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Sample records for intestinal diseases parasitic

  1. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  2. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  3. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  4. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  5. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  6. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µl respectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µl respectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350 cell/µl. Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients.

  8. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from children facing diarrheal disease and associated risk factors in ...

  9. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

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    Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study’s objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed.

  10. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic diseases Parasitosis intestinales, cisticercosis e hidatidosis

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    David Botero

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país. 

  12. [Incidence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Tuncay; Daldal, Nilgün; Karaman, Ulkü; Aycan, Ozlem M; Atambay, Metin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in the central region of Malatya and to educate the children about parasitic diseases. During the study, cellophane tape preparations and stool samples that had been prepared using direct mounting methods were examined. In addition the students were informed about intestinal parasites. Parasitic infection was observed in 415 (22.5%) out of 1838 students and the highest rate of 10.6% was that of Enterobius vermicularis. The rates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Taenia sp., Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Iodamoeba butschlii were found to be 8.5%, 1.9%, 1.4%, 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.05%, respectively. Thus, intestinal parasites are important among primary school children in Malatya and it seems that there is a relationship between socioeconomic conditions and the rate of intestinal parasites.

  13. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study confirms a relatively high level of helminthic parasites in school children in Owerri municipality. By this, it is clear that there is a need for intervention in the area to control the disease. Keywords: Intestinal parasites; worms; school children; public health; Nigeria International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ...

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPIs due to intestinal protozoa and helminths are re- sponsible for some of the most devastating and preva- lent diseases of humans, i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, collectively referred to as soil- transmitted helminths (STHs), and are the most common intestinal parasites4; while Giardia ...

  16. Studies in intestinal parasitic disease agents in stools of people in a rural area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C N; Azubike, C N

    1992-01-01

    A summary of 300 villagers who reported at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Medical Laboratory Technology (S.M.L.T) Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria was carried out for the presence of parasites' cysts, eggs, or larva. Of the 300 faecal samples examined using the light microscope after formal-ether centrifugation, 127 (42.3%) harboured one or more parasites. The parasites identified and their prevalent rates were: Entamoeba coli (19.0%) Necator americanus (17.0%); Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%); Schistosoma mansoni (3.0%); Giardia lamblia (2.3%); Trichuris trichuria (1.7%); Trichomonas hominis (1.0%); Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%); Hymenolepsis nana (0.3%) Endolimax nana o. 3%); stercoralis (0.23%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (0.3%). The overall infection was 22.7% for the males and 19.7% for the females. Incidence was highest in villagers aged between 21 and 40 years.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  18. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in an urban environment in Sahel. A study in a district of Niamey, Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, J; Badé, M A; Lamotte, M; Campagne, G; Garba, A; Gragnic, G; Bui, A; Kehren, S; Cluzel, F; Chippaux, J P

    1998-01-01

    Health and environment in Niamey, a capital in Sahel, are particularly linked owing to population growth, promiscuity and large pollution induced by human and animal excreta. One district, located in the centre of the town, was surveyed for drinking water quality (ammoniac and bacterial count) and use, as well as for the prevalence of parasites through both a random sample (fixed tools with methiolate-iodine-formaldehyde) and a systematic one (scotch-test). Water consumption was 16.5 litres/day/man from fresh water supplies (87%) and private wells (13%). Ammoniac measures were low in the wells but high in running water (pool and river). It was the same for faecal coliform bacteria. These results give evidence of biotope faecal pollution. The random sample (322 persons, male/female sex ratio 0,85, average age 20,6 years) showed a 42.1% parasitic prevalence. Amoeba was the most frequent parasite (53.6%); and Giardia (14.9%) was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. In the second sample (161 children under 10 years), 24.2% were carriers of oxyuris. This large intestinal parasitism, without any change in connection with previous data in Niger, points to an important fecal contamination of the people more by the way of "dirty hands" than consumption of drinking water. The parasites observed have a short biological cycle, not necessitating long-term maturation in the environment. Those whose ova or larvae must complete their cycle outside have no possibility of surviving in Sahel, thanks to the beneficial effect of sunlight (heat and ultraviolet light). The inhabitants of this district seem to have adapted to intestinal parasitism. But the occurrence of malnutrition linked to a new drought could lead rapidly to a very serious adverse result.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  1. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  2. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN

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    Farnaz Kheirandish

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05. To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food borne diseases are a global public health problem. Food handlers play a major role for the transmission of food borne diseases. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of intestinal parasites, S. typhi carrier rate and risk factors among food handlers at Bahir Dar town. Methods: A ...

  4. Intestinal Parasites of the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal content of the animals were examined with the aid of a hand lens, a microscope and direct smear method. The parasites identified include helminthes such as Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp., Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis sp. and Schistosoma haematobium, and protozoans such as Giardia sp. and Entamoeba sp.

  5. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitism and associated symptomatology among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Frederico F; Barros, Maxlene J; Macedo, Nazaré A; Júnior, Carmelino G E; Redoan, Roseli; Busatti, Haendel; Gomes, Maria A; Santos, Joseph F G

    2013-01-01

    the disease itself, results in immunosuppression by medication. For this reason, carriers of intestinal parasites with pathogenic potential can develop serious clinical complications influencing the success of transplantation. This fact, coupled with the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and the dissociation between symptoms and infection in CRF patients, suggests that the stool test should be incorporated in routine propedeutics. Furthermore, preventive measures for the acquisition of parasites through the fecal-oral contamination route should be introduced.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.

  8. Mechanisms of adaptation in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Hugo D

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a parasite of humans, is a major source of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. Giardia is also an excellent system to study basic biochemical processes because it is a single-celled eukaryote with a small genome and its entire life cycle can be replicated in vitro. Giardia trophozoites undergo fundamental changes to survive outside the intestine of their host by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation entails the synthesis, processing, transport, secretion and extracellular assembly of cyst wall components. To survive within the intestine, Giardia undergoes antigenic variation, a process by which the parasite continuously switches its major surface molecules, allowing the parasite to evade the host's immune response and produce chronic and recurrent infections. The objective of the present chapter is to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation and differentiation in Giardia, with a particular focus on the process of encystation and antigenic variation of this interesting micro-organism.

  9. Prevalence of Opportunistic Intestinal Parasites and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... identified intestinal parasites, Cryptosporidium species accounts for the highest frequency (19/220, 8.63%), followed by Cyclospora species (13/220, 5.90%). Presence of domestic animals (AOR=2.07,. 95%CI:1.07-8.40, P= 0.032) and CD4+ T-cell count <500cell/µl. (AOR=4.66, 95%CI:1.17-5.35, P= 0.001) ...

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability ...

  13. Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun State. ... This study thus advocates routine periodic screening even of the healthy pupils for intestinal parasitosis to minimize morbidity and mortality and improve ... Key Words: intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, School, Nigeria ...

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal para¬sites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in ...

  15. Infection strategies of intestinal parasite pathogens and host cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martorell Di Genova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading cause worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these tree pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways and cell death.

  16. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  17. Age and Sex Distribution of Intestinal Parasitic Infection Among HIV Infected Subjects in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Obi Okpala

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215 subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 28.4%. Infection rate among HIV seropositve subjects (42.9% was statistically higher than that among HIV seronegative subjects (25.6% (P0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the parasitic infection between HIV-seropositive males and females and among the various age groups (P>0.05. Adequate treatment, proper health education and good hygiene will help in reducing intestinal parasitic infection

  18. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  20. Study of Human Gastro-Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis (40.9%) among the pupils. Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections ...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different regions/localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren found in a rural area ...

  2. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.0% of barrow-pushers alone. About 2.3% of van-loaders were infected with ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of intestinal parasites. Sahel Medical ...

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Edo State | Mordi | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between. April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water

  4. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  5. Human intestinal parasitism in a rural settlement of northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other parasites were Entamoeba coli 3.3%, Hookworm 6.0%, Schistosoma mansoni 1.3%, Taenia species 7.3%, while the least common parasite encountered was Strongyloides stercoralis 0.6%.. None of the respondents had access to pipe borne water or bore hole. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in Mbangough ...

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. ... The most common parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides 29.0% (47/162), followed by Giardia lamblia 9.9% (16/162) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 6.8% (11/162) (Other parasites observed but at lower rates of ...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Obateru

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals was high, and its association with CD4+ T cell count was demonstrated. Routine screening for parasitic infestations at diagnosis is indicated to reduce the burden of the disease.

  8. Association of Anthropogenic Disturbances and Intestinal Parasitism in Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, William D; Stehman, Stephen V; Shields, William M; Whipps, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Forest disturbance and human encroachment have the potential to influence intestinal parasite communities in animal hosts by modifying nutritional health, physiological stress, host densities, contact rates, and ranging patterns. Anthropogenic disturbances also have the ability to affect the ecological landscape of parasitic disease, potentially impacting the health of both wildlife and people. Our research investigated the association of forest disturbance and human encroachment on intestinal parasite communities in mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis. We found that individual parasite species prevalence was associated with group size and forest disturbance. Proximity to people was not a direct factor influencing intestinal parasitism; rather, several human proximity indices were related to group size, which was in turn related to overall species richness and the presence of specific parasite species. These results, coupled with previous findings, suggest that anthropogenic disturbances are likely influencing intestinal parasite communities. Though no single study has definitively explained all relationships between anthropogenic disturbances and intestinal parasitism, we propose that our models are appropriate for meta-analysis testing across other species and environments. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Mutalip Çiçek; Hasan Yılmaz

    2011-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method ...

  10. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,

  11. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  12. Intestinal parasites: a study of human appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Schrottenbaum, M; Kliment, V

    1991-01-01

    Histological sections of 414 appendices were examined parasitologically. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 8.7%, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in 0.5%, trophozites of Dientamoeba fragilis in 4.8%, Endolimax nana in 2.2%, Entamoeba coli in 1% and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in 1.9% of cases. Appendicopathies associated with Enterobius were most frequent in the age group from 6 to 10 years (24.3%) and from 21 to 25 years (12.2%). Patients older than 15 years were practically women only. Dientamoeba was most frequent in the age group from 11 to 15 years (11.3%). In women D. fragilis was three times more frequent than in men. The coincidence of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis infections was 50%. No interactions were seen between the protozoans in the contents of the appendix and its mucous membrane. Statistical evaluation indicates possible etiologic role of E. vermicularis in the occurrence of acute appendicities. D. fragilis appears to be the most common intestinal protozoan parasite in Bohemia.

  13. [The investigation of intestinal parasites in foreign high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Hamamci, Berna; Cetınkaya, Ulfet; Kaya, Muhittin; Ateş, Serpil; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ozcan, Hanife; Yazar, Lale; Yazar, Süleyman

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are important health problem especially in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries with low socio-economic status,. In this study, stool and cellophane tape samples were analyzed for intestinal parasites in 192 foreign students who were came from 28 different countries and attending a high school with the age of 15 to 21 (age mean: 17.92 ± 1.30) in Kayseri. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 73 (38 %) of them. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples as follow; Blastocystis hominis; 63 (32.8%); Giardia intestinalis, 13 (6.7 %); Endolimax nana, 8 (4.1%); Entamoeba coli, 7 (3.6%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.52%). There was no any parasite in cellophane tape samples.

  14. Frequency of intestinal parasites in employees of a state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Fırat; İlhan Geçit; Fehime Depecik; Mesut Karadan; Erdal Karcı; Ülkü Karaman; Ayse Turan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, k...

  15. Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day Care Centers in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between intestinal parasite infestation and diarrhea in past 2 months (X =19.5, df = 1, p< 0.001 OR=3.87), de-worming in the past six months(X = 11.13, df =1, p<0.001, OR=4.55) and domestic treatment of drinking water X = 35.38, df =1, p<0.001, OR=4.3) were statistically significant. Intestinal parasite ...

  16. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle ... your blood. Blood tests look for a specific parasite infection; there is no blood test that will look for all parasitic infections. ...

  17. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in paediatric diarrhoeal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the emerging opportunistic parasites detected in diarrhoeal children were Cryptosporidium parvum (8.1%), Isospora belli (2.3%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/ Encephalitozoon intestinalis (0.5%). Other common intestinal parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.9%), Giardia lamblia ...

  18. Aspects of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in World Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a seven months (February to August, 2002) prevalence study of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in the New Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria, using both direct and concentration methods six helminth parasites were recorded. These included Hookworm, Strongyloides sp, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Diphylidium ...

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine ...

  20. Effect of Host Condition on Intestinal Parasite Load and Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...

  1. Assessment of intestinal parasites in goats slaughtered at Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal helminth parasites constitute a serious impediment to small scale animal production by causing high mortality and low production in flocks. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthes in goats slaughtered in Abakaliki Abattoir, Ebonyi State, Nigeria between October and ...

  2. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica, three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of 306 stool samples examined, 62.75% were detected as positive at least for one of the protozoan parasite studied. Species specific ...

  3. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  5. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and ... are given below. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found ... cat feces, soil, and untreated water can lead to severe brain and eye disorders ...

  6. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Sarvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%, Toxocara spp. (18.81%, Taenia hydatigena (15.28%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, and Toxascaris leonina (8.69% were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores' populations.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding cattery cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichi; Itoh, Naoyuki; Kimura, Yuya; Kanai, Kazutaka

    2016-10-01

    To address the lack of up-to-date published data, the present study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding catteries in Japan. Fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from 342 cats (aged 1 month to 12 years) in seven breeding catteries in Japan, located in prefectures of Nagano (n = 2), Saitama (n = 1), Aichi (n = 2), Gifu (n = 1) and Miyagi (n = 1), on a single occasion. The samples were tested for the presence of Giardia species copro-antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Other intestinal parasites were identified microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The total prevalence of intestinal parasites was 20.8%; only two genera of protozoa (Giardia species: 18.7% and Cystoisospora species: 5.0%) were detected. Coinfections of both protozoans were recorded in 2.9% of cats. In contrast, no helminths were detected. The presence of total infection, Giardia species, Cystoisospora species and multiple infections in cats intestinal parasites. Giardia species infection was present in samples from all breeding catteries, except for one facility. Cystoisospora species and coinfections were shown in four and two breeding catteries, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was markedly variable among the breeding catteries. The present study demonstrates the significance of Giardia species and Cystoisospora species infections in breeding cattery cats. Additionally, it is suggested that environmental contamination is the most important factor influencing the prevalence of protozoal infections in breeding catteries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. INTESTINAL AND BLOOD PARASITES OF MAN IN TIMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  9. [Investigation of intestinal parasites in students of Mustafa Cengiz primary school in Van].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Parlak, Mehmet; Cıçek, Mutalip; Yaman, Görkem; Oztürk, Oznur; Cikman, Aytekin; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasites still maintain as a major public health problem in our country. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites in 1st and 2nd grade students of Mustafa Cengiz Primary School, aged between 7-9 and to contribute to the parasitological data of our province. For this purpose, stool examinations of a total of 195 students, including 82 boys and 113 girls, were performed. The results of the microscopic analysis of stool samples revealed one or more parasites in a total of 117 (60%) samples including 45 male students (54.8%) and 72 female students (63.7%). The diagnosed parasites and their ratios in children were; Giardia intestinalis 36.4%, Entamoeba coli 17.9%, Blastocystis hominis 14.4%, Hymenolepis nana 10.8%, Chilomastix mesnili 3.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.6%, Entamoeba hartmanni 1.5%, Trichuris trichiura 1%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.5%, Retortamonas intestinalis 0.5% ve Endolimax nana 0.5%, respectively. From 117 positive samples for parasites, only one parasite was found in 71 (60.7%), and more than one parasites were found in 46 (39.3%). As a result, parasitic infectious diseases still maintain its importance in our region. We conclude that incidence of parasitic infectious diseases will be reduced with education about personal hygiene and improvement of physical conditions.

  10. Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan L; McAtee, Shannon; Bryan, Patricia E; Jeun, Rebecca; Ward, Tabitha; Kraus, Jacob; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Flowers, Catherine C; Mejia, Rojelio

    2017-11-01

    Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus , four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis , and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica . Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/μL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus . Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  14. INFESTATION WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THREE YEAR OLD CHILDREN IN LOWER CARNIOLA IN YEAR 2003

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    Jasmina Patkovič Colarič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a significant difference in a prevalence and type of intestinal parasitic diseases in former time and today. Incidence of parasitic diseases is very much in relationship to social and hygienic circumstances in the environment. Hygienic habits of people also take part of it. For this reason preschool childrens are the most involved subject.Methods. Author wanted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites by preschool children in the Dolenjska region. Feces and perianal prints ware taken during the systematic examination in the pediatric practice. The samples were analyzed in the microbiological laboratory of the Institute of Public Health Novo mesto. The following parasites were searched: Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Trichuris trichiura.Results. Between 315 samples of feces only one contained ovum of Ascaris lumbricoides and between 307 perianal prints only one was positive to Enterobius vermicularis.

  15. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

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    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  17. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    OpenAIRE

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were col...

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in School: a Review Profile Found in the Different Regions From Brazil

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    Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions of Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil

    2005-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.

  20. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection.

  1. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city.

  3. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

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    Suriptiastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  4. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti Suriptiastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of ...

  6. Gastro-intestinal parasites among children in some orphanages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven species of gastro-intestinal parasites – Ascaris lumbricoides (59.14%), hookworm (20.43%), Hymenolepis nana (1.08%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.23%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.30%), Trichuris trichuira (5.38%) and strongyloides stecoralis egg(6.65%) – were identified. Prevalence rate was higher among males ...

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites amongst School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school pupils aged between 0 and 15years in Unwana, Afikpo Ebonyi State was investigated. The formalin-ether concentration technique was used to examine the stool samples of 300 school children. Out of the 300 stool samples examined, Ascaris lumbricoides had ...

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections in three geographical zones of Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children was assessed in three geographical zones (rural, semi-urban and urban) in Rivers State, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected following ethical approval and consent from parents and teachers of the pupils and analyzed using both wet ...

  9. Comparative study of intestinal parasitic infections in asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using structured questionnaire and laboratory diagnostic techniques, blood samples and stool specimens of 371 patients attending selected hospitals and medical laboratories in Jimeta, a suburb of Yola, Nigeria, were screened for HIV antibodies and intestinal parasites. HIV tests were conducted on blood sera using ...

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria between March and June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in various markets within the city. Fifty samples each of 5 different vegetable types, Cabbage (Brassica deracea), Lettuce (Lactus sativa), Carrot (Daucus carota), ...

  13. Observations on the intestinal helminth parasites of cichlids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth parasites of five predominant cichlids; Hemichromis fasciatus, Chromidotilapia guentheri, Tilapia mariae, Tilapia zilli and Tilapia aurea of the upper reaches of River Orogodo in Delta State, Southern Nigeria were examined. The water body was randomly sampled using a ...

  14. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in primates and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the red patas, mangabey and mandrill monkeys and 90.9% (10/11) of the green monkeys were infested. There were higher infestation rates in young NHP than in adults (P<0.05). The infestation rate in males and females were the same (61.1%). The most prevalent gastro-intestinal parasites were Trichuris trichiura ...

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Pupils in Rural North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitism among pupils in rural schools (Almajiris) in Konduga local Government Area of Borno state. Materials and Methods: A total of 257 stool specimens were collected at random among pupils (Almajiris) in rural quranic schools; the stools were processed ...

  16. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.A. Obateru

    2016-05-06

    May 6, 2016 ... nensis (41.2%), Isospora belli (3.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (8.4%), Giardia lamblia (3.7%), Ascaris .... ried out to detect antibodies to HIV 1 and 2 using rapid ... 4. Discussion. Intestinal parasites, especially the opportunistic ones are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients.8.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in the middle belt of Nigeria. Stool samples of six hundred females, consisting of three hundred each of pregnant women and nonpregnant ladies (controls) were collected and ...

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCE.DR SOLOMON ADEJAYAN CHAIRMAN NURTW ONDO STATE

    in Ibadan markets and the need for public enlightenment campaigns on the danger of consuming inadequately washed and raw vegetables. KEYWORDS: Intestinal parasites, vegetable, market, ..... Chernyshenko, A. I., 2006. Current ascariasis situation in the Russian federation. Med. Parasitol., (4):. 40-43. Daryani, A, G. H. ...

  1. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil

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    S. Jeske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  2. pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents in solid wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-03-01

    Mar 1, 2003 ... INTRODUCTION. Refuse, soil, animal waste and sewage sludge are common sources of manure, used to fertilize agriculture. fie1ds(1-3). Studies have revealed the incidence and distribution of many pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents from refuse which infect both man and animals(4-6).

  3. Prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasite infections in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We wanted to establish the relationship of the immunologic status and the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled for antiretroviral therapy at the Vom Christian health centre. Materials & Methods: With their consent, stool samples of 205 subjects were collected and examined parasitologically by ...

  4. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

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    Antonio Marcilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens.

  5. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, frequent assessment of the magnitude and associated factors for intestinal parasitosis is essential for the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending Arba Minch Hospital Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic from March to June 2016.

  6. Associations between common intestinal parasites and bacteria in humans as revealed by qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien Andersen, L.; Karim, A. B.; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we...... set out to investigate potential associations between common single-celled parasites such as Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis and intestinal bacteria. Stool DNA from patients with intestinal symptoms were selected based on being Blastocystis spp.-positive (B+)/negative (B-) and D. fragilis...

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  8. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Badparva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.

  10. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

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    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  11. [Social determinants of intestinal parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio

    2018-02-19

    Characterize the publications on social determinants of intestinal parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia at the global level. A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature in Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar with eight search strategies, guaranteeing completeness and replicability, following the phases of the PRISMA guidelines. The review included 18 studies on malnutrition, three on parasitism, three on anemia, and two on both parasitism and malnutrition; 65.4% of the studies were from South America and 69.2% were carried out among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism ranged between 30.6% and 83.3%; anemia, 19.7% to 48.0%; and malnutrition, 0.0% to 67.8%. It was found that biological and psychosocial determinants were most frequently studied; the most frequently studied intermediate determinants were related to housing and income; and structural determinants were least investigated. The social determinants common to the three conditions include: living in homes with poor sanitary conditions, rural areas, inadequate housing, inadequate water supply, access barriers to the medical system, young parents with little schooling, precarious employment, and low income. The majority of publications do not conduct a multilevel analysis for individual, intermediate, or structural determinants. Greater efforts are needed in health policies that address the social determinants of inequality with respect to parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia, mainly in categories as macroeconomic policy, social class, labor market, culture, values, and territory.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  13. [Investigation of intestinal parasites among primary school students in Kayseri-Hacılar].

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    Hamamcı, Berna; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Delice, Safiye; Erçal, Barış Derya; Gücüyetmez, Süheyla; Yazar, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections are an important health problem which affect children more than adults. Especially in growth-age children, this leads to problems such as malnutrition, malabsorption, growth retardation and learning disabilities. In this study, 328 students who were investigated in two primary schools between the ages of 6 and 14 in Kayseri-Hacılar region were analyzed for intestinal parasites. Stool samples were analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of helminths and protozoon using the native-lugol method. Cellophane tape samples were also analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 116 (35.4 %) children. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples was as follows; Blastocystis hominis, 77 (23.5%); Enterobius vermicularis, 35 (10.7%); Giardia intestinalis, 14 (4.3%); Entamoeba coli, 15 (4.6%); Endolimax nana, 6 (1.8%); Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.3%). Parasitic diseases are a major public health problem and we believe that education about personal hygiene, sanitation rules and parasitic diseases is important to overcome this problem.

  14. Intestinal parasitic fauna and zoonotic potentials of commonly consumed wildlife

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    Okoye I. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Nsukka cultural zone, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the prevalence, intensity and abundance of intestinal endoparasitic fauna of commonly consumed wildlife or bushmeat. From the 143 wild animals sampled, 141 (98.6 % were found at least infected with one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the overall most prevalent (48.8 %. Dicrocoelium hospes differed significantly in age-related prevalence of infection. Significant sex-related difference in infection (P<0.05 was recorded for Strongyloides papillosus, A. lumbricoides, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Moniliformis moniliformis while Taenia saginata and Entamoeba histolytica showed significant seasonal differences in intensity of infection. The results suggest that bush-meats were hosts of various parasites of medical and veterinary importance. There is need for health inspection of bush-meat for trade and consumption.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasites among food-handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food-handlers have been tagged as potential carriers of infectious pathogens which included parasites. Parasitic diseases were some of the leading causes of global mortality, with higher burdens of prevalence in developing countries, especially regions of the world, characterized with contaminated water, coupled with ...

