AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics.

  16. Impact of long-term treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections.

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    Ana Lucia Moncayo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6-16 years from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0-5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.03-0.14 and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.70, but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments.Annual and twice-annual treatments with ivermectin over a period

  17. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  18. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths infections in children in São Tomé and Príncipe: do we think Giardia when addressing parasite control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Baptista-Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Dinamene; Rodrigues, Rúben; Neves, Edgar; Lima, António; Garrido, Eduardo; Afonso, Guilherme; Zaky, Ahmed; Telles de Freitas, Paulo; Atouguia, Jorge; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis prevalence is commonly as high as soil-transmitted helminths (STH), nevertheless is not considered for large-scale chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA) due to its short incubation period and frequent reinfections, its control being associated to improving access to water and sanitation. A study enrolling 444 children attending preschools was conducted in May 2011 during a deworming campaign. Faecal samples were obtained and analysed through microscopy of wet mounting and after Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques. The majority of children were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite (86.7%, 385 of 444). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (56.3%, 250 of 444 and 52.5%, 233 of 444, respectively) were the most frequent parasites followed by G. duodenalis infecting 41.7% (185 of 444) of the children. The present work aimed at obtaining updated information concerning intestinal parasite infections in children attending preschools in São Tomé and Príncipe and to contribute for the adequate management of the enteric infections. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  20. Assessment of a school-based mass treatment for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Capiz, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Taylor, Laura; Macatangay, Bernard Jonas C; Veldkamp, Peter; Belizario, Vicente Y

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the War on Worms in the Western Visayas (WOW-V) school-based mass treatment strategy in Capiz, the Philippines by assessing potential determinants of program acceptance among parents, teachers, and local health and education officials involved. Written surveys were distributed to parents and teachers assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Associations between data were examined using the Fisher's exact test (alpha = 0.05). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were employed to analyze teacher survey results. Local health and education officials participated in key-informant interviews (KIs) to evaluate their attitudes and practices regarding WOW-V; data was qualitatively analyzed and grouped. A strong association was observed between parental consent during the first two rounds of treatment and willingness to do so again. Most parents gave consent for their child to receive treatment at least once and demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding STH infections. The majority of teachers had positive attitudes toward their role in the program. Many identified lack of training and a fear of side effects as barriers to higher coverage. Lack of funding, program monitoring difficulties and insufficient parental education were identified by local officials as barriers. Proper planning and design is important to achieve high initial consent for program acceptance. The results correlate with studies showing relationships between health education and treatment acceptance. The implementation of health education and monitoring measures has the potential to greatly improve both treatment coverage and program infrastructure.

  1. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.

  2. IL-1β suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M Zaiss

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β(-/-, or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity.

  3. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

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    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  4. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  5. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  6. Poliovirus mutants excreted by a chronically infected hypogammaglobulinemic patient establish persistent infections in human intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Karine; Pelletier, Isabelle; Saulnier, Aure; Martin, Javier; Colbere-Garapin, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Immunodeficient patients whose gut is chronically infected by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) may excrete large amounts of virus for years. To investigate how poliovirus (PV) establishes chronic infections in the gut, we tested whether it is possible to establish persistent VDPV infections in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Four type 3 VDPV mutants, representative of the viral evolution in the gut of a hypogammaglobulinemic patient over almost 2 years [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 3001], were used to infect both undifferentiated, dividing cells, and differentiated, polarized enterocytes. A VDPV mutant excreted 36 days postvaccination by the patient was lytic in both types of intestinal cell cultures, like the parental Sabin 3 (S3) strain. In contrast, three VDPVs excreted 136, 442, and 637 days postvaccination, established persistent infections both in undifferentiated cells and in enterocytes. Thus, viral determinants selected between day 36 and 136 conferred on VDPV mutants the capacity to infect intestinal cells persistently. The percentage of persistently VDPV-infected cultures was higher in enterocytes than in undifferentiated cells, implicating cellular determinants involved in the differentiation of enterocytes in persistent VDPV infections. The establishment of persistent infections in enterocytes was not due to poor replication of VDPVs in these cells, but was associated with reduced viral adsorption to the cell surface