  16. Decreasing Intestinal Parasites in Recent Northern California Refugees

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    Chang, Alicia H.; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001–2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008–2010 versus 12.9%, 2001–2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees. PMID:23149583

  17. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pupils from the public schools were 17.23 times more likely to have intestinal parasitic infestation compared to those from private schools (OR =17.23, 95% CI = 10.6-28.01, p = <0.0001). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequent isolate in both the public (62.8%) and private (66.7%) schools. The prevalence of multiple ...

  18. Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Dogs With Intestinal Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAZ, Alev AKDOĞAN; BAKIREL, Utku; GÖNÜL, Remzi; TAN, Hüseyin

    1999-01-01

    The serum of 66 dogs with intestinal parasites (showing gastrointestinal problems caused by taeniosis, coccidiosis, ancylostomosis, trichuriosis and ascarididosis) was examined by electrophoresis. There were 6 dogs with coccidiosis, 6 dogs with ancylostomosis, 6 dogs with trichuriosis, 24 dogs with taeniosis and 24 dogs with ascarididosis. After agar gel protein electorphoresis of the serum samples, ?1 globulin levels were significantly lower in the coccidiosis group than in the other grou...

  19. Prevalence of Zoonotic and Other Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis domesticus of Kerman, South-East of Iran

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    Sakineh BEIGI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal protozoan parasites constitute a major source of diseases for stray cats and have been recognized as important public health problems in several parts of the world. Considering the potential risk of stray cats for public health, present cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the type and frequency of protozoan parasites by faecal examination. A total of 100 stray cats were examined in Kerman city, Iran, Overall 67 cats (67% were infected with at least one protozoan parasite. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were found; Isospora felis 38%, Isospora rivolta 25%, Toxoplasma gondii 16%, Sarcocystis spp. 8%, Cryptosporidium spp. 7%, and Giardia sp. 5%. Based on our data, the sex of stray cats was not significantly associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan parasites. The high infection rate of zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.We

  20. Parasitic worms and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of inflammatory disease. This review highlights recent findings in this field of research in the context of a broader overview. Some parasites and parasite derived products inhibit inflammatory responses through effects on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Considerable progress has been made in identifying parasite derived molecules, the ways in which they interact with the immune system and how they mediate immunomodulation. There is great interest in the potential usefulness of parasite-mediated immunomodulation for the treatment and prevention of a range of inflammatory disorders. Much remains to be resolved regarding characterisation of potential helminth-derived biomodulators, timing and dose of exposure to the agents as well as characterisation of the modes of action so that synthetic analogues that mimic the effects can be generated.

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed.

  2. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

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    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  3. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intestinal parasite infection by Blastocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Losada, C; Cuenca-Gómez, J A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Cabeza-Barrera, I; Salas-Coronas, J

    2018-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. An observational retrospective study was conducted of B. hominis isolates in faeces from October 2004 to March 2016 in a tropical medicine unit. We reviewed all patients with a parasite infection, exclusively or not by B. hominis. We studied 3070 patients, 570 (18%) of whom were diagnosed with B. hominis infection, which was the only isolate in 245 (43%) of the 570 patients. A total of 325 (57%) patients presented other parasitic co-infections (Entamoeba histolytic or Entamoeba dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Schistosoma spp.). The main symptom was abdominal pain (41.8%). In 31.2% of cases, the parasite was detected in the imported diseases screening of asymptomatic patients. Of those who underwent treatment with metronidazole, 78.2% improved. The parasite was neutralised in 82.6% of the patients. Parasite infection by B. hominis is one of the most common diseases in our tropical medicine unit. Most patients are asymptomatic, or their symptoms can be attributed to other parasite infections. In those cases in which symptoms persist without being able to attribute them to other causes, a specific treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections in Okada rural community, Edo State, Nigeria: a four year retrospective study

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    Bankole H. Oladeinde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined for presence of ova, cyst and trophozoites of parasites using standard methods. Patient’s age ranged from 6 months to 73 years. Study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections increased significantly (P=0.003 from 14.7% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2010. In the study period, gender did not affect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (P>0.05. Patients within <1-10 years had significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent, while Schistosoma japonicum was the least prevalent. With respect to parasite, males were observed to have consistently higher prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed to significantly increase from 2007 to 2010. Age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent in all years of study. Control and prevention measures are advocated.

  5. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan , Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014-January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015-April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan's wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However , the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy.

  6. Performance analysis of software for identification of intestinal parasites

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    Andressa P. Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Intestinal parasites are among the most frequent diagnoses worldwide. An accurate clinical diagnosis of human parasitic infections depends on laboratory confirmation for specific differentiation of the infectious agent.Objectives:To create technological solutions to help parasitological diagnosis, through construction and use of specific software.Material and method:From the images obtained from the sediment, the software compares the morphometry, area, perimeter and circularity, and uses the information on specific morphological and staining characteristics of parasites and allows the potential identification of parasites.RESULTS:Our results demonstrate satisfactory performance, from a total of 204 images analyzed, 81.86% had the parasite correctly identified by the computer system, and 18.13% could not be identified, due to the large amount of fecal debris in the sample evaluated.Discussion:Currently the techniques used in Parasitology area are predominantly manual, probably being affected by variables, such as attention and experience of the professional. Therefore, the use of computerization in this sector can improve the performance of parasitological analysis.Conclusions:This work contributes to the computerization of healthcare area, and benefits both health professionals and their patients, in addition to provide a more efficient, accurate and secure diagnosis.

  7. Occurrence of intestinal parasites amongst persons on highly active antiretroviral drug therapy in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Paul C. Inyang-Etoh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic and intestinal parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/AIDS patients. Early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of this category of patients. The occurrence of intestinal parasites among 400 patients on highly active anti-retroviral drug therapy (HAART aged 11-60 years was investigated. Standard parasitological techniques like direct microscopy, formol ether concentration and modified Ziehl- Neelsen staining techniques were used to analyze the stool samples. Intestinal parasite infections were positive in 116 (29% of the subjects on HAART while control subjects had 12 (12% and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Subjects in the age group 21-30 years had the highest infection rate 54 (35.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in infection according to age (P>0.05. Females 76 (32.5% had a higher prevalence rate than males 40 (24.1%. But there was no statistically significant difference in infection according to gender (P<0.05. Patients with CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3 were observed to be more infected than those with CD4 count of more than 200 cells/mm3. There was a strong positive correlation (r=0.94 between CD4 count and the occurrence of intestinal parasite infection. Protozoan parasites 84 (21.0% accounted for a higher prevalence rate than helminthic parasites 32 (8.0%. These findings has revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among patients on HAART thus the routine screening of stool samples from these category of patients for intestinal parasites is advocated for effective management of the disease.

  8. Frequency of intestinal parasites in employees of a state hospital

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    Pınar Fırat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, kitchen staff, cleanersand nurses.Materials and Methods: From Malatya State hospitalstaff, perianal area materials and stool samples with cel-lophane tape method were collected. Examples wereexamined with native-Lugol, precipitation, and acid-fasttrichrome stains.Results: In 40.8% of 76 stools that were examined wasfound to positivity. The prevalences of parasites are 17.1Entamoeba coli, 6.6% Iodamoeba butschlii, 19.7% Blastocystishominis, 1.3% Chilomastix mesnilii, 5.3% Giardiaintestinalis and 1.3% Enterobius vermicularis.Conclusion: In the study, the studied staffs are healthworkers. Therefore, since the staffs working close contactwith patients were risk group in terms of infections, it wasrecommended that health staff susceptible to parasitesshould have a medical examination regularly and receivein-service training.

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Persons in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William

    2017-09-01

    The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.

  10. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  11. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  12. Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hilary G; McArthur, Andrew G; Gillin, Frances D; Aley, Stephen B; Adam, Rodney D; Olsen, Gary J; Best, Aaron A; Cande, W Zacheus; Chen, Feng; Cipriano, Michael J; Davids, Barbara J; Dawson, Scott C; Elmendorf, Heidi G; Hehl, Adrian B; Holder, Michael E; Huse, Susan M; Kim, Ulandt U; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Manning, Gerard; Nigam, Anuranjini; Nixon, Julie E J; Palm, Daniel; Passamaneck, Nora E; Prabhu, Anjali; Reich, Claudia I; Reiner, David S; Samuelson, John; Svard, Staffan G; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2007-09-28

    The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.

  13. Does the Intestinal Parasite Enterobius vermicularis Cause Acute Appendicitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhan, Yavuz; Özen, Fatma Zeynep; Kılınç, Çetin; Güçkan, Rıdvan

    2017-06-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, they are common public health problems in undeveloped and developing countries. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and treatment procedures should be adopted according to the etiology. Herein we presented the cases of four patients with clinical findings of acute appendicitis. Patients were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the pathological examinations of specimens. Pinworm infections are common parasitic infections that may mimic appendicitis. The pathology of the four cases was noted when the file of 186 patients aged between 4 and 72 years who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in my hospital was retrospectively reviewed. When the appendectomy specimen was examined histopathologically it was understood that acute appendicitis was caused by Enterobius vermicularis parasite. In Enterobius infections, performing systemic therapy for patients and their family members is sufficient. To prevent unnecessary appendectomy, this type of infection should be made to ask in the history and clinical findings of patients.

  14. Unusual ribosomal RNA of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Edlind, T D; Chakraborty, P R

    1987-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite in humans, but is poorly defined at molecular and phylogenetic levels. We report here a structural characterization of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and rRNA genes of G. lamblia. Gel electrophoresis under native or non-denaturing conditions identified two high molecular weight rRNA species corresponding to the 16-18S and 23-28S rRNAs. Surprisingly, both species (1300 and 2300 nucleotides long, respectively) were considerably s...

  15. Modulating the Gut Micro-Environment in the Treatment of Intestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Saltzman, Emma Tali; Nikov, Tessa; Ibrahim, Isabelle; Hall, Sean

    2016-11-16

    The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea. As a contentious exemplar, Blastocystis hominis is a ubiquitous enteric protist that can adversely affect the intestines. The symptoms experienced are a consequence of the responses of the innate immune system triggered by the disruption of the intestinal barrier. The infiltration of the intestinal epithelial barrier involves a host of immune receptors, including toll like receptors and IgM/IgG/IgA antibodies as well as CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Whilst the mechanisms of interactions between the intestinal microbiome and protozoan parasites remain incompletely understood, it is acknowledged that the intestinal microbiota is a key factor in the pathophysiology of parasitic infections. Modulating the intestinal environment through the administration of probiotics has been postulated as a possible therapeutic agent to control the proliferation of intestinal microbes through their capacity to induce competition for occupation of a common biotype. The ultimate goal of this mechanism is to prevent infections of the like of giardiasis and eliminate its symptoms. The differing types of probiotics (i.e., bacteria and yeast) modulate immunity by stimulating the host immune system. Early animal studies support the potential benefits of probiotic administration to prevent intestinal infections, with human clinical studies showing probiotics can reduce the number of parasites and the severity of symptoms. The

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  17. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Patients with Malignancy in Ardabil Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pezeshki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO, intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique. Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%. Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on the patients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.

  18. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Travel/Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir International ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...

  19. Intestinal parasites of dogs on the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, E N; Scorza, A V; Clifford, E L; Olea-Popelka, F J; Lappin, M R

    2010-05-11

    Dogs on the Galapagos Islands are a unique population created by isolation from the mainland and regulations prohibiting further importation. The effect of infectious agents of these domestic dogs on the indigenous fauna is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs on the Galapagos Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 97 dogs presented during neutering campaigns on Santa Cruz (n=51), San Cristobal (n=17), and Isabela (n=29) islands. Feces were evaluated for parasites by microscopic examination after zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation as well as by a commercially available IFA for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Polymerase chain reaction for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA and Giardia spp. DNA was performed on all positive samples to provide the infecting genotypes. Ancylostoma caninum (57.7%) and Toxocara canis (16.5%) were most commonly detected, followed by Giardia spp. (5.2%), Isospora canis (4.1%), Sarcocystis canis (3.1%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1%). Adequate DNA for sequencing was available for one Giardia spp. which was shown to be assemblage D. Despite being isolated, the dogs on the Galapagos have many of the same enteric parasites detected on the mainland of South America. These dogs are not routinely administered anthelmintics or other drugs, but are often allowed to roam the streets and live in close proximity to humans. Parasite prophylaxis is necessary to decrease the parasite burden within the population and to lessen the risk of spread to humans or other animals also inhabiting the islands. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  1. Consideration of Intestinal Parasite in Day-Care Center Children in Karaj City in 2012

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    F. Haji Aliani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available History and Aim: Parasitical Diseases are the most important economic- health problems of most developing countries. Children who belong to very important constituents of society are at risk of such diseases. The parasitic transmission in some places with children come together has a very special importance because they interact closely to each others. Constant and regular study in developing countries for planning to control these diseases is essential. Thus, the present study aims to explore the prevalence of parasites and enterobius and effective factors in their spread among children of Karaj kindergartens in 1391. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study and sampling was random clustering from34 kindergartens out of 154 active kindergartens of 9 districts of Karaj city under supervision of state welfare organization of Karaj using a random number table. In this project the prevalence of enterobius and other intestinal parasites in 904 children from one to six years old in Karaj in 2o13 was studied. The number of samples was calculated using 95% confidence interval and relative accuracy of 35% and hypothetical prevalence of 5% of intestinal parasites to be 596. Considering 50% efficacy for clustering method, increased the sample size to 894. The questionnaires collecting the required data like age and gender of the child, and were used for gender, age, occupation and education of the parents and effective factors on infection with intestinal parasites like hand washing and using personal drinking glass and clinical symptoms in children and symptoms reported by the child to his/her parents or caregiver and the demographic data. The results of the scotch test, either positive or negative, were recorded. Formalin ether and direct smear test were performed on three samples of every case which collected for find determination inconsecutively. For the eneterobius diagnosis, the scotch test which is more specific was used. Results: A

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  3. Salmonella serotypeTyphi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Yitayew, Gashaw; Amare, Hiwot

    2016-02-28

    Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures.

  4. Intestinal parasites in public transport buses from the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andrade SS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina S Andrade,1 Layane M Teodoro,1 Daniel JS Viana,1 Egleise M Canuto-Sales,2 Gustavo H Bahia-de-Oliveira,2 Suedali Villas Bôas,3 Ricardo A Barata1 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Basic Sciences, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Intestinal parasites’ eggs, larvae, or cysts can be carried in public transport buses, and contribute to the increased incidence of diseases. This study aimed to detect biological forms of intestinal parasites in samples from public buses in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, in order to know the local situation and propose interventions to improve public health. Materials and methods: In November 2014, six samples were obtained in buses of the two stations by using Graham method, in duplicate, by affixing a 6×5 cm clear tape, six times on each collection site of the bus, in an area of ~30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a slide microscope, and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40× objective optical microscope. Results: A total of 216 slides were analyzed, of which 86 (39.8% were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (52.1%, followed by Endolimax nana cysts (30.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (6.5%, helminth larvae (4.7%, Giardia lamblia cysts (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (0.6%, and Entamoeba histolytica cysts (0.6%. Top right handrails and right stanchions had the highest occurrence of biological forms, with 18.3% and 14.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for better cleaning of the buses and better personal hygiene by users, since pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites were found, suggesting fecal contamination of these sites, representing a risk to public health. Keywords

  5. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites in stray and domicile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncontrolled population of stray and domicile dogs with intestinal protozoan in close proximity to increasing densities of human population in urban environments is a common fact in developing countries, in conjunction with the lack of veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness, increases the risks of disease transmission.

  6. A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland

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    Simone Gillespie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.

  7. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

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    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  8. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Bahir Dar and Risk Factors for Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Birrie, Hailu

    1995-01-01

    A study of intestinal parasites and assessment of transmission factors were made in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Out of 528 children examined by formolether concentration method over 95 % were found to harbour one or more intestinal parasites. Human behaviour and poor sanitary conditions appeared to be responsible for the transmission of geohelminths, faeco-orally transmitted amoebae and water-related schistosome parasites. Health education is suggested to play a vital role in the c...

  10. Epidemiology of parasitism and poly-parasitism involving intestinal helminths among school children from different residential settings in Nandi County, Kenya

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    Jimmy Ruto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal helminthiases present a major public health problem worldwide. In Africa, the prevalence varies in countries and within regions. The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of parasitism and poly-parasitism due to intestinal helminths in rural and urban settings. Settings and Design: A 6-month cross-sectional school-based study was undertaken in Nandi County, Kenya, to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases in school children. Materials and Methods: A total of 2967 fecal samples were collected and analyzed to detect the presence of helminth ova, larvae, segments, or adults. Modified formal-ether concentration technique was used. Results: The study findings revealed that three helminth species were prevalent and were associated with intestinal helminthiases with an overall prevalence of ascariasis 55.8%, trichuriasis 26.9%, and hookworm disease 24.8%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal helminth single infestations among the study sites and between sexes (P > 0.05. The prevalence of multiple infestations was established as 34.7% and was common in estates and villages (40-50% than in towns (18%. Poly-parasitism involving 2-3 helminths was prevalent in 8.4-25.4% than those with 4-5 species of 0.07-0.7%. A statistically significant difference among the different types of poly-helminthic infestations was established (P 0.05. Conclusion: The study confirmed that single and multiple helminth intestinal infestations were prevalent in rural and urban areas. Residential area was found not to be associated with multiple parasitism. The findings support the view that intestinal helminthiases require intervention. Recommendation: Strategic intervention in the form of mass diagnosis and treatment by the use of effective broad spectrum anthelmintic(s and public health education are recommended.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  12. Antigenic variation in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargantini, Pablo Rubén; Serradell, Marianela Del Carmen; Ríos, Diego Nicolás; Tenaglia, Albano Heraldo; Luján, Hugo Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites undergo antigenic variation, where one member of the Variant-specific Surface Protein (VSP) family is expressed on the surface of proliferating trophozoites and periodically replaced by another one. Two main questions have challenged researchers since antigenic switching was discovered in Giardia: What are the mechanisms involved? How are they influenced by other cellular processes or by the environment? Two molecular mechanisms have been proposed, both involving small non-coding RNAs. Here we postulate that (a) chromatin remodeling, triggered by environmental factors, also plays an important role in selecting the VSP that will be expressed and (b) the particular VSP structure may not only protect the parasite in the small intestine but also signal the need to exchange the existing VSP for another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

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    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Intestinal Parasites among Patients Admitted to Mirembe National Mental Health Hospital, Dodoma, Tanzania

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    Azan A. Nyundo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neglected tropical diseases continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Psychiatric patients are among groups at risk for parasitic infection although control and monitoring programs largely overlook this population. This study aimed at determining prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among patients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Method. The study followed cross-sectional design; all the residing patients that met the inclusion criteria were included in the survey. Stool samples were collected and examined by direct wet preparation and formol-ether concentration. Data were analyzed with STATA version 12.1; Chi-square test was computed to determine the level of significance at p value < 0.05. Results. Of all 233 patients who returned the stool samples, 29 (12.45% screened were positive for an intestinal parasite. There was no significant association between parasite carriage and age, sex, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. The study shows that intestinal parasitic infection is common among patients in a psychiatric facility and highlights that parasitic infections that enter through skin penetration may be a more common mode of transmission than the oral route. Furthermore, the study underscores the need for surveillance and intervention programs to control and manage these infections.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients from two health institutions in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaver, D T; Nwobegahay, J M; Goon, D T; Iweriebor, B C; Anye, D N

    2011-08-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections play a vital role in the prognosis of HIV/AIDS in patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in HIV-infected individuals in two health facilities in Abuja-Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted in two sites: the GEDE AIDS and Infectious Diseases Research Institute (GAIDRI), and the Human Virology Institute-General Hospital Asokoro-Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 119 subjects were recruited (85 HIV infected and 34 HIV negative). Stool specimens collected were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically for consistency and the presence of enteric parasites. The overall prevalence rate of enteroparasites obtained in this study was 22.7% (27/119). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected patients was 24.7 %; while in HIV negative persons, it was 17.6%. However, the high rate obtained for HIV infected patients was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Although the prevalence rate of enteric parasites in HIV/AIDS patients was higher than in HIV negative individuals, this difference is not statistically significant. Even though there was no statistical difference in the two groups, parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients often result in debilitating illness.

  16. Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2004-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

  17. FACTORS OF RISK TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PUBLIC SHOOLCHILDEN IN BAHIA

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    Camila Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  18. Treatment of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Elderly and Mentally Retarded Patients

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    Sima Rasti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The rate of person to person transmission of intestinal parasites is high in elderly and mentally retarded patients and lack of treatment may cause disease spread.This sudy was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of intestinal parasitic infections in elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan. Methods & Materials: This descriptive study was carried out on 133 elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan in 2007. Infected participants were treated according to the stool examination and scotch tape results. These tests were performedagain after one month and response to treatment wasdetermined. A questionnaire was completed during interview with patients to obtain the data of sex and age,clinical symptoms and side effects of drugs. Descriptive data analysis was performed to evaluate the results. Results: In general, 64.7% of patients were male and the rate of response to treatment was 93.2%. The response rate was highest (79.5% and lowest (26.7% in patients with 70 years of age respectively. Besides, theresponse rate was 93.6%, 89.2%, 90% and 100% in oxyur, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia anddientamoeba fragilis respectively. Conclusion: With regardsto the high rate of response to treatment,resistance to routin anti parasitic drugs seems unlikely. The lack of response to tratment can be either dut to high severity of the infection or due to incorrect using of drugs.

  19. Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?

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    Sandra Maximiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1. An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2, due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper.

  20. Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano de; Gomides, Ana Paula Monteiro; Mota, Lícia Maria Henrique da; Lima, Caliandra Maria Bezerra Luna; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1). An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2), due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites.

  3. A survey of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin, north of Iran

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    Hamid Sadeghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin city in north of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Qazvin, north of Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2009 to October 20, 2012. A total of 5 739 stool specimens from 4 053 (70.6% males and 1 686 (29.3% females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mounting, formol-ether concentration and modified acid-fast staining techniques. Results: The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 5.8% (3.7% in males and 2.1% in females. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 116 (2.0% Entamoeba coli, 110 (1.9% Giardia lamblia, 49 (0.85% Blastocystis hominis, 30 (0.5% Enodolimax nana, 1 2 (0.2% Iodamoeba butschlii, 2 (0.03% Trichomonas hominis, 9 (0.1 % Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.01% Strongyloides stercoralis, 1 (0.01% Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and 1 (0.01% Trichuris trichura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 5 (0.08% Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: In this regard, findings of this study can be used as a basis to develop strategies and preventive programs for targeting groups at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections.

  4. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

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    Shan Lv

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized.

  6. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

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    Rina G Kaminsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  8. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

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    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  9. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abbreviations used: MWS, Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary; OTU, operational taxonomic unit; SFD, Satyamangalam Forest Divi- sion; SRF ... Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus ... been reported from taxonomic studies include the nema-.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in HIV+ and AIDS Patients Khorramabad 2006

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    shirzad Fallahi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fallahi Sh1, Badparva E1, Nahrovanian H2, Chegeni Sharafi A3, Ebrahimzadeh F4 1. Instructor, Department of parasitology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. PhD, Pasteur institute of Iran. 3. Master of science, parasitology 4. Instructor, Department of statistic, Faculty of health, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Intestinal parasites are the most common enteric pathogens in patients with HIV infection. These intestinal pathogens are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. There have been very few reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Iran. To investigate the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites in this population, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 306 HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city. Materials and methods: Demographic data were collected by a questionnaire. Three stool samples were collected from every patient. Direct smear, Formalin-ether concentration techniques and Modified acid fast (Kinione and modified trichorome staining method carried out on all samples. Data was analyzed by T-test and Chi square method. Results: After examination’s it detect that, Prevalence of the intestinal parasite in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city was 22.5% and This rate was higher in AIDS patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between age group, level of education, occupation, type of intestinal signs, variants and infection to intestinal parasites. It’s noticeable that between status of HIV/AIDS variant and infection to intestinal parasite there was a significant relationship Conclusion: High prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city reflects the necessity of prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment programs for these patients.

  12. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997

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    M BAGHAEI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent, Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P< percentS. No significant relationship was observed between sex and parasitic infections (P> percentS. Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.

  13. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

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    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  15. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons ...

  16. A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.

  17. 10 Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City,. Nigeria.

  18. A survey of intestinal helminthes and blood parasites of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of some zoonotic parasites especially M. moniliformis and Hymenolepis sp. as well as their public health significance in congenial rural villages are discussed. Keywords: intestinal helminthes, blood parasites, giant rats, Crycetomys emini, tropical rain forest, Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances ...

  19. Parasites of stomach and small intestine of 70 horses slaughtered in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Beek, van G.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of metazoan parasites in the stomach and small intestine was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994 - July 1994. Most horses were young (1.5 - 3 years) and in good condition. Trichostrongylus axei was the most prevalent parasite species in the stomach

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among street beggars in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Ashebir Lakew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the rate of intestinal parasitic infections and related risk factors among street beggars in Jimma town from February 10 to March 20, 2010. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 116 street beggars cached at four different churches in Jimma town during ‘Abbey’ or two months Easter Christian fasting days. Interview was made using a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. Concentrated stool samples were collected and examined microscopically using direct wet smear. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software package. Results: Of 116 street beggars whose stool had investigated, 104 (89.7% harbored one or more intestinal parasites. The most frequent intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 76 (65.5% followed by Trichuris trichiura 52 (44.8%. Schistosoma mansoni accounted 14 (12.1% and hook worm 11 (9.5%. The rate of multiple parasitic infections was 63 (54.3%. The finger nail status, habit of shoe wearing and using source of river water for bathing showed statistical significant association with parasitic infections (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ninety percent of street beggars harbored intestinal parasites and yet they do not have accesses to latrine indicates, these people obviously contribute for the spreading of parasites to the community and being potential risk for the environmental contamination. Therefore, regular deworming activity and insuring accesses of adequate public latrine in selected sites of the Jimma town need help to control parasitic infections in this town.

  1. Diagnostics of intestinal parasites in light microscopy among the population of children in eastern Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-09-01

    The variety of detected intestinal pathogens in examined children’s population has required the use of combination of multiple diagnostic methods in light microscopy, and finally improved the detection rates of intestinal parasites and helped eliminate infections with nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoa using appropriate treatment in the study population.

  2. Opportunistic intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients - a systematic literature review

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    Solimar Almeida de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa. Descriptors: Renal Dialysis; Blastocystis hominis; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Isospora.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  4. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course......The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...

  5. Intestinal Parasites among Foreign Junior Staff of King Khalid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest parasite was Trichuris trichiura (28), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (19), and Hookworm sp. (15). (Table 1). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive were treated at the College Clinic. Poly-parasitism, two or more parasites per person, was common ...

  6. Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    M Rezaeian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

  7. Growth inhibition of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia by a dietary lectin is associated with arrest of the cell cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Barria, E; Ward, H D; Keusch, G T; Pereira, M E

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world, is a protozoan parasite that thrives in the small intestine. It is shown here that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a naturally occurring lectin widely consumed in normal human diets, reversibly inhibits the growth of G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro, and reduces infection by G. muris in the adult mouse model of giardiasis. The inhibitory effect was dose related, not associated with cytotoxicity and reversed by N-acetyl-D-glucosa...

  8. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

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    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  9. The presence of intestinal parasites in selected vegetables from open markets in south western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Alli, O A T; Ogunleye, V F; Olusoga-Ogbolu, F F; Olaosun, Il

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infection worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of food-borne illness linked to fresh vegetables which is a major way in the transmission of intestinal parasites. The study was carried out to determine the level of parasitological contamination of vegetables sold at selected markets in south western Nigeria. A total of 120 samples from different vegetables were randomly sampled from major selected open markets in 3 cities. The vegetables were analysed using macroscopic, sedimentation and magnesium sulphate floatation techniques. Eighty-two (68.3%) of the vegetables were positive for intestinal parasites from which water leaf (Talinium triangulare) and 'soko' (Celosis) recorded the highest (100%) parasitic contamination. Parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (16.7%), hookworm (18.3%), Taenia spp (4.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (45.8%), Balantidium coli (0.8%). Vegetables in each of these cities had almost the same high rate of parasitic contamination; Ibadan (70%), Ilorin (70%) and Lagos (65%). This study further emphasised the role of vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites in developing countries. Therefore, vegetable farmers should therefore be enlightened on the modern use of night soil as fertilizer and the treatment of irrigation water or municipal waste water before use. There is also dire need for the improvement of sanitary facilities in our markets and vegetable vendors should also be included in the screening of food handlers.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Hosseini-Teshnizi, Saeed; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mizani, Azadeh; Gholami, Sara; Sharif, Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Parasitic infections are a serious public health problem because they cause anemia, growth retardation, aggression, weight loss, and other physical and mental health problems, especially in children. Numerous studies have been performed on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children. However, no study has gathered and analyzed this information systematically. The aim of this study was to provide summary estimates for the available data on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian children. We searched 9 English and Persian databases, unpublished data, abstracts of scientific congresses during 1996-2015 using the terms intestinal parasite, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Enterobiusvermicularis, oxyure, school, children, preschool, and Iran. We conducted meta-analysis using STATA, and for all statistical tests, p-value less than 0.05was considered significant. Among the 68,532 publications searched as a result, 103 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 38% (95% CI- 33%, 43%). Prevalence of protozoa, helminthic intestinal infections, and non-pathogenic parasites was 16.9%, 9.48%, and 18.5%, respectively, which affected 14.27% males and 15.3% females. The rate of infection in preschool and school children was 38.19% and 43.37% respectively. Giardia, Enterobiusvermicularis and Entamoeba coli were the most common among protozoa, helminthic, and non-pathogenic infections (15.1%, 16.5%, and 7.1%, respectively). The data analyses indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is decreasing in Iranian preschool and school children. Improvement of sanitation, personal hygiene, increased awareness of people, seasonal variations, and health education can be effective in reducing parasitic infections in different communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A coprological survey of gastro-intestinal parasites of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mamum, M.A.A; Begum, N.; Mondal, M.H.M

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology of gastro-intestinal parasites of water buffaloes was investigated in Kurigram district of Bangladesh between November 2007 and October 2008 through coprological examination. A total of 236 water buffaloes were examined, among them 144 (61.02%) buffaloes were found infected with one or more species of gastro-intestinal parasites. Nine species of gastro-intestinal parasites were identified, of them four species were trematodes, namely, Paramphistomum cervi (29.24%), Fasciola gigan...

  12. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Moore, George E; Glickman, Larry T

    2009-03-01

    To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection. Retrospective period prevalence survey. 1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006. Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis. 2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions. Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

  14. Anemia and intestinal parasitic infections in primary school students in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuoka, R; Bailey, J W; Nery Guimarães, A M; Gurgel, R Q; Cuevas, L E

    1999-01-01

    Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%), Trichuris trichiura (15.6%), and hookworm (1. 7%) most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores) than those without parasites.

  15. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.

  16. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site

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    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.

  18. Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampongcham, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Bae, Yong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Hun-Joo; Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2002-09-01

    A survey was made to find the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Kampongcham, Cambodia in February 2002. A total of 251 fecal specimens were collected from Tonlebat primary school children and examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 54.2% (males, 57.3%; females, 50.8%). The infection rate of intestinal helminths by the species were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 26.3%, Echinostoma sp. 15.6%, hookworm 6.4%, Opisthorchis sp. 4.0%, Rhabditis sp. 2.4%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.4%. The infection rate of intestinal protozoa were as follows: E. coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples. All the children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel and metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in this area.

  19. Malnutrition and the presence of intestinal parasites in children from the poorest municipalities of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Jimenez, Javier; Torres-Sanchez, Maria G C; Fajardo-Martinez, Leamsi P; Schlie-Guzman, Maria A; Luna-Cazares, Lorena M; Gonzalez-Esquinca, Alma R; Guerrero-Fuentes, Salvador; Vidal, Jorge E

    2013-10-15

    For many years Chiapas, Mexico's poorest state, has had the highest rate of child mortality due to intestinal infections of unknown etiology in the country. To begin identifying the infectious agents, our work determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as malnutrition in children from Chiapas's three most impoverished municipalities: Pantepec, Chanal, and Larrainzar. In this cross-sectional study, conducted between January and November 2009, we assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites by means of coproparasitological analysis in children Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent enteroparasite (33.6%). Anthropometric analysis revealed that >40% of children represented varying degrees of malnutrition and a marked constitutional delay in growth. A very high prevalence of stunting was also recorded in children from Chanal and Larrainzar (70% and 55%, respectively). An association between infection with intestinal parasites and malnutrition was observed in Pantepec. Preschool-age children were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Our results indicate the urgent need for interventions in order to 1) improve the nutritional status of children and 2) reduce infection rates of enteric parasites.

  20. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  1. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Cumhuriyet University.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerlı, Serpil; Ozçelık, Semra; Celıksöz, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This study is concerned with the distribution of intestinal parasites detected in patients who presented at the routine Parasitology Laboratory of the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine from May 2002-November 2004. A total of 5057 stool specimens from 2305 (45.6%) males and 2752 (54.4%) females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct examination and flotation methods. Intestinal parasites were found in 231 (4.5%) females and 301(5.9%) males. A total of 1313 cellophane tape specimens from 646 (49.2%) females and 667 (50.8%) males were examined. Parasites were detected in 34 (2.6%) female and 48 (3.6%) male patients. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 189 (3.7%) Giardia intestinalis, 124 (2.4%) E. histolytica/dispar, 128 (2.5%) Entamoeba coli, 29 (0.6%) Iodamoeba butschlii, 21(0.4%) Blastocystis hominis, 2 (0.03%) Chilomastix mesnili, 1 (0.01%) Trichomonas hominis, 1 (0.01%) Hymenolepis nana, 33 (0.6%) Taenia saginata, 3 (0.05%) Ascaris lumbricoides, and 1 (0.01%) Trichuris trichiura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 71 (5.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and 11 (0.8%) Taenia saginata.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  3. Intestinal parasite in a referral hospital in northwest Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information ... In northwest Tanzania, there is inadequate information on the magnitude of parasitic infection among cases attended at tertiary hospitals. It has been described that ...

  4. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Estes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...

  6. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  7. Opportunistic intestinal parasites and CD4 count in HIV infected people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amatya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic intestinal infections cause a significant morbidity and mortality among the HIV infected people. The present study was undertaken to find the prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections among the HIV infected populace in eastern Nepal and to correlate the occurrence with the CD4 T cell counts. Materials and Methods: Stool from 122 HIV infected people were examined microscopically for the presence of parasitic ova/cyst. CD4 T cell enumeration was done using FACS Count (Becton Dickinson. Stool from 100 age matched HIV negative controls were also examined. Results: A male preponderance in the parasite positivity was seen. Twenty five of symptomatic and 2.8% of asymptomatic harboured one or more intestinal parasites.12.3% of the study population had intestinal parasitoses with 7.3% being infected with opportunistic parasites. The mean CD4 count of the subjects was 307 while those with parasitoses were 204. A statistically significant difference was seen between the CD4 counts of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: Coccidian parasites are frequent opportunistic intestinal parasites infecting HIV infected patients. A lowered CD4 count predisposes to acquisition of these agents. Regular monitoring of CD4 counts and screening for these opportunistic agents in the HIV infected will help reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with infections by these agents. Keywords: HIV; Opportunistic infection; CD4 count; AIDS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v1i2.5405 JPN 2011; 1(2: 118-121

  8. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Divina Barda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania. Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear, whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Shafiyyah, C O; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Lau, Y L; Siti Aminah, F

    2012-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from Sentul and Chow Kit areas. Five species of rats were captured and supplied by Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The most common was Rattus rattus diardii (Malayan Black rat), 67%, followed by Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat), 10%, Rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, Rattus tiomanicus (Malaysian field rat), 9% and Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat), 4%. Rattus rattus diardii is commonly known to live in human environment and they are normally identified as pests to human community. More male rats were captured (61%) compared to female (39%). Out of 137 samples, 81.8% samples were positive with intestinal parasites, with 86.2% from Sentul area and 78.5% from Chow Kit area. Six different parasites were detected. The most common intestinal helminth parasite detected was Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (80.3%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (23.4%), Capillaria hepatica (13.9%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (2.9%). Intestinal protozoan detected was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (8.8%). Trypanosoma lewisi (1.5%) was the only blood parasite detected.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  11. Survey of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Chimpanzees and Drill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    human primates (Gomez et al; 1996, Verwaijet et al; 2003). Protozoa parasite such Entamoeba histolytica, Gardia sp, Cryptosporidium sp and. Balantidium coli are frequently reported in non-human primate, apes and monkeys. (Levecke, 2007).

  12. original article the prevalence of intestinal coccidian parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    economic factors surrounding a given community, laboratory investigations are required to determine prevalence in each population in order to provide an effective planning and management policy.Human immunodeficiency virus. (HIV) and parasites ...

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.

  14. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among village health volunteers in rural communities of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsawad, Chuchard; Phasuk, Nonthapan; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Thongtup, Kanjana; Siripakonuaong, Niramon; Nongnaul, Somchok

    2017-06-09

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain prevalent and constitute a public health problem in certain rural areas of Thailand. Village health volunteers (VHVs), who are members of a Thai healthcare alliance, function as key providers of health prevention measures, disease control, and health education and share national health promotion campaigns with community members. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infection in VHVs in order to design community awareness and health education campaigns for the target population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January to April 2016 among village health volunteers (VHVs) from four sub-districts of Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. Subjects for the study were selected using a simple random sampling method. Socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected by a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques to determine the presence of parasites and modified Kato-Katz thick smear to determine the intensity of infection. A total of 324 VHVs were enrolled. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-13.0). The prevalence of hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura were 8.0% (95% CI: 5.3-11.5), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2-2.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0-1.7), respectively. Mean intensity of hookworm infection was 1732 eggs per gram of stool. The prevalence was lower for protozoan infection than for helminth infection. Blastocystis hominis accounted for the highest percentage of intestinal protozoan infections 4.0% (95% CI: 2.2-6.8), followed by Giardia intestinalis 0.6% (95% CI: 0-2.2). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among sub-districts (p > 0.05). Having dogs at home was associated with soil

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yentur Doni

    2015-09-01

    The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  17. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  18. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela : Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia M.; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites in an Añu indigenous community of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor-Boscán, Alisbeth D; Hernández, Ileana M; Valero, Kutchynskaya J; Paz, América M; Sandrea, Lisette B; Rivero, Zulbey

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and enteroparasite infections are highly prevalent in populations with poor living conditions, like the Amerindian communities. Identifying associations between both types of infectious agents could help to detect shared risk factors or transmission routes in these minority ethnic groups. Therefore, the prevalence and association between Hp and enteroparasites were investigated in an indigenous community whose living conditions favor such infectious diseases. Seropositivity (anti-Hp-specific IgG) and active infection (stool antigen test), intestinal parasitosis (direct and concentrated coproparasitological test, methylene blue, and Kinyoun stains), and risk factors for fecal-oral transmission were determined in 167 children and 151 adults of the Añu indigenous community living at the Sinamaica Lagoon, in Venezuela. A high rate of Hp infection (seropositivity and active infection) and enteroparasitosis was evidenced, as expected. Some significant associations were detected: direct associations between Hp and polyparasitic infection, helminths, and protozoan (particularly in children); inverse association between Hp and Giardia lamblia. No shared epidemiological factors were identified for Hp and the detected intestinal parasites, probably due to overlapping factors. Direct associations detected support the participation of the fecal-oral route in the transmission of the involved infectious agents. Inverse relationship (Hp) and G. lamblia may suggest the existence of antagonistic interactions between them. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  2. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infections among School Children in Gashky, West of Iran

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    Maryam Babakhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic intestinal infections (IPIs represent as the greatest cause of illnesses and diseases worldwide, especially in less developed countries. People of all ages are affected by IPIs; although, children are the most affected. This study aimed to assess prevalence and risk factors associated with IPIs among school children in West of Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 school children who selected randomly among 390 attending health care centers in Gashki, West Iran in 2016. This study we used a validated questionnaire and stool tests to gather epidemiological and disease data. The samples were examined for the presence of the parasites by direct wet mount, Lugol's iodine solution and modified formaline-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. Chi- square and binary logistic regression procedure was applied to test the association between the variables. A p-value of Results The mean and standard deviation of children ages were 10.7±2.29 years old. The overall prevalence of the IPIs was estimated at 66 (33.0. The highest prevalence of the IPIs was related to Blastocystis 35 (17.5%, and Giardia lamblia 22 (11.0%, respectively. 18 (9.0% out of 66 infected children had double infection. Male gender (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.20 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.19-4.09 was only factor significantly associated with the prevalence of the IPIs in this population. Conclusion The present study found a high rate of prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections among school children in Gashky, West of Iran. The current study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in children aged school, and emphasizes the necessity of school-based prevention and control programs.

  5. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-value0.05).

  8. Are intestinal parasites fuelling the rise in dual burden households in Venezuela?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos Ponce, M.; Incani, R.N.; Pinelli, E.; Ten Kulve, N.; Ramak, R.; Polman, K.; Doak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries undergoing rapid economic development, the number of dual burden households (i.e. co-existing overweight/obesity and stunting) is increasing. While intestinal parasites are prevalent in these countries, their contribution to dual burden households has so far been neglected.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with ...

  10. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  11. Malaria and intestinal parasites in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In sub-Sahara African countries, both malaria and intestinal helminth infections are endemic and co-infection commonly occurs. It is estimated that over a third of the world's population, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics are infected with parasitic helminths and Plasmodium species thus often leading to co-infections.

  12. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  13. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  15. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this

  16. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasite Infection among Schoolchildren in the Peripheral Highland Regions of Huanuco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung

    2017-10-01

    Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in bakery workers in khorramabad, lorestan iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, F; Tarahi, Mj; Haghighi, A; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, E; Kheirandish, M

    2011-12-01

    Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and preparation. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, culture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence. The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 bakeries and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formaldehyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp). Ninety-six (11.9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%. In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health experts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

  19. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Implications of malaria and intestinal parasitic co-infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria and gastrointestinal parasitic infections in out-patients of Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri Specialist Hospital, was studied between the months of January and June 2004. A total of 1,200 patients made up of preschool children (400), school children (400) and adults (400) were enlisted for the ...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 252 school children (121 boys and 131 girls) of grades 4 and 5 from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas participated in the present study and their fresh fecal specimens were examined for the presence of any parasites using the merthiolate- iodine-formaldehyde concentration method as ...

  2. burden of intestinal parasites amongst hiv/aids patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    diarrhea, especially in AIDS patients, although they are thought to cause self limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals. These are referred to as opportunistic parasites [6]. Different species of protozoa have been associated with acute and chronic diarrhea in. HIV infection and AIDS. They include Cryptosporidium.

  3. Intestinal Parasites among Foreign Junior Staff of King Khalid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive ... Employers of this category of workers in food and vegetable industries, must ensure they are regularly screened and if found to be infected, promptly treated to interrupt transmission of these parasites to the community. Nigerian ...

  4. Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. The study revealed that Eight different nematodes and one estode species were present in the gastrointestinal tracks of the animals. In the stomach, Simondsia paradoxa was found at ...

  5. Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Cattle in Ogbomoso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus ...

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in anaemic and non-anaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, other parasites found in this study included Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolopse nana, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambia and Entamoeba coli, which had prevalence rates of 35%, 18.3%, 16.7%, 15%, 21.7%, 20% and 13.3% respectively ...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of the parasites were as follows: Hookworm (26.5%), Entamoeba coli (19.1%), Iodaemoeba butschlii (9.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.6%), Teania species (2.2%), Giardia lamblia (2.0%), Hymenolepis nana (1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%), ...

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fecal oral route is significant in the transmission of parasitic infections to human via poor personal hygiene and environmental conditions such as contaminated soil and water sources.[9] Worm infection is believed to be imposing an unnecessary burden on many South African children and on the overall cost of.

  9. Human Intestinal Parasite Infections In Ishiagu, A Lead Mining Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decreasing to the least in the > 51 years (27.02 %). This gave a significant age related infection (P < 0.05). The findings were discussed in relation to the rural nature of the community and the activities at the head mining stes. Keywords: Parasites, Heavy metal mining, Stool specimens. Animal Research International Vol.

  10. Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites In Relation To Availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pupils in schools that had lower ratio of number of pupils per toilet had lower infection rates than those from schools with high ratio of number of pupils per toilet. This was however not statistically sgnificant (X 22.272, d = 2, P > 0.05). The following parasites were encountered, namely Ascaris lumbricoides (11.89%), ...

  11. Clinical consequences of PCR based diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsman, Lucas H; Monkelbaan, Jan F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344499383; Kusters, Johannes G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074307428

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnostics of intestinal protozoa have led to higher sensitivity and (subtype) specificity, more convenient sampling and the possibility for high-throughput screening. An increasing number of clinical laboratories use PCR for routine

  12. Pattern of intestinal parasites at open air defecation sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poor socio-economic status of street children leads to dangerous and unhealthy living environments. Also open defecation and regular contact with dogs, flies and contaminated soil, water, faeces, foods and fomites; increase their chance of infestation by intestinal protozoa and helminths. This study intends to found out ...

  13. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in companion dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, and genetic characteristics of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongjia; Ruan, Yang; Zhou, Mengjie; Chen, Siyuan; Zhang, Yinxin; Wang, Liya; Zhu, Guan; Yu, Yonglan

    2018-01-01

    Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25.6%) parasite-positive specimens that contained one or more parasites, including Giardia duodenalis (12.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (4.9%), Cystoisospora spp. (4.3%), trichomonads (4.3%), Toxocara canis (3.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.6%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.2%). Among the 55 dog breeds, infection rates were significantly higher in border collies and bulldogs, but lower in poodles (p Giardia-positive specimens, 21 were successfully assigned into assemblages using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and/or beta-giardin (bg) genes, including assemblage D (n = 15), C (n = 5), and F (n = 1). Among the 24 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens by SSU rRNA PCR, 20 PCR amplicons could be sequenced and identified as Cryptosporidium canis (n = 20). Collectively, this study indicates that parasites are a significant group of pathogens in companion dogs in Beijing, and companion dogs may potentially transmit certain zoonotic parasites to humans, particularly those with weak or weakened immunity.

  15. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Whether in private practice or in a zoologic setting, veterinarians of the exotic animal persuasion are asked to work on amphibians. Veterinarians are able to evaluate amphibians thoroughly for medical issues, with infectious diseases at the forefront. Until quite recently, many infectious diseases were unknown or even misdiagnosed as being caused by opportunistic secondary organisms. Although Batrachochytrium dendrobates and viral diseases are in the forefront of research for amphibians, parasitic and bacterial diseases often present secondarily and, occasionally, even as the primary cause. Full diagnostic workups, when possible, can be critical in determining all the factors involved in morbidity and mortality issues in amphibians.

  16. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day–Care Centers in Yazd City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Anvari Tafti

    2014-07-01

    Results: In total 10 % of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite. The rates of infection were as follows: Blastocystis hominis 2.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.8%, Entamoeba coli 1.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.1.%. Infection rate in male was 12.9% and in female it was 6.9%. The relationship between sex, age, anthropometric indicators, and parasitic infection was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection, parents’ education and mothers' job (P<0.005. Conclusion: The results of this study, showed a considerable decrease in the rate of intestinal parasitic infections in comparison with other studies. This may be owing to the improvements in personal environment, and health which have occurred through public education campaigns, health information raising, sanitation facilities improvement, proper waste and wastewater disposal, control of drinking-water, and food safety.

  17. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  18. Intestinal Parasites in Children from a Day Care Centre in Matanzas City, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Roberto; Díaz, Mariuska Morales; Avalos García, Roxana; Laúd Martinez, Pedro Miguel; Manuel Ponce, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. Methods and Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2%) were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. Conclusions Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region. PMID:23236493

  19. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  20. Intestinal parasites in children from a day care centre in Matanzas City, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cañete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2% were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region.