  7. Comparison of Individual and Pooled Stool Samples for the Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Intensity and Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zeleke; Meka, Selima; Ayana, Mio; Bogers, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy. Methods/Principal Findings Stool samples from 840 children attending 14 primary schools in Jimma, Ethiopia were pooled (pool sizes of 10, 20, and 60) to evaluate the infection intensity of STHs. In addition, the efficacy of a single dose of mebendazole (500 mg) in terms of fecal egg count reduction (FECR; synonym of egg reduction rate) was evaluated in 600 children from two of these schools. Individual and pooled samples were examined with the McMaster egg counting method. For each of the three STHs, we found a significant positive correlation between mean fecal egg counts (FECs) of individual stool samples and FEC of pooled stool samples, ranging from 0.62 to 0.98. Only for A. lumbricoides was any significant difference in mean FEC of the individual and pooled samples found. For this STH species, pools of 60 samples resulted in significantly higher FECs. FECR for the different number of samples pooled was comparable in all pool sizes, except for hookworm. For this parasite, pools of 10 and 60 samples provided significantly higher FECR results. Conclusion/Significance This study highlights that pooling stool samples holds promise as a strategy for rapidly assessing infection intensity and efficacy of administered drugs in programs to control human STHs. However, further research is required to determine when and how pooling of stool samples can be cost-effectively applied along a control program, and to verify whether this approach is also applicable to other NTDs. PMID:23696905

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  9. The goblet cell is the cellular source of the anti-microbial angiogenin 4 in the large intestine post Trichuris muris infection.

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    Ruth A Forman

    Full Text Available Mouse angiogenin 4 (Ang4 has previously been described as a Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptide important in epithelial host defence in the small intestine. However, a source for Ang4 in the large intestine, which is devoid of Paneth cells, has not been defined.Analysis was performed on Ang4 expression in colonic tissue by qPCR and immunohistochemistry following infection with the large intestine dwelling helminth parasite Trichuris muris. This demonstrated an increase in expression of the peptide following infection of resistant BALB/c mice. Further, histological analysis of colonic tissue revealed the cellular source of this Ang4 to be goblet cells. To elucidate the mechanism of Ang4 expression immunohistochemistry and qPCR for Ang4 was performed on colonic tissue from T. muris infected mouse mutants. Experiments comparing C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, which have a natural inactivating mutation of TLR4, revealed that Ang4 expression is TLR4 independent. Subsequent experiments with IL-13 and IL-4 receptor alpha deficient mice demonstrated that goblet cell expression of Ang4 is controlled either directly or indirectly by IL-13.The cellular source of mouse Ang4 in the colon following T. muris infection is the goblet cell and expression is under the control of IL-13.

  10. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  11. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  12. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  13. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations for the

  14. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  15. Prevalence of Human Intestinal Helminthiasis in Njikoka Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included: Ancyclostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoiides,Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides steroralis, Taenia spp, and Schistosoma mansoni. Of the 1,059 stool specimens examined, 527 were infected giving a prevalence of 49.7%. The prevalence of intestinal helminth ...

  16. Immunomodulation by helminth parasites: defining mechanisms and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Henry J; Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological and interventional human studies, as well as experiments in animal models, strongly indicate that helminth parasitic infections can confer protection from immune dysregulatory diseases such as allergy, autoimmunity and colitis. Here, we review the immunological pathways that helminths exploit to downregulate immune responses, both against bystander specificities such as allergens and against antigens from the parasites themselves. In particular, we focus on a highly informative laboratory system, the mouse intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as a tractable model of host-parasite interaction at the cellular and molecular levels. Analysis of the molecules released in vitro (as excretory-secretory products) and their cellular targets is identifying individual parasite molecules and gene families implicated in immunomodulation, and which hold potential for future human therapy of immunopathological conditions. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Helminth parasites of Lemniscomys striatus (striped grass mouse and Cricetomys gambianus (giant African rat in Nsukka, Nigeria

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    Ezeudu Terry Adaeze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the helminth profile of Lemniscomys striatus (L. striatus and Cricetomys gambianus (C. gambianus in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria, and their zoonotic potentials and public health risk. Methods: A total of 63 rodents were captured during the study period, of which 54 (85.7% were L. striatus and 9 (14.3% were C. gambianus. Following evisceration, various organs from the rodents (the lungs, liver, stomach, small intestines and large intestines were split open and thoroughly examined under a stereomicroscope. The liver samples were subjected to histopathological processing and examination. Results: No helminth parasite was found in C. gambianus while 44 (81.5% of L. striatus were infected with one or more species of helminth parasites. And 10 (18.5% and 34 (63% of L. striatus had mixed and single infections, respectively. Three helminth species were recovered during the study. Two nematodes [Capillaria hepatica (C. hepatica and Protospirura spp.] and one cestode parasite (Hymenolepis spp. were found at prevalence rates of 3.7%, 14.8% and 81.5%, respectively. Histopathology revealed the typical characteristic bipolar plugs of C. hepatica ova. There were also massive areas of degenerative necrosis of hepatocytes, fibrous encapsulation of C. hepatica ova and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusions: Two out of the three helminths (C. hepatica and Hymenolepis spp. recovered in this study are of serious zoonotic importance and thus pose great public health risk to the community.