  1. How common is intestinal parasitism in HIV-infected patients in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, I; Johari, S; Sim, Benedict L H; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2011-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have greater susceptibility to infections by a myriad of microorganisms which can cause significant morbidity and mortality compared to immunocompetent individuals. Of these microbial infections, intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) however are receiving less attention than bacterial and viral infections, hence, the lack of information of parasitic infections in HIV individuals. Prevalence of IPIs among 346 HIV-infected individuals in Malaysia was determined in this study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 37.9% (131 of 346) with protozoa infections (18.8%) being more common compared to helminth infections (7.5%). Observed protozoa include Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.8%), Cryptosporidium parvum (12.4%), Isospora belli (10.1%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.9%) and Giardia duodenalis (intestinalis) (3.2%) whilst helminthes which were detected comprised of Ascaris lumbricoides (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%) and hookworms (0.6%). Among those 131 infected, 50.4% had multiple infections and 48.9% had single parasitic infection. The CD4 counts were significantly lower (i.e., 200 cells/mm³) in patients harbouring IPIs. Of those individuals infected with intestinal parasites, 49% were intravenous drug users and 58% were not on any antiretroviral therapy. Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These results confirmed that IPIs are ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, especially those presenting with low CD4 T cells counts, and provide useful insights into the epidemiology of these infections among HIV-infected patients in Malaysia. It is therefore recommended, that diagnosis of these intestinal parasitic pathogens should be conducted on a routine basis for better management of gastrointestinal illnesses among HIV individuals.

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Primary School Children in Bushehr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barazesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.

  3. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

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    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  4. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

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    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among the Rural Primary School Students in the West of Ahvaz County, Iran, 2015

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    Jasem Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic infections are among the most important global health problems, especially in the developing countries. They are among the most common forms of infectious diseases in the world. According to the report of the world health organization (WHO, about 3.5 billion people worldwide are infected by a kind of parasite, and 450 million people each year become ill due to complications caused by parasites. Objectives Due to a lack of accurate statistics on the prevalence of the parasite in primary school children in rural areas of West of Ahvaz, Iran, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the mentioned group. Methods The current descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on 306 rural primary school students in the Western regions of Ahvaz County in 2015. Collected samples were transferred to the laboratory of parasitology in the school of medicine, and underwent a direct and sedimentary formalin-ether test. Results Out of the 306 students under study, 180 (58.8% were male and 126 (41.2% female. Of these students 88 (28.8% were with 1 or more intestinal parasites, which Giardia lamblia, with the prevalence of 61 (19.9% subjects had the highest rate, followed by Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, and Entamoeba coli with the prevalence of 12 (3.9%, 9 (2.9%, and 6 (1.9%, respectively, . Six (1.9% students showed coinfection by the 2 parasites. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of the parasite and the variables of age, the source of drinking water, and the method of washing vegetables and fruits, but no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of the parasite, and parents’ level of education and children’s gender. There was no case of infection with the worms. Conclusions Similar to other recent studies, only protozoan infection was observed in the current study. Giardia lamblia had the highest infection rate

  6. [Frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions].

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    Karaman, Ulkü; Turan, Ayşe; Depecik, Fehime; Geçit, Ilhan; Ozer, Ali; Karcı, Erdal; Karadan, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of parasites generally occurs through fecal-oral means directly from human to human or through receiving eggs and cysts by means of nourishment. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions. Stool specimens were examined using native-lugol, Trichrome and acid-fast stains methods. 23.7% of the 2443 fecal specimens were found to be positive. The frequencies of parasites were found to be 9.8% for Entamoeba coli, 7.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 7.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii, 3.4% for Giardia intestinalis, 0.9% for Dientamoeba fragilis, 0.13% for Entamoeba histolytica, 0.08% for Chilomastix mesnilii, 0.04% for Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.04% for Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.04% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.04% for Taenia spp. and 0.04% for Enterobius vermicularis. This rate of parasite positivity among healthy subjects visiting hospital for porter examination suggests that intestinal parasites still constitute a public health problem in the region. Moreover, it can be considered that one important factor in the frequency of the parasite can be both the nature of the jobs of administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions and their interaction with people during sales.

  7. Intestinal tuberculosis sometimes mimics Crohn's disease.

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    Esfandiar Shojaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis (TB and has clinicopathological similarities with Crohn's disease. In regions where TB is endemic clinicians must aware of this condition and fully evaluate their patients when Crohn's disease is diagnosed. We recommend all pathologic specimens be evaluate effectively for TB.Smear,culture and PCR for Mycobacterium.tuberculosis from samples aside the pathological reviews help for better diagnosis. Here we present a case of intestinal tuberculosis which initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease but after starting immunosuppressive agents he presented with disseminated tuberculosis.

  8. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

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    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  9. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil

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    Minoru German Higa Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers of Sari, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Kia, Elham; Rezaei, Fateme; Nasiri, Mehrdad; Nasrolahei, Mohtaram

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  11. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

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    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  12. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Minoru German; Cardoso, Wesley Márcio; Weis, Sabrina Moreira Dos Santos; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Silva, Patrícia Vieira da; Oliveira, Márcia Pereira de; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros

    2017-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10) production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%). Endolimax nana (22.7%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), Giardia lamblia (6.1%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5%) were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%). Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66) and 98.4% (65/66) of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8%) and 32 (48.4%) subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  13. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN

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    Mehdi SHARIF

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5% of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9% followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%, Entamoeba coli (15.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%, Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%, Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9% as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran

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    M Kheirandish

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and profile of CD4+ counts in HIV+/AIDS people in north of Iran, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Meigouni, M; Mahmoudi, F Baba; Rafiei, A; Gholami, Sh; Khalilian, A; Gohardehi, Sh; Mirabi, A M

    2009-09-15

    In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals) collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2%) of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9%) of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5%, E. coli 2.5%, E. histolytica 1.2%, Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells microL(-1)) was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells microL(-1)) (p = 0.001). As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran

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    Mohammad Hossein MOTAZEDIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parasitic intestinal infections are still among socioeconomic prob­lems in the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. Food-handlers that directly deal with production and distribution of foods between societies are one of the most important sources to transmit parasitic infections to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1021 feces samples were randomly col­lected from food-handlers in Shiraz, central Iran from August to September 2013. Two different methods, routine direct fecal examination and Formalin –Ethyl ace­tate concentration as a complementary technique, were done to detect parasites.Results: The prevalence of parasitic organisms was 10.4% in the food-handlers. The most species of the protozoan parasites were G. lamblia, E. coli and B. hominis; meanwhile, only one infection by H. nana (0.1% was detected in this group. Mixed infections were observed in 13.2% (n=14/106 of positive cases. The majority of participants were male (57%; however, data analysis showed significant statistical difference in the rate of infection between females 11.9% (n=53/444 and males 9% (n=52/577 (P=0. 024. There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of infection among different educational and occupation groups.Conclusion: Although decreasing of helminthic infections is distinct, but infecting with protozoan parasites is still important in food-handlers. Concentration tech­nique is more useful than direct smear technique, especially for detection parasites in low number. High level of education in our study showed that training courses in this group could be effective in the implementation of control and prevention programs.

  17. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the urban slums of a city in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, Misra; Bithika, Duttaroy; Bhavesh, Shroff

    2013-04-01

    There is scant information available on the prevalence of parasitic infections in Gujarat, a state in Western India. The present community-based study was undertaken in the urban slums of a city in Gujarat to determine the following parameters: (a) the prevalence and type of pathogenic intestinal parasites and (b) the availability of sanitary facilities in the study population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008, and the study participants were urban slum dwellers. Considering an expected infection prevalence of 30% among slum dwellers, an allowable error of 10% and an anticipated design effect of two, the sample size for the cluster design was set to 1800 participants from 30 clusters and 360 households (HHs). Stool samples were examined using both direct wet mount and the formalin-ether sedimentation concentration technique, followed by trichrome staining for protozoan cysts. Toilet facilities were utilized by 56% of the HHs, while 44% of the HHs resorted to open air defecation. The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 15.19%. Parasitic infections due to protozoa were observed in 70.71% of the study participants. Helminth infections were detected in 25.71% of the participants, and multiple parasitic infections were detected in 3.57%. Diarrhea was the most common complaint (9.56%) in the study population. This study demonstrates that poor sanitation and inadequate environmental conditions are the main determining factors that predispose the population to intestinal parasites. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran

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    Nasrin HEMMATI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods.Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38. Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7–33.0. The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite, Chilomastix mesnilii, and Enterobius vermicularis. Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii. E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections.Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population. 

  19. [Prevalence of intestinal parasitism and associated factors in a village on the Colombian Atlantic Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia; Gómez-Rodríguez, Lucila; Coronado, Xiomara; Orozco, Adalina; Valencia-Gutierrez, Carlos A; Restrepo-Betancur, Luis F; Galvis-Gómez, Luisa A; Botero-Palacio, Luz E

    2008-01-01

    Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitism and identifying the associated risk factors in the village of Loma Arena, Bolivar department, Colombia. The community's sanitary and educational conditions were evaluated by using a questionnaire which was applied to each family group. Two stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation, on two different days, were gathered from each participating person for the coproparasitological study. The coprological test involved direct examination in saline physiological solution and temporary staining with Lugol's solution and the formol-ether concentration method. It was found that 92 % of the population was parasitised, 92 % of them with at least one pathogenic parasite. Polyparasitism was very important (89,2 %); a maximum of 7 species per host was found. Helminth and protozoa coinfection was frequent (64 %). There was only 0,9 % teniosis prevalence. There was a significant association between symptomatology and parasite presence (pparasites (with the exception of Trichuris trichura and abdominal pain). The statistical analysis did not reveal any relationship between parasitism and educational level or sanitary habits. The uniform distribution of most intestinal parasites amongst the five age-groups evaluated showed that people in Loma Arena were evenly exposed to sources of infection in all age-groups.

  20. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

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    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  1. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites of dogs from Yucatan, Mexico, and their risk to public health.

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    Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Bolio-González, Manuel Emilio; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Aranda-Cirerol, Francisco; Lugo-Perez, J A

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and factors associated were studied in a rural community of Yucatan (southern Mexico), with special attention to those gastrointestinal parasites potentially transmitted to man. One hundred thirty dogs from 91 households were studied. Fecal samples were processed by the centrifugation-flotation and the McMaster techniques. To determine factors associated with zoonotic parasites in dogs, univariate analysis was performed, using sex, age, and body condition as independent variables. Variables with p Mexico, with poor body condition had a higher prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites as these factors were associated with a higher risk of becoming infected.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city, Mazandaran province.

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    Shahdoust, Samira; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Azargashb, Eznoallah; Khataminejad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relation with socio-demographic data in referred individuals to the medical centers in Tonekabon, Mazandaran province, 2015. Due to the climatic and ecological conditions in Mazandaran province, determination of the status of intestinal parasites among referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city can help researchers and healthcare services to prevent and/or control of parasitic infection in this region. This cross sectional study was conducted with randomized sampling in 2015 on 820 stool samples. Stool samples were assessed using direct slide smear with saline and Lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome staining. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers was conducted for the samples suspected for Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. One Cryptosporidium positive sample in this study was submitted for sequencing. A total of 444 (54.1%) and 376 (45.9%) were male and female, respectively. Furthermore, 495 (60.4%) and 325 (39.6%) of participants had lived in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Overall, 222 participants (27.1%) were infected with at least one intestinal parasites. Prevalence of pathogenic protozoa ( Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp.) and helminthes parasites was calculated as 3.1 and 1.2%, respectively. The most common intestinal parasites in this area were: Blastocystis 153 (18.7%), Endolymax nana 44 (5.4%), Entamoeba coli 40 (4.9%), Giardia lamblia 25 (3%), Iodamoeba butschlii 22 (2.7%), Ascaris 5 (0.6%), Enterobius vermicularis 4 (0.5%), Trichostrongylus 1 (0.1%) and Cryptosporidium 1 (0.1%). By sequencing of the positive Cryptosporidium isolate using Gp60 gene, Cryptosporidium parvum subtype ΠaA16G2R1 was diagnosed. Protozoa were more abundant than helminthes and Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoan pathogen. In this study, no significant association was

  3. [Seasonality of parasites and intestinal bacteria in vegetables that are consumed raw in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1996-08-01

    In Costa Rica, a total of 640 samples from eight different vegetables used for raw consumption, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites and fecal coliforms. Eighty samples of each vegetable were analyzed, forty during the dry season and forty in the rainy. A greater, but unsignificant (p > 0.05) level of fecal coliforms was found during the dry season. Levels of Escherichia coli, were higher (p vegetables. The greater percentage of positive samples was found during the dry season, although these relation was only corroborated (p parasites and fecal coliforms.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

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    Dejen Gezehegn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who

  5. Patterns of infection by intestinal parasites in sympatric howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) populations in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica.

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    Maldonado-López, Selene; Maldonado-López, Yurixhi; Gómez-Tagle Ch, Alberto; Cuevas-Reyes, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2014-07-01

    In primate populations, endoparasite species richness and prevalence are associated with host traits such as reproductive and social status, age, sex, host population density, and environmental factors such as humidity. We analyzed the species richness and prevalence of intestinal parasites in two sympatric primate populations, one of Alouatta palliata and one of Ateles geoffroyi, found in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We identified three species of intestinal parasites (Controrchis sp., Trypanoxyuris sp., and Strongyloides sp.) in these two primate species. We did not find any differences in species richness between the primate species. However, the prevalences of Controrchis sp. and Trypanoxyuris sp. were higher in Alouatta palliata. Similarly, males and lactating females of Alouatta palliata showed higher Controrchis sp. prevalences. We did not observe any differences in parasite richness and prevalence between seasons. Infectious diseases in endangered primate populations must be considered in conservation strategies, especially when defining protected areas.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs from Two Centers of Animal Welfare from Medellín and eastern Antioquia (Colombia, 2014

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    Verónica Sierra-Cifuentes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are very few studies about intestinal parasitosis in dogs, and street dogs constitute a high-risk group for the acquisition of parasitic zoonotic diseases. Through a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 2014, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and its associated factors were determined in 68 dogs of both sexes from two animal welfare centers in Medellin and eastern Antioquia (Colombia. The parasitological diagnosis was made by direct examination with saline solution at 0.8% and iodine, and the Sheather flotation method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72.1% (49, helminths 58.8% (40, protozoa 33.8% (23 and parasitism in 45.6% (31. 11 parasitic agents, of which the most prevalent were Uncinaria stenocephala with 39.7% (27, were identified; Ancylostoma caninum, with 20.6% (14; Trichuris vulpis, with 16.2% (11 and Toxocara spp., with 11.8% (8. These were statistically higher in eastern Antioquia (p value chi2 0.05. A high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in dogs from Medellin and eastern Antioquia was evidenced, as well as a great diversity in the prevalence of the subgroups studied. This information highlights the need to promote research in order to determine the magnitude and associated factors in specific populations as the foundation for targeting actions on veterinary health and public health, given the zoonotic potential of some parasitosis of dogs.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  8. Intestinal and haematic parasitism in the birds of the Almuñecar (Granada, Spain) ornithological garden.

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    Cordón, G Pérez; Prados, A Hitos; Romero, D; Moreno, M Sánchez; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J

    2009-11-12

    Birds from the Almuñecar ornithological garden (Granada, Spain) were surveyed from June 2006 to May 2007 to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal and haematic parasites. A total of 984 faecal samples and 41 samples of blood were collected from Psittacidae, Cacatuidae, Phasianidae, and Anatidae. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 51.6% of the samples. Blood parasites were found in 26.8% of the birds examined. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were coccidians, such as Cyclospora sp. (4.5%), Eimeria sp. (4.1%) and Isospora sp. (2%) and helminths such as Capillaria sp. (10. 1%), Ascaridia sp. (4.9%) and Heterakis gallinarum (4.9%). All the parasites varied with season but the most were found year round. Multiple parasitic infections by intestinal parasites were common, with 196 of 984 faecal samples having 2-5 intestinal parasites. The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Blastocystis plus Entamoeba sp. and Blastocystis plus Cyclospora sp. The haematic protozoa detected were Haemoproteus sp. (17%) and Plasmodium sp. (7.3%). Multiple parasitism by Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. was detected in 1 sample of Gallus gallus. After each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated according to our results, and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed.

  9. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

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    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  11. Intestinal Parasites and Nutritional Status in Children under 14 years of age at the Paediatric Hospital David Bernardino in Luanda, Angola

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    Marcelina Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in a paediatric population aged from 0 to 14 years old, hospitalized in the Paediatric Hospital David Bernardino in Luanda (HPDBL, and its association with nutritional status. The study involved 64 children admitted in the wards of "undernutrition" and "general". Detection of intestinal parasites in faecal samples was assessed by fresh examination stained with Lugol, as used at the HPDBL. The evaluation of nutritional status of children in HPDBL included clinical, biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Out of the 64 children analyzed, six (9.3% were infected with Giardia lamblia (6.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6% and Hymenolepis diminuta (1.6%. These cases of parasitism were more common in children over three years and hospitalized in the general ward. Regarding nutritional status, the majority (56.3% had some kind of nutritional deficiency (body weight below 70%, oedema in both legs, severe thinness, which were more frequent in females (55.6% and in children under 24 months (77.7%. About 92.2% of children admitted were from suburban areas of Luanda presenting greater vulnerability to parasitic infections and other diseases owing to households conditions, with a majority without piped water. However, no evidence has been encountered in this population sample of an association between intestinal parasites and malnutrition throughout the present study.

  12. Detection of water-borne and food-borne intestinal parasites of Trujillo, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Rosales, María J.; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Valdez, Renzo A; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Vargas-Vásquez, Franklin; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Córdova, Ofelia; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Pe...

  13. Microscopic inter-observer reliability of intestinal parasitic infections in trained laboratory technicians, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Monárrez-Espino; Devy Elling; María Angélica Cárdenas-Dimaté; Andres Balleza-Carreón

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL), Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed) are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of ...

  14. Intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in school children from Berisso, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Nora; Pezzani, Betina; Ciarmela, Maria; Orden, Alicia; Rosa, Diana; Apezteguía, Maria; Basualdo, Juan; Minvielle, Marta

    2011-07-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections have been reported in different regions of Argentina. Giardia intestinalis is recognized as "the national parasite". The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of both intestinal parasites and G. intestinalis genotypes, as well as to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in schoolchildren from a suburban community. Serial coproparasitological analysis and perianal swab method were performed in 244 schoolchildren. Demographic, sociocultural and environmental variables were registered. The presence of signs/symptoms and risk behaviours were also recorded. Stools with G. intestinalis were selected for genotyping. Out of 244 schoolchildren, 179/244 (73.4%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The presence of intestinal parasitosis was associated only with house flooding. Multivariate analysis identified that use of a latrine is significantly correlated with G. intestinalis and age six to 11 years with E. vermicularis. Signs and symptoms were recorded in 62% of infected children and in 57.9% of those not infected. Genomic amplification was revealed that 65.7% (46/70) of Giardia positive samples corresponded to genotype B, 31.4% (22/70) to genotype AII, and two samples (2.8%) had mixed infection (AII + B). This study shows a high percentage of infected children living in a suburban community in poor sanitary conditions, and not visiting the doctor in spite of evident signs and symptoms associated a digestive pathology. This situation supports the need for continuing the development of community programs allowing the improvement of quality of life and control of parasitosis in deprived populations.

  15. Relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    MA Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microecosystem is composed of natural microflora, intestinal epithelial cells, and intestinal mucosal immune system. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence showing the involvement of imbalanced intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Overgrowth of intestinal microflora, increased permeability of intestinal mucosa, intestinal endotoxemia, and production of inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of NAFLD. Further studies on the relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and the pathogenesis of NAFLD may shed light on the treatment and prevention of NAFLD.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural Inhabitants of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012

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    Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections, particularly in the rural areas, are one of the most important indices of the hygiene status and sanitation level of the society. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections among rural inhabitant of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from 50 families in seven villages that were directly and indirectly involved in raising livestock and other domestic animals in spring of 2012. The demographic data were collected by interview and included age, sex, educational level, place of keeping animals, direct or indirect contact with animals, and occupation. Fecal samples were concentrated using formol-ether sedimentation technique and examined by iodine-stained wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples were assessed by trichrome staining method. Results Among 228 samples, 80 (35.1% were diagnosed with parasitic infection, which separately included 43 cases of Entamoeba coli (18.9%, 32 Blastocystis hominis (14%, 16 Endolimax nana (7%, nine Iodamoeba butschlii (3.9%, five Giardia lamblia (2.2%, two Taenia species (0.9%, two Hymenolepis nana (0.9%, one Chilomastix mesnili (0.4%, one Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, and one Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.4%. No significant difference in infection rate was observed with regard to indirect or direct contact with livestock. Coinfection of E. coli and B. hominis, E. coli and I. butschlii, and E. nana and G. lamblia were statistically significant. Interestingly, no Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was seen in this population. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of some infections with intestinal parasites is high in the Hamadan City. Considering that most of the parasites are nonpathogenic, pathogenic ones have been reduced generally in comparison to the previous reports. Nevertheless, the existence of Taenia species and H. nana could not

  17. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

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    Watts David P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male members of primate species that form multi-male groups typically invest considerable effort into attaining and maintaining high dominance rank. Aggressive behaviors are frequently employed to acquire and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator of such behaviors. Testosterone can alter both neurological and musculoskeletal functions that may potentiate pre-existing patterns of aggression. However, elevated testosterone levels impose several costs, including increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions. Methods To improve understanding of the relationships between dominance rank, hormones and infection status in nonhuman primates, we collected and analyzed 67 fecal samples from 22 wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were analyzed for cortisol and testosterone levels as well as intestinal parasite prevalence and richness. 1,700 hours of observation data were used to determine dominance rank of each animal. We hypothesized that dominance rank would be directly associated with fecal testosterone and cortisol levels and intestinal parasite burden. Results Fecal testosterone (but not cortisol levels were directly associated with dominance rank, and both testosterone and cortisol were directly associated with intestinal parasite richness (number of unique species recovered. Dominance rank was directly associated with helminth (but not protozoan parasite richness, so that high ranking animals had higher testosterone levels and greater helminth burden. Conclusions One preliminary interpretation is that the antagonist pleiotropic effects of androgens and glucocorticoids place a cost on attaining and maintaining high dominance rank in this species. Because of the costs associated with elevated steroid levels, dominance status may be an

  18. Intestinal parasites of Tolypeutes matacus, the most frequently consumed armadillo in the Chaco region

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    T.A. Ríos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804 is distributed from eastern Bolivia, south-west Brazil, the Gran Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina, and lives in areas with dry vegetation. This armadillo is one of the most frequently consumed species by people in this area. The objective of this work was test for zoonotic species among helminths in 12 intestinal tracts of T. matacus in a locality from the Argentinean Chaco (Chamical, La Rioja province. The parasites were studied with conventional parasite morphology and morphometrics, and prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated for each species encountered. In the small intestine, seven species of nematodes and two species of cestodes were identified. In the large intestine, two species of nematodes were recorded. We did not find zoonotic species but have added new host records. This study in the Chaco region thus contributes to growing knowledge of the parasite fauna associated with armadillo species in this region.

  19. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN SUKOMENANTI PASAMAN REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit darah dan usus telah diselenggarakan di Kecamatan Sukomenanti, Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatra Barat. Bahan pemeriksaan berasal dari 168 penduduk lakidaki dan 196 wanita umur antara 2-87 tahun. Di Sumatra Barat cacing yang umumnya terdapat ialah pertama Ascaris lumbricoides, kedua cacing tambang dan ketiga Trichuris trichiura. Survey didaerah Boyolali dan Kresek, Jawa, menemukan lebih banyak T. trichiura daripada cacing tambang. Di daerah Yogyakarta T. trichiura menduduki tempat yang pertama. Angka infeksi yang rendah untuk desa Pasir Tampang (11 percent dan Tongar (3 percent adalah tidak umum untuk Indonesia, tetapi keadaan demikian juga dilaporkan di lembah Lindu dan Napu, Sulawesi Tengah. Enterobius vermicularis terdapat hanya pada 2 per cent diantara penduduk yang diperiksa, sesuai dengan keadaan di daerah2 lain di Indonesia. Species dari cacing tambang pada survey ini belum dapat ditentukan. Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides terdapat lebih banyak pada penduduk golongan muda, sesuai dengan hasil autopsi oleh Liedan Tan di Jakarta. Di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat infeksi A. lumbricoides tampak merata pada semua umur. Entamoeba coli selalu terdapat pada survey di desa2 di pulau Jawa. Tetapi, infeksi E. histolytica (24 percent adalah berlainan dengan keadaan di Kresek, Boyolali dan Yogyakarta yang menunjukkan ■ infeksi 12 per cent atau kurang. Infeksi malaria di Sukomenanti adalah sangat rendah sebagaimana terdapat di Kresek dan Yogya­karta. Keadaan demikian sangat berlainan dengan daerah Margolimbo di Sulawesi Selatan dimana angka dnfeksi malarianya tinggi.

  20. Evaluation of five treatments to control intestinal parasites in sheep in Ayapango, state of Mexico

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    Rafael Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.

  1. Frequency of intestinal parasites and socioeconomic conditions of São Marcos city-RS schoolchildren

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    Scheila Cristina Rech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in São Marcos city-RS elementary and middle school children, from March to October 2015. A questionnaire was applied to asses students' knowledge on pathways for parasite transmission and on sanitation facilities in the city. Stool samples were collected from eighth-grade students of nine different schools and were analyzed/processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Of the 190 students who participated in the study, most were female (51.58% and the mean age of the students was 7.99 ± 3.23 years. 5.79% of the samples were positive for parasites, being 3.16% of cysts of Entamoeba coli, 1.58% of Endolimax nana and 1.05% of Giardia lamblia. As for the students’ knowledge on parasites, 73.16% reported knowing what parasites are and what damage they can cause, 68.42% are aware of the transmission pathways, however 41.58% consider there is insufficient information available to the public. Related to the health issues to which they are exposed, 94.21% reported consuming potable water and 64.74% reported having sewage collection and treatment. The present study has shown a low prevalence of parasitic infections, which could be explained by the knowledge of parents and guardians about topic, favorable sanitary conditions, and the high percentage (78.95% of students who have already been treated with antiparasitic drugs.

  2. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  3. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of mthatha, eastern cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd

    2013-10-01

    The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.

  5. Intestinal parasitism prevalence amongst children from six indigenous communities residing in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Florez, Ofelia; Bermúdez, Amparo; Hernández, Luzmila; Araujo, Cristina; Bolaños, María V

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali. A cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali; it consisted of making a direct serial and concentration coproparasitological examination of a randomly selected sample of fifty-seven 5 to 14 year-old children. Of the 57 samples obtained, 84 % of the children were infected with parasites; protozoa (98 %) predominated over helminths (16.7 %) and mixed parasitemia was found in 14.6 % of the samples. Monoparasitism appeared in children over 10 years of age and biparasitism (10.4 %) and polyparasitism (52.1 %) in children under 10 years of age. Regarding occult blood determination, 6 % were observed to be positive in all the samples analysed; 4 % of these results were associated with E. histolyticaldispar. The simple parasitism index (SPI) reflected a high degree of infestation amongst the children included in the study. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in indigenous infants was higher than that reported nationally in the overall adolescent and school-aged children population in the same age group. Mono- and polyparasitism prevailed in the positive samples. The infestation load was not randomly distributed amongst the communities.

  6. Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Ralph Lainson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%. The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

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    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  8. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD.

  9. Parasitic intestinal infections in humans between 2006 and 2007

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    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006-07 faecal specimens of 2.132 subjects (1.508 adults and 624 children were examined for ova & parasites, using direct and after formalin-ethylacetate concentration microscopy, and permanent specific stains. 380 bubjects (17.8 % were infected: 313 adults (20.8 % and 67 children (10.7 %. 331 cases (15.5 % were infected by pathogens, 275 adults (18.2 % and 56 children (9.0 %. 389 pathogenic or not pathogenic protozoa (18.2 % and 60 helminths (2.8 % were identified, more among adults than children (21.0 % vs 11.5 % and 3.2 % vs 1.8 % respectively.Among protozoa, D. fragilis was in all observed in 145 cases (6.8 %, G. duodenalis in 74 cases (3.5 %, other were very rare.Among helminths nematodes were more frequent than trematodes and cestodes, with S. stercoralis (14 cases and E. vermicularis (13 cases the most frequent ones. 2.302 subjects (1.505 adults and 797 children were examined for microbiological tests because affected by acute or prolonged diarrhoea. 82 cases (3.6 % of protozoal infections were observed, 70 among adults (4.7 % and 12 among children (1.5 %. D. fragilis was in all prevalent (2.0 % in respect of G. duodenalis (1.0 % or other ones (0.6 %. For S. stercoralis specific investigation, modified Baermann method / larvae colture were performed: 20/189 cases (10.6 % od strongyloidiasis was diagnosed in adults. For E. vermicularis investigation, scotch test was performer: 43/179 cases (24.0% of enterobiasis was diagnosed. The Authors underline the application of standard operative procedures for O & P with permanent specific stains in subject affected by enterites too, and the analysis of more specimens for each subjects for good diagnostical performances.

  10. Enteroparasitos em índios Yanomâmi Intestinal parasites among Yanomâmi indians

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    U. E. Confalonieri

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The findings of intestinal helminths and protozoans parasites from the Yanomâmi indians of the Roraima State in Brazil are reported. The fecal samples were collected before these communities started a permanent contact with non-indians. Comments are made on the possible ecological and evolutionary factors responsible for the patterns of parasitism observed.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    medical check up for food handlers and improve human waste disposal. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24(1):46-50]. Introduction. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) estimated that in developed countries, up to 30% of the population ...

  12. Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; O'Neal, Peter R; Wong, Valerie M; Noah, Donald L

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188). PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ 2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate. RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

  13. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

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    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  14. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

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    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.

  15. [Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres-Norberg, Antonio; Guerra-Sanches, Fabiano; Blanco Moreira-Norberg, Paulo R; Madeira-Oliveira, José Tadeu; Santa-Helena, Aluízio Antonio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2014-01-01

    Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba histolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodes helminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  16. Intestinal tuberculosis simulating Crohn's disease: Differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Natalia; García-Campos, María; Cordón, Gisselle; Iborra, Marisa

    2018-03-13

    Tuberculosis is a public health's problema in the world. Its incidence is increasing in our environment due to inmigration and the use of inmunosupressors. It's a systemic disease that can affect rarely the gastrointestinal tract. We should take into account the epidemiological and clinical context of each patient, because the differential diagnosis is broad. It can mimic with other diseases, such as Crohn's disease. We report a case of intestinal tuberculosis, and underline the importance of the differential diagnosis of these patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI diagnosis of small intestinal Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiaojun; Zhang Shizheng; Zhang Qiaowei; Liu Hai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of small intestinal Crohn's disease. Methods: The MRI findings in 13 cases of small intestinal Crohn's disease proved by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The patients included 12 men and 1 woman, and their age ranged from 17 to 64 years. The MR images were reviewed for the number, location, and mural thickness of diseased bowel segments, for the ratio of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall after the IV administration of Gd-DTPA or enhanced ratio of diseased bowel wall, and for the complications (phlegmon, inflammatory mass, abscess, and fistula). Six patients received air-infused MR enteroclysis-enhanced scan was performed directly in the fat saturated coronal and axial plane after about 1000 ml of air was infused into small bowel through a nasoenteric catheter. Another 7 patients received small intestinal hydro-MRI--MR images were obtained in fat saturated enhanced coronal and axial plane as well as in unenhanced coronal plane.Twenty mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce peristalsis in all patients, and fat saturation was used in all sequences. Results: The diseased bowel segment of every case was demonstrated in MRI. The sensitivity was 100%. Thirty-six inflammatory segments were revealed in all (mean 2.8 segments per patient). The MRI findings of small intestinal Crohn's disease were that the enhancement of diseased bowel wall increased significantly. The ratios of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall were 1.9-2.5 (mean, 2.1) in the group of air-infused enteroclysis. The ratios of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall were 1.3-2.9 (mean, 1.9) and the enhanced ratios of diseased bowel wall were 96%-223% (mean, 133%), but the enhanced ratios of normal bowel wall were 31%-78% (mean, 59%). Thirty-three segments (92%) of diseased bowel wall thickened (thickness between 5-27 mm), and the

  18. Integrated parasite management with special reference to gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, I; Wani, Z A; Shahardar, R A; Allaie, I M; Shah, M M

    2017-03-01

    Domestic animals are susceptible to a large number of parasitic diseases, which lead to severe economic losses to livestock industry. So, it is necessary to control parasitic infections in these animals. Control of these helminths is undertaken mostly by anthelmintics, but because of their widespread use there is development of resistance across the globe. However, total dependence on a single method of control has proved to be non-sustainable and cost ineffective in the long term. A combination of treatment and management is necessary to control parasitism so that it will not cause further economic losses to producer as well as to livestock industry. To become practically and ecologically sustainable, parasitic control schemes need to be based on integrated parasite management.

  19. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  20. [Survey of infection situation of intestinal parasites of rural residents in plain area of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Feng; Zhang, Ben-guang; Wang, Yong-bin; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhang, Dian-bo; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Chen, Xi-xin; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To understand the current situation of infections of intestinal parasites of rural residents in four cities namely Dongying, Weifang, Jining and Heze of Shandong Province. Twenty-four villages were randomly selected as study areas. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to test the stool samples of adult residents and the cellophane tape anus method was applied to test the infection of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 12 years or below. Fifty families were randomly selected from each village and surveyed with questionnaires for the general situation of the family, and the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites, and healthy behaviors of the family members. Totally 8,227 adult residents and 1,313 children were investigated and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 0.55% (45 cases). The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichura, E. vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis were 0.15% (12 cases), 0.06% (5 cases), 0.09% (7 cases), 1.37% (18 cases) and 0.04% (3 cases), respectively. Totally 3,767 residents were surveyed with questionnaires, and the awareness rate of the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites was 28.72% (1,082 cases), the formation rates of washing hands before meal, washing hands after toilet, washing fruit and vegetables before eating, and never drinking unboiled water were 60.66% (2,285 cases), 50.17% (1,890 cases), 48.71% (1,835 cases), and 87.07% (3,280 cases), respectively. In the plain area of Shandong Province, the infection rates of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, T. trichura and C. sinensis are low but the infection rate of E. vermicularis of children is relatively high; the awareness rates of the knowledge of parasites as well as the formation rates of healthy behaviors are low. Therefore, the health education and promotion should be strengthened.

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  2. [Intestinal parasites detected in Süphan Primary schoolchildren in Van].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Ciçek, Mutalip; Akbayram, Sinan; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine the distribution of intestinal parasites among students of Süphan Primary School in Van in 2005. In the study, stool specimens were taken from 395 students (166 girls and 229 boys) between 7-15 years of age. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 28.9 % of the children. Parasitosis was detected in 28.3% of the girls and in 29.3% of the boys. Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana were detected at the rates of 15.4%, 6.6%, 6.3%, 3.3%, 1.5%, 1.3%, 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.3% and 0.3%, respectively. In conclusion, it was observed that the socioeconomic status has an important impact on the frequency of intestinal parasites among primary school students, and the parasitosis is still a problem in the province.

  3. Factors associated with intestinal parasites in schoolchildren of municipal schools in Cambé

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    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. A total of 1996 stool samples were collected between 2006 and 2009, using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators and the Kato-Katz. The prevalence was 23.2%. The parasites found were Entamoeba coli (10.4%; Endolimax nana (9.6%, Giardia lamblia (6.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (1.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.3%, Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis nana and hookworm infection (0.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma mansoni (0.1%. We found no statistically significant gender differences. The age, family income, mother's education level, consumption of untreated water, absence of sewage collection and contact with freshwater streams were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites. Although the highest prevalence of protozoa is commensal this is worrying as it indicates that the fecal-oral transmission is present in this population and may increase the transmission of pathogenic forms, since they share the same transmission routes. The identified cases of schistosomiasis were not autochthonous, but early diagnosis of this infection was important to avoid contamination of the environment.

  4. Prevalence and epidemiology of intestinal parasitism, as revealed by three distinct techniques in an endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J G; Gomes-Silva, A; De Carvalho Moreira, C J; Leles De Souza, D; Jaeger, L H; Martins, P P; Meneses, V F; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A

    2011-09-01

    This survey aims to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil, through three distinct techniques, correlating the prevalence rates with family income and age groups as well as assessing the household clustering of infections. Prevalence rates were assessed through Graham (n=113), Baermann-Moraes (n=232) and Ritchie (n=463) methods. The Graham method was adopted only for children under 5 years old, 15% of whom were positive for Enterobius vermicularis. By the Baermann-Moraes technique, 5·6% of the samples were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The Ritchie technique disclosed the following results: Ascaris lumbricoides (26%), Trichuris trichiura (22·5%), hookworms (9·5%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (25·3%), Giardia lamblia (12·5%) and E. vermicularis (0·6%). Children aged 5-14 years presented the highest prevalence for pathogenic parasites. Giardiasis and hookworm infection rates were inversely related to family income. The presence of positive contacts in the same household substantially increased the risk of infection by enteric parasites: odds ratio (OR)=2·70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1·69-4·29 for ascariasis; OR=2·17, 95% CI=1·34-3·51 for trichuriasis; OR=2·13, 95% CI=1·08-4·17 for hookworm disease; OR=3·42, 95% CI=1·86-6·30 for giardiasis; and OR=2·16, 95% CI=1·35-3·47 for amoebiasis, supporting infection clustering in the home. Intestinal parasitoses are extremely frequent in the studied area, and routine methods for diagnosis may underestimate the prevalence of enterobiasis and strongyloidiasis.

  5. [Parasitic diseases and fecal hazards: diseases due to helminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1998-01-01

    Ascaris, trichocephalus, hookworm, necator and anguillula--all of which are human parasites--are closely linked to fecal peril and especially prevalent among populations in developing countries, where fecal hygiene is insufficient or lacking. Epidemiological surveys seeking to evaluate the frequency of the various intestinal helminths are usually intermittent, few in number, and especially difficult to compare because of the different coprological techniques used. However this may be, the respective prevalence of these worms depends on geographical, climatic, economic, and human conditions. Their effect on health is not negligible, especially on children's health and in particular when malnutrition also occurs. To fight effectively against these verminoses, education and economic development must be promoted, but the present situation of the economy in most developing countries is postponing indefinitely the fight against fecal peril especially as its control is not seen as a priority.

  6. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism in rural and remote West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Ishak, Saidon; Chuen, Chow Sek; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2011-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have a worldwide distribution and have been identified as one of the most significant causes of illnesses and diseases among the disadvantaged population. In Malaysia, IPIs still persist in some rural areas, and this study was conducted to determine the current epidemiological status and to identify risk factors associated with IPIs among communities residing in rural and remote areas of West Malaysia. A total of 716 participants from 8 villages were involved, comprising those from 1 to 83 years old, 550 (76.8%) participants aged ≤12 years and 166 (23.2%) aged ≥13 years, and 304 (42.5%) male and 412 (57.5%) female. The overall prevalence of IPIs was high (73.2%). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections (73.2%) were significantly more common compared to protozoa infections (21.4%) (pprevalence of IPIs showed an age dependency relationship, with significantly higher rates observed among those aged ≤12 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participants aged ≤12 years (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.45-3.45), low household income (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 3.15-7.73), using untreated water supply (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.36-3.21), and indiscriminate defecation (OR = 5.01; 95% CI = 3.30-7.62) were identified as significant predictors of IPIs among these communities. Essentially, these findings highlighted that IPIs are highly prevalent among the poor rural communities in West Malaysia. Poverty and low socioeconomic with poor environmental sanitation were indicated as important predictors of IPIs. Effective poverty reduction programmes, promotion of deworming, and mass campaigns to heighten awareness on health and hygiene are urgently needed to reduce IPIs.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasitism in Rural and Remote West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Ishak, Saidon; Chuen, Chow Sek; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have a worldwide distribution and have been identified as one of the most significant causes of illnesses and diseases among the disadvantaged population. In Malaysia, IPIs still persist in some rural areas, and this study was conducted to determine the current epidemiological status and to identify risk factors associated with IPIs among communities residing in rural and remote areas of West Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 716 participants from 8 villages were involved, comprising those from 1 to 83 years old, 550 (76.8%) participants aged ≤12 years and 166 (23.2%) aged ≥13 years, and 304 (42.5%) male and 412 (57.5%) female. The overall prevalence of IPIs was high (73.2%). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections (73.2%) were significantly more common compared to protozoa infections (21.4%) (p<0.001). The prevalence of IPIs showed an age dependency relationship, with significantly higher rates observed among those aged ≤12 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participants aged ≤12 years (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.45–3.45), low household income (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 3.15–7.73), using untreated water supply (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.36–3.21), and indiscriminate defecation (OR = 5.01; 95% CI = 3.30–7.62) were identified as significant predictors of IPIs among these communities. Conclusion Essentially, these findings highlighted that IPIs are highly prevalent among the poor rural communities in West Malaysia. Poverty and low socioeconomic with poor environmental sanitation were indicated as important predictors of IPIs. Effective poverty reduction programmes, promotion of deworming, and mass campaigns to heighten awareness on health and hygiene are urgently needed to reduce IPIs. PMID:21390157

  9. Intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Pedersen, Jannie; Jørgensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society. Mucosal healing and re-establishment of barrier integrity is associated......, novel treatment strategies to accomplish mucosal healing and to re-establish normal barrier integrity in inflammatory bowel disease are warranted, and luminal stem cell-based approaches might have an intriguing potential. Transplantation of in vitro expanded intestinal epithelial stem cells derived...

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Esmailnia, Kasra; Karim, Gholamreza; Nasir, Mehdi; Akhavan, Omid

    2009-09-01

    Karaj is an area with large influx of refugee people in Iran. To increase knowledge about parasitic infections, we carried out this research during 2006-2008. We recorded the stool examination results and some of their personal characteristics. A total of 13,915 human stools were examined, and 649 (4.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection. Other parasitic infections included Entamoeba coli (0.39%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.021%), Blastocystis hominis (0.08%), Trichomonas hominis (0.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.06%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.007%), Endolimax nana (0.05%), Enterobius spp. eggs (0.028%), Taenia proglottids (0.028%), and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (0.03%). The maximum numbers of referred people to laboratories were in July and the maximum percentage of infections was in August. There is a point that all 5 Strongyloides stercoralis infections were pertained to 2008. With attention to the rate of parasitic infections (4.7%), it seems that we should take additional educational information to wide spectrum of people living in this city.

  12. Satellite technology and the control of parasitic diseases in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential application of these techniques in the surveillance, control and prevention of parasitic diseases in Africa is explored in this write-up. Keywords: surveillance, parasitic diseases, satellite techniques, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning Sytem (GPS), human and robotic, ...

  13. Three years of distribution of intestinal parasites in an Education and Research Hospital: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Pektaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients who applied to various clinics in our hospital with gastrointestinal complaints in terms of intestinal parasites, retrospectively. Methods: Totally 41967 stool samples of patients applied to Parasitology laboratory in Konya Education and Research Hospital in January 2010-December 2012 were investigated under microscope after multiplexing by native lugol and formol ethyl acetate method. Trichrome dying was performed to the suspected samples. The stool samples, in which Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar cannot be differentiated, were investigated by ELISA method in order to identify adhesin antigens. Results: Intestinal parasite was determined in 2145 (5.11% of 41.967 patients who applied to our laboratory in 3 years. 39.4%, 44.3% and 16.2% of positive patients were 0-15, 16-50 and >50 years old, respectively. Blastocyctis hominis, Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found in 59.9%, 25% and 13.7% of the positive samples, respectively. Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found most frequently in 0-15 years old patients, while Blastocyctis hominis was found most frequently in 15-49 years old patients. There was a statistically significant difference between these parasites and age groups (p<0.01. The distribution of the positive cases among the years was found as 6.8% in 2010, 5.4% in 2011, 3.3% in 2012 and there was a statistically significant difference between the years (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to our results, the frequency of parasite infection still maintains its importance, although the frequency was decreased compared to previous years. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 269-273

  14. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T

    2009-04-06

    The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (PGiardia (PGiardia and T. canis (PGiardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an infection in any of the study populations. Toxocara and Giardia present a zoonotic risk, especially in household dogs, where the majority of Giardia positive samples (80%) belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. In kennel dogs and clinically affected dogs the host-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were most prevalent (94% and 80%, respectively).

  15. Decreasing prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ritu; Acharya, Lokendra; Karki, Surendra

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades there have been several studies describing the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nepal; however, there is a lack of surveillance data in the country. We searched literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and local peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 2015 for studies describing prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-aged children. We conducted meta-regression to understand the trend over time and pooled the prevalence using 'metaprop' command in STATA 12.1. Thirty-one studies examining 12 080 fecal specimens were included. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections showed a significantly decreasing trend (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.73 for each consecutive 5 years) and was similar in males and females. The pooled prevalence in years 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 was 61.1% (95% CI 51.47-70.26), 53.2% (95% CI 20.94-83.99), 32.7% (95% CI 26.57-39.21) and 20.4% (95% CI 15.04-26.25), respectively. The proportion of helminths among total intestinal parasites was higher in rural areas 57.6% (95% CI 43.54-71.61), and proportion of protozoa among total intestinal parasites was higher in urban areas 68.4% (95% CI 63.23-73.62). Poly-parasitism was observed in 7.7% (95% CI 5.57-9.73) of children. We observed a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal over the last two decades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...

  17. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...

  18. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old), and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  19. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old, and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  20. PARASITES, DISEASES AND DEFORMITIES OF COBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Order Perciformes and as a warm–water fish is to be found in tropical and subtropical waters. The species has been reported in eastern Mediterranean waters and it is likely that in this particular case, cobia are lessespian. Cobia has been farmed in Taiwan since the early 1990s and today nascent cobia aquaculture operations operate throughout South East and Eastern Asia, in Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea as well as in the United States. Many other nations are presently considering adopting cobia as a new species for aquaculture. Production by aquaculture experienced a 7000–fold increase from 1995 to 2005. The increased interest in the species has evolved due in large part to its many excellent characteristics which include good growth, with production of 6 kg live weight fish being possible over a year–long production cycle. Cobia are accepting of pond, net pens and recirculation–based culture; their fillet quality is high and meat delectable; They readily take formulated feeds and respond well to alternate proteins in their diets. Like other species new to aquaculture however, enlarged farming activities have been accompanied by increased incidence of commonly–encountered and emerging diseases. As an aid to current and potential producers as well as researchers, the following provides an overview of the published literature on cobia diseases, parasites and physical deformities.

  1. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    evaluating the effects of these changes on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome , mycobiome...immune cells associated with the intestine and their interactions with the normal microbial contents of the gut. 2. KEYWORDS Radiation, microbiome ... microbiome following TBI. At the end of the experiment, we also harvested the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes for multiparametric flow cytometry and

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in pet shop puppies in east Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Itagaki, T; Kawabata, T; Konaka, T; Muraoka, N; Saeki, H; Kanai, K; Chikazawa, S; Hori, Y; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

    2011-02-28

    The current study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in puppies from nine pet shops in east Japan. Fresh fecal samples from 1794 puppies (≦3 months old) were collected on one occasion. Giardia spp. was examined for specific coproantigen using ELISA kit (SNAP®Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA). Other intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Genotyping was determined for the random 29 stool samples identified as Giardia spp. positive using PCR and direct sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Overall prevalence of protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. revealed 23.4% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of ascarids, Strongyloides spp. and hookworms were recorded 1.8%, 1.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., thus, represent important pathogens among pet shop puppies. All genotyped G. intestinalis isolates were belonged to assemblage C or D, identified as dog-specific genotypes. Zoonotic assemblage A and B were not demonstrated. The result suggests that the risk of zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis from pet shops puppies to humans may be quite low in Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parasitic diseases in the returning traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... travel history). Moreover, a considerable percentage of travellers who acquired a parasitosis abroad may remain asymptomatic for a long time, sometimes for years.1 It is therefore important not to focus exclusively on parasitic conditions, but also to consider non-parasitic entities as a differential diagnosis in ...