  18. Dietary cinnamaldehyde enhances acquisition of specific antibodies following helminth infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Krych, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific...... immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Parasite-naïve pigs fed diets supplemented......) and glucose transporter 2 (SLC2A2) in the jejunal mucosa of A.suum-infected pigs. Dietary CA induced only limited changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota of A. suum-infected pigs, and in vitro experiments showed that CA did not directly induce proliferation or increase secretion of Ig...

  19. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  20. Infection strategies of intestinal parasite pathogens and host cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martorell Di Genova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading cause worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these tree pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways and cell death.

  1. Turning poop into profit: Cost-effectiveness and soil transmitted helminth infection risk associated with human excreta reuse in Vietnam.

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    Ngan Tran-Thi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1 a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2 a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001 times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26. Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr; however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.

  2. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

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    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50 of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65 against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results

  3. Turning poop into profit: Cost-effectiveness and soil transmitted helminth infection risk associated with human excreta reuse in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Thi, Ngan; Lowe, Rachel J; Schurer, Janna M; Vu-Van, Tu; MacDonald, Lauren E; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-11-01

    Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1) a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2) a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001) times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26). Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND) followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND) and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months) with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr); however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.

  4. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection.

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    Dominik Rückerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2 similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections in Okada rural community, Edo State, Nigeria: a four year retrospective study

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    Bankole H. Oladeinde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined for presence of ova, cyst and trophozoites of parasites using standard methods. Patient’s age ranged from 6 months to 73 years. Study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections increased significantly (P=0.003 from 14.7% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2010. In the study period, gender did not affect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (P>0.05. Patients within <1-10 years had significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent, while Schistosoma japonicum was the least prevalent. With respect to parasite, males were observed to have consistently higher prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed to significantly increase from 2007 to 2010. Age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent in all years of study. Control and prevention measures are advocated.

  6. Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?

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    Sandra Maximiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1. An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2, due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper.

  7. Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano de; Gomides, Ana Paula Monteiro; Mota, Lícia Maria Henrique da; Lima, Caliandra Maria Bezerra Luna; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1). An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2), due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in an indigenous community in Ortigueira, Paraná, Brazil and relationship with its nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, A; Scolari, C; Torti, C; Urbani, C

    2002-12-01

    Within the frame of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for the control of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections, a baseline survey has been conducted in Queimadas Indian schoolchildren (group A) as compared with urban schoolchildren (group B), both located in Ortigueira, Paraná, Brazil, with the aim of orientating investigations. In an opportunistic study, the possible relationship between STH infection and nutritional status has been investigated. A total of 236 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years were enrolled, 100 in group A and 136 in group B. Prevalence of STH infections and heavy intensity infections were significantly higher in the group A (P STH infections was noted. These results strongly suggested that mass treatment would be indicated in the indigenous community, possibly leading to improved nutritional status.

  9. Soil Transmitted Helminths and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. Results: The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% ...

  10. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

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    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  12. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

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    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  13. The M3 Muscarinic Receptor Is Required for Optimal Adaptive Immunity to Helminth and Bacterial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Matthew; Schnoeller, Corinna; Vira, Alykhan; Culley, Fiona; Bobat, Saeeda; Logan, Erin; Kirstein, Frank; Wess, Jürgen; Cunningham, Adam F.; Brombacher, Frank; Selkirk, Murray E.; Horsnell, William G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity is regulated by cholinergic signalling through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We show here that signalling through the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays an important role in adaptive immunity to both Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, as M3R-/- mice were impaired in their ability to resolve infection with either pathogen. CD4 T cell activation and cytokine production were reduced in M3R-/- mice. Immunity to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis was severely impaired, with reduced cytokine responses in M3R-/- mice accompanied by lower numbers of mucus-producing goblet cells and alternatively activated macrophages in the lungs. Ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation of cells from intact BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis and S. typhimurium with muscarinic agonists resulted in enhanced production of IL-13 and IFN-γ respectively, which was blocked by an M3R-selective antagonist. Our data therefore indicate that cholinergic signalling via the M3R is essential for optimal Th1 and Th2 adaptive immunity to infection. PMID:25629518

  14. The M3 muscarinic receptor is required for optimal adaptive immunity to helminth and bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Matthew; Schnoeller, Corinna; Vira, Alykhan; Culley, Fiona Jane; Culley, Fiona; Bobat, Saeeda; Logan, Erin; Kirstein, Frank; Wess, Jürgen; Cunningham, Adam F; Brombacher, Frank; Selkirk, Murray E; Horsnell, William G C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity is regulated by cholinergic signalling through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We show here that signalling through the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays an important role in adaptive immunity to both Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, as M3R-/- mice were impaired in their ability to resolve infection with either pathogen. CD4 T cell activation and cytokine production were reduced in M3R-/- mice. Immunity to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis was severely impaired, with reduced cytokine responses in M3R-/- mice accompanied by lower numbers of mucus-producing goblet cells and alternatively activated macrophages in the lungs. Ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation of cells from intact BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis and S. typhimurium with muscarinic agonists resulted in enhanced production of IL-13 and IFN-γ respectively, which was blocked by an M3R-selective antagonist. Our data therefore indicate that cholinergic signalling via the M3R is essential for optimal Th1 and Th2 adaptive immunity to infection.