  4. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0300 TITLE: Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0300 5c...changes in the microbiota on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16

  5. Intestinal parasitism in the animals of the zoological garden "Peña Escrita" (Almuñecar, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cordón, G; Hitos Prados, A; Romero, D; Sánchez Moreno, M; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J

    2008-10-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites cause serious diarrhoea in captive animals. Therefore, we have undertaken this study to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal parasitism in the animals of the zoological garden "Peña Escrita" of Almuñecar (Granada). An annual survey was conduced to estimate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites and the seasonality of this parasitism. Between June 2006 and May 2007, 432 samples were collected from primates, carnivores, perissoodactyla, artiodactyla, rodentia, diprotodontia, galliformes, anseriformes and struthioniformes. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 72.5% of the animals. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were Eimeria spp. (17.3%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Strongyloides spp. (4.5%), Cyclospora spp. (4.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.2%) and Isospora spp. (2.6%). Iodamoeba butschlii, Parascaris equorum and Trichuris spp. did not vary with season and Cryptosporidium spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Metastrongylus spp. and Cylicospirura spp. appeared exclusively in Artiodactyla. Multiple parasitic infections were common, 70% of animals presented with at least two parasites (maximum=6). The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Eimeria spp. plus Blastocystis spp. and Eimeria spp. plus Nematodirus spp., in the last case the animals presented explosive diarrhoea. In accord with our results, after each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed.

  6. Microscopic inter-observer reliability of intestinal parasitic infections in trained laboratory technicians, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL, Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of northern Mexico to assess the inter-observer reliability of GL, AL, and Eh/Ed diagnoses. Two experienced technicians working at the hospital were trained and standardized for two full weeks in the Parasitology Laboratory at the National Children’s Hospital from Mexico City. Diagnoses were made by microscopy of two serial stool samples processed using the modified Faust zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique to concentrate AL eggs and GL and Eh/Ed cysts. Observations were done independently, and the final diagnosis for each observer was established when at least one of the two samples resulted positive. Reliability analyses from serial stool samples were conducted using Cohen’s kappa correlation coefficient (ĸ for each parasite. Agreement between observers reached 88.7, 72.4, and 80.5% for Eh/Ed, AL, and GL, respectively. Largest kappa coefficient was observed for GL (ĸ=0.55, followed by Eh/Ed (ĸ=0.30, and AL (ĸ=0.08. Prevalence of Eh/Ed, AL and GL according to observers 1 and 2 were 3.4 vs. 13.5%, 4.0 vs. 28.2%, and 32.2 vs. 33.3%, respectively. Except for GL, reliability was very low leading to major differences in prevalence estimates. These results question the value of training technicians, as intestinal parasitic microscopic diagnoses seemed to be very difficult to replicate between observers questioning their validity, leading to differences in clinical decisions, and in prevalence estimates.

  7. [Spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in the City of La Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, María I; Giambelluca, Luis A; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-01-01

    Parasitosis analysis at regional levels is simplified by the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), which enables the identification of areas with different degrees of vulnerability. We analyzed the spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in La Plata district and their relationship with socio-environmental conditions in order to identify areas with different degrees of epidemiological risk. An epidemiological survey was completed; stool samples were collected and analyzed by Ritchie's method. Levels of precariousness and vulnerability (Iv rate) were calculated and compared to the parasitological results. Parasitological and environmental analysis were carried out on a total of 653 individuals, of whom 585 (89.6%) were children and 68 (10.4%) adults. The analysis indicated that the most vulnerable (Iv = 3-4) were those located in areas with less access to urban infrastructure services. The Iv was strongly associated with the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and the 4 pathogenic species related to the fecal contamination of the environment: Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia (p < 0.01). On the other hand, Enterobius vermicularis, a parasite not related to the sanitary condition of its host, was not associated with the Iv. Statistical association between poverty and parasitosis was noted; the greater the Iv, higher the incidence of parasites (p < 0.01). GIS allowed zoning socio-environmental variables in an increasing gradient of unfavorable conditions and their relationship to the presence of pathogenic species. The continuity of these studies in different regions of Argentina contributes to the determination of health risk areas.

  8. The Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues in the Small Intestine, Not the Large Intestine, Play a Major Role in Oral Prion Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, David S; Else, Kathryn J; Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-09-01

    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulations of abnormally folded cellular prion protein in affected tissues. Many natural prion diseases are acquired orally, and following exposure, the early replication of some prion isolates upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) within gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) is important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain (neuroinvasion). Prion detection within large intestinal GALT biopsy specimens has been used to estimate human and animal disease prevalence. However, the relative contributions of the small and large intestinal GALT to oral prion pathogenesis were unknown. To address this issue, we created mice that specifically lacked FDC-containing GALT only in the small intestine. Our data show that oral prion disease susceptibility was dramatically reduced in mice lacking small intestinal GALT. Although these mice had FDC-containing GALT throughout their large intestines, these tissues were not early sites of prion accumulation or neuroinvasion. We also determined whether pathology specifically within the large intestine might influence prion pathogenesis. Congruent infection with the nematode parasite Trichuris muris in the large intestine around the time of oral prion exposure did not affect disease pathogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that the small intestinal GALT are the major early sites of prion accumulation and neuroinvasion after oral exposure. This has important implications for our understanding of the factors that influence the risk of infection and the preclinical diagnosis of disease. Many natural prion diseases are acquired orally. After exposure, the accumulation of some prion diseases in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) is important for efficient spread of disease to the brain. However, the relative contributions of GALT in the small and large intestines to oral prion pathogenesis were unknown. We show that the small intestinal

  9. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade......-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests...

  10. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis as A Zoonotic Parasitic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworms from the genus Taenia, and infection with the larvae form of Taenia is called Cysticercosis. Some species of Taenia are zoonotic, and humans serve as the definitive host, the intermediate host or both. Humans are the definitive hosts for Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, however, humans also act as an intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica. Animals, such as pigs, are the intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle are the intermediate host for T. saginata. Humans can be infected by taeniasis when they eat beef or pork that contains larvae (cysticercus. While, cysticercosis is transmitted via food or water contaminated with the eggs of Taenia spp. The transmission may also occur by autoinfection due to lack of hygiene. The diagnosis of taeniasis based on finding the eggs or proglotid in the human feces. For diagnosing cysticercosis in live animals can be done by tongue palpation to find the presence of cysts or nodules. Serological test may also help for diagnosing cysticercosis in humans or animals. Adult tapeworms in the intestine can be killed by anthelmintic and prevention of taeniasis can be conducted by avoiding raw or undercooked pork (T. solium and T. asiatica and beef (T. saginata. Besides that, to prevent the infection of T. solium, T. saginata or T. asiatica, pigs or cattle should not be exposed to human feces.

  11. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies.

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    Sandra B Andersen

    Full Text Available Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.

  12. The Risk of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders Following Acute Infection with Intestinal Parasites

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    Jason Blitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population.Methods: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnostic coding data for primary exposures and outcomes were obtained for a retrospective cohort study of active component military personnel from 1998 to 2013. Exposed subjects consisted of individuals with documented infection with one of ten parasitic pathogens. Unexposed subjects were matched to exposed subjects on demographic and operational deployment history parameters. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were estimated using logistic regression for several chronic disorders previously shown to be associated with a history of IGE.Results: A total of 896 subjects with a parasitic exposure were matched to 3681 unexposed subjects for multivariate regression analysis. Individuals infected with Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia spp. had higher aOR for development of several chronic gastrointestinal disorders when compared with unexposed subjects after controlling for various covariates.Conclusion: We found that parasite-associated enteric infection increases the risk of development of post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disorders in a military population. These results require confirmation in similar populations and in the

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

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    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  14. Ileum Histoplasmosis Mimicking Intestinal Tuberculosis and Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Jiang; Dong, Qi-Chao; Lin, Xu; Chen, Yu-Ping; Gong, Fei-Yue; Liang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) without pulmonary and bone marrow involvement is very rare worldwide. It can be misdiagnosed as intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease. There are just few case reports of GIH in patients with a positive HIV antibody test. Here, we report a patient who presented to our hospital with repeated intestinal obstruction. The suspicious diagnosis was intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease due to unspecific clinical manifestations and radiologic images. Our patient's HIV antibody test was negative. She had no medical prescriptions. Therefore, our differential diagnosis needed to include ileum histoplasmosis besides intestinal lymphoma, intestinal tuberculosis, and Crohn's disease. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with ileum histoplasmosis due to surgical resection. It is important to be aware of potential infectious diseases, such as ileum histoplasmosis, when making a differential diagnosis. Moreover, surgical resection might be the final approach for small-intestine stricture with fibrosis.

  15. Pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

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    Courtney, Cathleen M; Warner, Brad W

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively. Research for prevention and treatment is aimed at alleviating risk factors associated with IFALD, principally those associated with parental nutrition. Multiple nutrients and amino acids are relevant to the development of IFALD, but lipid composition has been the primary focus. Lipid emulsions with a lower ratio of omega-6-to-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) appear to improve bile flow and decrease intrahepatic inflammation. Long-term consequences of these alternative lipid emulsions are yet to be determined. IFALD remains the greatest contributor of mortality in patients with intestinal failure. Many factors contribute to its development, namely, alterations in the gut microbiome, sepsis, and lack of enteral intake. Novel combinations of lipid formulations are promising alternatives to purely soy-based formulas to reduce cholestasis.

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey

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    Nebiye Yentur Doni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers’ children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Materials and method. A total of 333 farm workers’ children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63±0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. Results. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was [i]G. intestinalis[/i] (47.97%, followed by [i]E. vermicularis[/i] (37.84%, [i]T. saginata[/i] (27.03%, [i]H. nana[/i] (12.16%, and [i]A. lumbricoides[/i] (7.43%, respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit, and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P<0.05. [i]G. intestinalis[/i] and [i]E. vermicularis[/i] were found as the most common parasites that cause salivation, abdominal pain, and tiredness (P<0.05. Conclusion. The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  17. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

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    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  19. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

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    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  20. Common fish diseases and parasites affecting wild and farmed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Oreochroms niloticus) and African ... Diagnosis and control of diseases and parasites in aquaculture production systems requires adoption of a regional .... Ranges of water quality parameters measured from earthen ponds and tanks. Parameter.

  1. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Sierra Ruiz, C.I.; Hermans, P.W.; Hoek, D.; Campos Ponce, M.; de Waard, J.H.; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.Methods:This

  2. Intestinal parasites in Iaualapiti indians from Xingu Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Cláudio Santos Ferreira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Brine flotation and gravity sedimentation coproscopical examinations were performed in stool samples from 69 of the 147 Iaualapiti Indians of the Xingu Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Intestinal [arasites were present in 89.9% of the population examined. High rates of prevalence were found for some parasite species. Ancylostomidae, 82.6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 26.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 20.3%; and Entamoeba coli, 68.1%. Infection by Trichuris trichuria, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana was not detected. Helminth's prevalence in children aged one year or less was comparatively low (33.3%. Quantitative coproscopy was done in positive samples for Ascaris and Ancylostomidae and the results expressed in eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Quantitative results revealed that worm burdens are very low and overdispersed in this Indian tribe, a previously unreported fact.

  3. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Gürses, Gülcan; Şimşek, Zeynep; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile

    2015-01-01

    To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers' children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. A total of 333 farm workers' children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63 ± 0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was G. intestinalis (47.97%), followed by E. vermicularis (37.84%), T. saginata (27.03%), H. nana (12.16%), and A. lumbricoides (7.43%), respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit), and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (Pservices for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  5. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

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    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  6. [Primary intestinal parasitic fibroid, an incidental finding during gynecological laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Alcalde, M M; Pantoja-Garrido, M; Frías-Sánchez, Z

    2016-09-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most frequent solid pelvic benign tumors in women. Their most common location is the uterine corpus, cervix and broad ligament but they can also be found in other areas, less commonly as extragenital locations and/or in a parasitic way. A 40 years old patient, who consulted for menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea on long evolution. On physical examination, the enlarged uterus, inflamated, hard consistency and normal mobility was identified. The sonographic features and location suggested a fibroid nodule type II (Wamsteker classification), which deformed the endometrial cavity. It was decided to perform the surgery and during the procedure the enlarged uterus, deformed at the expense of a localized fundal formation, like a intramural fibroid. By mobilizing the intestinal loops and change the position of the patient (Trendelenburg) a solid tumor, cranially separated from the internal genitals it was observed. In reviewing the insertion site, it was visualized that remained attached to antimesial of the jejunum. Total hysterectomy was performed with monopolar and bipolar energy, and vascular sealant. The postoperative was favorable, without complication. The pathological study reported a primary leiomyoma of the small intestine, while in the uterus of multiple myomas was confirmed. The parasitic fibroids are those located separately from the uterus that receive vascular irrigation from another organ or abdominopelvic structure. They are a very rare pathology. The diagnosis has made as an accidental event, during an abdominal surgery or during the differential diagnosis of a abdominopelvic tumor. The therapeutical choice depends on the clinical presentation, the location of the fibroid and the reproductive desires of the patient, most commonly recomending their surgycal removal.

  7. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wumba, R; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mandina, M; Odio, Wobin T; Biligui, S; Sala, J; Breton, J; Thellier, M

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP) involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8%) were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2%) were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7%). 47 out of 175 (26.9%) were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4%) were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP). Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7%, 5.1%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6%, 4.6%, 3.4% and 1.1% respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1%), Ascoris lumbricoides in seven cases (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7%), hookworm in two cases (1.1%) and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6%). No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SANDPITS SECURITY SYSTEM AGAINST MICROORGANISMS AND INTESTINAL PARASITES SAND CONTAMINATION

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    Magdalena Błaszak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Playgrounds and sandpits (small architecture objects according to the Construction Law are subject to meticulous supervision, both at the design stage and subsequent status checks of the objects. One of the requirements arising from the need to protect playgrounds from animals is the necessity for fencing the object (Regulation of 31 December 2002 On Safety and Hygiene in Public and Private Schools and Institutions; Polish Standard PN-EN 1176 Playground equipment and surfacing. Does fencing playgrounds really reduce contamination of sand? To verify this hypothesis, the studies have been conducted on the residential areas’ sandpits, both fence secured and unsecured, located in close proximity to one another. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fences and nets as protection from microbial and parasite contamination of sandpits, mainly due to the access of animals to them. For several seasons of spring and summer the sand was examined in terms of the total number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi (organic matter contamination of sand indicators and for the presence of coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the Salmonella genus and the eggs of intestinal parasites. It can be concluded that fencing playgrounds affects sand pollution less with waste and plant material (as a consequence, it has been reported statistically significantly less heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the fenced sandpits’ sand. Unfortunately, the fence does not eliminate the risks associated with sand pollution of coliform bacteria. Cats and birds, but also dogs, still have a continuous access to sand. Due to the repeatedly stated carelessness of children and their caregivers, gates left open to the playground do not constitute an obstacle for domestic and stray animals. Another source of sand pollution with intestinal pathogens can be a manner of carriage of new sand, as there is no legislation governing the issue of transport

  9. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

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    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  10. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Wumba R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8 % were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2 % were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7 %. 47 out of 175 (26.9 % were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4 % were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP. Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7 %, 5.1 %, 1.7 % and 0.6 % for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6 %, 4.6 %, 3.4 % and 1.1 % respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1 %, Ascaris lumbricoïdes in seven cases (4.0 %, Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7 %, hookworm in two cases (1.1 % and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6 %. No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  11. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parasites with possible zoonotic potential in the small intestines of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from Northwest Bohemia (CzR

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    Jankovská I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence of primarily zoonotic parasites in the small intestines of 40 (20 males and 20 females red foxes living near human dwellings. The total prevalence of parasite infection was 77.5 % (31/40; the prevalence was 37.5 % (15/40 for Toxocara canis and 35 % (14/40 for Toxascaris leonina. The mean intensity infection was 3 and 11 helminths for T. canis and T. leonina, respectively. The prevalence of other intestinal helminths and mean infection intensity in this study are given: Echinococcus multilocularis 40 % (16/40 with 1000 individuals, Mesocestoides spp. 40 % (16/40 with 8 individuals, Uncinaria stenocephala 10 % (4/40 with 8 individuals, and Taenia pisiformis 10 % (4/40 with 1 individual. With regards to prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as prevalence of individual parasites, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05 between male and female red foxes.

  13. New therapeutic approach in the management of intestinal disease: probiotics in intestinal disease in paediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, S; Falconieri, P; Di Nardo, G; Parcelii, M A; Dito, L; Grandinetti, A

    2002-09-01

    Current evidence supports the view that oral administration of probiotics may be of therapeutic usefulness in several clinical disorders by reestablishing normal flora in the gastrointestinal tract. These entities include inflammatory and infectious diseases of the gut as well as extraintestinal disorders (such as atopic eczema) in which a defective intestinal permeability plays a role. The probiotic effects are attributed to restoration to normal of increased intestinal permeability, unbalanced gut microecology, improved immunological gut barrier function, downregulation of the intestinal inflammatory responses with reduced generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Entities for which the impact of probiotic administration can be considered as proven are Rotavirus diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, post-antibiotic diarrhoea, allergic diseases. On the other hand, entities for which administration of probiotics is considered under investigation are inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, cystic fibrosis, small bowel bacterial contamination, functional gastrointestinal disorders. The value of probiotics as therapy for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in childhood still needs to be investigated in detail, through well controlled and rigorous studies, including a placebo group and strict criteria of randomisation. Much work needs to be done in this area by clearly defining indications, delivery system, costs, safety long-term effects.

  14. "Smart Diagnosis" of Parasitic Diseases by Use of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad A; Jabbar, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial in combating parasitic diseases that cause millions of deaths worldwide. However, the scarcity of specialized diagnostic equipment in low- and middle-income countries is one of the barriers to effective management of parasitic diseases and warrants the need for alternative, inexpensive, point-of-care diagnostic tools. Due to their multiple built-in sensors, smartphones offer cost-effective alternative to expensive diagnostic devices. However, the use of smartphones in parasitic diagnoses remains in its infancy. This minireview describes various smartphone-based devices applied specifically for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and discusses challenges and potential implications for their use in future. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Diagnostics of parasitic diseases. Myths of the present

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    S. S. Kozlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of parasitic diseases in many medical laboratories is carried out with a bad quality. Principal causes are the low level of qualification of laboratorians and a small amount of laboratory methods which are used. The majority of practising doctors has bad knowledge about diseases. All this serves as base for occurrence in the market of medical services of various pseudoscientific methods of diagnostics of parasitic diseases, such as Voll-method and its analogues, including a method of bioresonant diagnostics, scanning of the crushed drop of blood, including a dark field method, diagnostics on pulse, detection of toxins of parasites in salivaric crystal amilase and others. These methods cannot be scientific to be the methods of demonstrative medicine often lead to development of parasitic phobias of patients.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus: effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India

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    V. Vanitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.

  17. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  18. Contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables marketed in an area of Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    João Gabriel Guimarães LUZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of helminthes and intestinal protozoa in vegetables commercialized in Diamantina, a municipality located at Jequitinhonha Valley, one of the poorest regions of the world. Methods: A total of 108 specimens, including lettuce, green onion and rocket, were monthly collected from the most popular open street market, green grocery and supermarket of the municipality. The samples were processed by a concentration method and evaluated by light microscopy for parasitological identification. Results: The percentage of contamination was 50.9% (55/108, with predominance of nematode larvae (36.5%, cysts of Entamoeba coli (26.0% and eggs of hookworms/Strongyloides spp. (12.9%. Lettuce showed greater contamination rate (61.1% and samples from the open street market were more contaminated (77.8%. Information collected at each point of sale pointed the field cultivation as the critical step for such contaminations. Conclusion: Vegetables marketed in Diamantina presents a wide variety of intestinal parasites, which may represent a potential risk to the health of consumers of fresh vegetables.

  19. Radiologic study on differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiologic findings in 30 patients with intestinal tuberculosis and 10 patients with intestinal Behcet's disease, who had been diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital during the recent 5 years, were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the radiologic differential diagnosis of the two diseases. Intestinal tuberculosis severely involved the cecum, the ileocecal valve, the distal ileum and colons, but Behcet's disease mainly involved the distal ileum and infrequently the ileocecal valve and the cecum. The ulcers in tuberculosis were usually multiple small barium collected areas among pseudopolyps, on the contrary, those in Behcet's disease were multiple, discrete, well marinated, geographic, ring-like deep penetrating or collar-button shaped. Intestinal tuberculosis tended to involved long segments of intestines, with severer mucosal irregularity and deformity of the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon in comparison with Behcet's disease. Mesenteric and/or peritoneal involvement were accompanied in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis, and active pulmonary tuberculosis or pleural effusion also in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student's cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2015-01-24

    Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student's cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. A total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain.

  1. [Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Angela L; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E

    2009-01-01

    Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections in relation to HIV/AIDS status, diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count

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    Assefa Zelalem

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital focusing on HIV positive individuals, who gave blood for CD4 T-cell count at their first enrolment and clients tested HIV negative from November, 2008 to March, 2009. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhea status were obtained by interviewing 378 consecutive participants (214 HIV positive and 164 HIV negative. Stool samples were collected from all study subjects and examined for parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid fast stain techniques. Results The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among HIV positive participants. Specifically, rate of infection with Cryptosporidium, I. belli, and S. stercoralis were higher, particularly in those with CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL. Diarrhea was more frequent also at the same lower CD4 T-cell counts. Conclusion Immunodeficiency increased the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhea. Therefore; raising patient immune status and screening at least for those treatable parasites is important.

  3. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

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    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  4. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  6. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-08-07

    We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  7. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Biatriz Araújo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI. We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65% of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis , followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%. TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  8. Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, S.C.; Barbara, G.; Buurman, W.; Ockhuizen, T.; Schulzke, J.D.; Serino, M.; Tilg, H.; Watson, A.; Wells, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review,

  9. Laminated Intestinal Calculi – A Rare Complication of Crohn's Disease

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    Hugh J Freeman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with a 36-year history of Crohn's disease and repeated resections for small intestinal strictures developed anemia and symptoms of an intermittent partial bowel obstruction. Barium studies showed recurrent small intestinal strictures as well as filling defects in a dilated loop proximal to a stenosed segment. Subsequent abdominal films and a computed tomographic study suggested laminated radiopaque calculi with peripheral calcification in the dilated small intestinal loop. Resection of the strictured segment confirmed the presence of intestinal enterolithiasis.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic co-infections in HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Omoregie, Richard

    2012-05-14

    Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminthes is ubiquitous throughout Africa. This study aimed to determine the co-infections of Plasmodium falciparum infection in HIV and intestinal parasitic infections, and their immunological distribution, in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 2,000 stool specimens from HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals) were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites using standard procedures. In addition, patients' blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry and examined for Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy. The prevalence of single parasitic infection among HIV patients was 18.1% in males and 16.9% among females with no significant difference (p = 0.536) while gender was a risk factor in multiple parasitic infections (male versus female: 4.2% and 1.8% OR = 2.384; 95% CI = 1.371, 4.147) (p = 0.0025). Increasing age was not associated with increased risk of both single and multiple parasitic infections (p = 0.083; p = 0.248). CD4 + T cell count less than 200 cells/µl was a risk factor for acquiring single and multiple parasitic infections among HIV patients (OR = 5.565; 95% CI = 4.136, 7.486; p = 0.0001; OR = 4.283; 95% CI = 2.424, 7.566; p = 0.0001). The most common co-infection observed was between Plasmodium falciparum and Ascaris lumbricoides 43% (10) among HIV patients. This study provides evidence of co-infections between Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasites. Diagnosis of parasitic infections among HIV patients is advocated as this will enhance better management of HIV-infected patients.

  11. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

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    Hamed KIANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs, their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs was 32.2% (419/1,301. Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6% were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6% presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%, followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%, Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001, contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02, age above 15 years (p = 0.001 and seasons (p = 0.001 were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001 and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04. Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.