  15. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

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    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  16. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  17. Development of cognitive abilities of children infected with helminths through health education

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, Lucas; Miranda, Aline; Faria, Isabela Marinho; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education in learning and cognitive development of children infected, previously treated in an endemic area for helminthiasis. METHODS: It is a longitudinal, experimental, with random allocation of participants. The study included 87 children of both sexes enrolled in the school hall of Maranhão, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and divided into two groups: intervention and control. Initially the children were submitted to...

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections in Bekasi district, West Java, Indonesia and a comparison of the infection rates determined by different techniques for fecal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Shoji; Kimura, Daisuke; Kimura, Kenji; Margono, Sri S

    2002-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in West Java, Indonesia, and to compare the infection rates obtained by three different methods of fecal examination. A total of 285 fecal samples were collected from 131 males and 154 females at a junior high school. Samples were brought to the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, and were examined for parasites by the Kato-Katz thick smear method (K-K). The residual samples were suspended in more than five volumes of 2% potassium dichromate solution and brought to the Department of Parasitology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan, where they were examined for parasites by the Army Medical School method (AMS III) and by the Sucrose Centrifugal Flotation method (SFL). The K-K revealed a total of two helminths with a prevalence of 10% (29/285). In contrast, nine species of parasites, 31% (89/285) positive, were obtained by AMS III, while 10 species, 22% (62/285) were found by SFL. Overall, 12 species of parasites were detected by the three methods: four species of nematoda (Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Enterobius vermicularis); five species of protozoa (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica-like cyst, E. coli, Cyclospora sp, Blastocystis hominis); two unidentified species of nematode eggs; and one unidentified species of mite egg.

  19. Development of cognitive abilities of children infected with helminths through health education

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    Lucas Lobato

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education in learning and cognitive development of children infected, previously treated in an endemic area for helminthiasis. METHODS: It is a longitudinal, experimental, with random allocation of participants. The study included 87 children of both sexes enrolled in the school hall of Maranhão, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and divided into two groups: intervention and control. Initially the children were submitted to the parasitological fecal examination for infection diagnosis and, when positive, they were treated. For the data collection, a structured questionnaire and the psychological tests Raven, Wisc-III and DAP III were applied, before and after the educational intervention. For the group comparison, the Mann Whitney test was used, and established significance level of 5%. RESULTS: It was found that previously infected children who received the educational intervention, children showed higher performance than the control group in strutured questionnaire (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It is acceptable to suppose the positive influence and the importance in the use of educational interventions in the cognitive recovery and learning of children previously treated with anthelmintics.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Whitni K.; Bryant, Jay E.; Ahmad, Gul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species

  1. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Sierra Ruiz, C.I.; Hermans, P.W.; Hoek, D.; Campos Ponce, M.; de Waard, J.H.; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.Methods:This

  2. Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Gijón-Botella, Herminia; Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, María; Martín-Oval, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Conrado; Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes; Araújo, Adauto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status.

  3. Helminth Fauna Associated with Three Neotropical Bat Species (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.

  4. Incidence of helminth parasites on the Electric fish, Malapterurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminth infestation of the electric fish, Malapterurus electricus, was investigated in River Kaduna, Nigeria without bias for age and sex. Fresh specimens were examined for helminths in their fins, gills, buccal cavity, stomach, intestine, liver and muscle, for a period of one year (June 1998 to May 1999), of the 228 samples ...

  5. Efficacy of single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in soil-transmitted helminth infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrus, J; Baeten, B; Engelen, M; Silber, S A

    2018-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms). Mebendazole is one of the recommended preventive chemotherapy agents for STH. This review summarizes the efficacy data from 29 studies with single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in STH treatment and compares the results with those of a recently conducted phase 3 study of a 500 mg mebendazole chewable tablet against A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. Studies that reported efficacy results against at least one STH infection were selected from the literature and efficacy data by each STH type were abstracted and pooled. Single-dose 500 mg mebendazole treatment resulted in a cure rate of 92.6% (range: 72.5-100%) for A. lumbricoides, 27.6% (range: 8.4-100%) for T. trichiura and 25.5% (range: 2.9-91.1%) for hookworms. Egg reduction rate for A. lumbricoides was 97.9% (range: 89.8-100%), for T. trichiura it was 72.9% (range: 31.6-93.0%) and for hookworms it was 72.0% (range: -6.5% (denoting an increase in egg count) to 98.3%). Similar results were observed in the