  12. Cytocentrifuged biopsy fixative preparation: A simple cost-effective technique facilitating microscopic diagnosis of lumen-dwelling intestinal parasites

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    Prashant Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Direct microscopic visualization is the most specific method for detecting intestinal parasites and is commonly achieved by stool examination or mucosal biopsy. However, postfixation, the intestinal biopsy fragment is often curled, and the entire surface of the biopsied mucosa is seldom viewed microscopically. Tissue processing further distorts morphology of the organisms and causes diagnostic difficulties. Examining multiple sections for parasite detection is time-consuming and often requires aid of special stains and/or immunohistochemistry. To overcome these disadvantages, we hypothesized that the fixative in which biopsies are transferred may provide a valid representation of the biopsied mucosal surface and therefore aid in the identification of mucosal surface parasites.Materials and Methods: Formalin in which biopsies were transferred was retained, stored at 4°C and processed with a cytocentrifuge. Totally, 120 consequent duodenal biopsy fixatives were processed in this way and the cytocentrifuged smears visualized after May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining. Findings of these smears were correlated with their corresponding formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.Results: Cytocentrifuged formalin preparations were found to be representative of the mucosal surface contents. Giardia trophozoites were visualized in 10/120 preparations with distinct morphological characteristics which were seldom appreciable in tissue sections, eliminating the need for special stains. Furthermore, two of the corresponding histology sections did not demonstrate the parasites despite step sections, while in one case few parasites could be identified in the step sections. Conclusions: Cytocentrifuged fixative preparation is a simple and cost-effective technique which can be routinely employed for intestinal parasite characterization.

  13. Pre-operative stool analysis for intestinal parasites and fecal occult blood in patients with acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Sinan; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut; Çelik, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy. Demographic and stool analysis data of a total of 136 patients (≥13 years old) who underwent appendectomy between July 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively assessed, and histopathological data of all patients were retrospectively assessed. In histopathological examination after appendectomy, of 136 patients, 75.5% (n=103) had AA, 11.1% (n=15) had perforated appendicitis (PA), and 13.2% (n=18) had a negative appendicitis (normal appendix, NA). Pre-operative stool analysis revealed that 25% (n=34) had intestinal parasites and 14.7% (n=20) of patients had positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Those with positive FOBT represented 9.7% (n=10) of 103 AA patients, 53.3% (n=8) of 15 PA patients, and 11.1% (n=2) of 18 NA patients; this was statistically more significant for PA than other groups (pparasites in stool might not be associated with appendicitis, but it can occasionally lead to pathological findings of appendicitis. A positive FOBT may be a predictor for PA.

  14. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of intestinal parasites in Danish primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the role of intestinal parasites by describing the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in primary care patients aged 18-50 y with IBS. One hundred and thirty-eight patients at baseline...... and 78/116 patients returning 1 y later, submitted faecal samples that were examined by microscopy, culture for Blastocystis, and real-time PCR for Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba (dispar and histolytica), Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia intestinalis. Overall, 42-45% of patients harboured intestinal...

  15. Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  16. Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Shao-shun YE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disseases (IBD are chronic recurrent diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. At present, the etiological factors and mechanism of IBD are still unclear yet. However, it is widely believed that IBD is caused by immune dysfunction, genetic factors, gut barrier dysfuction and dysbacteriosis, change of dietary structure, use of antibiotics, smoking, and environment. Studies suggest that breaking the accurate balance between host and intestinal microbiota in patients with IBD can trigger immuno-inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Therefore, regulating intestinal microbiota disturbance and recovery of intestinal homeostasis between host and intestinal microbiota become a new treatment direction for IBD. This article mainly reviewed research progress of intestinal microbiota in pathogenetic mechanism and treatment of IBD.

  17. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  18. Intestinal parasitism in Magama Gumau rural village and Jos township in north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeh, E I; Obadofin, M O; Brindeiro, B; Baugherb, C; Frost, F; Vanderjagt, D; Glew, R H

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in one rural village and one urban centre in North Central Nigeria. A total of 111 single stool specimens from all the volunteered rural dwellers and 93 specimens from randomly selected urban dwellers were examined using Formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques; during the months of June and July 2005. A questionnaire was completed for each subject and the nutritional status of the adults was assessed using the anthropometric measurements (weight and height for age and Biomass index). The results suggest very high prevalence rates of intestinal parasitosis of 72.1% and 69.9% for the rural and urban populations respectively. All the age groups were infected. The males in the rural area had a prevalence of 69.2% as against 74.6% in females (P>0.05); while in the urban area, the males were more significantly infected (77.4%) compared with the females with 66.1% (Pprevalence of 79.3% and 72.4% for the rural and urban populations respectively. The prevalence of the parasites in the rural and urban populations respectively were: Entamoeba coli (16.2% and 9.7%); E. histolytica (18.9% and 18.3%); E. hartmani (1.8% ad 0.0%); Endolimax nana (16.2% and 18.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii (0.0% and 1.1%); Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 4.3%); Schistosoma mansoni (9.9% and 0.0%); Strongyloides stercoralis (0.9% and 0.0%); Hookworm (4.5% and 5.4%); Ascaris lumbricoides (1.8% and 0.0%); Enterobius vermicularis (0.0% and 1.1%); Cryptosporidium parvum (29.7% and 19.4%); and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis (39.6% and 47.3%). Polyparasitism was recorded in 48.6% of the rural subjects and 36.6% of the urban subjects. The study has shown a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in both the rural and urban populations and that C. parvum and E. bieneusi/E. intestinalis are harboured by apparently healthy individuals.

  19. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

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    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  20. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

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    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  1. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  2. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  3. Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Solange Aparecida; Moitinho,Maria da Luz Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from August to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentat...

  4. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Norhidayu Sahimin; Yvonne A L Lim; Farnaza Ariffin; Jerzy M Behnke; John W Lewis; Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, E...

  5. Bile acids and intestinal microbiota in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Tang, Ruqi; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric; Ma, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), are manifested as an impairment of normal bile flow and excessive accumulation of potentially toxic bile acids. Endogenous bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis. Consequently, chronic cholestasis affects the expression of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptors, and results in liver injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases by regulating metabolism and immune responses. However, progression of the disease may also affect the composition of gut microbiota, which in turn exacerbates the progression of cholestasis. In addition, the interaction between intestinal microbiota and bile acids is not unidirectional. Bile acids can shape the gut microbiota community, and in turn, intestinal microbes are able to alter bile acid pool. In general, gut microbiota actively communicates with bile acids, and together play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC and PSC. Targeting the link between bile acids and intestinal microbiota offers exciting new perspectives for the treatment of those cholestatic liver diseases. This review highlights current understanding of the interactions between bile acids and intestinal microbiota and their roles in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases. Further, we postulate a bile acids-intestinal microbiota-cholestasis triangle in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases and potential therapeutic strategies by targeting this triangle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

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    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

  8. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

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    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  9. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax . All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  10. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal disease in acquired immunodeficiency: evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, F.D.; Maeurer, J.; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany); Gruenewald, T.; Pohle, H.D. [Medizinische Klinik II mit Schwerpunkt Infektionskrankheiten, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany); Adler, A.; Hintze, R.E. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin mit dem Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie, Zentrale Interdisziplinaere Endoskopie, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Intestinal symptoms affect most AIDS patients at some point in their disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of CT in this setting. A total of 339 abdominal CT exams were reviewed for signs of intestinal disease. Abdominal CT scans of 45 patients with intestinal symptoms were compared with colonoscopy and histologic data. The CT results were correlated with CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte counts and patient survival. More than 14 % of all abdominal CT exams displayed signs of enteric disease. Of the 45 patients studied with both CT and colonoscopy, 35 (78 %) had signs of intestinal disease by CT. Of these 35 patients, colonoscopic signs of an intestinal lesion were found in 29 and histologic proof of disease was established in 30 cases. Colonoscopy and histology detected 8 lesions missed by CT. There were 14 cases of unspecific colitis, 15 cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, and 4 cases of enteric tuberculosis as per biopsy. Five patients presented with Kaposi`s sarcoma and 1 with a non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. Neither colonoscopic nor CT signs of intestinal disease did reliably distinguish between histologic subgroups. Specifically, CMV colitis could not be distinguished from unspecific colitis. CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte counts for histologic subgroups were not significantly different, either. No colonoscopic or histologic feature predicted survival, whereas low CD4 counts and ascites on CT indicated a poor prognosis. Whereas CT detects signs of intestinal disease in most AIDS patients, these signs remain largely unspecific. Colonoscopy and biopsies provide no consistently valid standard with which to compare CT because of controversial sensitivity and specificity of these methods. The CT technique detects small bowel as well as extraintestinal disease. Therefore, CT is an important diagnostic modality in abdominal disease of immunocompromised patients. (orig.) With 7 figs., 6 tabs., 30 refs.

  12. Intestinal disease in acquired immunodeficiency: evaluation by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knollmann, F.D.; Maeurer, J.; Felix, R.; Gruenewald, T.; Pohle, H.D.; Adler, A.; Hintze, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal symptoms affect most AIDS patients at some point in their disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of CT in this setting. A total of 339 abdominal CT exams were reviewed for signs of intestinal disease. Abdominal CT scans of 45 patients with intestinal symptoms were compared with colonoscopy and histologic data. The CT results were correlated with CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts and patient survival. More than 14 % of all abdominal CT exams displayed signs of enteric disease. Of the 45 patients studied with both CT and colonoscopy, 35 (78 %) had signs of intestinal disease by CT. Of these 35 patients, colonoscopic signs of an intestinal lesion were found in 29 and histologic proof of disease was established in 30 cases. Colonoscopy and histology detected 8 lesions missed by CT. There were 14 cases of unspecific colitis, 15 cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, and 4 cases of enteric tuberculosis as per biopsy. Five patients presented with Kaposi's sarcoma and 1 with a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Neither colonoscopic nor CT signs of intestinal disease did reliably distinguish between histologic subgroups. Specifically, CMV colitis could not be distinguished from unspecific colitis. CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts for histologic subgroups were not significantly different, either. No colonoscopic or histologic feature predicted survival, whereas low CD4 counts and ascites on CT indicated a poor prognosis. Whereas CT detects signs of intestinal disease in most AIDS patients, these signs remain largely unspecific. Colonoscopy and biopsies provide no consistently valid standard with which to compare CT because of controversial sensitivity and specificity of these methods. The CT technique detects small bowel as well as extraintestinal disease. Therefore, CT is an important diagnostic modality in abdominal disease of immunocompromised patients. (orig.)

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  15. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe.

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    Maria Luísa Lobo

    Full Text Available Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%, G. duodenalis (7.5%, T. trichiura (4.5% and Entamoeba coli (10.5% were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5% and E. bieneusi (5.2% were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60% and Assemblage B (40%. The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%, KIN1 (28.6% and KIN3 (14.3%. Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3% and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5% were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%] and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]. G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%, D (26.4%, A (10.5% and KIN1 (10.5% were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance

  16. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance

  17. Radiological aspects of Crohn's disease in small intestine: iconographic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nestor de; Juliano, Adriana G.; Polizini, Jose M.R.; Rejtman, Debora; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Rocha, Manoel de Souza

    1999-01-01

    The authors present the radiological features of Crohn's disease in small intestine as ways of differential diagnosis of others diseases of duodenum and adjacent organs. In this differentiation or confirmation of Crohn's disease the US and TC have proven to be clinically efficacious in the identification of lesions

  18. Herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review of literature elucidates previous and current status of herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria. It provides background information on the rationale behind ethnoveterinary research in general especially as it relates to the developing nations where cost of drugs majorly limit the full use of modern ...

  19. Parasites and infectious disease: discovery by serendipity, and otherwise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W

    2007-01-01

    ... in generating breakthrough scientific discoveries, ranging from immunology to ecology, and from malaria and trypanosomiasis to schistosomiasis and Lyme disease. Some of these discoveries were made serendipitously and others only after relentless effort pointed to a specific solution. This engaging and lively introduction to discovery in parasit...

  20. Intestinal tuberculosis versus crohn's disease: Clinical and radiological recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tuberculosis is a common clinical problem in India. The clinical features of this disease are nonspecific and can be very similar to Crohn's disease. Radiological evaluation of the small bowel has undergone a paradigm shift in the last decade. This long tubular organ that has traditionally been difficult to evaluate can now be well-visualized by some innovative imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article highlights the state-of-the-art evaluation of ulceroconstrictive diseases of the bowel and provides recommendations for the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease.

  1. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  2. Human organoids: a model system for intestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerinck, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    You are what you eat. A common saying that indicates that your physical or mental state can be influenced by your choice of food. Unfortunately, not all people have the luxury to choose what to eat; this can be related to place of birth, social, economic state, or the physical inability of the diseased intestine to take up certain food. A cell layer, the epithelium, covers the intestine, and harbors the main functions of the intestine: uptake, digestion of food, and a barrier against unwanted...

  3. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. II. Sao Tomé and Principe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Pezzino, G

    1987-04-01

    In 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). The examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modalities of life and nutritional patterns. There were 488 male subjects and 562 females. The survey was preceded by a sensitization of the people to the problem of intestinal parasites and by two preliminary surveys about the number of existing latrines and about people's believes and attitudes in relation to helmintiasis. The tests were made according to the modified Ritchie technique on fecal specimens preserved with 10% formol solution. The following results were found: a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli, 43.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 9.0%; Giardia intestinalis, 8.8%; Endolimax nana, 7.0%; E. histolytica, 5.5%; E. hartmanni, 2.5%; Chilomastix mesnili, 2.3%; Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.2%; Balantidium coli, 0.1%. b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura, 87.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 64.3%; Ancylostomatidae, 40.5%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 6.8%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 0.3%; H. nana, 0.2%; Schistosoma haematobium, 0.2%. In 28.2% of the specimens (with more than 50% of subjects in some villages) eggs of Heterophyidae were found, very similar to Metagonimus yokogawai, but not yet identified by us, with the following characteristics: elliptical shape, average size 25 mu (22.2-27.7) X 18.5 mu (17-21), thick wall, operculum difficult to see, not sticking out from the outline but visible by focusing being in a different refractiveness, presence of a small polar knob, colour slightly brownish, asymmetric miracidium. Further investigations are necessary to identify the species of this trematode and

  4. Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, An-Ming; Inamine, Tatsuo; Hochrath, Katrin; Chen, Peng; Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Bluemel, Sena; Hartmann, Phillipp; Koyama, Yukinori; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Torralba, Manolito G.; Moncera, Kelvin; Beeri, Karen; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Freese, Kim; Hellerbrand, Claus; Lee, Serene M.L.; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Brown, Gordon D.; Bataller, Ramon; Stärkel, Peter; Fouts, Derrick E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin–like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow–derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non–alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease. PMID:28530644

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in a Rural District of West China

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    Ning Tang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are widespread in rural areas of West China. The remote and humid environment, traditional ways of life, contaminated potable water and limited health services all contribute to the transmission and persistence of fecal parasites.

  6. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and enteropathogenic bacteria. Results of microbiological analyses were compared with self-reported gastrointestinal complaints collected using a validated questionnaire. Thirty-two (33%) patients were positive for parasites. However, opportunistic parasites (Isospora and Cryptosporidium) were detected in only 2...

  7. [Imported parasitic diseases in the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu Balagué, Alba; de Las Heras Prat, Paula; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby; Pinazo Delgado, María Jesús; Gascón Brustenga, Joaquim; Bardají Alonso, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases in host countries. In Spain the number of immigrants has increased exponentially in recent decades. The aim of this review is to identify and analyze the available information on imported parasitic diseases in immigrant population in our country. A scope review of original articles published on imported parasitic diseases between 1998 and 2012. Study populations from Latin America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and individuals who are under the definition of an immigrant from International Organization for Migration were included. The literature search was performed in the Medline and MEDES-MEDicina databases. A total of 51 descriptive studies were included in the analysis. Most immigrants attended at referral health facilities were originally from sub-Saharan Africa (between 16%-87%), followed by Latin America (13%-37%), while Asia was the region less represented (0.2%-8.8%). A considerable proportion (6.5-31%) of immigrants that attended to referral units of tropical medicine or inmigrant health, and that were originally from Latin America, particularly those from Bolivia, are affected by the Chagas disease, and several cases of mother-to-child transmission have been registered in our country. Imported parasitosis is a frequent diagnosis among migrant population. This review highlight the impact that migration has had on the emergence of certain imported parasitic diseases, being Chagas disease the most paradigmatic example.

  8. Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2009-06-01

    The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities.

  9. Effectiveness of Selected Stages of Wastewater Treatment in Elimination of Eggs of Intestinal Parasites

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    Zdybel Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the degree of municipal wastewater contamination with intestinal parasite eggs of the genera Ascaris, Toxocara, and Trichuris at individual stages of treatment, and indication of potentially weak points in the hygienisation of sewage sludge. The study was conducted in 17 municipal mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plants which, to a slight degree, differed in the technological process of wastewater treatment and the method of hygienisation of sewage sludge. The selected treatment plants, located in seven regions, included five classified as large agglomerations (population equivalent - PE >100 000, ten as medium-size (PE 15 000-100 000, and two as smaller size with PE 10 000 - 5000. The largest number of viable eggs of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., and Trichuris spp. was found in the sewage sludge collected from the primary settling tank. A slightly lower number of the eggs were found in the samples of excess sludge, which indicates that the sedimentation process in the primary settling tank is not sufficiently long to effectively separate parasites’ eggs from the sewage treated. The number of eggs of Ascaris spp. and Toxocara spp. in the fermented sludge was nearly 3 times lower than that in the raw sludge. The effectiveness of hygienisation of dehydrated sewage sludge by means of quicklime was confirmed in two wastewater treatment plants, with respect to Ascaris spp. eggs, in three plants with respect to Toxocara spp. eggs, and in one plant with respect to Trichuris spp. eggs. The mean reduction of the number of eggs was 65%, 61%, and 100%, respectively. In one wastewater treatment plant, a reduction in the number of viable eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris species was also noted as a result of composting sludge by 85% and 75%, respectively. In the remaining treatment plants, no effect of hygienisation of sewage sludge was observed on the contents of viable eggs of these nematodes.

  10. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Pigs in Jos, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing concern for pig parasites as a bottleneck for low productivity and reduction in the market value of pork meat. The economic losses resulting from gastrointestinal parasites of pigs are quite enormous. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Jos Plateau ...

  11. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  12. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  14. Campylobacter concisus - a new player in intestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Omar Kaakoush

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that have detected or isolated C. concisus as sole pathogen in fecal samples from diarrheic patients. C. concisus has also been associated with chronic intestinal disease, its prevalence being significantly higher in children with newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease and adults with ulcerative colitis than in controls. Further C. concisus has been isolated from biopsy specimens of patients with Crohn’s disease. While such studies support the role of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, its isolation from healthy individuals, and failure of some studies to show a significant difference in C. concisus prevalence in subjects with diarrhea and healthy controls has raised contention as to its role in intestinal disease. Such findings could argue against the role of C. concisus in intestinal disease, however, the fact that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse raises the possibility that differences exist in their pathogenic potential. Evidence to support this view comes from studies showing strain specific differences in the ability of C. concisus to attach to and invade cells and produce virulence factors, including toxins and hemolytic phospholipase A. Further, sequencing of the genome of a C. concisus strain isolated from a child with Crohn’s disease (UNSWCD and comparison of this with the only other fully sequenced strain (BAA-1457 would suggest that major differences exist in the genetic make-up of this species which could explain different outcomes of C

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O

    2014-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two

  16. Características del parasitismo intestinal en niños de dos comunidades del policlínico "XX Aniversario" Intestinal parasitism features in children from two communities of "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas, aun en estos modernos tiempos, el parasitismo intestinal constituye un problema para países en vías de desarrollo y para los altamente desarrollados. Para caracterizar el parasitismo intestinal en niños de 1 a 12 años se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante los meses de mayo a julio de 2007, en 2 comunidades, una suburbana del reparto "América Latina" y otra urbana del reparto "Virginia", ambas pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico "XX Aniversario", del municipio de Santa Clara. Se visitaron las viviendas y se aplicó encuesta a los padres para obtener datos al respecto. Fueron estudiados 243 niños de ambas comunidades, a quienes se les tomó muestras de heces fecales y región anal por el método de Graham. La frecuencia general de parasitismo fue de 65,8 %, mayor en los niños del reparto "América Latina", y las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis. Una inadecuada desinfección del agua, la presencia de vectores, comerse las uñas, la poca higiene después del contacto con animales, la presencia de estos en el hogar, no lavar las verduras, andar descalzos y el hacinamiento, fueron factores que favorecieron las parasitosis.Included in infectious diseases, yet at present times, intestinal parasitism is a problem for underdeveloped countries, and for those highly developed. To characterize intestinal parasitism in children aged 1 and 12, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study during May to July, 2007 in 2 communities, one suburban of "América Latina" parcel and other urban of "Virginia" parcel, both served by "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic of Santa Clara municipality. We visited homes and we applied survey to parents to obtain data in this respect. A total of 243 children ware studied in both communities, taking samples of feces and of anal region by Graham method. General frequency of parasitism was of 6,8 % greater in the

  17. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2013-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P = .01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P = .008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement

  18. The single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia represents a potential drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefan; Balmer, Vreni; Sterk, Geert Jan; Pollastri, Michael P; Leurs, Rob; Müller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew; Spycher, Cornelia

    2017-09-01

    Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs. An extensive search of the Giardia genome database identified a single gene coding for a class I PDE, GlPDE. The predicted protein sequence was analyzed in-silico to characterize its domain structure and catalytic domain. Enzymatic activity of GlPDE was established by complementation of a PDE-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and enzyme kinetics were characterized in soluble yeast lysates. The potency of known PDE inhibitors was tested against the activity of recombinant GlPDE expressed in yeast and against proliferating Giardia trophozoites. Finally, the localization of epitope-tagged and ectopically expressed GlPDE in Giardia cells was investigated. Giardia encodes a class I PDE. Catalytically important residues are fully conserved between GlPDE and human PDEs, but sequence differences between their catalytic domains suggest that designing Giardia-specific inhibitors is feasible. Recombinant GlPDE hydrolyzes cAMP with a Km of 408 μM, and cGMP is not accepted as a substrate. A number of drugs exhibit a high degree of correlation between their potency against the recombinant enzyme and their inhibition of trophozoite proliferation in culture. Epitope-tagged GlPDE localizes as dots in a pattern reminiscent of mitosomes and to the perinuclear region in Giardia. Our data strongly suggest that inhibition of G. lamblia PDE activity leads to a profound inhibition of parasite proliferation and that GlPDE is a promising target for developing novel anti-giardial drugs.

  19. Host social rank and parasites: plains zebra (Equus quagga) and intestinal helminths in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazzola, M C; Stancampiano, L

    2012-08-13

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the social hierarchy of plain zebra, Equus quagga, and the level of parasitism. For the study 141 fecal samples from the same number of animals were collected within the two major populations of E. quagga of Uganda (Lake Mburo Conservation Area and Kidepo Valley National Park). Quantitative (eggs per gram of feces) and qualitative parasite assessment were performed with standard methods. The relationship between parasite burden and individual host features was analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. Strongyles, cestodes, Strongyloides sp. and oxiurids where present in the examined samples. Social rank and age class significantly affect all parasites' abundance with dominant individuals being less parasitized than subordinate individuals, regardless of the parasite groups excluding oxiurids. Sex could not been shown to be related with any of the found parasites. Age was positively related with strongyles and oxiurids abundance and negatively related with cestodes and Strongyloides sp. The main result of the present study was the evidence that social status influences parasite level with dominant zebras shedding less parasite eggs than subordinate ones. Social rank appears, therefore, as an important factor giving rise to parasite aggregation in plain zebras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momar Ndao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests.

  1. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayana Andrade de; Paiva, Anderson Luiz Ribeiro de; Carvalho Filho, José Adson Andrade de; Cabral, Jaime Joaquim da Silva Pereira; Rocha, Francisca Janaína Soares

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  4. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Andrade de Freitas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  5. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Ahn, Yung-Kyum; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2000-01-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3%...

  6. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  7. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  8. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  9. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ γδ, and CD8α+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in HIV-Positive Patients Attending Ahvaz Health Centers in 2012: A Cross-Sectional Study in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarvishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background AIDS is now known as a crisis throughout the world. Gastrointestinal parasites are the main causes of infections in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients who referred to Ahvaz health centers, Ahvaz, Iran in 2012. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 HIV-positive patients of the Ahvaz health centers who selected by convenient sampling. Patients’ demographics were recorded by a researcher-made questionnaire. Then, their fecal samples were collected and tested by using direct and concentrated formalin-ether and modified acid-fast staining. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square and ANOVA (analysis of variance tests. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 48.8%, which shows a high prevalence in HIV-positive patients. There was a significant relationship between prevalence of parasite and variables of job, kind of health centers, history of diarrhea (P = 0.0001, education (P = 0.001, and age (P = 0.005, but there was no relationship with variables of CD4+ count (P = 0.293 and dyspepsia (P = 0.103. Conclusions Given the prevalence of most gastrointestinal parasites, the HIV-positive patients show a weak immune system and higher sensitivity for infection particularly for opportunistic parasites. So, routine stool tests for detection of intestinal parasites are very useful for people with weakened immune systems.

  11. A survey of ecto and intestinal parasites of Tilapia Zillii (Gervias) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand eight hundred specimens of Tilapia zillii (Gervias) from Tiga Lake, Kano, Northern Nigeria were examined using hand lens and microscope between July, 2007 and June 2008 for parasites , 782 (53.4%) of these were infected. Parasites recovered were, Clinostomum spp. 74 4.1%) Procamellanus spp.

  12. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following parasites were isolated, namely Hookworms (53.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (36.7%), Trichuris trichiura (2.3%) Entamoeba histolytica (11.7%), Entamoeba coli (0.3%) and Giardia lamblia (1.7%). Multiple parasitism were also encountered. The age groups 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years recorded high prevalence ...

  13. Small intestinal biopsies in celiac disease: duodenal or jejunal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, JW; Wahab, PJ; Mulder, C.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For diagnosis and follow-up of celiac disease, pediatric societies advise that intestinal mucosal specimens should be obtained using suction capsule from the jejunum. This procedure is strenuous for patients, time-consuming, expensive and requires radiographic guidance. Mucosal biopsies

  14. The intestinal microflora of childhood patients with indicated celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Frühauf, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 214-216 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : celiac disease * intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  15. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in HIV seropositive individuals with diarrhoea in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini Alfred Ringo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient’s level of immunity. The most common clinical manifestation of these intestinal parasites is diarrhoea. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected patients has been found to be as high as 95%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected participants presenting with diarrhoea and association with CD4 cell counts, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in four HIV clinics in Moshi district, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Stool samples were collected and analyzed from participants presenting with three or more episodes of loose stool per day or a single bloody bowel movement. The identification of parasites was done using direct microscopy and staining techniques. Demographic data, CD4 counts and stool results were recorded. Data analysis was done using STATA IC/11.1. Results: The study included 83 adult HIV positive patients. There were 36 males (43.4% and 47 females (56.6%, with a median age of 36 years (range 30-43. The baseline CD4 count was 150 cells/ul (range 72-295 cells/ul. Of our participants, 47 (56.6% had a baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cell/uL. Only 6(7.2% had CD4 counts above 500cells/uL. Of the whole group, 62(74.7% were on ARV therapy and 33(39.8% were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Intestinal parasites were detected in 25 of our participants. Among these 25 participants, Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 52%, Giardia lamblia in 32% and Entamoeba histolytica in 16%. The frequency of intestinal parasites was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/ul (p=0.02. There was no significant difference in parasitic infections associated with ART status or cotrimoxazole use. Conclusion: The prevalence

  17. Parasites! Graphic Exploration of Tropical Disease Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Susan M

    2018-02-01

    Parasites!, a 2010 comic sponsored by the Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, demonstrates that a graphic narrative can play a role in energizing public debate. Part of the genre known as graphic medicine-comics about illness, treatment, disability, and caregiving-Parasites! is intended to educate readers of all ages about illnesses less known in the developed world. Two visual strategies in particular enable the comic to offer an alternative and aesthetic response to questions about developing drugs to treat tropical diseases for profit. By including visuals and text, and not just one of these formats, viewers must reorient themselves aesthetically and epistemologically to ethical, social, cultural, and political structures that adversely affect human health. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. PENDING ISSUES OF PATHOGENESIS IN CHILDREN’S INFLAMMATORY INTESTINAL DISEASES. THE ROLE OF INTESTINAL PARIETAL MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory intestinal diseases are among the critical issues in modern pediatrics. The article discusses the specific nature of genetic predisposition and immune mechanisms of this pathology, as well as the impact of intestinal microflora on the development and evolution of inflammatory intestinal diseases in children. It outlines current views on pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and non-specific ulcerative colitis. It describes in detail the local immune system functioning mechanism of the digestive tract system and functions of its individual components. It explains the phenomenon of food tolerance. It demonstrates the results of modern research and further problem study prospects.Key words: inflammatory intestinal diseases, non-specific ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pathogenesis, intestinal microflora, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:54-58

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng

    2016-07-18

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah

  20. X-ray diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, R.; Erkelenz, I.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes the essential roentgenologic findings associated with Crohn's disease in the intestine, manifested as stenoses, thickening of the walls, fistula formation and pseudodiverticula or appearance of Bodart's intermediary segment, on the basis of characteristic findings, followed by valuation in respect of the exclusive possibility of diagnosis via radiology. The article goes into details in respect of differential diagnosis criteria, particularly whithin the frame of tumour diagnosis. Differentiation can be effected with the help of findings in peritoneal carcinosis and intestinal changes induced by radiation. (orig.) [de

  1. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  2. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual transcriptomics reveals co-evolutionary mechanisms of intestinal parasite infections in blue mussels Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feis, Marieke E; John, Uwe; Lokmer, Ana; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Wegner, K Mathias

    2018-02-17

    On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in nonmodel systems. Here, we utilized the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea. We identified differentially regulated genes from an experimental infection contrast for hosts (infected vs. control) and a sympatry contrast (sympatric vs. allopatric combinations) for both hosts and parasites. The damage incurred by Mytilicola infection and the following immune response of the host were mainly reflected in cell division processes, wound healing, apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the functional coupling of host and parasite sympatry contrasts revealed the concerted regulation of chitin digestion by a Chitotriosidase 1 homolog in hosts with several cuticle proteins in the parasite. Together with the coupled regulation of ROS producers and antagonists, these genes represent candidates that mediate the different evolutionary trajectories within the parasite's invasion. The host-parasite combination-specific coupling of these effector mechanisms suggests that underlying recognition mechanisms create specificity and local adaptation. In this way, our study demonstrates the use of invasive species' natural history to elucidate molecular mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The intestinal barrier function and its involvement in digestive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo Romero, Eloísa; Alonso Cotoner, Carmen; Pardo Camacho, Cristina; Casado Bedmar, Maite; Vicario, María

    2015-11-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosal surface is lined with epithelial cells representing an effective barrier made up with intercellular junctions that separate the inner and the outer environments, and block the passage of potentially harmful substances. However, epithelial cells are also responsible for the absorption of nutrients and electrolytes, hence a semipermeable barrier is required that selectively allows a number of substances in while keeping others out. To this end, the intestine developed the "intestinal barrier function", a defensive system involving various elements, both intra- and extracellular, that work in a coordinated way to impede the passage of antigens, toxins, and microbial byproducts, and simultaneously preserves the correct development of the epithelial barrier, the immune system, and the acquisition of tolerance against dietary antigens and the intestinal microbiota. Disturbances in the mechanisms of the barrier function favor the development of exaggerated immune responses; while exact implications remain unknown, changes in intestinal barrier function have been associated with the development of inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. This review details de various elements of the intestinal barrier function, and the key molecular and cellular changes described for gastrointestinal diseases associated with dysfunction in this defensive mechanism.

  5. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Is Not Greater Among Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Laura Rindom; Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-01-01

    with asymptomatic controls would support such a mechanism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites in IBS subjects (cases) and controls and to identify risk factors associated with parasite carriage. METHODS: We performed a population-based, case-control study of an adult population from an internet...... percentage of controls carried more than 1 species of parasite (16% of controls vs 8% of cases; P = .05). D fragilis infection was associated with having children 5 to 18 years old in the household and Blastocystis infection was associated with high income (≥600,000 Danish Kroner/y, approximately $100,000 US...

  6. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in preschoolers from different urban settings in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Guimarães Luz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.

  8. OCCURRENCE OF PARASITIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN ASSISTED AT THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM OF A VESPASIANO CITY DISTRICT, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés E. S. Santo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The greatest copro-parasitological researches were developed until the 70´s in Brazil. In despite of the intestinal parasites are very important, because constitutes a severe problem to public health, contributing to the aggravation of the social, economical and medical problems. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of the most frequent enteroparasites among children (0-10 years old, in the Health Family Program (PSF area situated in the district of Morro Alto in Vespasiano city, state of Minas Gerais,Brazil. It was analyzed 3250 handbook indexes of three PSF units. The general occurrence was 18.4% positive and some children have more than one parasite. The most founded enteroparasitos was Giardia lamblia (43%, Ascaris lumbricoides (34% and Entamoeba coli (13%. The 6 to 8 ages shows the highest incidence of children with parasites. The data collected to this project evidenced that Vespasiano-city doesn’t have related researches to parasites, justifying the importance of this study and its results offers subsidies for elaboration of municipal public health policies for childhood and youth. KEY WORDS: Parasitic Diseases; Child Health (Public Health; Family Health Program.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitism of swine in a North Central State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of parasites in pigs obtained in this work is a consequence of improper husbandry measures and irregular veterinary medical intervention. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 278-281

  10. Gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of fish species in Qua Iboe River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal helminth parasites recovered were Amphibiophilus acanthociratus, Rondonia rondoni, Cosmoynemoides aguirrei, Tachygonetria sp, Goezia spinulosa, Buckleynema sp, Metaquimperia sp, Camallanus sp, Procamallanus laevichonchus, Proleptus sp, Bancroftinema dentatum, Cystidicola farioni,, ...

  11. THE INCIDENCE OF PARASITIC DISEASES IN LIVESTOCK IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suratma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of livestock in Bali has continuously increased from year to year. However, some problems are encountered with parasitic infections in livestock. Parasitic infections may be caused by worms, protozoa or ectoparasites. In cattle, the most common infections are those caused by Oesophagostomum sp, Ostertagia sp, Haemonchus sp, Mecistocirrus sp, and Cooperia sp which is the most dominant. Neoascaris vitulorum was reported to be as high as 29.1% in calves. Fascioliasis in cattle was found highly prevalent, between 34.9 to 56.7% and was caused by Fasciola gigantica. Also Paramphistomum infection was reported to be highly prevalent (50.1%. In addition, Boophilus microplus was recorded as high as 36.9%. In goat and sheep, the incidence of Haemonchus contortus was 27.7% and 53.6% respectively. Infestation of Paramphistomum sp in goat was 9.27%. Concerning ectoparasites, Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of death of 67% of young goats and up to 11% of older gats in Br. Penginuman, Gilimanuk Negara. Parasitic infections in pigs were caused by Cysticercus tenuicollis (11% and Ascaris suum (24.2% and 21.1% showed Metastrongylus apri and also Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of skin disease in pigs. In poultry, parasitic infection were caused by Raillietina (96%, Heterakis gallinae (66.7%, Capillaria sp (6.6%, Ascardia galli (56.7%, Oxyspirura mansoni (50%, Acuaria spiralis (13.3% and Syngamus trachea (3.3%. Multiple infections are common.

  12. Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Pigs in some parts of Wukari, Taraba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order of abundance of the parasites, Ascaris suum occurred more (66.56%) followed by Trichuris suis (9.84%) and Eimeria sp (1.64%). With respect to breed, the Large white 183(91.04%) pigs were found to harbour more of parasites with the highest number of infection than the mixed breed, 55(52.88%). Of the 140 male ...

  13. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  14. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Value of computed tomography in diagnosis of intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Yamane, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Miura, Yoshio; Kato, Yoshitaka; Yahata, Noriko; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 46 cases with inflammatory and other nontumoral bowel diseases were retrospectively studied. Patients were given 500 to 1000 ml of lukewarm water orally or rectally to distend the intestinal lumen. In all cases water-soluble iodine contrast media was administered intravenously. The CT findings in Crohn's disease included mural thickening, luminal narrowing, bowel wall enhancement, wall rigidity, serration of intestinal border, dilatation of mesenteric vessels, periintestinal blurring (inflamatory reaction of mesentery), fibrofatty proliferation, effusion, abscess and fistula. Many of these findings suggested the transmural nature of the disease and gave diagnostic clues of the disease. In cases with ulcerative colitis, thickening of bowel wall was insignificant and extraintestinal complications were absent. CT appears to play an important role in distinguishing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Luminal narrowing and mural thickening were also observed in a case with intestinal ischemia, but these mural changes were not accompanied by mesenteric abnormalities to the degree of Crohn's disease. In cases with penetrating peptic ulcer and diverticulitis, CT demonstrated inflammatory reactions of surrounding tissue such as thickening of neighboring fascia, increase in attenuation value of mesenteric fat, effusion and abscess. Even in cases with confusing clinical symptoms, appendicitis was easily diagnosed on CT which showed swelling of appendix and inflammatory changes of surrounding structures. Mechanical obstruction of the intestine could be identified on CT by a notable change of luminal sizes at the site of obstruction. CT appearances of intussusception were distinctive and a soft tissue mass (intussusceptum) and mesenteric fat was seen within a markedly dilated intussuscipiens. CT could also reveal pancreatitis and splenic infarction as the causes of clinically-undiagnosed paralytic ileus. (J.P.N.)

  16. Food-borne human parasitic pathogens associated with household cockroaches and houseflies in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T.; Agbaje, Mariam O.; Okelue, Uchechi B.

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches and houseflies pose significant public health threat owning to their ability to mechanically transmit human intestinal parasites and other disease-causing microorganisms. This study aims at assessing the vectoral capacity of cockroaches and houseflies in the transmission of human intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite external surface contamination of 130 cockroaches and 150 houseflies caught within dwelling places in Ilishan-Remo town, Ogun State, Nigeria was determined. Cockr...

  17. The single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia represents a potential drug target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, Stefan; Balmer, Vreni; Sterk, Geert Jan; Pollastri, Michael P.; Leurs, Rob; Müller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew; Spycher, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult

  18. Malaria, desnutrición y parasitosis intestinal en los niños colombianos: interrelaciones interrrelations between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal parasitism in colombian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-09-01

    . lamblia (20%; 9 el estrés oxidativo se ha encontrado en los pacientes adultos de Turbo con malaria no complicada, ya sea vivax o falciparum, sin diferencia por especie. This paper reviews Colombian data as well as Grupo Malaria (Universidad de Antioquia findings on the relationship between malaria, malnutrition and immune response, observed in children (4-11 year old of Turbo, El Bagre and Zaragoza. These results and interpretations articulate with other studies about such relationships, including intestinal parasites. Emphasis is made on the association of malaria, intestinal parasites and malnutrition (chronic malnutrition, vitamin A deficit, that is explored through its articulation with the immune system. Clinical application (individual and epidemiological (collective recommendations are formulated towards vitamin A supplementation and use of wide spectrum antihelmintic therapy. In Turbo and El Bagre-Zaragoza: 1 malaria frequency during 1996-2000 registered annual parasite indexes of 39 (Turbo and 156 (El Bagre- Zaragoza; 2 chronic malnutrition risk (height/ age index was 63% in children aged 3-11; 3 anemia was observed in 26% of malaric children and in 17% of the non-malaric ones; 4 retinol was low (<0,3 µg/ml in 65% of children with malaria and in 35% of children without malaria; 5 apoprotein A-1 values were abnormally low in non-malaric children but they were lower in malaric children; 6 interleukin 10 levels were significantly higher in 96% of the malaric children (4-9 year old when compared to non-malaric children and to normal values; 7 total and specific anti-Plasmodium IgE and TNF-α were abnormally high in children of both municipalities; 8 among healthy teachers and nursing students aged 18-44, intestinal parasites were observed in 97%, while intestinal pathogenic parasites were detected in 42%. In 5 year old children of Turbo presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was detected in 30-35%, with predominance of G. lamblia (20%; 9 oxidative stress was

  19. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  20. Analysis of the protective immune response following intramuscular vaccination of calves against the intestinal parasite Cooperia oncophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meulder, F; Ratman, D; Van Coppernolle, S; Borloo, J; Li, R W; Chiers, K; Van den Broeck, W; De Bosscher, K; Claerebout, E; Geldhof, P

    2015-08-01

    Recently we reported the successful vaccination of calves against Cooperia oncophora with a double domain activation-associated secreted protein, purified from the excretory-secretory material of adult stage parasites. In an attempt to elucidate the immune mechanisms involved in protection, the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination and infection were compared with non-vaccinated control animals. Antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgA levels were significantly increased in sera of vaccinated animals post vaccination, whereas no effect was observed for IgM. Antigen-specific intestinal IgG1 levels were significantly increased in the vaccinated animals, whereas no differences were observed for antigen-specific IgA, IgM and IgG2 levels. Upon re-stimulation in vitro with the vaccine antigen, a significant proliferation of both αβ- and γδ-T cells, and B cells, collected from mesenteric lymph nodes, was only observed in vaccinated animals. RNA-seq analysis of intestinal tissue yielded a list of 67 genes that were differentially expressed in vaccinated animals following challenge infection, amongst which were several cell adhesion molecules, lectins and glycosyl transferases. A correlation analysis between all immunological and parasitological parameters indicated that intestinal anti-double domain activation-associated secreted protein IgG1 levels correlated negatively with cumulative faecal egg counts and positively with the proportion of L4s and L5s. The proportion of immature stages was also positively correlated with the proliferation of αβ T cells. Worm length was negatively correlated with the transcript levels of several lectins and cell adhesion molecules. Overall, the results indicate that intramuscular administration of the vaccine resulted in an immune memory response particularly characterised by increased antigen-specific IgG1 levels in the intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by

  1. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu

    2015-07-02

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.

  2. The role of HLA-G in parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, A; Sonon, P; Sadissou, I; Mendes-Junior, C T; Garcia, A; Donadi, E A; Courtin, D

    2018-04-01

    Little attention has been devoted to the role of HLA-G gene and molecule on parasitic disorders, and the available studies have focused on malaria, African and American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis and echinococcosis. After reporting a brief description regarding the role of the cells of innate and adaptive immune system against parasites, we reviewed the major features of the HLA-G gene and molecule and the role of HLA-G on the major cells of immune system. Increased levels of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) have been observed in patients presenting toxoplasmosis and in the active phase of echinococcosis. In addition, increased sHLA-G has also been associated with increased susceptibility to malaria and increased susceptibility to develop human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). In contrast, decreased membrane-bound HLA-G has been reported in placenta of patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and in heart and colon of patients presenting Chagas disease. The 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene has been the main focus of studies on malaria, HAT and Chagas disease, exhibiting distinct patterns of associations. Considering that HLA-G is an immune checkpoint molecule, inhibiting the activity of several cells of the immune system, the excessive neoexpression and the increased sHLA-G levels together with the decreased constitutive tissue expression of membrane-bound HLA-G may be detrimental to the host infected with parasite agents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Do-Trung, Dung; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-10-10

    Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April and June 2014 in people aged ≥ 18 years at risk of wastewater exposure from To Lich River: workers maintaining wastewater treatment facilities; urban farmers reusing wastewater; and urban dwellers at risk of flooding events. For comparison, two peri-urban population groups living in close proximity to the Red River were chosen: farmers using river water for irrigation purposes; and people living in the same communities. A single stool sample was subjected to Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors and self-reported signs and symptoms. A total of 681 individuals had complete data records. Highest point-prevalence rates of intestinal parasite infections were observed for peri-urban farmers (30 %). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were the predominant helminth species (25 % and 5 %, respectively). Peri-urban farmers were at higher odds of infection with intestinal parasites than any other groups (adjusted odds ratio 5.8, 95 % confidence interval 2.5 to 13.7). Lack of access to improved sanitation and not receiving deworming within the past 12 months were associated with higher infection risk, while higher educational attainment and socioeconomic status were negatively associated with intestinal parasite infections. Our results suggest that exposure to

  4. Intestinal Coccidiosis in a Patient with Alpha-chain Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kristin; Bird, R. G.; Doe, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    During an ultrastructural study of small-intestinal mucosa from a patient suffering from alpha-chain disease organisms were identified within the epithelial cytoplasm which showed the fine structural features of the coccidian group. Though coccidiosis is well recognized as causing a diarrhoeal and often lethal illness in animals it has been neglected as a cause of disease in man. Thus this finding may be significant and warrants further investigation into its possible role in the pathogenesis of alpha-chain disease. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4131643

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in hamsters and rabbits in some pet shops of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürsal, Neslihan; Gökpinar, Sami; Yildiz, Kader

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the parasite species carried by hamsters and rabbits purchased from some commercial pet shops in Turkey. For this purpose, the fecal samples of clinically healthy Syrian hamsters, dwarf hamsters, and crossbred rabbits were collected from 22 pet shops randomly selected in Ankara and Kirikkale provinces, located in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The fecal samples were examined with centrifuge flotation technique using saturated salt solution. Parasitic infection rate was 57.5% in dwarf hamsters, 54.9% in Syrian hamsters, and 56.3% in crossbreed rabbits. Trichurid eggs were the most prevalent parasite in the feces of Syrians hamsters (28.1%). The other parasites of Syrian hamsters were as follows: Eimeria spp. oocysts (15.4%) and the eggs of H. nana (11.2%), Syphacia spp. (11%). and Aspiculuris spp. (5.6 %). Only trichurid eggs were observed in the fecal samples of dwarf hamsters (51.5%). Oocysts of Eimeria spp. (52.7%) and the eggs of P. ambiguus (3.6%) were detected in the feces of rabbits. Within the scope of this study, the detection of H. nana eggs, a zoonotic parasite, in the feces of Syrian hamster was quite remarkable for public health.

  6. Increased risk of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Matzen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of intestinal malignancy in Crohn's disease (CD) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global CD population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. Hence, the aim of the present study was to conduct a meta......-analysis of population-based data on intestinal cancer risk in CD. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for the relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. All papers fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria were scrutinized for data on population size......, time of follow-up, and observed to expected cancer rates. STATA meta-analysis software was used to perform overall pooled risk estimates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), observed/expected) and meta-regression analyses of the influence of specific variables on SIR. RESULTS: Six papers fulfilled...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and

  8. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  9. Parasitic Diseases as a cause of Mortality in Commercial Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortalities in chickens brought to the postmortem facility of the veterinary school of the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Parasitic diseases caused deaths in 786(26%) chicken out of 2975 dead from a combination of diseases. The major contributor of mortalities was acute coccidiosis, ...

  10. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or...

  11. Association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestations: a community based, cross-sectional study done in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossie, Andualem; Kebedez, Seleshi; Gobena, Teshome

    2013-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk), is the psychostimulant herb cultivated in East Africa. Khat chewing could have health damaging effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestation. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town in July 2010. Structured questionnaire was administered to 991 individuals selected by a systematic sampling method. Stool samples were collected for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infestation. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 16.0 for Windows. Among 991 respondents, 638 (64.4%) were females, 502 (50.7%) were Oromos, 486 (49%) were Orthodox and 475 (47.9%) of them were in the age group of 18-24 years old. The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be 52.7%. The prevalence of single to multiple parasitic infestations was 33.4%. Negative association (p = 0.000) was recorded between the habit of khat chewing and intestinal parasitosis. Non-chewers were more affected than chewers. Higher proportion of non chewers was infested with parasites than chewers, suggesting that khat chewing might have a protective role against parasitic infestation. Further investigation on the effect of khat extract in in vitro and in vivo is recommended to disclose detail mechanisms.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of ...

  13. Intestinal Parasites of Fish Sold for Consumption in Anguldi-zawan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protozoan parasites observed was coccidia with prevalence of 8(19.5%),the cestodes recovered i.e Pleurocercoid with prevalence of 16(39.0%),while Nematodes detected included Procamillanus spp and Capillaria spp with prevalence rate of 12(29.3%) and 5(12.2%) out of 41.Fishes with body weight range of 60 to ...

  14. Recent data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in N'Djamena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalences of the eight (8) parasite species detected were: Entamoeba histolytica (30%), Hymenolepis nana (13%), Ascaris lumbricoides (10%), Trichomonas hominis (6%), Giardia intestinalis (3%), hookworm (0.5%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.2%). These pathogens appeared mostly in single infections.

  15. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in the inhabitants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple infections of two-three parasite combinations were encouyragee, A lumbricoides- hookworm combination being the most common. Higher prevalence rates of infection occurred in pupils of age groups 9-11 and 12-14. Infection was greater among pupils drinking water from river/stream and those using pit/bush for ...

  16. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA