WorldWideScience

Sample records for interviews as topic

  1. Interviews concerning topical questions in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatz, U.; Schatz, A.; Stephany, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the Nuclex meeting, October 3-7, 1978, Basle/Switzerland, the editorial department of 'Atom und Strom' questioned some leading scientists in nuclear technology on particularly relevant topics. The following subjects were discussed: - How long can we do without nuclear energy, - Modern technology for nuclear power plants, - Nuclear fuel cycle and environment, - Nuclear energy and European Communities, - Nuclear energy and its risks (reflections on incidents). (orig./UA) [de

  2. Breeder control fusion reactor. Topical interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-09-01

    The energy sources of the future are extremely controversial. The consumption of fossil fuel shall decrease during the next decades, because exhaustion of the resources, pollution, increase of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and other reasons. But at present the question it not yet settled which alternative energy system should replace the fossil fuel. First of all nuclear energy in the form of fission reactions seems to come into operation to a larger extent. The next step may be the controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction. Furthermore, a comparison between fusion and fission is given which shows that fusion would bring about less risks than the breeders. An advantage of the fusion reactor would be the fact that the fuel cycle is closed. Unfortunately, the physical questions are not as yet satisfactorily clarified so that one cannot be sure whether a fusion reactor can really be built.

  3. Interview as intraviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kit Stender

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...

  4. Web directories as topical context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Aly, R.; Hauff, C.; den Hamer, I.; Hiemstra, D.; Huibers, T.; de Jong, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the Open Directory (or DMOZ) can be used to classify queries into topical categories on different levels and whether we can use this topical context to improve retrieval performance. We have set up a user study to let test persons explicitly classify queries into

  5. Stability of measures from children's interviews: the effects of time, sample length, and topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; DeBrock, Lindsay; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of, and sources of variability in, language measures from interviews collected from young school-age children. Two 10-min interviews were collected from 20 at-risk kindergarten children by an examiner using a standardized set of questions. Test-retest reliability coefficients were calculated for 8 language measures. Generalizability theory (G-theory) analyses were completed to document the variability introduced into the measures from the child, session, sample length, and topic. Significant and strong reliability correlation coefficients were observed for most of the language sample measures. The G-theory analyses revealed that most of the variance in the language measures was attributed to the child. Session, sample length, and topic accounted for negligible amounts of variance in most of the language measures. Measures from interviews were reliable across sessions, and the sample length and topic did not have a substantial impact on the reliability of the language measures. Implications regarding the clinical feasibility of language sample analysis for assessment and progress monitoring are discussed.

  6. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  7. The effect of the question topic on interviewer behavior; an interaction analysis of control activities of interviewers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zouwen, J.; Smit, J.H.; Draisma, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In a standardized personal interview, elderly (65+) Dutch respondents (N = 233), were asked detailed retrospective questions about six physical activities like walking, cycling and their performance of household tasks. Surprisingly, the proportion of inadequate answers was small, suggesting that the

  8. Video interviewing as a learning resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out as a pilot study, with the aim of obtaining exploratory insights into the field of learning, and more specifically, how the use of video technology can be used as a mean to excel the outcome of the learning process. The motivation behind the study has its...... basis in the management education literature, and thereby in the discussion of how to organize teaching, in order to equip students with improved skills in reflective realization. Following the notion that experience is the basis for knowledge, the study was set out to explore how students at higher...... education programmes, i.e. at MSc and MBA level, can benefit from utilizing video recorded interviews in their process of learning and reflection. On the basis of the study, it is suggested that video interviewing makes up an interesting alternative to other learning approaches such as Simulation...

  9. Interview

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the â€ワpeople at CERN” the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.

  10. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....

  11. Ego Involvement and Topic Controversiality as Related to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledden, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Katherine A.

    Attitude change was measured on four different topics before and immediately after a persuasion was presented in order to compare the degree of change with the level of ego involvement as it relates to topic controversiality. Ego involvement was based on self-ratings of concern for each topic. Objective topic controversiality was based on the…

  12. Dyadic Interviews as a Tool for Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L.; Eliot, Susan; Lowe, Robert A.; Gorman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Although evaluation researchers frequently make use of focus groups and individual interviews as sources of qualitative data, there has been far less attention to dyadic interviews that create a conversation between two research participants. This article describes dyadic interviews as a format that shares many of the advantages of focus groups,…

  13. [The use of interviews in participative intervention and research: the GAM tool as a collective interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Christian; de Barros, Leticia Maria Renault; Melo, Jorge José Maciel; Passos, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    This paper seeks to assess a way of conducting interviews in line with the ideology of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. In the methodology of participative intervention and research in mental health, the interview is less a data collection than a data harvesting procedure. It is designed to apply the principles of psychosocial care, autonomy as the basis for treatment, the predominance of the users and of their social networks and civic participation. Inspired by the Explicitation Interview technique, the contention is that the handling of the interview presupposes an open attitude able to promote and embrace different viewpoints. This attitude makes the interview a collective experience of sharing and belonging, allowing participants to reposition themselves subjectively in treatment with the emergence of groupality. As an example of using the interview as a methodological tool in mental health research, we examine research into adaptation of the tool of Autonomous Medication Management (GAM). It is an interventionist approach guided by principles that foster autonomy and the protagonist status of users of psychotropic medication, their quality of life, their rights and recognition of the multiple significances of medication, understood here as a collective interview technique.

  14. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew B; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Jo C; Westby, Maggie J; Deshpande, Sohan; Walker, Natalie

    2015-03-06

    Honey is a viscous, supersaturated sugar solution derived from nectar gathered and modified by the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound care. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with alternative wound dressings and topical treatments on the of healing of acute (e.g. burns, lacerations) and/or chronic (e.g. venous ulcers) wounds. For this update of the review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 October 2014); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to October Week 1 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 13 October 2014); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 13 October 2014); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 15 October 2014). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated honey as a treatment for any sort of acute or chronic wound were sought. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. Wound healing was the primary endpoint. Data from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one review author, using a data extraction sheet, and independently verified by a second review author. All data have been subsequently checked by two more authors. We identified 26 eligible trials (total of 3011 participants). Three trials evaluated the effects of honey in minor acute wounds, 11 trials evaluated honey in burns, 10 trials recruited people with different chronic wounds including two in people with venous leg ulcers, two trials in people with diabetic foot ulcers and single trials in infected post-operative wounds, pressure injuries, cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Fournier's gangrene. Two trials recruited a mixed population of people with acute and chronic wounds. The quality of the evidence varied between different comparisons and

  15. Eyeball Measurement of Dexterity: Tests as Alternatives to Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Robert M.; Imada, Andrew S.

    1981-01-01

    Reports a study conducted for litigation in a sex discrimination case dealing with misuse of an employment interview. Results show that dexterity could not be determined in an interview and a more appropriate selection technique such as a test was required. (Author/JAC)

  16. Using skype as an alternative for residency selection interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edje, Louito; Miller, Christine; Kiefer, Jacklyn; Oram, David

    2013-09-01

    Residency interviews can place significant time and financial burdens on applicants. To determine whether the use of Skype as a screening tool during interview season in a family medicine residency is cost-effective and time-efficient for the applicant and the residency program. We surveyed 2 groups of medical students during interviews for our family medicine program. Thirty-two students were interviewed via our face-to-face, traditional interview (TI) process, and 10 students, the second group, who did not meet the program's standard interview selection criteria for TI, underwent our Skype interview (SI) process. Using an unpaired t test, we found that the applicants' costs of an SI were significantly less than a TI, $566 (95% confidence interval [CI] $784-$349, P Skype may be a cost-effective and time-efficient screening tool for both the applicant and the program. Alternate uses of SI may include the time-sensitive, postmatch Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program.

  17. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study.

  18. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  19. Robot-mediated interviews--how effective is a humanoid robot as a tool for interviewing young children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Jai Wood

    Full Text Available Robots have been used in a variety of education, therapy or entertainment contexts. This paper introduces the novel application of using humanoid robots for robot-mediated interviews. An experimental study examines how children's responses towards the humanoid robot KASPAR in an interview context differ in comparison to their interaction with a human in a similar setting. Twenty-one children aged between 7 and 9 took part in this study. Each child participated in two interviews, one with an adult and one with a humanoid robot. Measures include the behavioural coding of the children's behaviour during the interviews and questionnaire data. The questions in these interviews focused on a special event that had recently taken place in the school. The results reveal that the children interacted with KASPAR very similar to how they interacted with a human interviewer. The quantitative behaviour analysis reveal that the most notable difference between the interviews with KASPAR and the human were the duration of the interviews, the eye gaze directed towards the different interviewers, and the response time of the interviewers. These results are discussed in light of future work towards developing KASPAR as an 'interviewer' for young children in application areas where a robot may have advantages over a human interviewer, e.g. in police, social services, or healthcare applications.

  20. Email as a Data Collection Tool when Interviewing Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Brondani DDS, MSc, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores several aspects of electronic communication, specifically its advantages and disadvantages within the context of a brief experience using email to interview elders. Two older adults participated via email as the psychosocial impact of aging was collected using such venue. Our experiences are compared with published reports from others to analyze the benefits and limitations of email as a research tool. The email was spontaneous, comprehensive, interactive, efficient, confidential, and cost effective. The use of email within this exploratory study appeared to be an effective approach to collecting qualitative information about beliefs and behaviours from older adults who feel comfortable with this form of communication. The lack of similar studies limited the scope of discussion and comparison of findings; generalization is limited due to the small sample size. This investigation, however, suggested that the use of email as an interview tool may be considered in today's exploratory research arena as an alternative to conference calls or face-to-face interviews when time is a constraint.

  1. Soaps and Germicides as Adjunct Topical Antimycotic Agents on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study aims at evaluating the potentials of soaps and germicides / disinfectants as adjunct topical anti-vulvovaginal candidasis agents. Methods: In vitro inhibitory activities of the test agents, prepared according to the manufacturer's specification for toilet and midwifery purposes were determined using modified ...

  2. Parallel processes: using motivational interviewing as an implementation coaching strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Jennifer E; Ernst, Denise; Williams, Jessica Roberts; Miller, Kristin J

    2014-07-01

    In addition to its clinical efficacy as a communication style for strengthening motivation and commitment to change, motivational interviewing (MI) has been hypothesized to be a potential tool for facilitating evidence-based practice adoption decisions. This paper reports on the rationale and content of MI-based implementation coaching Webinars that, as part of a larger active dissemination strategy, were found to be more effective than passive dissemination strategies at promoting adoption decisions among behavioral health and health providers and administrators. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (MITI 3.1.1) was used to rate coaching Webinars from 17 community behavioral health organizations and 17 community health centers. The MITI coding system was found to be applicable to the coaching Webinars, and raters achieved high levels of agreement on global and behavior count measurements of fidelity to MI. Results revealed that implementation coaches maintained fidelity to the MI model, exceeding competency benchmarks for almost all measures. Findings suggest that it is feasible to implement MI as a coaching tool.

  3. The impact of self-interviews on response patterns for sensitive topics: a randomized trial of electronic delivery methods for a sexual behaviour questionnaire in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.

  4. Motivational interviewing workshop in a virtual world: learning as avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershneva, Marianna; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kear, Cynthia; Heyden, Robin; Heyden, Neil; Lee, Jay; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Limited research has been done to understand outcomes of continuing medical education offered in three-dimensional, immersive virtual worlds. We studied a case of a virtual world workshop on motivational interviewing (MI) applied to smoking cessation counseling and its educational impact. To facilitate content development and evaluation, we specified desired MI competencies. The workshop consisted of three sessions, which included lectures, practice with standardized patients, and chat interactions. Data were collected from 13 primary care physicians and residents through workshop observation, and pre- and 3-month post-workshop telephone/Skype interviews and interactions with standardized patients. Interactions with standardized patients were assessed by an expert using a validated MI tool and by standardized patients using a tool developed for this study. For 11 participants who attended two or three sessions, we conducted paired-samples t tests comparing mean differences between the competency scores before and after the workshop. Expert assessment showed significant improvement on six of seven MI competencies. All participants reported learning new knowledge and skills, and nine described incorporating new learning into their clinical practice. Practicing MI with standardized patients and/or observing others' practice appeared to be the most helpful workshop component. The evaluated workshop had positive impact on participants' competencies and practice as related to MI applied to smoking cessation counseling. Our findings support further exploration of three-dimensional virtual worlds as learning environments for continuing medical education.

  5. [The interview as a research data collection method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The interview is a widely-used method for collecting research data, notably in qualitative and mixed protocols. However, it is an umbrella term which groups together numerous types of interviews adapted to the methodological diversity which characterises nursing science. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Being Irrationally Funny as a Cognitive Psychologist: Interview With Dan Ariely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Popescu, Beatrice

    2015-11-01

    The idea of interviewing Dan Ariely was somehow latent on my mind since I started being interested in cognitive psychology and cognitive behavior psychotherapy, but actually got more ardent ever since irrationality became a research topic for his team at Duke University. I picked him as an interviewee thinking not only at his exceptional skills as a researcher and as Kahnemann 'disciple', but mainly for his fantastic wit, true modesty and utmost interest in making people's lives easier and more comfortable, by creating awareness on a lot of topics otherwise neglected. Dan Ariely's very agreeable personality and humor would not let you think of him as a burnt casualty who, in his youth struggled to survive a personal drama, so well-documented in his paper "Painful lessons" posted on the MIT website (http://web.mit.edu/ariely/www/MIT/Papers/mypain.pdf). I think reading his paper and also this transcribed interview with him would be also comforting for people who found out about Bucharest fire incident that rocked our society and also for people who are personally related to this tragedy.

  7. Solar thermal energy as a topic in secondary mathematics classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, A.; Brinkmann, K. [EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers. The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept. (orig.)

  8. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  9. Interview with Ron Wasserstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…

  10. Topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herretes, Samantha; Wang, Xue; Reyes, Johann MG

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infectious disease that can lead to severe visual disability. Risk factors for bacterial corneal infection include contact lens wear, ocular surface disease, corneal trauma, and previous ocular or eyelid surgery. Topical antibiotics constitute the mainstay of treatment in cases of bacterial keratitis, whereas the use of topical corticosteroids as an adjunctive therapy to antibiotics remains controversial. Topical corticosteroids are usually used to control inflammation using the smallest amount of the drug. Their use requires optimal timing, concomitant antibiotics, and careful follow-up. Objectives The objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis. Secondary objectives included evaluation of health economic outcomes and quality of life outcomes. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 14 July 2014. We also searched the Science Citation Index to identify additional studies that had cited the only trial included in the original version of this review, reference lists of included trials, earlier reviews, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology guidelines. We also contacted experts to identify any unpublished and

  11. Efficacy of topical permethrin as repellent against Aedes aegypti's bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart

    2008-07-15

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (pAedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET.

  12. Topical Ranibizumab as a Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Okanobo, Andre; Cheng, Sheng-Fu; Amparo, Francisco; Nallasamy, Nambi; Dana, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of topical ranibizumab on clinically stable corneal neovascularization (NV). Methods This was a prospective, open-label, monocentric, uncontrolled, non-comparative study. Ten eyes of 9 patients with corneal NV received topical ranibizumab (1%) 4 times a day for 3 weeks with a follow-up of 16 weeks. The main corneal neovascularization outcome measures were: neovascular area (NA), the area occupied by the corneal neovessels; vessel caliber (VC), the mean diameter of the corneal neovessels; and invasion area (IA), the fraction of the total cornea area covered by the vessels. This study was conducted at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA. Results Statistically significant decreases in NA (55.3%, P<0.001), which lasted through 16 weeks, and VC (59%, P<0.001), which continued to improve up to week 16, were observed after treatment. No significant decrease was observed in IA (12.3%, P=0.49). There was no statistically significant change in visual acuity or intraocular pressure. No adverse events ascribed to the treatment were noted. Conclusions Topical application of ranibizumab is effective in reducing the severity of corneal NV in the context of established corneal NV, mostly through decrease in VC rather than IA. PMID:23407316

  13. People with ID as interviewers and co-researchers: experiences and reflection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, H. van

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To share the experience of working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) as interviewers in a qualitative study about community participation of people with ID. We reflect on two perspectives: the interviewers and the researchers. Method: Eighteen people with ID were interviewed by

  14. Poetry Education Research as an Anchorage of Thought: Using Poetry as Interview Stimulus Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Interviews in qualitative research may sometimes employ stimulus material as a means of eliciting richer data. However, scant consideration has been given to the use of poetry for this purpose, especially within the field of poetry education research. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature by illustrating how the use of poetry as…

  15. Complementary Therapies for Idiopathic Hirsutism: Topical Licorice as Promising Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Saffar, Bahar; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Aslani, Abolfazl; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A) and placebo (group B). Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients' skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (p < 0.001), and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only. PMID:26273313

  16. [Topical haemotherapy as treatment for necrotic angiodermatitis: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courivaud, D; Ségard, M; Darras, S; Carpentier, O; Thomas, P

    2005-03-01

    Necrotic angiodermatitis is a variety of leg ulcer, characterized by very painful and rapidly spreading lesions. Healing takes time, a mean of 4 to 11 months. Current treatment is difficult and rarely satisfactory. Only early skin grafts lead to rapid sedation of pain and stop the lesion from extending. However, this technique, performed during a progressive phase, enhances the risk of losing a certain number of grafts. We wanted to confirm the efficacy of local auto-haemo-therapy proposed in 2 non-controlled studies. Eleven patients with necrotic angiodermatitis were included in our non-controlled prospective study. The topical hemotherapy was applied three times a week for one month, with initial hospitalization for 15 days. The criteria of assessment were: evolution of pain, surface of the ulcer, colorimetric scale and the date of disappearance of the purple halo. Ten patients were relieved by the treatment, with progressive withdrawal of the analgesics. The progression of the lesion had stopped and the purple halo had disappeared in general by D6 (range: 2 to 21 days). The percentage of granulation tissue with regard to the surface of the ulcer was of 45.4 p. 100 on D0, 80 p. 100 on D14 and 85 p. 100 on D28. Topical hemotherapy applied during the initial phase of treatment would reduce the pain and prepare the lesion for a secondary skin graft.

  17. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  18. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  19. Turning the spotlight: Looking at the interviewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg

    questions with quantitative, qualitative, and C A inspired analyses: How do two interviewers behave in the sociolinguistic interviews which they themselves classify as good or bad interviews? And how does this relate to their own ideals for the sociolinguistic interview? How is it possible to approach...... interviews. For instance, the interviewers tend to take more of the initiatives to change the topic and ask more questions in their bad interviews than in their good interviews. Further studies of the female interviewer's best and worst interview show that rapport is achieved in her best but spoiled in her...... to questions. The studies make it clear that success and failure is not just one thing. The studies reveal great complexity and confirm that there are differences between the interviewers' best and worst interviews as well as between the two interviewers. Studying four interviews of each of the two...

  20. Hermeneutic interviewing: an example of its development and use as research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanellos, R

    1999-06-01

    In a study exploring the practice knowledge of nursing on adolescent mental health units, I chose hermeneutic philosophy to guide the conduct of the research. Immediately, I encountered the problem that hermeneutics is essentially unconcerned with its use as research method. The need for congruence between the study's hermeneutic foundations and the methodological processes of the research, led me to develop a style of hermeneutic interviewing for the purpose of information gathering. I did this using Gadamer's (1979) fundamental principles of: (1) tradition, (2) dialectics of interpretation, and (3) dialectic of question and answer. These principles are examined and discussed. The actualization of hermeneutic interviewing, as a means of information gathering, proved challenging. Using interview excerpts, I demonstrate my use of hermeneutic interviewing as research method, and critique my interviewing skills in relation to the fundamental principles from which this style of interviewing was developed.

  1. Testing Skype as an interview method in epidemiologic research: response and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Tobias; Thomas, Silke; Brilmayer, Susanne; Heinrich, Sabine; Radon, Katja

    2012-12-01

    Despite its popularity, Skype has not been tested as a tool for epidemiologic research. We examined its feasibility in Germany. A population-based sample of young adults was randomly invited to a Skype (n = 150) or a phone interview (n = 150). Response and duration of interviews were analysed to evaluate the feasibility of Skype interviews. Response was low and, with 10 % (95 % CI 5-15 %), even worse among Skype candidates, compared to 22 % (15-28 %) in the phone group. A third of the Skype group asked for being interviewed by phone. Median duration was 34.0 minutes for Skype interviews and 37.0 minutes for phone interviews. Skype is not yet a feasible tool for data collection in Germany.

  2. The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI as a Marketing Instrument for Obtaining Information about Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Westhoff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our article is not to report an empirical study but to present a toolkit which can help to collect valid information about brands. The Decision-Oriented Interview, hereafter, DOI presents empirically proven behavior regularities in interviews as a collection of checklists. The DOI has shown its usefulness in different fields of interviewing e.g. as a selection interview, in forensic assessment or a method for oral examinations. The DOI collection of explicit rules for interview design, execution and summary is described as a toolkit for collecting information relevant in marketing. The purchase decisions are presented as a basis for describing brand-differentiating situations. The use of the rules collected in the DOI checklists has clear advantages over the conventional approach in which success depends on the experience of individual project managers.

  3. The Research Interview as Discourses Crossing Swords: The Researcher and Apprentice on Crossing Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a conception of the qualitative research interview as discourses crossing swords. The article draws on examples showing how the researchers' view on learning is challenged by the interviewed apprentices. The apprentices do not assume learning in itself to be an important aspect of their lives. They consider the process of…

  4. Photo elicitation interviews as a way of accessing primary school students' attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine Karen; Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    explores the potential of photo-elicitation interviews as a qualitative path to affect. This particular type of interview is shaped as conversations about self-produced images of mathematics. When conducting the photo elicitation interviews, researchers also introduce their own photographs......The identification of the right prompts, to which young children can respond easily, is a challenge to researchers, even more so when it comes to studies of affect (McDonough and Sullivan, 2014). Attempting to capture 3rd grade students’ verbalized perspectives on mathematics, this study also...... into the interview context, along with the photographs of the child's experiences. Both serve as the basis for a child-directed interview (Clark, 1999)....

  5. The University as an Institution Today: Topics for Reflection | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, in both the developing and industrialized worlds, the vital role of higher ... However, as the end of the second millennium draws near, we must reflect upon the ... Its philosophy, missions, functions, objectives, structures, and service to ...

  6. The University as an Institution Today: Topics for Reflection | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Colombian philosopher, theologian, architectural historian, and educator, Father Alphonso Borrero Cabal, S.J., is an internationally recognized expert in the field of higher education. He has served on the Council of the United Nations University, as Rector of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, and is currently ...

  7. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  8. Solid effervescent formulations as new approach for topical minoxidil delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maíra N; Schulte, Heidi L; Duarte, Natane; Lima, Eliana M; Sá-Barreto, Livia L; Gratieri, Tais; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Cunha-Filho, Marcilio S S

    2017-01-01

    Currently marketed minoxidil formulations present inconveniences that range from a grease hard aspect they leave on the hair to more serious adverse reactions as scalp dryness and irritation. In this paper we propose a novel approach for minoxidil sulphate (MXS) delivery based on a solid effervescent formulation. The aim was to investigate whether the particle mechanical movement triggered by effervescence would lead to higher follicle accumulation. Preformulation studies using thermal, spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the compatibility between effervescent salts and the drug. The effervescent formulation demonstrated a 2.7-fold increase on MXS accumulation into hair follicles casts compared to the MXS solution (22.0±9.7μg/cm 2 versus 8.3±4.0μg/cm 2 ) and a significant drug increase (around 4-fold) in remaining skin (97.1±29.2μg/cm 2 ) compared to the drug solution (23.5±6.1μg/cm 2 ). The effervescent formulations demonstrated a prominent increase of drug permeation highly dependent on the effervescent mixture concentration in the formulation, confirming the hypothesis of effervescent reaction favoring drug penetration. Clinically, therapy effectiveness could be improved, increasing the administration interval, hence, patient compliance. More studies to investigate the follicular targeting potential and safety of new formulations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Timeline interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...

  10. The Dental School Interview As a Predictor of Dental Students' OSCE Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang E; Price, Mirissa D; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the dental school admissions interview score as a noncognitive indicator of performance in predoctoral dental education, with specific attention to whether a correlation existed between the admissions interview scores and performance on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The study population consisted of all 175 students in the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) DMD Classes of 2012 through 2016. Data on students' gender and age on entering dental school were self-reported using their applications for admission to the HSDM DMD program. Data on students' OSCE scores for three examination sessions were collected from the Office of Dental Education. The results showed that the students' interview scores did not significantly correlate with OSCE performance on any of the three exams. Performance on the first and second OSCEs did, however, correlate with performance on the third OSCE (pinterview score. These results suggest that although the admissions interview scores can serve as an important resource in student selection, with the lack of association between interview and OSCE scores, it is possible that the communication skills required for the interview do not directly overlap with those required for OSCE success.

  11. Computerized test versus personal interview as admission methods for graduate nursing studies: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazut, Koren; Romem, Pnina; Malkin, Smadar; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive validity, economic efficiency, and faculty staff satisfaction of a computerized test versus a personal interview as admission methods for graduate nursing studies. A mixed method study was designed, including cross-sectional and retrospective cohorts, interviews, and cost analysis. One hundred and thirty-four students in the Master of Nursing program participated. The success of students in required core courses was similar in both admission method groups. The personal interview method was found to be a significant predictor of success, with cognitive variables the only significant contributors to the model. Higher satisfaction levels were reported with the computerized test compared with the personal interview method. The cost of the personal interview method, in annual hourly work, was 2.28 times higher than the computerized test. These findings may promote discussion regarding the cost benefit of the personal interview as an admission method for advanced academic studies in healthcare professions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  13. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  14. The Distinction of Hot Herbal Compress, Hot Compress, and Topical Diclofenac as Myofascial Pain Syndrome Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruab, Jurairat; Nimpitakpong, Netraya; Damjuti, Watchara

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the distinctness after treatment among hot herbal compress, hot compress, and topical diclofenac. The registrants were equally divided into groups and received the different treatments including hot herbal compress, hot compress, and topical diclofenac group, which served as the control group. After treatment courses, Visual Analog Scale and 36-Item Short Form Health survey were, respectively, used to establish the level of pain intensity and quality of life. In addition, cervical range of motion and pressure pain threshold were also examined to identify the motional effects. All treatments showed significantly decreased level of pain intensity and increased cervical range of motion, while the intervention groups exhibited extraordinary capability compared with the topical diclofenac group in pressure pain threshold and quality of life. In summary, hot herbal compress holds promise to be an efficacious treatment parallel to hot compress and topical diclofenac.

  15. The Role of Web Interviews as Part of a National Travel Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — The paper is analysing the effect of adding a web survey to a traditional telephone-based national travel survey by asking the respondents to check in on the web and answer the questions there (Computer Assisted Web Interview, CAWI). If they are not participating by web they are as usual...... called by telephone (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview, CATI). Design/methodology/approach — Multivariate regression analyses are used to analyse the difference in response rates by the two media and to analyse if respondents’ answering by the two media have different travel patterns. Findings...... — The analyses show that web interviews are saving money, even though a more intensive post-processing is necessary. The analyses seem to show that the CAWI is resulting in a more careful answering which results in more trips reported. A CAWI is increasing the participation of children in the survey...

  16. An ethic of analysis: an argument for critical analysis of research interviews as an ethical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2006-01-01

    Nursing literature is replete with discussions about the ethics of research interviews. These largely involve questions of method, and how careful study design and data collection technique can render studies more ethical. Analysis, the perennial black box of the research process, is rarely discussed as an ethical practice. In this paper, I introduce the idea that analysis itself is an ethical practice. Specifically, I argue that political discourse analysis of research interviews is an ethical practice. I use examples from my own research in a prison control unit to illustrate what this might look like, and what is at stake.

  17. Have We Come as Far as We Had Hoped? Discrimination in the Residency Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Kara; DiPasco, Peter; Kilgore, Lyndsey; Shelley, Casey; Perry, Alvin; Wagner, Jamie

    The primary objective was to use a pilot survey of fourth-year medical students at our institution to determine if female residency applicants were asked potentially illegal questions regarding family status and childbearing more frequently than male applicants. Secondary objectives included comparing the use of potentially illegal questions in surgical versus nonsurgical specialties and between community and academic residency programs. A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to all fourth-year medical students at the University of Kansas School of Medicine. Data were analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. University of Kansas Health System, Tertiary Care Center. Fourth-year medical students from the University of Kansas School of Medicine. There were 57 survey respondents (51% male and 49% female). Female applicants were more likely to report being asked about their desire to have a family than male applicants (32% vs. 3%, respectively, p = 0.041). However, male and female students were equally likely to report being asked specifically if they had or intended to have children (p = 0.194). No significant differences were found in potentially illegal question-asking between surgical and nonsurgical specialties or between community-based and academic programs. Although women now represent 47% of the applicant pool, gender discrimination in the residency interview has not been eradicated. Women are more likely to report potentially illegal questions regarding their desire to have a family on residency interviews than men. Community and academic programs appear to ask similar numbers and types of potentially illegal questions. Further study is warranted to determine if these findings apply to the entire applicant pool. Further education of interviewers is necessary regarding potentially illegal questions during the residency interview process. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery

  18. The Filmmaker as Humanist: An Interview with Tim Robbins on the Making of "Cradle Will Rock".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Terrence C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Tim Robbins that focuses on the making of the film "Cradle Will Rock." Robbins offers his perspectives on issues such as the power of art to convey important social messages and sources of violence in schools. Includes resources for teachers. (CMK)

  19. Topical cyclosporin as an alternative treatment for vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail AS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Salim Ismail,1,2 Rohana Taharin,2 Zunaina Embong11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Jalan Resindensi, Pulau Pinang, MalaysiaAbstract: Here, a case of vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis that responded well to topical cyclosporin is reported. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of bilateral blepharokeratoconjunctivitis was regularly treated with lid scrubbing using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids as well as an intermittent course of oral doxycycline for the past year. She developed acute onset bilateral eye redness associated with poor vision in her right eye. Both eyes showed marked diffuse hyperemic conjunctiva with corneal vascularization. The presence of corneal vascularization obscured the visual axis in the right eye. The condition did not improve with regular intensive lid hygiene using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids. She was started on topical cyclosporin A 0.5% every 6 hours. There was a dramatic regression of corneal vascularization after 3 days on topical cyclosporin, with marked improvement in visual acuity. This is a single case in which cyclosporin improved the status of the ocular surface. A large cohort study is required to justify its effectiveness in treating blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and to test its potential as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in comparison to conventional corticosteroids.Keywords: blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporin

  20. Safety and Feasibility of Topical Application of Limonene as a Massage Oil to the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Thompson, Patricia A; Hakim, Iman A; Lopez, Ana Maria; Thomson, Cynthia A; Chew, Wade; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Limonene, a major component in citrus oil, has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical mammary cancer models. However, the effective oral dose translates to a human dose that may not be feasible for chronic dosing. We proposed to evaluate topical application of limonene to the breast as an alternative dosing strategy. We conducted a mouse disposition study to determine whether limonene would be bio available in the mammary tissue after topical application. SKH-1 mice received topical or oral administration of limonene in the form of orange oil every day for 4 weeks. Plasma and mammary pads were collected 4 hrs after the final dosing. We also conducted an exploratory clinical study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of topically applied limonene in the form of orange oil to the breast. Healthy women were recruited to apply orange oil containing massage oil to their breasts daily for four weeks. Safety and feasibility were assessed by reported adverse events, clinical labs, and usage compliance. Pre and post-intervention nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and plasma were collected for limonene concentration determination. The mouse disposition study showed that topical and oral orange oil administration resulted in similar mammary tissue disposition of limonene with no clinical signs of toxicity. In the clinical study, the topical application of limonene containing massage oil to the breast was found to be safe with high levels of usage compliance for daily application, although NAF and plasma limonene concentrations were not significantly changed after the massage oil application. Our studies showed that limonene is bio available in mammary tissue after topical orange oil application in mice and this novel route of administration to the breast is safe and feasible in healthy women.

  1. Topic Repetition in Conversations on Different Days as a Sign of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkawa, Kaoru; Yamada, Yasunori

    2018-01-01

    Detecting early signs of dementia in everyday situations becomes more and more important in a rapidly aging society. Language dysfunctions are recognized as the prominent signs of dementia. Previous computational studies characterized these language dysfunctions by using acoustic and linguistic features for detecting dementia. However, they mainly investigated language dysfunctions collected from patients during neuropsychological tests. Language dysfunctions observed during regular conversations in everyday situations received little attention. One of the dysfunctions associated with dementia which is frequently observed in regular conversations is the repetition of a topic on different days. In this study, we propose a feature to characterize topic repetition in conversations on different days. We used conversational data obtained from a daily monitoring service of eight elderly people, two of whom had dementia. Through the analysis of topic extraction with latent Dirichlet allocation, we found that the frequency of topic repetition was significantly higher in people with dementia than in the control group. The results suggest that our proposed feature for identifying topic repetition in regular conversations on different days might be used for detecting dementia.

  2. “En tu casa o en la mía’: the interview as infotainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Alonso González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fight for viewers has led to a spectacular range of television content on offer where boundaries of genres have disappeared giving rise to new formats of hybrid television programmes. This has given a new lease of life to interviews as a genre of infotainment. The present article analyses the programme ‘En tu casa o en la mía’, a new type of interview of famous personalities which combines information and entertainment with elements that are very similar to the info-show. We shall embark on a study of this media product, its narrative, treatment, structure and the technique used so as to describe the elements that make it an example of gender hybridization in today’s television programmes.

  3. The Use of Videoconferencing as a Medium for the Qualitative Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Sedgwick RN, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative data collection, especially conducting in-person interviews, presents challenges for researchers whose participants are geographically dispersed. Often alternative means of interviewing using communication technology are necessary. This was true for this focused ethnographic research exploring the experiences of participants who were connected to a particular cultural group by virtue of their similar experience but who were not located in the same geographical area. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of using videoconferencing technology to collect experiential data from undergraduate nursing students and preceptors who were dispersed over a 640,000 square kilometer area in western and northern Canada during a rural hospital-based preceptorship. Recommendations for using videoconferencing as a medium for conducting in-depth qualitative interviews include using a high-bandwidth connection such as SuperNet or Web conferencing, and evaluating whether the type of information sought is likely to be shared in other than in-person face-to-face situations.

  4. Topical patches as treatments for the management of patient musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mirel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The variety and multiple dimensions of pain (acute/chronic, mild/moderate/severe, nociceptive/neuropathic requires different pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments in certain patients. A lot of topical formulation, from various therapeutic classes have been proposed in order to decrease systemic exposure and to reduce the risks of adverse events. Topical as well as transdermal drug delivery systems are proposed as medicated plasters with: anesthetics (lidocaine, analgesic or nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs, alone or co-formulated. Capsaicin, salicylates, menthol and camphor represent the counterirritant class of topical analgesics used as patch active compounds. These compounds produce their analgesic effect by activating and desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. The most used topical treatment in order to decrease pain is the application of cold and heat patches - by acting directly on the affected tissue. In many cases there is a limited number of studies providing insufficient information to clinicians in order to evaluate the benefits of these products. This paper reviews the use and efficacy of available self-adhesing occlusive medicated plaster (pain patches that might represent an alternative option for the management of patient pain, specially in the case of musculoskeletal and neuropathic disorders.

  5. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  6. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  7. Canada as an Immigrant Nation: Implications for Educators Excerpts from an Interview with John Ralston Saul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Ralston Saul, one of Canada's pre-eminent thinkers. In the interview, Mr. Saul shares his provocative and compelling thoughts on the state of Canada's public education systems.

  8. Motivational interviewing as a pedagogical approach in behavioral science education: "walking the talk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, A Catalina; Olson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach to facilitating behavior change. This approach has been applied in multiple settings (e.g., healthcare, drug and alcohol treatment, psychotherapy, health and wellness coaching, etc.). This article applies MI in a pedagogical context with medical residents as a semi-directive, learner-centered teaching style for eliciting clinical behavior change. Herein we present the foundational theories that inform this approach, describe the process of teaching, address barriers and challenges, and conclude with a review of performance to date including residents' narrative accounts of their experience with the curriculum.

  9. Infection control as a topic for ward-based nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D; Chamberlain, A

    1994-08-01

    The link between nursing theory and practice remains a topic of ongoing debate. Related to this issue is the best place to effectively combine the two. The solution may be ward-based teaching programmes as part of formal continuing staff development, involving collaboration between college-based lecturers and acknowledged clinical experts. Using infection control as an example of a topic in need of regular and continual updating for qualified practitioners, it is argued that such programmes would be desirable because they would afford sufficient flexibility to fulfil individual learning needs and could be assessed to indicate whether nursing practice had been enhanced. Participants could be accredited for successful completion of ward-based programmes.

  10. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Denes

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  11. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  12. [Medical topics of the Goethe period as reflected in the Goethe Dictionary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaps, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with some medical topics which were mentioned or discussed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and can thus be found in the dictionary which lists and explains all the words he used, the Goethe Dictionary. The author makes a case for the use of this primarily literary and linguistic work e. g. as source material for historians of medicine and shows some of its possible uses.

  13. Citizen journalism is as old as journalism itself: An interview with Stuart Allan

    OpenAIRE

    Hajek, Roman; Stefanikova, Sandra; Allan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Professor Stuart Allan from Cardiff University in the UK is one of the leading scholars\\ud in contemporary journalism studies. He has made a significant contribution to the development\\ud of this research field, having authored or edited seventeen books to date (many\\ud of which have been translated into multiple languages), as well as a wide range of journal\\ud articles and book chapters. He is a co-founder of the peer-reviewed journal Journalism\\ud Education, and serves on the editorial boa...

  14. Interview with Danny Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…

  15. Microemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of voriconazole: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Gladious Naguib; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim; El-Milligi, Mohamed Farid

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate microemulsion (ME) as a topical delivery system for the poorly water-soluble voriconazole. Different ME components were selected for the preparation of plain ME systems with suitable rheological properties for topical use. Two permeation enhancers were incorporated, namely sodium deoxycholate or oleic acid. Drug-loaded MEs were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and in vitro permeation studies using guinea pig skin. MEs based on polyoxyethylene(10)oleyl ether (Brij 97) as the surfactant showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior and were loaded with voriconazole. Jojoba oil-based MEs successfully prolonged voriconazole release up to 4 h. No significant changes in physical or rheological properties were recorded on storage for 12 months at ambient conditions. The presence of permeation enhancers favored transdermal rather than dermal delivery. Sodium deoxycholate was more effective than oleic acid for enhancing the voriconazole permeation. Voriconazole-loaded MEs, with and without enhancers, showed significantly better antifungal activity against Candida albicans than voriconazole supersaturated solution. In conclusion, the studied ME formulae could be promising vehicles for topical delivery of voriconazole.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  17. Decentralised energy supply as our future energy supply system? - An interview with Prof. Alexander Wokaun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    In this interview with Professor Alexander Wokaun, head of General Energy Research at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, the decentralised use of small, gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) units is discussed as a means of meeting Switzerland's Kyoto CO 2 commitments. The question on which of several new CHP technologies such as gas-fired engines and turbines, Stirling engines, fuel cells and thermo-photovoltaics will win the race is discussed. The efficiency and application areas of CHP technologies are examined and the problems involved when controlling complex electricity grids with many small decentrally placed generating facilities is discussed. Finally, Professor Wokaun is asked for his opinion on what the Swiss power mix will look like in 20 years

  18. Polyphenols from Cymbopogon citratus leaves as topical anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Ferreira, João Pinto; Vitorino, Carla; Pina, Maria Eugénia; Sousa, João José; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-03

    A variety of plant polyphenols have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, frequently associated with erythema, edema, hyperplasia, skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Cymbopogon citratus (DC). Stapf (Poaceae) is a worldwide known medicinal plant, used in traditional medicine in inflammation-related conditions. In this work, the anti-inflammatory potential of C. citratus infusion (CcI) and its polyphenols as topical agents was evaluated in vivo. The plant extract was prepared and its fractioning led two polyphenol-rich fractions: flavonoids fraction (CcF) and tannins fraction (CcT). An oil/water emulsion was developed with each active (CcI, CcF+CcT and diclofenac), pH and texture having been evaluated. Release tests were further performed using static Franz diffusion cells and all collected samples were monitored by HPLC-PDA. In vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity evaluation was performed by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The texture analysis revealed statistically significant differences for all tested parameters to CcF+CcT, supporting its topical application. Release experiments lead to the detection of the phenolic compounds from each sample in the receptor medium and the six major flavonoids were quantified, by HPLC-PDA: carlinoside, isoorientin, cynaroside, luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, kurilesin A and cassiaoccidentalin B. The CcF+CcT formulation prompted to the higher release rate for all these flavonoids. CcI4%, CcI1% and CcF+CcT exhibited an edema reduction of 43.18, 29.55 and 59.09%, respectively. Our findings highlight that CcI, containing luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, cassiaoccidentalin B, carlinoside, cynaroside and tannins have a potential anti-inflammatory topical activity, suggesting their promising application in the treatment of skin inflammatory pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Evaluation of Modified T Pouch as Ileal Neo bladder Ortho topic Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the functional results of ortho topic modified T pouch ileal neo bladder, incorporating serous- lined extra mural ileal anti reflux technique for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: From September 1998 through November 2001,42 patients of mean age 49 years (range 45-54) having invasive bladder carcinoma underwent radical cystectomy and ortho topic ileal neo bladder urinary diversion, the modified T pouch. Thirty-three patients were males while the remaining 9 were females. The mean follow up was 24 months (range 18-42). Preoperative unior bilateral ureteral dilatation was noted in 13/42 (30.9%) patients). Follow up included clinical examination, laboratory, radiological and uro dynamic investigations. Early postoperative complications were recorded in 3 cases, that were managed conservatively. Day and night continence were achieved in 34/42 (81 %) and 29/42 (69%) patients, night enuresis in 2 (4.8%),while satisfactory day and night continence were noted, respectively. Upper urinary tract (UUT) remained unchanged or improved in all cases. No need for clean intermittent catherization (CIC). No evidence of reflux was detected. Pressure at maximum capacity (average 17 cm H 2 O at 600 ml). Mean flow rate was 17.6 ml/sec (range 15-24). Pelvic cancer recurrence was recorded in 5 patients at mean 24 months, respectively. Modified T pouch has an excellent functional criteria as an ortho topic ileal neo bladder reservoir. It is absolutely indicated in short and/or massively dilated ureter

  20. Tough Teens: The Methodological Challenges of Interviewing Teenagers as Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Raewyn; Beagan, Brenda L.; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Chapman, Gwen E.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging a teenager to have a conversation in a semistructured research interview is fraught with difficulties. The authors discuss the methodological challenges encountered when interviewing adolescents of European Canadian, African Canadian, and Punjabi Canadian families who took part in the Family Food Decision-Making Study in two regions of…

  1. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  2. Older persons' existential loneliness, as interpreted by their significant others - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Helena; Rämgård, Margareta; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2017-07-10

    In order to better understand people in demanding medical situations, an awareness of existential concerns is important. Studies performed over the last twenty years conclude that when dying and death come closer, as in the case with older people who are stricken by infirmity and diseases, existential concerns will come to the fore. However, studies concerning experiences of existential loneliness (EL) are sparse and, in addition, there is no clear definition of EL. EL is described as a complex phenomenon and referred to as a condition of life, an experience, and a process of inner growth. Listening to someone who knows the older person well, as significant others often do, may be one way of learning more about EL. This study is part of a larger research project on EL, the LONE study, where EL is explored through interviews with frail older people, their significant others and health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore frail older (>75) persons' EL, as interpreted by their significant others. The study is qualitative and based on eighteen narrative interviews with nineteen significant others of older persons. The data was analysed using Hsieh and Shannon's conventional content analysis. According to the interpretation of significant others, the older persons experience EL (1) when they are increasingly limited in body and space, (2) when they are in a process of disconnecting, and (3) when they are disconnected from the outside world. The result can be understood as if the frail older person is in a process of letting go of life. This process involves the body, in that the older person is increasingly limited in his/her physical abilities. The older person's long-term relationships are gradually lost, and finally the process entails the older person's increasingly withdrawing into him- or herself and turning off the outside world. The result of this study is consistent with previous research that has shown that EL is a complex phenomenon, but

  3. Ototoxicity associated with topical administration of diclofenac sodium as an otic drop: An experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioglu, Engin; Yigit, Ozgur; Onur, Firat; Atas, Ahmet; Server, Ela Araz; Kara, Eyup

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ototoxicity of topical diclofenac sodium in comparison to positive and negative controls prior to the investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of the agent in otic administration. Twenty four ears of 12 guinea pigs were included in the study. Wide myringotomy was performed on all tympanic membranes under general anesthesia and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated. The subjects were separated into four groups, two groups received diclofenac sodium at low and high doses, positive controls received gentamicin and negative controls received isotonic sodium chloride topically for 14 days and ABRs were reevaluated. No significant difference were observed between the pre and post-treatment click response, 1 kHz and 8 kHz response threshold levels after isotonic sodium chloride administration. All threshold levels were elevated in the positive control group. In the low and high dose diclofenac sodium groups, click response, 1 kHz and 8 kHz response threshold levels were significantly higher compared to the baseline values. Pre and post-treatment mean threshold level changes were not significantly different between the low and high dose diclofenac sodium groups. Pre and post-treatment mean threshold level changes in the gentamicin group were not significantly different from low or high dose diclofenac sodium groups. Diclofenac sodium, considered as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory otic preparation, is shown to be as ototoxic as gentamicin in chronic use which may lead to loss of hearing especially when used topically in chronic otitis cases with tympanic membrane damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Study between topical applications liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes and thymidine dinucleotide as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The delivery of active agents to the skin by liposome carriers received great interest during the last three decades. This is based on their potential to enclose various types of biological materials and to deliver them to diverse cell types. Recent work suggests that liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery may be superior to conventional preparations. Also, topical application of DNA repair enzymes to irradiated skin increases the rate of repair of DNA potentially damaged cells. Moreover, thymidine dinucleotide is a new skin photo-protective agent against non-ionizing radiation through induction of DNA repair. Gamma irradiation can produce DNA damage in human skin. DNA mutations have an important role in the development of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Albino rats were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation with different doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 Gy), and were treated by either thymidine dinucleotide or liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes topically 24 hours before irradiation. Evaluation was done histopathologically by H and E stain. Computerized image analyzer using Masson's trichrome stain was also done. Gamma radiation produced epidermal thinning and dermal inflammatory cells together with collagen fragmentation and clumping in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing between both thymidine dinucleotide and liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes pretreated and irradiated rats. Low dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) together with previous drugs showed preservation of epidermis with no inflammatory cells and also it maintained the normal architecture of collagen bundles. However, they were ineffective with higher doses. In conclusion our results may suggest that the effects of gamma radiation on the skin at low dose could be minimized by the use of these drugs before exposure

  5. JAK3 as an Emerging Target for Topical Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Alves de Medeiros

    Full Text Available The recent interest and elucidation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway created new targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs. JAK inhibitors in oral and topical formulations have shown beneficial results in psoriasis and alopecia areata. Patients suffering from other ISDs might also benefit from JAK inhibition. Given the development of specific JAK inhibitors, the expression patterns of JAKs in different ISDs needs to be clarified. We aimed to analyze the expression of JAK/STAT family members in a set of prevalent ISDs: psoriasis, lichen planus (LP, cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE, atopic dermatitis (AD, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG and alopecia areata (AA versus healthy controls for (pJAK1, (pJAK2, (pJAK3, (pTYK2, pSTAT1, pSTAT2 and pSTAT3. The epidermis carried in all ISDs, except for CLE, a strong JAK3 signature. The dermal infiltrate showed a more diverse expression pattern. JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3 were significantly overexpressed in PG and AD suggesting the need for pan-JAK inhibitors. In contrast, psoriasis and LP showed only JAK1 and JAK3 upregulation, while AA and CLE were characterized by a single dermal JAK signal (pJAK3 and pJAK1, respectively. This indicates that the latter diseases may benefit from more targeted JAK inhibitors. Our in vitro keratinocyte psoriasis model displayed reversal of the psoriatic JAK profile following tofacitinib treatment. This direct interaction with keratinocytes may decrease the need for deep skin penetration of topical JAK inhibitors in order to exert its effects on dermal immune cells. In conclusion, these results point to the important contribution of the JAK/STAT pathway in several ISDs. Considering the epidermal JAK3 expression levels, great interest should go to the investigation of topical JAK3 inhibitors as therapeutic option of ISDs.

  6. Working through Challenges in Doing Interview Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Roulston PhD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methodological work that draws on a ‘constructionist’ approach to interviewing - conceptualizes the interview as a socially-situated encounter in which both interviewer and interviewee play active roles. This approach takes the construction of interview data as a topic of examination. This article adopts the view that close examination of how particular interactions are accomplished provides additional insights into not only the topics discussed, but also how research design and methods might be modified to meet the needs of projects. Focus is specifically given to investigation of sequences observed as puzzling or challenging during interviews, or via interview data that emerged as problematic in the analysis process. How might close analyses of these sorts of sequences be used to inform research design and interview methods? The article explores (1 how problematic interactions identified in the analysis of focus group data can lead to modifications in research design, (2 an approach to dealing with reported data in representations of findings, and (3 how data analysis can inform question formulation in successive rounds of data generation. Findings from these types of examinations of interview data generation and analysis are valuable for informing both interview practice as well as research design in further research.

  7. Movie making as a cognitive distraction for paediatric patients receiving radiotherapy treatment: qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Bradley J M; Willis, David J; Tongs, Cáthal D; Rolfo, Aldo G

    2013-01-16

    To establish the outcomes achieved by using an innovative movie-making programme designed to reduce fear of radiotherapy among paediatric patients. Qualitative descriptive evaluation based on semistructured, qualitative interviews with purposeful sampling and thematic analysis. Tertiary Cancer Centre. 20 parents of paediatric patients who had produced a movie of their radiation therapy experience and were in a follow-up phase of cancer management. Participants attributed a broad range of outcomes to the movie-making program. These included that the programme had helped reduce anxiety and distress exhibited by paediatric patients and contributed to a willingness to receive treatment. Other outcomes were that the completed movies had been used in school reintegration and for maintaining social connections. Allowing children to create a video of their experience of radiotherapy provided a range of benefits to paediatric patients that varied according to their needs. For some patients, movie-making offered a valuable medium for overcoming fear of the unknown as well as increasing understanding of treatment processes. For others, the development of a personalised video offered an important cognitive/attentional distraction through engaging with an age-appropriate activity. Together these outcomes helped children maintain self-control and a positive outlook.

  8. Topical Yunnan Baiyao administration as an adjunctive therapy for bleeding complications in adolescents with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, E J; Karlik, J B; Rooney, D; Taromina, K; Ndao, D H; Granowetter, L; Kelly, K M

    2012-12-01

    Yunnan Baiyao (White Medicine from Yunnan, YNB) is a Chinese herbal medicinal powder used to stop bleeding and improve circulation in traumatic injuries. We describe the use of YNB in adolescents with cancer as an adjunct to uncontrolled bleeding in the palliative care setting. Through a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving integrative medicine consultations at the Integrative Therapies Program at Columbia University from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2012, we describe the outcome of patients treated with YNB for management of uncontrolled bleeding. Four patients were identified who received topical YNB for uncontrolled bleeding; patients included two males and two females with diagnoses of solid tumors (n = 3) and Burkitt's lymphoma (n = 1). Mean age was 15.5 years (range 15-17). Fifty percent had life-threatening bleeding from the tumor site and 50 % experienced uncontrollable epistaxis. All patients received preceding therapy with packed red blood cells and platelet transfusions, topical thrombin, and oral aminocaproic acid. Two patients used YNB in the inpatient setting, and all four patients used YNB as outpatients. In all patients, bleeding control improved with the addition of YNB to conventional hemostatic interventions. Two patients using YNB in their home reported control of bleeding episodes. There were no adverse events reported. YNB may be an efficacious agent for uncontrolled bleeding in conjunction with conventional hemostatic agents in adolescents with advanced cancer. It is well accepted by patients. YNB may be especially valuable in the outpatient setting to prevent the recurrence of hemorrhage.

  9. Chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for topical delivery of tretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Daniela M; Marcato, Priscyla D; Justo, Giselle Z; Cordi, Lívia; Machado, Daisy; Durán, Nelson

    2012-05-01

    Tretinoin (TRE) or all-trans retinoic acid is employed in the topical treatment of various skin diseases including acne and psoriasis. However, its use is strongly limited by side effects and high chemical instability. TRE encapsulation in nanostructured systems reduces these problems. Chitosan is a biopolymer that exhibits a number of interesting properties such as bioadhesion and antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing TRE, with and without addition of chitosan, to assess their in vitro cytotoxicity in keratinocytes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity against bacteria related to acne. SLN without (SLN-TRE) and with (SLN-chitosan-TRE) chitosan were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization. The hydrodynamic mean diameter and zeta potential were 162.7±1.4 nm and -31.9±2.0 mV for SLN-TRE, and 284.8±15.0 nm and 55.9±3.1 mV for SLN-chitosan-TRE. The SLN-chitosan-TRE exhibited high encapsulation efficiency, high physical stability in the tested period (one year), were not cytotoxic to keratinocytes and showed high antibacterial activity against P. acnes and S. aureus. Therefore chitosan-SLN can be good candidates to encapsulate TRE and to increase its therapeutic efficacy in the topical treatment of acne. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Topical tranexamic acid as a novel treatment for bleeding peptic ulcer: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Rafeey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers are among the most common causes of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in children. The standard care for GI bleeding is endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to assess the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TXA via endoscopic procedures in children with GI bleeding caused by bleeding ulcers. Procedure: In this randomised controlled trial, 120 children were evaluated by diagnostic procedures for GI bleeding, of which 63 (30 girls, 33 boys aged 1-month to 15 years were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. In the case group, TXA was administered directly under endoscopic therapy. In the control group, epinephrine (1/10,000 was submucosally injected to the four quadrants of ulcer margins as the routine endoscopic therapy. In both groups, the patients received supportive medical therapy with intravenous fluids and proton pump inhibitor drugs. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the children was 5 ± 2.03 years. Rebleeding occurred in 15 (11.4% and 21 (9.8% patients in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.50. The frequency of blood transfusion episodes (P = 0.06 and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.07 were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: Using topical TXA via endoscopic procedures may be effective in cases of GI bleedings caused by active bleeding ulcers. In order to establish this therapeutic effect, a large number of clinical studies are needed.

  11. Using the Technology of the Confessional as an Analytical Resource: Four Analytical Stances Towards Research Interviews in Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan K. O'Rourke

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the various approaches that have developed from FOUCAULT's work is an Anglophone discourse analysis that has attempted to combine FOUCAULTian insights with the techniques of Conversation Analysis. An important current methodological issue in this discourse analytical approach is its theoretical preference for "naturally occurring" rather than research interview data. A FOUCAULTian perspective on the interview as a research instrument, questions the idea of "naturally-occurring discourse". The "technology of the confessional" operates, not only within research interviews, but permeates other interactions as well. Drawing on FOUCAULT does not dismiss the problems of the interview as research instrument rather it shows they cannot be escaped by simply switching to more "natural" interactions. Combining these insights with recent developments within discourse analysis can provide analytical resources for, rather than barriers to, the discourse analysis of research interviews. To aid such an approach, we develop a four-way categorisation of analytical stances towards the research interview in discourse analysis. A demonstration of how a research interview might be subjected to a discourse analysis using elements of this approach is then provided. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070238

  12. Learning about Teaching the Extracurricular Topic of Nanotechnology as a Vehicle for Achieving a Sustainable Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a…

  13. Tactile Models and Games as Learning Tools for Topics of Molecular and Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cell structure and the dynamics of its functioning are basic topics for the understanding of phenomena on a larger scale in living organisms and for which research in science teaching has suggested several strategies based on the use of images, games, computational simulations and tactile models, among other types of external representations. Our science education research group, over the last 17 years, has developed and evaluated educational materials for teaching these topics, aimed at all levels of school. Among these materials, we highlight the tactile models for the assembly of nucleic acid, amino acids and proteins molecules, as well as a board game that deals with the process of protein synthesis. These materials were evaluated with students from the final grades of elementary and high school, in the context of the Natural Sciences Curriculum of the State of São Paulo, as well as students from two higher level courses, one of them Licentiate’s program in Exact Sciences. Activities were planned with a problem-solving approach and carried out in small groups. Tactile models of nucleic acid aided elementary students in understanding the role of these molecules in the transmission of hereditary traits. The game of protein synthesis, which depicts this process in a schematic eukaryotic cell where the participants aim to synthesize a particular protein, promoted the development of skills such as “decision making” and “making anticipations” among high school students, in addition of expanding their knowledge about the biological functions of these molecules. The tactile models of amino acids and proteins used by students of higher education promoted their spatial perception of these molecules, allowing the prediction of intra- and intermolecular interactions. It is important to emphasize the importance of these educational resources in the construction of more functional mental models of cells and of intracellular processes.

  14. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    mass index ≥29 kg/m(2). The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...

  15. Interviews as a Selection Tool for Entry-Level Hospitality Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynda

    2002-01-01

    Responses from human resource professionals in restaurants (n=85) and hotels (n=118) identified critical entry-level job behaviors that might be used in developing behavior-based interviews. The large variety of responses and lack of agreement suggest that clear identification of these behaviors may be an area of weakness in the hospitality…

  16. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    mass index ≥29 kg/m2. The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Lim, Sun Hee; Ricci, Jeremy; Sung, Si Kwon; Kwon, Myoung Taek; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs) play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND-COOH) agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND-COOH and ND-COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a "drug reservoir" to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND-COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND-COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND-COOH and ND-COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND-COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND-COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability, higher stability, and minimized safety issue.

  18. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  19. Using Epistemic Network Analysis to understand core topics as planned learning objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allsopp, Benjamin Brink; Dreyøe, Jonas; Misfeldt, Morten

    Epistemic Network Analysis is a tool developed by the epistemic games group at the University of Wisconsin Madison for tracking the relations between concepts in students discourse (Shaffer 2017). In our current work we are applying this tool to learning objectives in teachers digital preparation....... The danish mathematics curriculum is organised in six competencies and three topics. In the recently implemented learning platforms teacher choose which of the mathematical competencies that serves as objective for a specific lesson or teaching sequence. Hence learning objectives for lessons and teaching...... sequences are defining a network of competencies, where two competencies are closely related of they often are part of the same learning objective or teaching sequence. We are currently using Epistemic Network Analysis to study these networks. In the poster we will include examples of different networks...

  20. Topical administration of Esculetin as a potential therapy for experimental dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D; Liu, X; Hu, J

    2017-12-01

    PurposeIn this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of topical Esculetin for dry eye rabbits through the ocular tests, inflammatory factor levels and specific phosphorylated protein expressions of ERK1/2 singnal pathway.Patients and methodsThirty-two healthy adult male New Zealand white rabbits were chosen for the study. DES models were established after removing of the main lacrimal gland, Harderian gland and nictitating membrane in the left eyes and randomly divided into group DES control, group CsA, group Esculetin and group Esculetin combined with CsA (C&E), meanwhile the right eyes served as group Normal control. Schirmer's I tests, fluorescein scores, goblet cell densities, inflammatory cytokines IL-1α,IL-1β,TNF-αlevels were observed by slit-lamp microscope, conjunctival impression cytology and ELISA essay at week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8. Phosphorylated-ERK1/2 expressions were detected in Western blot analysis at week 8.ResultsAfter induction of DES, aqueous tear production and goblet cell density were decreased, FL score was much higher in group DES control throughout the study (P<0.05). Both topical Esculetin and Esculetin combing CsA increased the SIT values (10±1 mm, 14±3 mm, P<0.05) and goblet cell densities (77±12/HP, 92±12/HP, P<0.05), decreased FL scores (7.48±0.33, 5.09±0.24, P<0.05) at week 8. Alternations of IL-1α,IL-1β,TNF-αlevels had similar trend. In Western blot analysis, downregulations of p-ERK1/2 were observed in therapy groups when compared with group DES control and the most decreasing was found in group C&E (P<0.05).ConclusionTopical Esculetin improved DES symptoms, downregulated the inflammatory cytokine expressions, suppressed the ERK1/2 pathway and enhanced the therapeutic effect of CsA.

  1. Movie making as a cognitive distraction for paediatric patients receiving radiotherapy treatment: qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Shrimpton, Bradley J M; Willis, David J; Tongs, C?thal D; Rolfo, Aldo G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish the outcomes achieved by using an innovative movie-making programme designed to reduce fear of radiotherapy among paediatric patients. Design Qualitative descriptive evaluation based on semistructured, qualitative interviews with purposeful sampling and thematic analysis. Setting Tertiary Cancer Centre. Participants 20 parents of paediatric patients who had produced a movie of their radiation therapy experience and were in a follow-up phase of cancer management. Result...

  2. Motivational interviewing as a smoking cessation strategy with nurses: an exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Agurtzane; Forbes, Angus; Canga, Navidad; de Irala, Jokin; Serrano, Inmaculada; Gascó, Plácido; Edwards, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    Despite the important role that health professionals have in reducing tobacco use, many have a smoking habit themselves. The prevalence of smoking is particularly high among nurses. To test the efficacy, acceptability and feasibility of a motivational interviewing (MI) based smoking cessation intervention with nurses. Two group parallel experimental design with random allocation to groups. A large teaching hospital in the North of Spain. Nurses who smoked (n=30) were randomised into two groups: motivational interviewing based intervention (n=15) and usual care (n=15). Motivational interviewing based intervention consisted of four individual MI sessions. Usual care consisted of brief advice. Variables considered to assess efficacy were biochemically verified smoking cessation, mean cigarettes smoked, stages of change, self-efficacy and depression score. Variables to assess acceptability and feasibility included participant satisfaction, adherence to MI, and duration of sessions. Data were collected at: baseline, end of intervention and three months after the end of the intervention. At three month follow up, compared with the control group, more nurses in the intervention group had quit (absolute difference 33.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-58.2). In the nurses who did not quit, there was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, although progress in the stages of change was greater in the intervention group compared to the control group. Measures of acceptability and feasibility indicated good satisfaction with the intervention, with high levels of attendance and completion. This study found a beneficial effect of motivational interviewing on nurses' smoking cessation. The intervention was acceptable for nurses and a number of aspects were identified that need to be considered prior to conducting a larger scale in order to optimise the intervention. Using MI might be a novel approach to

  3. Cutting out the middlemen: physicians as providers, direct contractors, and payers. Interview by Donna Vavala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, D S

    1995-07-01

    While many physicians and physician groups are forging alliances with other groups, with hospitals, and with other elements of the health care delivery system, an Ohio group decided that the loss of autonomy involved in these approaches was not acceptable. Instead, the group became the core of a new entity aimed at restoring physician control over the provision of and payment for health care services. In an interview with the principal of the new organization, Physician Executive learned the basis for the venture.

  4. Tactile Models and Games as Learning Tools for Topics of Molecular and Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan

    2017-01-01

    The cell structure and the dynamics of its functioning are basic topics for the understanding of phenomena on a larger scale in living organisms and for which research in science teaching has suggested several strategies based on the use of images, games, computational simulations and tactile models, among other types of external representations. Our science education research group, over the last 17 years, has developed and evaluated educational materials for teaching these topics, aimed at ...

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim DG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dae Gon Lim,1,* Ki Hyun Kim,1,* Eunah Kang,2 Sun Hee Lim,3 Jeremy Ricci,3 Si Kwon Sung,3 Myoung Taek Kwon,3 Seong Hoon Jeong1 1College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Gyeonggi, 2School of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Chung-Ang University, 3NanoResource Co. Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND–COOH agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a “drug reservoir” to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND–COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND–COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND–COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND–COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability

  6. Narrative interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.

  7. Zinc oxide as a new antimicrobial preservative of topical products: interactions with common formulation ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) appears as a promising preservative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. The other ingredients of the formulations may have specific interactions with ZnO that alter its antimicrobial properties. The influence of common formulation excipients on the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO has been investigated in simple model systems and in typical topical products containing a complex formulation. A wide variety of formulation excipients have been investigated for their interactions with ZnO: antioxidants, chelating agents, electrolytes, titanium dioxide pigment. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO against Escherichia coli was partially inhibited by NaCl and MgSO4 salts. A synergistic influence of uncoated titanium dioxide has been observed. The interference effects of antioxidants and chelating agents were quite specific. The interactions of these substances with ZnO particles and with the soluble species released by ZnO were discussed so as to reach scientific guidelines for the choice of the ingredients. The preservative efficacy of ZnO was assessed by challenge testing in three different formulations: an oil-in-water emulsion; a water-in-oil emulsion and a dry powder. The addition of ZnO in complex formulations significantly improved the microbiological quality of the products, in spite of the presence of other ingredients that modulate the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Motivational interviewing as an instrument to promote physical activity and dietary adherence among people with diabetes: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Leyva-Moral

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivational Interviewing is a technique which is used to get behaviour changes and whose efficacy has been highly proved in areas such as smoking cessation or alcoholism.This review pretends to ascertain if Motivational Interviewing is the most effective strategy to increase adherence to physical activity and dietary modification programs among people with type 2 diabetes.Method: An exhaustive scientific national and international literature review was done. The following electronic databases were used: PsychoINFO, PubMed, OVID Full Text, CINAHL, CUIDEN, IBECS, CompluDoc y ENFISPO. The search strategy was limited to articles published between 1995 and 2005.Results: Eleven studies were included. Motivational Interviewing appears as a useful technique to increase adherence to physical activity and diet programs in people with type 2 diabetes. However, an in-depth analysis of the studies included in this literature review shows important methodological flows which could have caused some bias. The author affirms that Motivational Interviewing is just a useful technique but no more useful as other behavioural techniques used nowadays. There are not enough strong scientific evidences to assure the standardization of Motivational Interviewing in the field of diabetic education.

  9. eHealth Technologies as an Intervention to Improve Adherence to Topical Antipsoriatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical antipsoriatics are recommended first-line treatment of psoriasis, but rates of adherence are low. Patient support by use of electronic health (eHealth) services is suggested to improve medical adherence. OBJECTIVE: To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing eHealth...... interventions designed to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics and to review applications for smartphones (apps) incorporating the word psoriasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature review: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched using search terms for eHealth, psoriasis....... CONCLUSION: There is a critical need for high-quality RCTs testing if the ubiquitous eHealth technologies, e.g. some of the numerous apps, can improve psoriasis patients' rates of adherence to topical antipsoriatics....

  10. Effectiveness of lidocaine Denti patch ® system versus lidocaine gel as topical anesthetic agent in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Anwar Shehab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: New methods have been introduced to facilitate dental procedures, but the administration of local anesthesia is still necessary to perform pain control during several dental procedures. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the lidocaine Denti-patch ® system versus the lidocaine topical anesthetic gel in children concerning pain reaction during injection. Materials and Methods: One hundred 9-12-year-old cooperative children weighing more than 29 kg in need of bilateral dental treatment requiring maxillary and mandibular injection and not suffering from acute pain as a result of pulpits on the day of treatment were selected. The children were then divided into two groups: Group 1 comprising of 50 children in need of bilateral maxillary treatment and Group 2 compromising of 50 children requiring bilateral mandibular treatment. These groups were further subdivided into subgroups A and B; those receiving Denti-patch ® on one side and lidocaine gel on the contralateral side, respectively. Pain or comfort was evaluated during injection using sound, eye, motor (SEM scale (objective method while, using faces pain rating scale (FPS scale (subjective method after injection by a trained assistant blinded to the procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison of the results was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for SEM and FPS score. Result: There was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel group for maxilla (P < 0.0001, as well as mandible (P = 0.01 with respect to SEM score given by the children. Similarly, with FPS scale, there was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel groups in both maxilla and mandible (P < 0.0001. However, there was no statistical difference between the patch Groups 1A and IIA or the gel Groups 1B and II B. Conclusion: The Denti-patch ® system can significantly reduce the needle injection pain more than the gel.

  11. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  12. An Interview with Lawrence M. Lieberman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Therapy, 1986

    1986-01-01

    An interview with L. Lieberman, a teacher educator and author, touches on such topics as departmentalization at the secondary and elementary level, the use of triple level tests to allow students to stay in mainstreamed settings, and the importance of emphasizing skill development rather than subject matter instruction in secondary resource rooms.…

  13. TOPICAL CASUAL TALKS AS RESPONSIVE LISTENING AND SPEAKING PERFORMANCES OF BEGINNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranindya Zulhi Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global communication concern brings human to be familiar with English as early as possible. Nowadays beginner students started English orally in elementary school even kindergarten. At this moment, they dealth with listening and speaking skills and put them into practice. When they came down to English, some beginners feel uncomfortable in their learning because of facing formal situation. The beginners who were typically keen on playing and having fun comfortably could not be treated in teaching-learning that was usually presented to intermediate level or adult. Teachers had to create informal situation so that they were more relaxed and got chemistry one another. Dealing with comfortable zone put into informal situation in listening and speaking practices for the beginners, this study focused on topical casual talks. It set up a relaxed spot in order to explore effective communication related to their subject matters. The teachers/tutors could apply one of classroom listening and speaking performance types, responsive. This study used qualitative approach. While it refered to library research. The primary source was Elementary School Silabus. Whereas the secondary data sources were English teaching-learning books. This issue discussed about listening and speaking skills for beginners. The beginners classified into age 6-8. In listening section, the students processed teacher talk instantly. Afterwards in speaking, suitable direct short response answered the teacher talk. This action could be assessed by subjective test in the form of wh-questions and short answers test. Ultimately, the next comparable studies may converse different competences and performances for beginners or any levels.

  14. eHealth Technologies as an intervention to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-03-01

    Topical antipsoriatics are recommended first-line treatment of psoriasis, but rates of adherence are low. Patient support by use of electronic health (eHealth) services is suggested to improve medical adherence. To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing eHealth interventions designed to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics and to review applications for smartphones (apps) incorporating the word psoriasis. Literature review: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched using search terms for eHealth, psoriasis and topical antipsoriatics. General analysis of apps: The operating systems (OS) for smartphones, iOS, Google Play, Microsoft Store, Symbian OS and Blackberry OS were searched for apps containing the word psoriasis. Literature review: Only one RCT was included, reporting on psoriasis patients' Internet reporting their status of psoriasis over a 12-month period. The rate of adherence was measured by Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS ® ). An improvement in medical adherence and reduction of severity of psoriasis were reported. General analysis of apps: A total 184 apps contained the word psoriasis. There is a critical need for high-quality RCTs testing if the ubiquitous eHealth technologies, for example, some of the numerous apps, can improve psoriasis patients' rates of adherence to topical antipsoriatics.

  15. IT0: Discrete Math and Programming Logic Topics as a Hybrid Alternative to CS0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid introductory course for students in their first or second year of an information systems technologies degree program at a large Midwestern university. The course combines topics from discrete mathematics and programming logic and design, a unique twist on most introductory courses. The objective of…

  16. Draft statement by the Watt Committee on Safety and related topics as respects nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The following topics are examined, with particular reference to nuclear power: the nature of risk; waste disposal to the environment (ecological damage and radiation damage due to nuclear plants and fossil-fuel plants); the benefits of nuclear power (including discussion of the following matters: need to conserve fossil fuels; safety; and possibility of diversion to nuclear weapons).

  17. Reclaiming Race as a Topic of the U.S. Biology Textbook Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Even though human racial difference has been a longstanding topic of the school biology curriculum, there is little evidence that contemporary biology textbooks challenge stereotypical racial beliefs that are based in biological thinking. Rather, the modern biology curriculum may be a place where such beliefs about race are perpetuated…

  18. Sensitive Interviewing in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Online stroke forum as source of data for qualitative research: insights from a comparison with patients' interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, James; Sutton, Stephen; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna

    2018-03-30

    To determine the appropriateness of an online forum compared with face-to-face interviews as a source of data for qualitative research on adherence to secondary prevention medications after stroke. A comparison of attributes of two data sources, interviews and a forum, using realistic evaluation; a comparison of themes around adherence according to the Perceptions and Practicalities Approach (PAPA) framework. Interviews were conducted in UK GP practices in 2013 and 2014; online posts were written by UK stroke survivors and family members taking part in the online forum of the Stroke Association between 2004 and 2011. 42 interview participants: 28 stroke survivors (age range 61-92 years) and 14 caregivers (85% spouses). 84 online forum participants: 49 stroke survivors (age range 32-72 years) and 33 caregivers (60% sons/daughters). 10 attributes were identified within the two data sources and categorised under three domains (context, mechanisms and outcomes). Participants' characteristics of forum users were often missing. Most forum participants had experienced a stroke within the previous 12 months, while interviewees had done so 1-5 years previously.All interview themes could be matched with corresponding themes from the forum. The forum yielded three additional themes: influence of bad press on taking statins, criticisms of clinicians' prescribing practices and caregiver burden in assisting with medications and being advocates for survivors with healthcare professionals. An online forum is an appropriate source of data for qualitative research on patients' and caregivers' issues with adherence to secondary prevention stroke medications and may offer additional insights compared with interviews, which can be attributed to differences in the approach to data collection. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Online stroke forum as source of data for qualitative research: insights from a comparison with patients’ interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, James; Sutton, Stephen; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the appropriateness of an online forum compared with face-to-face interviews as a source of data for qualitative research on adherence to secondary prevention medications after stroke. Design A comparison of attributes of two data sources, interviews and a forum, using realistic evaluation; a comparison of themes around adherence according to the Perceptions and Practicalities Approach (PAPA) framework. Setting Interviews were conducted in UK GP practices in 2013 and 2014; online posts were written by UK stroke survivors and family members taking part in the online forum of the Stroke Association between 2004 and 2011. Participants 42 interview participants: 28 stroke survivors (age range 61–92 years) and 14 caregivers (85% spouses). 84 online forum participants: 49 stroke survivors (age range 32–72 years) and 33 caregivers (60% sons/daughters). Results 10 attributes were identified within the two data sources and categorised under three domains (context, mechanisms and outcomes). Participants’ characteristics of forum users were often missing. Most forum participants had experienced a stroke within the previous 12 months, while interviewees had done so 1–5 years previously. All interview themes could be matched with corresponding themes from the forum. The forum yielded three additional themes: influence of bad press on taking statins, criticisms of clinicians’ prescribing practices and caregiver burden in assisting with medications and being advocates for survivors with healthcare professionals. Conclusions An online forum is an appropriate source of data for qualitative research on patients’ and caregivers’ issues with adherence to secondary prevention stroke medications and may offer additional insights compared with interviews, which can be attributed to differences in the approach to data collection. PMID:29602848

  1. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.

  2. Reassurance as a key outcome valued by emergency ambulance service users: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togher, Fiona J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Phung, Viet-Hai; Turner, Janette; Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the performance of emergency ambulance services using measures other than the time taken for an ambulance to arrive on scene. In line with government policy, patients and carers can help to shape new measures of ambulance service performance. To investigate the aspects of emergency ambulance service care valued by users. Qualitative interview study. One of 11 ambulance services in England. Twenty-two users and eight of their spouses (n = 30). Users of the emergency ambulance service, experiencing different types of ambulance service response, valued similar aspects of their pre-hospital care. Users were often extremely anxious about their health, and the outcome they valued was reassurance provided by ambulance service staff that they were receiving appropriate advice, treatment and care. This sense of being reassured was enhanced by the professional behaviour of staff, which instilled confidence in their care; communication; a short wait for help; and continuity during transfers. A timely response was valued in terms of allaying anxiety quickly. The ability of the emergency ambulance service to allay the high levels of fear and anxiety felt by users is crucial to the delivery of a high quality service. Measures developed to assess and monitor the performance of emergency ambulance services should include the proportion of users reporting feeling reassured by the response they obtained. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Four Decades of JDE Interviews: a Historical Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Norman A.; Theriault, Jennifer C.; Armstrong, Sonya L.

    2016-01-01

    This content analysis examines the topics, trends, and issues impacting developmental education and its professionals as evaluated by interviews that have appeared in the "Journal of Developmental Education" ("JDE") between the issuance of Volume 1 through Volume 39. A total of 76 interviews were analyzed with attention to…

  4. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  5. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  6. Formulation of microemulsion propolis fluoride (PF) as varnish topical agent to stop activity of teeth caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Prakoso, Chandra Dwi; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-02-01

    Topical fluoride is proven to have higher efficacy in preventing dental caries with low production cost and easy to apply. The objective of this research is to formulate alternative agent topical fluoride NH4F 5% mixed with extract ethanol propolis (EEP) in the micro-emulsion system that has high stability, antimicrobial activity, and remineralization capability to arrest teeth caries activity. By using total plate count (TPC) analysis, formulation 2.7% EEP; 6,3% surfactant; and 90,9% NH4F shows good perform to inhibit cariogenic bacteria development around 78-80%. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) result also showed that sample successfully remineralized enamel surface. In addition, sample showed good pH, flavonoid, and polyphenol stability for 40 days.

  7. Interviewing Francis Bacon

    OpenAIRE

    Kisters, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...

  8. Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid: An AWIN Topical Study. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The aviation community is faced with reducing the fatal aircraft accident rate by 80 percent within 10 years. This must be achieved even with ever increasing, traffic and a changing National Airspace System. This is not just an altruistic goal, but a real necessity, if our growing level of commerce is to continue. Honeywell Technology Center's topical study, "Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid", addresses these pressing needs. The goal of this program is to use route optimization and user interface technologies to develop a prototype decision aid for dispatchers and pilots. This decision aid will suggest possible diversions through single or multiple weather hazards and present weather information with a human-centered design. At the conclusion of the program, we will have a laptop prototype decision aid that will be used to demonstrate concepts to industry for integration into commercialized products for dispatchers and/or pilots. With weather a factor in 30% of aircraft accidents, our program will prevent accidents by strategically avoiding weather hazards in flight. By supplying more relevant weather information in a human-centered format along with the tools to generate flight plans around weather, aircraft exposure to weather hazards can be reduced. Our program directly addresses the NASA's five year investment areas of Strategic Weather Information and Weather Operations (simulation/hazard characterization and crew/dispatch/ATChazard monitoring, display, and decision support) (NASA Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy: Weather Investment Recommendations, April 15, 1997). This program is comprised of two phases, Phase I concluded December 31, 1998. This first phase defined weather data requirements, lateral routing algorithms, an conceptual displays for a user-centered design. Phase II runs from January 1999 through September 1999. The second phase integrates vertical routing into the lateral optimizer and combines the user

  9. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volná, M; Látal, F; Kubínek, R; Richterek, L

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems. (paper)

  10. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sheinbaum

    Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.

  11. 'Just like the fact that I'm Syrian like you are Scottish': ascribing interviewer identities as a resource in cross-cultural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Interviews are used as a research tool in numerous studies of identity. They have also been studied as social interactions in themselves. From this perspective, analysts have looked at the ways interviews generate identities, and how both parties work to fulfill the associated roles and expectations (e.g., the interviewer's neutrality). Interviewers thus become a more 'visible' participant, and several studies examine the influence of their multiple category memberships on the interaction. This paper aims to extend these insights to the insider/outsider dilemma in interviews, by looking at how participants make relevant and use interviewer identities as a resource. The data comes from a corpus of interviews with Syrian people on identity conducted by a British interviewer. The analysis shows how the interviewer's identity as a sojourner and stranger was used to warrant positive assessments of national character; her national identity was invoked to normalize national feelings; her identity as Christian used to characterize religious identity as inherent; and her identity as Westerner was used to legitimate complaints. I discuss implications for interviews on identity and identity within interviews, and argue that this approach is a thoroughly empirical way to address the shifting, practical ascription of insider-outsider status to the interviewer. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The emergence and institutional co-determination of sustainability as a teaching topic in interdisciplinary science teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes an institutional perspective on the topic of sustainability in order to analyse how this ‘idea’ enters science teacher education through an interdisciplinary approach. It shows how the development and implementation of a course for Danish pre-service teachers was conditioned......, conceptualised through a new reference model that separates the analysis from the usual sustainability dimensions. The findings reveal how sustainability as a teaching topic can be a unifying idea in an interdisciplinary setting. Disciplinary differences evidently impact course planning and implementation...

  13. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  14. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation

  15. Topic Modeling as a Strategy of Inquiry in Organizational Research: A Tutorial With an Application Example on Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; vom Brocke, Jan

    2018-01-01

    of large textual data sets and increased computational power, text mining has become an attractive method that has the potential to mitigate some of these limitations. Thus, we suggest applying topic modeling, a specific text mining technique, as a new and complementary strategy of inquiry to study...

  16. Amobarbital treatment of multiple personality. Use of structured video tape interviews as a basis for intensive psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R C; LeCann, A F; Schoolar, J C

    1978-09-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with five distinct personalities is presented. The patient was treated, using a system of structured video taped sodium amobarbital interviews, in which areas to be explored were developed in psychotherapy. Tapes were played for the patient after each session. The taped material was used as the basis for psychotherapeutic investigation. The patient evidenced many of the features previously reported in cases of multiple personality, specifically: being the product of an unwanted pregnancy in a repressively rigid family; emotional distancing by one parent; strong sibling rivalry with an adopted sib; family history of mental illness; a traumatic first sexual experience (rape); a marriage to a maladjusted individual in an attempt to escape the parental home; a high internalized standard of performance and an inability to display anger or negative feelings toward the parents. In the course of treatment, the patient's personalties fused and she was able to accept each component as part of herself. No further fragmentation has occurred during the year following discharge. The therapy technique minimized dependency, and the possiblity of addiction to amobarbital interviews permitted more active patient therapy involvement, and set clear-cut goals and expectations for improvement before further amobarbital interviews could be conducted.

  17. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Intercultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that cover a fairly long period of time – among them the textbooks by two Slovenian authors: Južnič (1938 and Grad (1954, as well as some generally-used French textbooks, such as Cours de langue et de civilisation françaises (1953, Le nouveau sans frontières (1988 and Nouveau rond point (2011. The article is based on the hypothesis that high culture is more likely to be present in the older textbooks, which are based on traditional methods, whereas in modern textbooks more popular, everyday topics can be found. It is also presumed that topics in modern textbooks are, compared to their more traditional counterparts, introduced in an intercultural manner which could encourage students to compare the culture of the foreign country with their own. Both hypotheses are partly confirmed. In Slovenian textbooks there are very few culture-based topics. On the other hand, they are present in all French textbooks, regardless of the methodology. It is true that Mauger introduces more high culture than the others and that the intercultural topics are presented only in the most recent textbook. In all the others, it is exclusively the culture of the target country that is introduced.

  18. Teaching vocabulary to elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language: topic "My family and I"

    OpenAIRE

    Vesnina, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a lesson "My Family and I" for elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language. This topic is the first in the academic subject Russian Vocabulary. The article sums up the experience of teaching this subject to Chinese students learning Russian at the Ural State Pedagogical University. The content and the aims of the lesson "My Family and I", as well as the subject Russian Vocabulary, are based on the communicative approach to teaching Russian as a forei...

  19. Science of the Brain as a Gateway to Understanding Play: An Interview with Jaak Panksepp

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Jaak Panksepp, known best for his work on animal emotions and coining the term "affective neuroscience," investigates the primary processes of brain and mind that enable and drive emotion. As an undergraduate, he briefly considered a career in electrical engineering but turned instead to psychology, which led to a 1969 University of…

  20. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Sander, Birgit; Brøndsted, Adam Elias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The late post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 10-30s ) to blue light is reduced in glaucoma, suggesting that pupillometry can be used in clinical glaucoma evaluation. Since animal studies have indicated that common anti-glaucomatous agents affect the iris muscle, we investigated...... the short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular on the PIPR10-30s. METHODS: In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects....... Stimulus was blue (463 nm) and red light (633 nm) of 2 log (lux). Main outcome was the PIPR10-30s to blue light. Additionally, pupil size, maximal contraction, and the early post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 0-10s ) to blue and red light were investigated. Pupil response variations between 8 a...

  1. Differences in responses to the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14 used as a questionnaire or in an interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Brolezi de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the completion rates and performance of the Brazilian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14 when applied as an interview or in its original self-reported form. A convenience sample of 74 adult patients was selected in a Dental Clinic (University of Araras, Brazil. One examiner administered the instrument in both formats to participants with an interval of 2 weeks between each administration. Data about dental health condition and socioeconomic status were collected and associated with total OHIP14 scores in both formats using linear regression analyses. No differences were found in the total scores and in each subscale of the OHIP14 according to the form of administration. Higher values of completion were found in the interview format. More severe impacts were recorded in the interview format than in the questionnaire format. Higher values of total OHIP-14 scores in both formats were related to the presence of dental caries. Total OHIP14 scores were not influenced by the method of administration. However, the use of the OHIP14 in the questionnaire format may result in lower completion rates and loss of data.

  2. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  3. Mystical experience relational language as a way of Teresa sanjuanista loving openness to others. Interview with Maximiliano Garcia Herraiz, OCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALITE Argentina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximiliano Herraiz García OCD, Carmelite saints founders specialist and writer career and international recognition, Spanish by birth lived for ten years in Africa, and has traveled five continents evangelizing through the Carmelite mystics in dialogue with universal mysticism, now convinced of experiential dimension of faith. In this interview he reflects on the relationship between mystical experience and language, linking mission and mystical literature. As part of the preparation for the Fifth Centenary of the Birth of Teresa of Avila, highlights the urgency of considering his theology of friendship and ascetic mysticism as roads for the current century Christianity.

  4. Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Validity as a co-primary measure of cognition across phases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Doing Dirty Interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...

  6. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.

  7. Effect of a topical glucocorticoid, budesonide, on nasal mucosal blood flow as measured with 133Xe wash-out technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bende, M.; Lindqvist, N.; Pipkorn, U.

    1983-01-01

    The ''vasoconstrictor'' effect of dermally applicated steroids is a widely used parameter when determining the potency of glucocorticoids. A similar effect on the nasal mucosa has been suggested as providing an explanation for the clinical effect of topically administered glucocorticoids in the treatment of nasal disorders such as allergic and vasomotor rhinitis. The recently described 133 Xe wash-out method was used for the purpose of blood flow determination in 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized double-blind cross-over study, the effect of topically administered budesonide, a non-halogenated glucocorticoid, for 1 week was compared with that of placebo. No difference was found to occur in the mucosal blood flow after the administration of budesonide, as compared with placebo. It seems likely that a more complex activity than vasoconstriction is responsible for the clinical effect in the treatment of nasal disorders, and further research is required in order to clarify this issue. (author)

  8. Misselling as a New Topic of Financial Education? A Didactic Analysis of Investment Advise after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loerwald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal financial investments are, as a matter of course, a topic of economic education because they are a life situation which is inherently economical. In contrast, faulty advising in banks which has become focussed upon due to the extent it has played a part in the recent financial crisis is mentioned neither in curricula nor in educational text books. Numerous private funds have been exposed as unprofitable investments. One reason for this problem is to be found in the marketing staff of the banks who did not invest their customer’s funds securely enough – and the customers did not notice it. What conclusions can be drawn from this for general financial education after the financial crisis? The economic education has failed to address the topic of “faulty advising in banks” as well. On the basis of categorical economic didactics the following contribution will analyse whether one has an exemplary case here upon which students can win generalized, transferable insights. In this context, the topic of personal financial investments will be classified in an efficient manner and the risk of opportunism in advising situations will be analysed with the help of the positive principal-agent theory. The results of this analysis of informational asymmetries within financial markets give direction to the development and revision of curricula in the didactics of economic education. With the following article a sustainable theoretical fundament will be created to underscore the obligatory inclusion of this topic in curricula as well as its realisation for target groups in school text books.

  9. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  10. Health professionals perceive teamwork with relatives as an obstacle in their daily work - a focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jannie; Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Health professionals must often balance between different rationalities within the hospital organisation. Having adequate time with patients, shorter waiting time and the ability to greater professional autonomy have been shown to help provide a higher quality of care. Empathy and sympathy appear to be crucial components for the health professionals and their relationship to patients. The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of relatives to critically ill patients in order to identify aspects that may facilitate a better understanding of this teamwork. The study was descriptive and exploratory and had a qualitative design with a phenomenological/hermeneutic orientation for the interviews. Focus group was the chosen methodology. The study comprised 19 health professionals in four focus groups. Two themes emerged from the interviews: the hospital culture does not integrate relatives, and health professionals felt that relatives took their resources and saw them as an obstacle in their daily work. Health professionals felt divided between the system and the individual sphere, which makes it difficult for them to integrate relatives more and see them as participants in a natural teamwork for the benefit of the patient. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Isolation and prayer as means of solace for Arab women with breast cancer: An in-depth interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Ghada Najjar; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta

    2017-11-01

    This study explored Arab women's experiences following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Arab women attending a public hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, following a recent diagnosis of breast cancer. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the thematic method. Arab women's experiences following their breast cancer diagnoses and treatments included the themes of (1) protecting one's self from stigma, (2) facing uncertainties and prayers, and (3) getting on with life. Overall, the ways to find solace were through isolation and prayer, which are heavily influenced by religion and spiritual practices. They recommended that to help women with breast cancer, a campaign to raise awareness for early screening is needed as well the need to form a peer-led support group for women with breast cancer consisting of breast cancer survivors so that they can learn from each other's experiences. Arab women with breast cancer experienced a myriad of social, cultural, psychological, and relationship difficulties that impacted their overall health and well-being. The findings also found that these women were not passive agents. They sought to solve problem, move forward, and recreate the meanings in their lives in their own unique ways. Action is needed for possible ways to implement religion-health partnerships between breast cancer nurses, peer-led support groups, palliative care services, and religious institutions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of ddC as a topical antiviral for ocular adenovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Eric G; Yates, Kathleen A; Gordon, Y Jerold

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the antiviral activity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) in vitro against a panel of ocular adenovirus serotypes and in vivo in the ocular Ad5/NZW rabbit replication model. In vitro, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of ddC and cidofovir were determined using standard plaque-reduction assays. In vivo, 40 rabbits were topically inoculated in both eyes with Ad5 after corneal scarification. On day 1, the rabbits were equally divided into four topical treatment groups: 3% ddC; 2% ddC; 0.5% cidofovir; and saline. ddC and saline eyes were treated four times daily for 7 days, and cidofovir-treated eyes were treated twice daily for 7 days. Eyes were cultured for virus a multiple times over 2 weeks. The in vitro IC(50) for ddC ranged from 0.18 to 1.85 microg/mL, whereas those for cidofovir ranged from 0.018 to 5.47 microg/mL. ddC was more potent than cidofovir for seven of nine serotypes. In vivo, 3% ddC, 2% ddC, and 0.5% cidofovir significantly reduced the number of Ad5-positive cultures per total (days 1-14), mean Ad5 ocular titer (days 1-5), and duration of shedding (among other outcome measures) compared with the saline control. The 3% and 2% ddC treatments were significantly more efficacious than the 0.5% cidofovir treatment in the parameters listed above. ddC demonstrated potent antiadenovirus activity in vitro and in vivo. Systemic safety studies after topical ocular administration are needed to evaluate ddC as a topical antiviral treatment for adenoviral ocular infections in the target population.

  13. A Summary of Information on the Behavior of the Yakima Fold Belt as a Structural Entity -- Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) that may bear on the question of whether or not the YFB behaves as a single seismotectonic province in which activity along one fold structure is representative of behavior along all other fold structures. This topic has met with a fairly high level of contention in the expert community and has the potential to result in significant impacts on an evaluation of seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. This report defines the relevant alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, it suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  14. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct....... The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct......-orientation differs from object-orientation by a marked tone pattern. Topic choice largely reflects information structure by indicating topic continuity. The topic also plays a crucial role in relative clauses and in clauses with contrastive constituent focus, in that objects and adjuncts can only be relativized...

  15. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...

  16. Psycho-neural Identity as the Basis for Empirical Research and Theorization in Psychology: An Interview with Mario A. Bunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Martin, Toby L.; Julio, Flávia

    2012-10-01

    Mario Bunge is one of the most prolific philosophers of our time. Over the past sixty years he has written extensively about semantics, ontology, epistemology, philosophy of science and ethics. Bunge has been interested in the philosophical and methodological implications of modern psychology and more specifically in the philosophies of the relation between the neural and psychological realms. According to Bunge, functionalism, the philosophical stand of current psychology, has limited explanatory power in that neural processes are not explicitly acknowledged as components or factors of psychological phenomena. In Matter and Mind (2010), Bunge has elaborated in great detail the philosophies of the mind-brain dilemma and the basis of the psychoneural identity hypothesis, which suggests that all psychological processes can be analysed in terms of neural and physical phenomena. This article is the result of a long interview with Dr. Bunge on psychoneural identity and brain-behaviour relations.

  17. Interview with Peggy Papp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)

  18. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity...

  19. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort...

  20. The foot as a barrier in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis - an interview study among Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Östlund, Gunnel; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Foot impairments are related to reduced mobility and participation restrictions in daily activities in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The new biological medications are effective and reduce disease activity, but not disability to the same extent. Foot impairments are assumed to be related to participation restrictions also in patients with early RA, diagnosed after the introduction of biological medications. The knowledge of foot impairments needs to be more explored after the introduction of biological disease-modifying drugs (bDMARDs). The aim of this study was to explore the patients' perspective of foot impairments related to early RA. The sample included 59 patients (20-63 years) who were interviewed about participation dilemmas in daily life using the Critical Incident Technique. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data related to foot impairments were extracted and analyzed thematically. A research partner validated the analysis. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee. Patients with early RA described a variety of participation restrictions related to foot impairments: 1) foot hindrances in domestic life, 2) foot impairments influencing work, 3) leisure activities restricted by one's feet 4) struggling to be mobile 5) foot impairments as an early sign of rheumatic disease. There is a need to focus on foot impairments related to early RA, and for health care professionals to understand these signs. A suggestion for future research is to conduct a longitudinal follow-up of foot impairment related to medication, disease activity and disability in patients diagnosed after the introduction of bDMARDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use a cotton swab or any other brush or applicator to apply topical bimatoprost.To use the solution, follow these steps: Wash your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that all makeup is removed. Do not let the tip of ...

  2. Development of terbinafine solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Liu, Der-Zen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chang, Tsung-Wei; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2012-01-01

    To resolve problems of long treatment durations and frequent administration of the antifungal agent terbinafine (TB), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with the ability to load lipophilic drugs and nanosize were developed. The SLNs were manufactured by a microemulsion technique in which glyceryl monostearate (GMS), glyceryl behenate (Compritol® 888; Gattefossé), and glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol® ATO 5; Gattefossé) were used as the solid lipid phases, Tween® and Cremophor® series as the surfactants, and propylene glycol as the cosurfactant to construct ternary phase diagrams. The skin of nude mice was used as a barrier membrane, and penetration levels of TB of the designed formulations and a commercial product, Lamisil® Once™ (Novartis Pharmaceuticals), in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis, and dermis were measured; particle sizes were determined as an indicator of stability. The optimal SLN system contained a 50% water phase. The addition of ethanol or etchants had no significant effect on enhancing the amount of TB that penetrated the skin layers, but it was enhanced by increasing the percentage of the lipid phase. Furthermore, the combination of GMS and Compritol® 888 was able to increase the stable amount of TB that penetrated all skin layers. For the ACP1-GM1 (4% lipid phase; Compritol® 888: GMS of 1:1) formulation, the amount of TB that penetrated the SC was similar to that of Lamisil® Once™, whereas the amount of TB of the dermis was higher than that of Lamisil® Once™ at 12 hours, and it was almost the same as that of Lamisil® Once™ at 24 hours. It was concluded that the application of ACP1-GM1 for 12 hours might have an efficacy comparable to that of Lamisil® Once™ for 24 hours, which would resolve the practical problem of the longer administration period that is necessary for Lamisil® Once™. PMID:22923986

  3. American National Identity in a Globalized World as a Topic in the Advanced EFL-Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Freese

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an issue as complex and controversial as that of ‘national identity’ teachable in the advanced EFL-classroom, it has to be reduced to exemplary aspects and illustrated with concrete examples. Therefore, I will suggest an appropriate ‘Course Opener,’ briefly survey the historical unfolding of the American identity concept in order to provide teachers with the necessary background knowledge, and then suggest two teaching units, the first of which traces some major developments by means of ‘classic’ texts, whereas the second deals with the crucial issue of whether a shared language is a prerequisite for a shared identity.

  4. Structured Interviews: Developing Interviewing Skills in Human Resource Management Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Jessica L.

    2018-01-01

    Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…

  5. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a 4-hexyl resorcinol delivery system for topical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hydrophobic even skin tone active, 4-hexylresorcinol (HR), was intercalated into a zinc aluminium layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) by a co-precipitation method and used as a controlled release ingredient in skin care...

  6. MOLECULAR SIEVES AS CATALYSTS FOR METHANOL DEHYDRATION IN THE LPDMEtm PROCESS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Several classes of molecular sieves were investigated as methanol dehydration catalysts for the LPDME(trademark) (liquid-phase dimethyl ether) process. Molecular sieves offer a number of attractive features as potential catalysts for the conversion of methanol to DME. These include (1) a wide range of acid strengths, (2) diverse architectures and channel connectivities that provide latitude for steric control, (3) high active site density, (4) well-investigated syntheses and characterization, and (5) commercial availability in some cases. We directed our work in two areas: (1) a general exploration of the catalytic behavior of various classes of molecular sieves in the LPDME(trademark) system and (2) a focused effort to prepare and test zeolites with predominantly Lewis acidity. In our general exploration, we looked at such diverse materials as chabazites, mordenites, pentasils, SAPOs, and ALPOs. Our work with Lewis acidity sought to exploit the structural advantages of zeolites without the interfering effects of deleterious Broensted sites. We used zeolite Ultrastable Y (USY) as our base material because it possesses a high proportion of Lewis acid sites. This work was extended by modifying the USY through ion exchange to try to neutralize residual Broensted acidity

  7. Learning Mathematics or Losing Money--Betting as a Topic for Mathematical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Hans-Stefan; MaaB, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    No risk, no fun--betting on sports events costs the gamblers a lot of money and brings excellent profits to those who offer the bets. Among the people who bet on a regular basis, the proportion of young adults is frighteningly high. We now suggest a concept (as part of a basic mathematics course) for acquiring the necessary mathematical knowledge…

  8. Peer-to-Peer Teaching Using Multi-Disciplinary Applications as Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Souhan, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Most educators know that the best way to truly understand new material is to teach it. The use of students as peer educators provides numerous benefits to the student teacher and his or her classmates. Student-led instruction or peer-to-peer teaching is not a new concept or teaching technique. Peer teaching traces its roots back to the ancient…

  9. Perceived Changes in Communication as an Effect of STN Surgery in Parkinson's Disease: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ahlberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore four individuals' perspective of the way their speech and communication changed as a result of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation treatment for Parkinson's disease. Interviews of two men and two women were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged as a result of the analysis. The first theme included sub-themes describing both increased and unexpected communication difficulties such as a more vulnerable speech function, re-emerging stuttering and cognitive difficulties affecting communication. The second theme comprised strategies to improve communication, using different speech techniques and communicative support, as well as trying to achieve changes in medical and stimulation parameters. The third theme included descriptions of mixed feelings surrounding the surgery. Participants described the surgery as an unavoidable dramatic change, associated both with improved quality of life but also uncertainty and lack of information, particularly regarding speech and communication changes. Despite negative effects on speech, the individuals were generally very pleased with the surgical outcome. More information before surgery regarding possible side effects on speech, meeting with a previously treated patient and possibly voice and speech therapy before or after surgery are suggested to facilitate the adjustment to the new speech conditions.

  10. Modern nuclear medicine methods as a topic of biophysics in veterinary training at UVM in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanicova, J.; Lohajova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)

  11. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands’ and 100 wives’ diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts ...

  12. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  13. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Treldal, Charlotte; Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Jacobsen, Jette; Kreilgaard, Mads; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single dose to 10 healthy individuals, and a lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to five patients with HNC. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the patients with HNC, respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described by a two-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All the observed plasma concentrations were well below the bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was two times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2 and three times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 3-4 than in the healthy individuals. Simulations showed that the plasma concentrations would be below the toxic limit after repeated dosing every second hour with 25 mg bupivacaine for five days. The 25-mg bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. HII mesophase as a drug delivery system for topical application of methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Sheng-Mei; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Gui, Shuang-Ying

    2017-03-30

    The main objective of this study was to develop reversed hexagonal (H II ) mesophase for transdermal delivery of methyl salicylate. The formulation was prepared, characterized and evaluated for its skin penetration in vitro and skin retention in vivo. Preliminary pharmacodynamics and skin irritation were also investigated. The formulation was identified as hexagonal structure. In vitro study exhibited that H II mesophase enhanced the skin permeation by delivering 2.61 times more methyl salicylate than the commercially available cream. Meanwhile, H II mesophase presented higher bioavailability as AUC (0-24) and AUC (0-∞) were 32.894μg·mL -1 and 32.935μg·mL -1 respectively, while the cream were 12.791μg·mL -1 and 12.970μg·mL -1 . Preliminary pharmacodynamics studies demonstrated that H II mesophase possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects for inhibiting paw edema, granuloma and pain. MeSa H II mesophase showed no skin irritation on the normal rat skin. Thus, H II mesophase was considered as an effective delivery system for MeSa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C

    2009-02-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands' and 100 wives' diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts about money were more pervasive, problematic, and recurrent, and remained unresolved, despite including more attempts at problem solving. Implications for professionals who assist couples in managing their relationships and family finances are discussed.

  16. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... the salient situations where the creative practitioner can be said to experience the ‘right’ level of constrainedness conducive to optimum creative performance. We then proceed to consider how the sweet spot can be attained by balancing constraints, i.e., by manipulating the intensity of constrainedness. More...

  17. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single...... bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit....

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  19. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  20. Rubus rosaefolius extract as a natural preservative candidate in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Elissa Arantes; Marcondes, Elda Maria Cecilio; Nishikawa, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Varca, Gustavo Henrique Costa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli; Consiglieri, T Vladi Olga; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2011-06-01

    Even though the synthetic preservatives may offer a high antimicrobial efficacy, they are commonly related to adverse reactions and regarded as having potentially harmful effects caused by chronic consumption. The development of natural preservatives provides a way of reducing the amount of synthetic preservatives normally used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In addition, these agents have less toxic effects and represent a possible natural and safer alternative of the preservatives. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the Rubus rosaefolius Smith extract efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. Of the extract, 0.2% (w/w) was assayed for its effectiveness of antimicrobial protection in two different base formulations (emulsion and gel). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standard procedures proposed by The United States Pharmacopoeia 33nd, European Pharmacopoeia 6th, Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th, and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association using standardized microorganisms. The results demonstrated that R. rosaefolius extract at the studied concentration reduced the bacterial inocula, satisfying the criterion in all formulations, even though it was not able to present an effective preservative behavior against fungi. Thus, the investigation of new natural substances with preservative properties that could be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products is relevant due to the possibility of substituting or decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives, providing a way for the development of safer formulas for the use of consumers.

  1. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  2. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...

  3. Social dialogue and social conflict as a topical factors of social transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical state of society can be measured by a system of interrelated indicators - economic, technologi­cal, political, cultural, ethnic and demographic. However, it is no exaggeration to state that they originally focused on the social aspects of life people lead to an integrated life crisis at a time of social transformations. There is no universal model of social dialogue; it is a means of improving productivity and competitiveness. Social dialogue - not only a form of crisis management, sometimes governments are turning to social part­ners only in case of economic crisis, seeking their support in taking unpopular measures. This approach is fundamentally wrong, because the dialogue is based on mutual trust and confidence, cooperation achieved over the years. That social dialogue should be used not only in adverse but also in favorable socio-economic circumstances. Opposition, competition, conflict, alternative, dissent is not only inevitable characteristics of a complex human world, but necessary factors that discourage stagnation, stagnation of society, the condi­tions of its constant renewal and development. Clarification of the nature and essence of social conflict as a specific manifestation of the contradictions of social relations requires consideration of a number of interre­© І.З. Держко, 2015 lated factors. First of all, we should take into account the fact that modern society is the very course of change in scientific thinking, social structure, is drawn into a new state, which is accompanied by adapting social transformation. That is why these problems require analysis of the conditions of its emergence, development methods and tools for forecasting and warning deviation from social norms. Social process includes ways of interaction between state and society, institutions and groups, political system and social environment, government and citizens. Social dialogue is one way of interaction between state and society

  4. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  5. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  6. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H T P; Munnier, E; Souce, M; Perse, X; David, S; Bonnier, F; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Chourpa, I; Vial, F; Yvergnaux, F; Perrier, T

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ∼200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ∼ − 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ∼95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery. (paper)

  7. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  8. Potential Use of Essential Oil Isolated from Cleistocalyx operculatus Leaves as a Topical Dermatological Agent for Treatment of Burn Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Gia-Buu; Le, Nghia-Thu Tram; Dam, Sao-Mai

    2018-01-01

    Several herbal remedies have been used as topical agents to cure burn wound, one of the most common injuries in worldwide. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil to treat the burn wound. We identified a total of 13 bioactive compounds of essential oil, several of which exhibited the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the essential oil showed the antibacterial effect against S. aureus but not with P. aeruginosa. The supportive effect of essential oil on burn wound healing process also has been proven. Among three groups of mice, wound contraction rate of essential oil treated group (100%) was significantly higher than tamanu oil treated (79%) and control mice (71%) after 20 days (0.22 ± 0.03 versus 0.31 ± 0.02 cm 2 , resp., p essential oil formed a complete epidermal structure, thick and neatly arranged fibers, and scattered immune cells in burn wound. On the contrary, saline treated burn wound formed uneven epidermal layer with necrotic ulcer, infiltration of immune cells, and existence of granulation tissue. This finding demonstrated Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil as promising topical dermatological agent to treat burn wound.

  9. “Let’s Take a Look Together”: Walking Interviews in Domestic Spaces as a Means to Examine ICT Experiences of Women 60+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ratzenböck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mobile methods are becoming more common within the social sciences (e.g. Ricketts Hein et al., 2008 and Wiederhold, 2015, p. 607, they mostly take place outdoors. This paper examines the potential of walking interviews conducted in small domestic spaces to explore the ICT experiences of women aged 60+ and to discuss the challenges and advantages of this method. This case study of indoor walking interview material is a part of a larger research project on the ICT experiences of women 60+ in the Austrian province of Styria. The advantages and challenges of conducting walking interviews in the homes of interviewees are identified and explored. As this case study demonstrates, walking interviews in homes give the researcher a glimpse into the private areas of everyday life, let the interviewees lead the researcher through the space, allow the participants to conduct the conversation, and thus invite a reflection on the power dynamics inherent in the interview situation. This method also compares the statements provided by participants in semi-structured interviews with the information gathered through an encounter with media and ICTs in the home. These comparisons yield a variety of insights on prior statements through the addition of emphases, “contradictions,” or minimizing the importance of previous interview statements. Moreover, interactions with the objects in the home that are encountered during the walking interview also provide important “prompts” to stimulate a detailed and multifaceted discussion of everyday life experiences with ICTs and other media.

  10. Exploring the Abyss. The Financial Crisis of 2008 ff. as a Central Topic of Problem-Centered Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Hippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 ff. and financial crises in general should be a central topic of social science education because these crises are a recurrent and therefore structural feature of modern capitalism which has severe consequences for citizens’ quality of life. Hence, the citizenry should know how to prevent such developments which endanger its well-being in a massive way. Therefore, learners should understand the relationship between the quality of people’s everyday lives and those economic institutions and political decisions which have led to the current mess. They should be enabled to critically evaluate the current misregulation of the financial sector and the economy in order to identify possible policy measures to prevent or at least to mitigate future crises. By educating (young citizens in this way, the (future general public can – as a necessary counterweight to the lobbyism of the finance industry – exert more prudent political pressure which gives politicians a greater incentive to regulate the financial sector and the economy in a manner which is beneficial for the vast majority of the people instead of for a small elite. Two core concepts of the social sciences can be used to make the roots of the seemingly complex topic more understandable for learners: liability and inequality.

  11. Effect of undecylenic acid as a topical microbicide against genital herpes infection in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Ireland, J; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of topical microbicides to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Undecylenic acid (UA), a monosaturated fatty acid, is the active ingredient in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal spray powders, that also exhibits in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activity, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity. We, therefore, evaluated UA as a topical microbicide against genital HSV infection using the murine and guinea pig models of genital herpes. Mice were administered a 20% solution of UA in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle, vehicle alone or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravaginally immediately prior to vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Pre-treatment with UA decreased the number of mice that became infected (P < 0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control), developed symptoms (P <0.001) or died (P <0.001). However, when treatment was extended to either 5 min prior to or after viral inoculation, protection was lost. Similar findings were found using the guinea pig model, where UA treatment completely prevented HSV-2 vaginal infection when given immediately prior to HSV-2 inoculation (P<0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control). Thus, UA, an approved OTC medication, provided significant protection against HSV disease and infection only when applied immediately before viral inoculation, indicating that better formulations were needed to extend the duration of protection.

  12. Topical simvastatin gel as a novel therapeutic modality for palatal donor site wound healing following free gingival graft procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Marwa; Kassem, Abeer

    2018-04-01

    Autogenous soft-tissue grafting is a commonly used procedure nowadays in dentistry. However, the prolonged healing time needed for the donor site leads to increase the patient's pain and discomfort. Statin has been observed to be beneficial in reducing bacterial burden, improving epithelization and wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-oral topical application of simvastatin/chitosan gel (10 mg/mL) over the palatal donor site following free gingival graft (FGG) procedure. Subjects indicated for FGG procedure were divided into four groups. Group I: Simvastatin suspension (S), group II: simvastatin/chitosan gel (SC), group III: chitosan gel (C), group IV: petroleum gel (P). Treatment was applied three times/day for the following 7 days. Wound healing was evaluated at day 3, 7 and 14 post-surgery. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the experienced discomfort at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days. Statistical significant reduction in wound-healing scores was observed after 3 and 7 days for group II compared to other groups (p  = .015). A significant reduction was also observed in VAS score for group II compared to other groups at day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Topical application of S/C gel could be used as a novel therapeutic modality that improved healing and reduced pain in the palatal donor site following FGG procedure.

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 辞書(as Topic) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 辞書(as Topic) 名詞 一般 * * * * 辞書 ジショ ジショ Thesaurus2015 200906028477984205 C BA01 UNKNOWN_2 辞書 ( a s Topic )

  14. Mathematical people profiles and interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.

  15. Ian Stevenson: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…

  16. [What factors aid in the recruitment of general practice as a career? An enquiry by interview of general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Iris; Ose, D; Szecsenyi, J; Joos, S

    2010-05-01

    In some parts of Germany there is already a lack of general practitioners (GPs). The reasons for this lack are complex. On the one hand there is an increasing demand for GPs as a result to demographic changes and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. On the other hand fewer medical students decide to become a general practitioner. The aim of this study was to explore, from the perspective of GPs, factors influencing the choice of general practice as a career. Also analysed is the extent to which those factors influence medical students in their carrier choice. 16 GPs were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis according to Mayring has been assisted by the Atlas.ti software program. GPs thought that the occupational orientation of medical students would be strongly dependent on the attractiveness of their future profession. Factors affecting the day-to-day work of general practice and may deterring the carrier choice of students were: poor working and general conditions leading to an increasing dissatisfaction among GPs; decreasing prestige of GPs caused by changed personal and occupational values and attitudes within the society; as well as poor representation and image of general practice as a discipline within the medical curriculum. Various approaches aimed at different target groups can be derived from these identified factors: the government providing general and occupational conditions that would relieve GPs of excessive bureaucracy; universities and medical associations meeting the challenge by improving undergraduate and postgraduate education in general practice; and GPs themselves giving a more self-confident presentation of general practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  17. Adherence to oral and topical medication in 445 patients with tinea pedis as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kaneko, Sakae; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Inomata, Naoko; Morisky, Donald E; Furue, Masutaka; Katoh, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is defined as the extent to which a person's behavior corresponds with recommendations from health care providers. Adherence to treatment is an important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to examine the adherence of patients with tinea pedis and to clarify the factors related to it. We assessed medication adherence for oral and topical drugs using a translated version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) together with other background factors in 445 Japanese patients with tinea pedis, using a questionnaire in a web-based monitoring system. Overall, high, medium and low adherence rates as assessed by MMAS-8 were 8.7%, 31.7% and 59.6% for oral medication, and 8.6%, 17.4% and 74.0% for topical medication, respectively. The adherence level was significantly higher for oral medication than for topical medication. Subgroup analyses showed that the adherence level for topical medication was significantly higher when topical and oral medications were used in combination than when topical medication was used alone. A low adherence level was shown in employed patients, those for whom their oral medication had not been effective and those with topical medication who had visited their hospital less often than once every six months. Patient adherence to therapy can be effectively improved by selecting highly effective medication while considering the prescription of topical and oral antifungal medications concomitantly, by carefully selecting a therapy plan for employed patients and by encouraging patients to visit their doctor regularly.

  18. Switching to smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation method: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.

  19. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  20. Radical Flexibility and Student Success: An Interview with Homero Lopez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with Dr. Homero Lopez, who brings thirty-two years of higher education experience to his position as the founding president of Estrella Mountain Community College, (Maricopa County Community College District of Arizona), topics centered on how learning spaces and campus design are planned and implemented on Estrella Mountain…

  1. Interview with Staffan Selander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.

  2. An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

  3. Preparation of a mixed-matrix hydrogel of vorinostat for topical administration on the rats as experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenwen; Wang, Chenhui; Yu, Changhui; Yao, Ju; Sun, Fengying; Teng, Lesheng; Li, Youxin

    2015-10-12

    Oral vorinostat has the remarkable curative effect on aggravated and recurrent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), but is accompanied by serious adverse effects. Therefore, oral vorinostat is not applicable to the treatment of early stage CTCL. The aim of this study is to develop a novel vorinostat formulation which is effective for early stage CTCL and free of the serious adverse effects. A mixed-matrix hydrogel of vorinostat was prepared and characterized as a potential topical skin delivery system. Moisture retention, swelling behavior, viscosity, real-time morphology and differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC) of hydrogel were evaluated to select the solvent, matrix and humectant. The optimal HPMC/HPC ratio, pH, additive, dose and drug loading of vorinostat hydrogel were determined by evaluating the cumulative vorinostat amount of skin retention and transdermal amount of vorinostat through the skin in vitro. The optimal hydrogel presented a low transdermal amount of vorinostat through the skin, suggesting that the hydrogel reduced the amount of vorinostat that was absorbed in the systemic circulation. More importantly, in vivo percutaneous permeation experiments were also performed to evaluate the permeation behavior of vorinostat into the skin. The topical application with a much lower dose showed higher AUC (the cumulative vorinostat amount of skin retention) than oral application and the hydrogel achieved a sustained permeation of vorinostat in the skin for 24h in vivo. It indicated that a higher relative bioavailability for hydrogel was achieved compared with oral vorinostat. Moreover, there was no damage, inflammation or cell swelling of the skin after administration. Thus, the mixed-matrix vorinostat hydrogel prepared in this study could deliver vorinostat into local skin more efficiently than oral administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Everything we do is tentative. An interview with Prof. Frederick Schauer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Professor Schauer covers many topics in this interview. On a general note, the interview covers themes pertaining to his experience in engaging with legal philosophy as a trained lawyer; his views on the present and the future of legal philosophy and how we shall cope with its development; his new

  5. Motivational Interviewing as an intervention to increase adolescent self-efficacy and promote weight loss: Methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrongiello Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is associated with serious physiological and psychological consequences including type 2 diabetes, higher rates of depression and low self-esteem. With the population of overweight and obese youth increasing, appropriate interventions are needed that speak to the issue of readiness to change and motivation to maintain adherence to healthy behavior changes. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a method of therapy found to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behavior changes. While MI has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive lifestyle change, little is known about the effectiveness of MI with overweight and obese youth. This study aims to: 1 demonstrate that MI is an effective intervention for increasing a person's self-efficacy; 2 demonstrate that exposure to MI will facilitate healthy behavior changes; 3 explore psychological changes related to participation in MI and 4 compare physiological and anthropometric outcomes before and after intervention. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted with ongoing participants who regularly attend an outpatient pediatric care center for weight-loss. Overweight youth (BMI > 85th %ile between the ages of 10 and 18 who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to a control group (social skills training or a treatment group (MI. Participants will meet with the therapist for approximately 30 minutes prior to seeing the dietician, over the course of 6 months. Participants will also undergo a full day assessment at the beginning and end of psychology intervention to evaluate body fat, and metabolic risk (screening for diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and fitness level. The paper and pencil portions of the assessments as well as the clinical testing will occur at baseline and at the conclusion of

  6. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, Peter; Boote, Jonathan; Chambers, E.; Clarke, Amanda; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, Andrew; Tod, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpe...

  7. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, P.; Boote, J.; Chambers, E.; Clarke, A.; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, A.R.; Tod, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three\\ud types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst\\ud many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular\\ud manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes\\ud ...

  8. Providers as weight coaches: using practice guides and motivational interview to treat obesity in the pediatric office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Sandy Blizzard; Perry, Joan Templeton; Romney, Sharon; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Motivational interview techniques combined with an evidence-based guideline provide valuable tools for the treatment of childhood obesity. The National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners' Healthy Eating and Activity Together guidelines were adopted in a rural pediatric office. After a 6-month pilot, effectiveness of treatment was evaluated with a retrospective chart review. The results suggest that children were motivated for healthy lifestyle changes but had difficulty maintaining motivation and compliance with healthy change choices after 1-2 months; however, with consistent use of motivational interviewing techniques combined with diet and exercise counseling, there was a trend toward lowered body mass index and waist measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structured behavioral interview as a legal guarantee for ensuring equal employment opportunities for women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Equal employment opportunities for women are a legal requirement in many legal environments, including the United States (US and European Union (EU legislations. In this context, indirect discrimination in the access to jobs is an illegal practice. For this reason, personnel selection procedures must be fair for protected-by-law groups. Specifically, gender discrimination is the focus of research on employment interviews. This article presents a meta-analysis of gender differences in the scores in structured behavioral interviews (SBI. A database was created consisting of studies conducted with real candidates and employees. Psychometric meta-analysis methods were applied. The results showed that the SBI is fair for women and men and does not show evidence of adverse impact and indirect discrimination. Implications for the practice of personnel selection are discussed and future research is suggested.

  10. Topical administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist as a therapy for aqueous-deficient dry eye in autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijmasi, Trinka; Chen, Feeling Y T; Chen, Ying Ting; Gallup, Marianne; McNamara, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is commonly associated with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS), in which exocrinopathy of the lacrimal gland leads to aqueous tear deficiency and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). KCS is among the most common and debilitating clinical manifestations of SS that is often recalcitrant to therapy. We established mice deficient in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene as a model for autoimmune-mediated aqueous-deficient dry eye. In Aire-deficient mice, CD4+ T cells represent the main effector cells and local signaling via the interleukin-1 (IL-1/IL-1R1) pathway provides an essential link between autoreactive CD4+ T cells and ocular surface disease. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of topical administration of IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1RA) anakinra in alleviating ocular surface damage resulting from aqueous-deficient dry eye in the setting of autoimmune disease. We compared the effect of commercially available IL-1R1 antagonist, anakinra (50 μg/mL concentration) to that of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) vehicle control as a treatment for dry eye. Age-matched, Aire-deficient mice were treated three times daily with anakinra or CMC vehicle for 14 days using side-by-side (n = 4 mice/group) and paired-eye (n = 5) comparisons. We assessed (1) ocular surface damage with lissamine green staining; (2) tear secretion with wetting of phenol-red threads; (3) goblet cell (GC) mucin glycosylation with lectin histochemistry; (4) immune cell infiltration using anti-F4/80, CD11c, and CD4 T cell antibodies; and (5) gene expression of cornified envelope protein, Small Proline-Rich Protein-1B (SPRR1B) with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Aire-deficient mice treated with anakinra experienced significant improvements in ocular surface integrity and tear secretion. After 7 days of treatment, lissamine green staining decreased in eyes treated with anakinra compared to an equivalent increase in staining following treatment with CMC vehicle

  11. Women's experiences of using vaginal trainers (dilators) to treat vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Kat; Gregory, Angela; Nunns, David; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-06-20

    Recent research has highlighted controversies in the conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus. Vaginal trainers are currently the most widely used treatment. Critiques have highlighted concerns that the evidence-base of its effectiveness is limited, with controlled trials reporting disappointing results, and its prescription promotes 'performance-based' sexuality which may be detrimental. Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment. 13 women who had used vaginal trainers for vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus were recruited through a specialist clinic, university campuses, and online forums. The women took part in semi-structured individual interviews (face-to-face/telephone/Skype), which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four superordinate themes were elicited and used to draft 'better treatment' guidelines. Themes were: (1) Lack of knowledge, (2) Invalidation of suffering by professionals, (3) Difficult journey, and (4) Making the journey easier. This paper describes themes (3) and (4). Difficult Journey describes the long and arduous 'Journey into treatment', including difficulties asking for help, undergoing physical investigations and negotiating 'the system' of medical referrals. It also describes the sometimes demoralising process of 'being in treatment', which includes emotional and practical demands of treatment. Making the journey easier highlights the importance of and limits to 'partner support'. 'Professional support' comprises personal qualities of professionals/therapeutic relationship, the value of specialist skills and knowledge and the need for facilitating couple communication about vaginismus. 'Peer support/helping each other' describes the importance of

  12. Is there a bias against telephone interviews in qualitative research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Gina

    2008-08-01

    Telephone interviews are largely neglected in the qualitative research literature and, when discussed, they are often depicted as a less attractive alternative to face-to-face interviewing. The absence of visual cues via telephone is thought to result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and to compromise rapport, probing, and interpretation of responses. Yet, telephones may allow respondents to feel relaxed and able to disclose sensitive information, and evidence is lacking that they produce lower quality data. This apparent bias against telephone interviews contrasts with a growing interest in electronic qualitative interviews. Research is needed comparing these modalities, and examining their impact on data quality and their use for studying varying topics and populations. Such studies could contribute evidence-based guidelines for optimizing interview data. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  13. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  14. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by ... The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known.Diclofenac is also available as ...

  15. A case of topical opioid-induced delirium mistaken as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in demented state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Go; Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2013-06-01

    In Japan, indications for opioid analgesics, once exclusively used as pain killers for patients suffering from malignant cancer, have been expanded for a wide range of pain. Herein we report a patient with opioid-induced delirium associated with the administration of buprenorphine patches that was well below the indicated therapeutic range limit. An 82-year-old woman was referred to us from an orthopaedic practitioner for uncontrollable behavioural problems apparently caused by the beginning of dementia; the patient had gradually developed disorientation, visual hallucinations, and delusions. Laboratory and imaging findings excluded common causes of delirium including Alzheimer's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease. Detailed questioning revealed that the patient's confused state appeared following a buprenorphine patch dose increase and subsequently disappeared after administration was stopped. Delirium has not been reported as a side-effect in clinical trials of buprenorphine patches. However, our findings in this case show that even topical opioids can precipitate the development of a delirious state in elderly patients. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: レビュー文献(as Topic) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term レビュー文献(as Topic) 名詞 一般 * * * * 文献...展望 ブンケンテンボウ ブンケンテンボー Thesaurus2015 200906096212141961 C BA01 UNKNOWN_2 レビュー 文献 ( a s Topic )

  17. Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides as Topical Anti-Infectives with Broad Spectrum Activity Against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Inc. Vallejo, CA 94592 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort...2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides as Topical...antibiotics and early debridement has been associated with a large reduction in burn wound infections. Current topical antibiotics include

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 面接調査(as Topic) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 面接調査(as Topic) 名詞 一般 * * * * 面接調査... メンセツチョウサ メンセツチョーサ Thesaurus2015 200906087132308300 C ID01 UNKNOWN_2 面接 調査 ( a s Topic )

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: データベース(as Topic) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term データベース(as Topic) 名詞 一般 * * * * データベース データベース データベース... Thesaurus2015 200906054074603733 C EG01 UNKNOWN_2 データベース ( a s Topic )

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: プログラム学習(as Topic) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term プログラム学習(as Topic) 名詞 一般 * * * * プログラム学習... プログラムガクシュウ プログラムガクシュー Thesaurus2015 200906029207719115 C BJ01 UNKNOWN_2 プログラム 学習 ( a s Topic )

  1. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  2. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  3. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  4. 'I wish someone watched me interview:' medical student insight into observation and feedback as a method for teaching communication skills during the clinical years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Heather; Rosenbaum, Marcy; Axelson, Rick

    2016-11-09

    Experts suggest observation and feedback is a useful tool for teaching and evaluating medical student communication skills during the clinical years. Failing to do this effectively risks contributing to deterioration of students' communication skills during the very educational period in which they are most important. While educators have been queried about their thoughts on this issue, little is known about what this process is like for learners and if they feel they get educational value from being observed. This study explored student perspectives regarding their experiences with clinical observation and feedback on communication skills. A total of 125 senior medical students at a U.S. medical school were interviewed about their experiences with observation and feedback. Thematic analysis of interview data identified common themes among student responses. The majority of students reported rarely being observed interviewing, and they reported receiving feedback even less frequently. Students valued having communication skills observed and became more comfortable with observation the more it occurred. Student-identified challenges included supervisor time constraints and grading based on observation. Most feedback focused on information gathering and was commonly delayed until well after the observed encounter. Eliciting students' perspectives on the effect of observation and feedback on the development of their communication skills is a unique way to look at this topic, and brings to light many student-identified obstacles and opportunities to maximize the educational value of observation and feedback for teaching communication, including increasing the number of observations, disassociating observation from numerically scored evaluation, training faculty to give meaningful feedback, and timing the observation/feedback earlier in clerkships.

  5. Using Evaluation and Research Theory to Improve Programs in Applied Settings: An Interview with Thomas D. Cook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    An interview with T. Cook, author of works on the use of research and evaluation theory and design, touches on such topics as practical evaluation, planning programs with evaluation or research design, and evaluation of programs for gifted students. (CL)

  6. Clinical efficacy and IL-17 targeting mechanism of Indigo naturalis as a topical agent in moderate psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Man; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wang, Qingmin; Song, Michael; Wu, Jackson; Chen, Dion; Li, Katherine; Wadman, Eric; Kao, Shung-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung; Leon, Francisco; Hayden, Karen; Brodmerkel, Carrie; Chris Huang, C

    2017-09-02

    Indigo naturalis is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ingredient long-recognized as a therapy for several inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. However, its mechanism is unknown due to lack of knowledge about the responsible chemical entity. We took a different approach to this challenge by investigating the molecular profile of Indigo naturalis treatment and impacted pathways. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted using Indigo naturalis as topical monotherapy to treat moderate plaque psoriasis in a Chinese cohort (n = 24). Patients were treated with Indigo naturalis ointment (n = 16) or matched placebo (n = 8) twice daily for 8 weeks, with 1 week of follow-up. At week 8, significant improvements in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores from baseline were observed in Indigo naturalis-treated patients (56.3% had 75% improvement [PASI 75] response) compared with placebo (0.0%). A gene expression signature of moderate psoriasis was established from baseline skin biopsies, which included the up-regulation of the interleukin (IL)-17 pathway as a key component; Indigo naturalis treatment resulted in most of these signature genes returning toward normal, including down-regulation of the IL-17 pathway. Using an in vitro keratinocyte assay, an IL-17-inhibitory effect was observed for tryptanthrin, a component of Indigo naturalis. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of Indigo naturalis in moderate psoriasis, and exemplified a novel experimental medicine approach to understand TCM targeting mechanisms. NCT01901705 .

  7. Analysis of Factors Affecting Patients’ Compliance to Topical Antiglaucoma Medications in Egypt as a Developing Country Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla B. Abu Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study factors affecting patients’ compliance to antiglaucoma medications in Egypt where there are unique factors as a developing country. Patients and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study on 440 Egyptian patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG recruited for over two years. The patients were thoroughly interviewed about their age, education level, duration of glaucoma, difficulty in instilling the drops, medication regimens, a family history of glaucoma, knowledge of the disease, and the presence of medical insurance. Results. 236 (53.6% were noncompliant compared to 204 (46.4% who were compliant. Females had a tendency for higher compliance (p=0.061. Patient age above 50 years and low level of education and negative family history of glaucoma were factors significantly associated with poor compliance (p<0.0001. Polytherapy and lack of medical insurance could be contributing factors. Conclusion. Egyptian patients have a high rate of noncompliance compared to the average in literature. Great effort is needed in educating patients about the importance of medications and the risk and the prognosis of this disease. Economic factors must also be taken into consideration in developing countries with large number of poor patients. We recommend simplifying drug regimens, incorporating electronic dose monitors, and creating reminders for follow-up visits of glaucoma patients.

  8. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  9. Evaluation of topical nalbuphine or oral tramadol as analgesics for corneal pain in dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason S; Bentley, Ellison; Smith, Lesley J

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical nalbuphine or oral tramadol in the treatment of corneal pain in dogs. Fourteen male Beagle dogs. Dogs were divided into three treatment groups and sedated with dexmedetomidine (5 μ/kg IV). A 4 mm corneal epithelial wound was created in the right eye (OD) of all dogs. Sedation was reversed with atipamazole IM. All dogs received pre/post ophthalmic examinations. Post operatively, Group NB (n = 5) received topical 1% preservative-free nalbuphine OD q8 h and an oral placebo PO q8 h. Group TR (n = 5) received tramadol (4 mg/kg) PO q8 h and topical sterile saline OD q8 h. Group CNTRL (n = 4) received topical sterile saline OD q8 h and an oral placebo q8 h. All dogs received topical 0.3% gentamicin OD TID until healed. Dogs were pain scored using a pain scoring system modified from the University of Melbourne pain scale at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, then every 6 h by observers masked to treatment, until corneal wounds were healed. Treatment failure was recorded if cumulative pain scores were above a minimum threshold of acceptable pain and rescue analgesia of morphine (1.0 mg/kg IM) was administered subsequently. Four dogs in Group NB, one dog in Group TR, and two dogs in Group CNTRL required rescue analgesia. There was no significant difference in the incidence of treatment failure between groups (P = 0.184). Mean time to rescue was 9.16 h. All corneal wounds were healed by 84 h. The results of this study suggest tramadol rather than nalbuphine should be further investigated for the treatment of corneal pain. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Creativity in ethnographic interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....

  11. Interview with Jessica Utts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…

  12. Interview with Louise Lonabocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…

  13. New Materialism: Interviews & Cartographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of

  14. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  15. 'Competent persons who can treat you with competence, as simple as that' - an interview study with transgender people on their experiences of meeting health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Malin

    2016-12-01

    With a focus on sexual health and rights, this study describes how transgender people experience meetings with health care professionals. Transgender people face prejudice and discrimination worldwide. Little is known of their experiences in sexual health-promoting settings. Within a descriptive design, 20 persons aged 18-74 and identifying as transgender and nonbinary were interviewed. The results were analysed with constructivist grounded theory. Disrespect among health care professionals is the core category connected to the experiences in the result; transgender people experience estrangement, expectations and eviction in different sexual health-promoting settings. Transgender knowledge needs to be increased in general, in both specialised transgender health care and many other health care settings, to prevent transgender peoples' experiences of estrangement. Moreover, an increased knowledge of, and respect for, sexual health and rights is needed to prevent transgender peoples' exposure to gender binary, cis- and heteronormative expectations. In addition, access to sexual health care is essential following gender-confirmatory care as well to avoid transgender peoples' experiences of eviction from the health care system. Nurses have an important role to play in striving for equity and justice within health care. This study describes how health care professionals appear to be disrespectful and suggestions of how this can be avoided are made. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dapsone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); antimalarial medications such as chloroquine (Aralen), primaquine, and quinine (Qualaquin); dapsone (by mouth); ... and the laboratory.Do not let anyone else use your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you ...

  17. Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H

    2012-10-01

    Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey

  18. Topical versus intravenous tranexamic acid as a blood conservation intervention for reduction of post-operative bleeding in hemiarthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Walid Mohamed; Moez, Khaled K; Elkhouly, Abeer H

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to test the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss in pelvic hemiarthoplasty surgeries compared with intravenous TXA, regarding the incidence of thromboembolic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism (PE) and cerebrovascular stroke [CVS]). After obtaining institutional ethical approval 60 patients divided into three groups. Group A: Received intravenous TXA Group B: Received topical TXA Group C: Control group (placebo saline). All patients were received general anesthesia and post-operative bleeding, immediate and 24 h post-operatively, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, platelets and coagulation profile (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio) baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Thromboelastography was recorded baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Incidence of DVT, PE and CVS was recorded. There was statistical significant elevation hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit in both Groups A and B, significant increase in blood loss in Group C, significant increase in number of patients receiving blood in Group C, there was a significant decrease in "r" and "k" times and a significant increase in maximum amplitude and α-angle in Group A, statistically significant increase in the incidence of thromboembolic events in the form of DVT, PE and CVS in Group A. Topical TXA is effective in decreasing post-operative blood loss with possible side-effects of this route of administration.

  19. Topical colloidal silver as an anti-biofilm agent in a Staphylococcus aureus chronic rhinosinusitis sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv, Sukanya; Drilling, Amanda; Bassiouni, Ahmed; James, Craig; Vreugde, Sarah; Wormald, Peter-John

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance, leading to re-emergence of topical therapies. The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of topical colloidal silver solution for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in a sheep model. In the safety study, normal saline (control) and 30-ppm colloidal silver solution (test) was used to flush the frontal sinuses for 14 days in 8 sheep (4 sheep each). In the efficacy study, following frontal sinus infection with Staphylococcus aureus, sheep were treated with either control saline or topical silver solution of varying concentrations (30 ppm/20 ppm/10 ppm/5 ppm) for 5 days, with 4 sheep in each group. Blood silver level, full blood counts, and biochemical parameters were analyzed in both safety and efficacy studies. Sinus tissue was harvested for histological examination and ciliary structure analysis in safety and for biofilm biomass quantification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and COMSTAT 2 software in the efficacy study. Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Sheep treated with silver showed a significant decrease in biofilm biomass (0.004, 0.004, 0.004, and 0.007, in the 4 silver-treated groups, respectively) compared to saline control (0.175), p silver levels were higher in the treated groups compared to controls (p colloidal silver solution has effective antibiofilm activity in Staphylococcus aureus CRS in a sheep model and appears safe. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Cryotherapy and Topical Minocycline as Adjunctive Measures to Control Pain After Third Molar Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelesko, Savannah; Long, Leann; Faulk, Jan; Phillips, Ceib; Dicus, Carolyn; White, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of cryotherapy or topical minocycline on patients’ perceptions of recovery from pain after third molar surgery in an exploratory comparative-effectiveness study. Patients and Methods Subjects aged at least 14 years who were having all 4 third molars removed were enrolled in 3 separate institutional review board–approved studies. Study groups included subjects treated with a passively applied cold wrap for 24 hours postoperatively, subjects treated with topical minocycline during surgery, and subjects enrolled in a nonconcurrent comparison group who had received neither topical minocycline nor directed cryotherapy. Third molar surgery was performed in all cases by trained surgeons using the same protocol. An exact Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the distributions of the worst and average pain scores and a Fisher exact test to compare verbal responses from Gracely pain scales among the 3 groups for postsurgical days (PSDs) 1 to 3. Results This study comprised 51 cryotherapy subjects (2005–2009), 63 minocycline subjects (2003–2004), and 92 comparison-group subjects (2002–2006) who were treated at academic centers and in community practices across the United States (N = 206). Demographic descriptors were similar among all groups. For PSDs 1 through 3 (unadjusted), the highest scores for worst pain (6–7 [out of 7] on Likert-type scale) were reported less frequently in each of the study groups than in subjects in the comparison group, although the numbers of subjects reporting the highest scores were few. The distribution of pain outcomes was significantly different among the 3 groups for worst pain and affective words on PSD 1 (P = .04 for both). However, the small number of subjects who reported the highest pain scores precluded adequate multivariate statistical analyses for all outcomes on PSD 1 to 3. Conclusions Data from this exploratory study suggest that adjunctive therapy to decrease postoperative pain

  1. Becaplermin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical professional; the use of special shoes, walkers, crutches, or wheelchairs to keep weight off the ulcer; ... a clean, non-absorbent surface such as wax paper. Do not touch the tip of the tube ...

  2. Fluorouracil Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Fluorouracil may make your skin sensitive to sunlight.

  3. Interview: interview with P Jeffrey Conn. Interview by Hannah Coaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, P Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  4. The Effectiveness of Diagnostic Assessment on the Development of Turkish Language Learners’ Narrative Skills as an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjel Tozcu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of diagnostic assessment on improving students’ proficiency in narrating past events, an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Level 2 task. It found that students who were given a personalized learning plan subsequent to the diagnostic assessment interview significantly improved their proficiency in basic sentence structures than those in a control group. They used a significantly larger number of cohesive devices as compared to the control group and exhibited significantly increased accuracy in using cohesive devices than a control group. The students in the treatment group worked on the recommended activities based on the data gathered during the diagnostic assessment interview and the pre-interview questionnaires, i.e., the E & L, MBTI, and Barsch. The students in the control group spent the same amount of time reading narrations, doing comprehension exercise,s and following standard teacher feedback for improvement. Although both groups showed increases in accurate use of cohesive devices and proficiency in basic sentence structures, the treatment students showed significantly greater gains than the control students.

  5. Calcitriol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a treatment for psoriasis that involves exposing the skin to ultraviolet [UV] light).tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ... avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as ... sunscreen. Calcitriol ointment may make your skin sensitive to sunlight.

  6. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  7. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  8. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2010-01-01

    , an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences.  With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods.  The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology.  Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...

  9. Det kritiske interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lars

    Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....

  10. Research Interview Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, Eustatius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These

  11. A prospective comparison of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline as haemostatic agent in hypospadias surgery in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Laddha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A comparative study of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline to minimise haemorrhage-related complications in paediatric hypospadiac patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 108 consecutive paediatric hypospadiac patients (48 in the study group and 60 control - random allocation were studied. In the study group, 1% feracrylum citrate solution was used and adrenaline (1:100,000 in controls. Results: Among the study group, average number of blood-soaked gauge pieces were 2.95/patient, correlating with average intraoperative blood loss of 14.74 ml. In controls, average blood-soaked gauge pieces were 4.83/patient corresponding to an average blood loss of 24.13 ml. The average amount of blood loss during surgery in the <5 years was 13.70 ml/patient in the feracrylum group, while the same in the adrenaline group was 23.45 ml. Average duration of surgery was 79 min in the study group, while the same in controls was 94 min/patient. Average number of cauterisations was 0.255/patient in the study group and 0.583/patient among controls. Postoperative haematoma was seen in 8% study group compared with 18% controls. Wound oedema appeared in 4.17% study group and 11.67% controls. Postoperative complications were higher among controls. Conclusions: Feracrylum is more efficient and safer topical haemostatic agent than adrenaline. It reduced the frequency of cauterisation and tissue damage, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications.

  12. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific

  13. Topical botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  14. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  15. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  16. Topical antibiotics as a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia within selective digestive decontamination studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, James C

    2014-12-31

    Among methods for preventing pneumonia and possibly also bacteremia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) appears most effective within randomized concurrent controlled trials (RCCT's) although more recent trials have been cluster randomized. However, of the SDD components, whether protocolized parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (PPAP) is required, and whether the topical antibiotic actually presents a contextual hazard, remain unresolved. The objective here is to compare the bacteremia rates and patterns of isolates in SDD-RCCT's versus the broader evidence base. Bacteremia incidence proportion data were extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies investigating antibiotic (SDD) or non-antibiotic methods of VAP prevention and summarized using random effects meta-analysis of study and group level data. A reference category of groups derived from purely observational studies without any prevention method under study provided a benchmark incidence. Within SDD RCCTs, the mean bacteremia incidence among concurrent component groups not exposed to PPAP (27 control; 17.1%; 13.1-22.1% and 12 intervention groups; 16.2%; 9.1-27.3%) is double that of the benchmark bacteremia incidence derived from 39 benchmark groups (8.3; 6.8-10.2%) and also 20 control groups from studies of non-antibiotic methods (7.1%; 4.8 - 10.5). There is a selective increase in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among bacteremia isolates within control groups of SDD-RCCT's versus benchmark groups with data available. The topical antibiotic component of SDD presents a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia against which the PPAP component partially mitigates.

  17. STATE, MARKET AND CIVIL SOCIETY AS ACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT: the Challenge of Sustainability in the 21st Century. Interview with Lecturer Heike Doering, PhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila De Nadai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this edition, professor Priscila De Nadai interviewed Heike Doering, PhD in Sociology from Cardiff University (United Kingdom, lecturer at Cardiff Business School and researcher of the Centre for Local and Regional Government Research, also from Cardiff University. In the past few years,  she has conducted research about reginal development and sustainability management, in emerging economies. One of her research projects is being developed in Espírito Santo in partnership with researchers from our State. In this interview, profesor Heike Doering will tell us about her trajectory as a researcher, about her studies and the specific research she is currently conducting in Espírito Santo.

  18. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  19. A Study With Special Emphasis On Applying Motivational Interviewing As a Clinical Approach to Change Addictive Behavior of Drug Abusers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani

    2002-10-01

    The goals of present article are three – fold: In the first step, it introduces a brief form of motivational Interviewing for addictive behaviors. Its primary basis is the idea that most substance abusers seek medical treatment without being ready to change addictive behaviors. As a result, attempts the addicts to change often lead to their resistance. Therefore, the use of motivational interviewing (MI in which clients are directed towards realizing their own reasons and arguments for changing their behavior, seems to be most oppropriate to motivate and prepare them for change. In the second step, the article tries to discuss advantages of motivational interviewing approach to often opproaches (e.g, skills training approach, Indirect approach and confrontational – denial approach and suggests that (MI is the most appropriate strategy for the substance abusers, according to their degree of readiness for change. Finally in the third step, the article attempts to indicate the current dominant strategies of addiction treatment in Iran and concludes that due to dominance and commonality of medicine – based treatment strategies of addictive behaviors, (MI could be introduced as an alternative and appropriate treatment strategy for drug addicts in Iran.

  20. Topical immunomodulators in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

  1. Apple founder targets healthcare as NeXT market. Interview by Carolyn Dunbar and Michael L. Laughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs, S

    1992-12-01

    Cofounder and former chairman of the board of Apple Computer Steven Jobs looks beyond the 1980s image of a petulant, embittered young man, fighting with all who failed to share his vision, and many who did. Today, as a founder, president and chairman of NeXT, Inc., he looks to more high-minded applications of his computer genius.

  2. "I Don't Come out with Big Words like Other People": Interviewing Adolescents as Part of Communication Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Assessing adolescent language skills poses significant challenges due to the subtle nature of language proficiency at this age, along with the high linguistic demands both academically and socially. As with young children, the current range of language assessments designed specifically for adolescents mostly includes standardized tests. This…

  3. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-09-01

    In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  4. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  5. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L O; Konlaan, B B; Johansson, S E

    To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start.

  6. Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-10-01

    Born in Gelsenkirchen-Buer in Germany on March 11th, 1936, Professor Harald zur Hausen, Emeritus Professor of Virology at the University of Freiburg and 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, believes that good knowledge of virological methods and diagnostic possibilities are an asset for all young paediatricians. Professor zur Hausen considers that the creation of an educational platform on Paediatric Virology is definitely very beneficial for young paediatricians, as this will greatly enhance their knowledge in the field of Virology. He very actively advocates the vaccination of boys for the eradication of HPV infection and emphasises that male HPV vaccination should be included into the current vaccination programmes. He would have certainly considered Dr George N. Papanicolaou (Kyme, Island of Euboea, Greece, 1883 - Miami, Florida, USA, 1962) as an excellent candidate for the Nobel Prize, stating that the contribution of Dr Papanicolaou did not find sufficient recognition in the past. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens, Greece, on October 7th, 2017, Professor zur Hausen will give his plenary lecture on 'Paediatric Virology and Oncology: Virus persistence and the important first years of life'.

  7. Interview of Didier Houssin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In an interview, the manager of the IEA market and energy security Directorate comments the results of the Rio+20 summit, the possible evolutions of oil price in a context of world energy demand under tension and of geopolitical risks, the trends on the world gas market as they have been published by the IEA, how to solve the gas competition issue in Europe, the future of the oil refining activity in Europe as it looses competitiveness, and the indexing of gas price on oil price

  8. Interview: Joseph Agassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Agassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.

  9. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Systematic Interviewing Skills. Typescript Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Roy C.; Rubin, Stanford E.

    Part of a five-part package (see note) of training materials to teach interviewing skills to human services personnel, this typescript manual is intended for use as a visual reference to aid in understanding the taped dialogues of the packages tape/slide demonstrations of interview interaction, and for referral in class discussions. The typescript…

  12. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  13. Interview with Helge Kragh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2017-01-01

    Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...

  14. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  15. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  16. Introducing Scientific Writing as Mandatory Topic in Bachelor Nursing Program - Experience of the University of Dubrovnik, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidarić, Mihaela; Vičić-Hudorović, Višnja; Hudorović, Narcis

    2016-06-01

    One of the methods that have been used to encourage student reflection skills is scientific writing. The purpose of this article is to discuss implementation of obligatory study topic with the main objective to increase the skills of scientific writing among students of Bachelor Nursing Curriculum and its relation to scientific publishing volume of Bachelor degree students from the University of Dubrovnik. By searching the local rank database called HRČAK, data were collected on publication volume of the Bachelor course students at the University of Dubrovnik from 2010 to 2014. Articles published in the Croatian medical journals in Croatian language were identified. Sixty-six students published 35 articles, alone or with co-authors. Two (6%) articles were written by a single author. Among co-authors from the nursing profession, those with associate degree in nursing (20%) predominated, followed by medical doctors and anthropologists (25%). The total number of authors was 95, and the share of papers published in Croatian language was 100%. The body of published articles increased from 2012 to 2013 by 14%, and then from 2013 to 2014 by 113%. For future investigations, closer insight into novel approaches is needed to encourage nursing students to increase their scientific productivity, especially in English language. In order to enhance international visibility of Croatian nursing authors, academic members of the Croatian scientific nursing community should find additional tools to upgrade scientific productivity of the Croatian nursing authors.

  17. Communicating about obesity and weight-related topics with children with a physical disability and their families: spina bifida as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Swift, Judy A; Peters, Michelle; Lyons, Julia; Joy Knibbe, Tara; Church, Paige; Chen, Lorry; Farrell, Renée M; Willem Gorter, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of children with spina bifida (SB), their families and healthcare professionals (HCPs) when discussing weight-related topics. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with HCPs from Canadian outpatient SB clinics (n = 13), children aged 6-18 years with SB (n = 17) and their parents (n = 20). Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach within an interpretative paradigm. Many HCPs were not confident talking about weight, concerned that they would damage relationships with children and families. Parents wanted routine weight surveillance, but were worried about their children's self-esteem if their weight was discussed. They wanted HCPs to acknowledge the challenges of weight management in children with a physical disability and provide specialized solutions. Children wanted a positively framed and tailored approach to weight discussions, although this had generally not been their experience. Stakeholders describe therapeutic relationships that are currently disconnected around the issue of weight and obesity. However, children, parents and HCPs all believed that discussing this topic was critical. Positively framed, strengths-based and tailored approaches to weight-related discussions are warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Rates of overweight and obesity in children and youth with physical disabilities are substantially higher than their typically developing peers. Healthcare professionals, children with physical disabilities and families often find weight-related discussions challenging and disconnected. Weight-related discussions should be tailored to the child and family's circumstances and priorities. Positively framed and strengths-based approaches to weight-related discussions are warranted.

  18. Interview with John Milnor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...

  19. Kapitel 10. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2011-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....

  20. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  1. 'Let the heart speak out'--interviewing practices by psychiatrists from two different traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Diana; Ribeiro, Branca Telles; Lopes Dantas, Maria Tereza

    2005-01-01

    In the present article, we investigate the extent to which professional theories that underlie, inform, and guide the interviewing practices of two psychiatrists (a neuropsychiatrist and a psychoanalyst) are discursively displayed in their ways of conducting a psychiatric interview. This study analyses excerpts from two audio-recorded psychiatric interviews held at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It follows theoretical and methodological frameworks derived from interactional sociolinguistics. Ethnographic data and research interviews with both clinicians also ground our discussion. Using frame analysis as a central tool, we found that the psychiatrist who subscribes to a neuropsychiatric orientation displays a concern on assessing the patient's cognitive processes, and shifts topics away from the patient's delusions to (re)introduce the institutional frame of the psychiatric interview. By contrast, the psychiatrist who holds a psychoanalytic orientation towards interviewing not only listens attentively to very personal topics introduced by the patient, but also sustains and develops these topics. Most of all, she proposes and stays within conversational frames. In keeping a dual understanding about their practices in the interview situation, both doctors balance the need to follow the institutional agenda and the need to listen to the patient, despite their different theoretical orientations.

  2. Interview with faz chowdhury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faz

    2014-06-01

    Faz Chowdhury is the Chief Executive Officer of Nemaura Pharma (Loughborough, UK), a pharmaceutical drug-delivery company developing patented formulation technologies alongside transdermal systems. Having originally trained as a pharmaceutical scientist, Dr Chowdhury received his PhD in Nanomedicine from the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK). With recognized expertise in the pharmaceutical industry and the holder of more than 15 patents on drug-delivery systems, Dr Chowdhury discussed the challenges faced in microneedle-based drug delivery, an area widely expected to revolutionize the transdermal field over the coming years. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Commissioning Editor.

  3. Synergistic activity profile of carbosilane dendrimer G2-STE16 in combination with other dendrimers and antiretrovirals as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Lorente, Raquel; Leal, Manuel; Gómez, Rafael; De la Mata, Francisco J; Jiménez, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    Polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers represent opportunities to develop new anti-HIV microbicides. Dendrimers and antiretrovirals (ARVs) acting at different stages of HIV replication have been proposed as compounds to decrease new HIV infections. Thus, we determined the potential use of our G2-STE16 carbosilane dendrimer in combination with other carbosilane dendrimers and ARVs for the use as topical microbicide against HIV-1. We showed that these combinations obtained 100% inhibition and displayed a synergistic profile against different HIV-1 isolates in our model of TZM.bl cells. Our results also showed their potent activity in the presence of an acidic vaginal or seminal fluid environment and did not activate an inflammatory response. This study is the first step toward exploring the use of different anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination and toward making a safe microbicide. Therefore, our results support further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide. This paper describes the first steps toward the use of anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination with antivirals to address HIV-1, paving the way to further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicides. © 2014.

  4. African Primary Care Research: qualitative interviewing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.

  5. Topical rapamycin as a treatment for fibrofolliculomas in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized split-face trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke M C Gijezen

    Full Text Available Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign, mostly facial, skin tumours called fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and an increased renal cancer risk. Current treatments for fibrofolliculomas have high rates of recurrence and carry a risk of complications. It would be desirable to have a treatment that could prevent fibrofolliculomas from growing. Animal models of BHD have previously shown deregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Topical use of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is an effective treatment for the skin tumours (angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex, which is also characterised by mTOR deregulation. In this study we aimed to determine if topical rapamycin is also an effective treatment for fibrofolliculomas in BHD.We performed a double blinded, randomised, facial left-right controlled trial of topical rapamycin 0.1% versus placebo in 19 BHD patients. Trial duration was 6 months. The primary outcome was cosmetic improvement as measured by doctors and patients. Changes in fibrofolliculoma number and size were also measured, as was occurrence of side effects.No change in cosmetic status of fibrofolliculomas was reported in the majority of cases for the rapamycin treated (79% by doctors, 53% by patients as well as the placebo treated facial sides (both 74%. No significant differences between rapamycin and placebo treated facial halves were observed (p = 1.000 for doctors opinion, p = 0.344 for patients opinion. No significant difference in fibrofolliculoma number or change in size of the fibrofolliculomas was seen after 6 months. Side effects occurred more often after rapamycin treatment (68% of patients than after placebo (58% of patients; p = 0.625. A burning sensation, erythema, itching and dryness were most frequently reported.This study provides no evidence that treatment of fibrofolliculomas with topical

  6. Use of interviews in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary

    2015-06-24

    Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.

  7. Coding interview questions concepts, problems, interview questions

    CERN Document Server

    Karumanchi, Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people

  8. Fluency and the use of foreign words in interviews with EFL learners

    OpenAIRE

    De Cock, Sylvie; International Conference Fluency & Disfluency across Langages and Language Varieties

    2017-01-01

    The Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage (LINDSEI) contains informal interviews with intermediate to advanced level learners of English as a foreign language. The interviews follow the same set pattern and are made up of three main tasks: a personal narrative based on a set topic (an experience that taught them a lesson, a country that impressed them, or a film or play they liked/disliked), a free discussion mainly about university life, hobbies, foreign travel or pl...

  9. Use of abnormal and health psychology as topics in a classroom format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among college students at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, W M

    2001-12-01

    This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.

  10. [Can Topical Negative Pressure Therapy be Performed as a Cost-Effective General Surgery Procedure in the German DRG System?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, Z; Xiong, L; Hirche, C; Willis, S

    2016-04-01

    Topical negative pressure therapy (TNPT) has been established for surgical wound therapy with different indications. Nevertheless, there is only sparse evidence regarding its therapeutic superiority or cost-effectiveness in the German DRG system (G-DRG). This study was designed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of TNPT in the G-DRG system with a focus on daily treatment costs and reimbursement in a general surgery care setting. In this retrospective study, we included 176 patients, who underwent TNPT between 2007 and 2011 for general surgery indications. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness involved 149 patients who underwent a simulation to calculate the reimbursement with or without TNPT by a virtual control group in which the TNP procedure was withdrawn for DRG calculation. This was followed by a calculation of costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent and material costs. Comparison between the "true" and the virtual group enabled calculation of the effective remaining surplus per case. Total reimbursement by included TNPT cases was 2,323 ,70.04 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 102,669.20 €. In 41 cases there was a cost-effectiveness (27.5%) with 607,422.03 € with TNP treatment, while the control group without TNP generated revenues of 442,015.10 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 47,376.68 €. In the final account we could generate a cost-effectiveness of 6759 € in 5 years per 149 patients by TNPT. In 108 cases there was no cost-effectiveness (72.5%). TNPT applied in a representative general surgery setting allows for wound therapy without a major financial burden. Based on the costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent, a primarily medically based decision when to use TNPT can be performed in a balanced product cost accounting. This study does not analyse the superiority of TNPT in wound care, so further prospective studies are required which focus on therapeutic superiority and cost-effectiveness. Georg Thieme

  11. The addition of a goal-based motivational interview to standardised treatment as usual to reduce dropouts in a service for patients with personality disorder: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitham Diane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT. Methods All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64, 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91, and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100. In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi

  12. The addition of a goal-based motivational interview to standardised treatment as usual to reduce dropouts in a service for patients with personality disorder: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurran, Mary; Cox, W Miles; Coupe, Stephen; Whitham, Diane; Hedges, Lucy

    2010-10-14

    Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT). All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64), 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91), and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100). In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi-structured interviews, will be analysed using thematic

  13. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...

  14. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

  15. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  16. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  17. Emotions related to participation restrictions as experienced by patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study (the Swedish TIRA project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael; Valtersson, Eva; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Psychological distress is a well-known complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but knowledge regarding emotions and their relationship to participation restrictions is scarce. The objective of the study was to explore emotions related to participation restrictions by patients with early RA. In this study, 48 patients with early RA, aged 20-63 years, were interviewed about participation restrictions using the critical incident technique. Information from transcribed interviews was converted into dilemmas and linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) participation codes. The emotions described were condensed and categorized. Hopelessness and sadness were described when trying to perform daily activities such as getting up in the mornings and getting dressed, or not being able to perform duties at work. Sadness was experienced in relation to not being able to continue leisure activities or care for children. Examples of fear descriptions were found in relation to deteriorating health and fumble fear, which made the individual withdraw from activities as a result of mistrusting the body. Anger and irritation were described in relation to domestic and employed work but also in social relations where the individual felt unable to continue valued activities. Shame or embarrassment was described when participation restrictions became visible in public. Feelings of grief, aggressiveness, fear, and shame are emotions closely related to participation restrictions in everyday life in early RA. Emotions related to disability need to be addressed both in clinical settings in order to optimize rehabilitative multi-professional interventions and in research to achieve further knowledge.

  18. Interview with Karol Modzelewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Guglielmotti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .

  19. Computer-Administered Interviews and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…

  20. Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Travis

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

  1. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Topic models are unsupervised techniques that extract likely topics from text corpora, by creating probabilistic word-topic and topic-document associations. Evaluation of topic models is a challenge because (a) topic models are often employed...

  2. Det kvalitative interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....

  3. Interview with Henry Jenkins

    OpenAIRE

    TWC Editor

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.

  4. Comparing appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to phone interviews in qualitative research on reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is

  5. Interviewing: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 12

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Interviews are easy to do badly and hard to do well - good planning, adequate time and appropriate skills are required. The type of interview should be carefully chosen to suit the situation rather than choosing a type of interview (such as focus groups) simply because it is commonly used. Interviews with children raise particular ethical issues that need to be carefully considered and fully addressed. This brief outlines key issues to consider in planning interviews for impact evaluation, ta...

  6. [Sociology as a Major Factor for the Psychiatrie-Enquete in the Federal Republic of Germany - Results from Expert Interviews and Document Analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, Felicitas; Fangerau, Heiner; Becker, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines the influence of sociology as a discipline on the Psychiatrie-Enquete by analysing interviews with expert (psychiatrist, psychologist, sociologist etc.) witnesses of the Enquete process and by analysing pertinent documents. 24 interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative secondary analysis. Sociological texts and research results influenced the professional development of psychiatrists at the time. Cross-talk between psychiatry and sociology developed through seminal sociological analyses of psychiatric institutions and the interest taken in medical institutions in a number of sociological texts. Inter-disciplinary joint studies (of sociologists and psychiatrists) affected the research interest and professional behaviour of psychiatrists involved in the process on the way to the Psychiatrie-Enquete. Tenacity of psychiatrists' systems of opinion was dissolved by impulses from the sociological thought community. The forms of contact between the psychiatric and the sociological thought collective which we could reconstruct are an example of the evolution of knowledge and practice through transdisciplinary communication. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  8. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  10. Gender In Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea

    The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…

  11. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  12. Interviewing like a researcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe

    2018-01-01

    the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...

  13. Interview with Mikhail Gromov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....

  14. A semifluorinated alkane (F4H5) as novel carrier for cyclosporine A: a promising therapeutic and prophylactic option for topical treatment of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, Uta; Braun, Tobias; Notara, Maria; Krösser, Sonja; Steven, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (Cs) has been used as effective topical therapy for inflammatory dry eye disease since more than a decade. However, due to its lipophilic character, Cs is formulated as emulsions or oily solutions for topical application. This experimental study aimed to test if the use of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) as a preservative-free, well-tolerated non-stinging or burning vehicle maintains or even improves the benefits of Cs in the topical therapy of dry-eye disease. Desiccating stress was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 14 consecutive days to induce experimental dry-eye. Cs dissolved in SFA (perfluorobutylpentane = F4H5with 0.5% Ethanol), F4H5 with 0.5% ethanol only, 0.05% Cs (Restasis®), and dexamethasone (Monodex®) were applied three times daily beginning either at day 4 or day 11 of desiccating stress for up to 3 weeks after end of dry-eye induction. In comparison to other groups, Cs/F4H5 demonstrated high efficacy and earlier reduction of corneal staining. In this study, Cs/F4H5 had the ability to maintain conjunctival goblet cell density once applied on day 4. Flow cytometry analysis from cervical lymphnodes demonstrated a significantly lower CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the Cs/F4H5 group following 3 weeks of therapy than at baseline, but no difference in regulatory T cells from regional lymphnodes were seen. Overall, compared to a commercially available Cs formulation (Restasis®) and dexamethasone, Cs/F4H5 was shown to be equally effective but with a significantly faster therapeutic response in reducing signs of dry-eye disease in an experimental mouse model.

  15. Online Catalogs from the Users' Perspective: The Use of Focus Group Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Johnson, Debra Wilcox; Searing, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to elicit information about the library's online catalog. Highlights the use of focus group interviews. Topics include experience with other catalogs, approaches to searching, positive feedback, barriers to use, and changes to the catalog as a result of the study. (LRW)

  16. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  17. Developing Student Critical Thinking Skills through Teaching Psychology: An Interview with Claudio S. Hutz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Claudio S. Hutz, who is dean of Instituto de Psicologia at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, where he has been teaching psychology since 1977. Discusses topics such as teaching psychology in Brazil and developing critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  18. An interview guide for clinicians to identify a young disabled person's motivation to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, B. J. M.; Wind, H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2016-01-01

    The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in

  19. Education for the 1980s and Beyond: An Interview with Carl Rogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H., III

    1985-01-01

    Presents an interview with Carl Rogers regarding education today and what it could be in the future. Discusses topics including politics and power, free choice versus conservatism, censorship, facilitators of learning, knowledge children need in today's world, and the changing society as it relates to humanistic education. (BH)

  20. A View from the ToP and Beyond: An Interview with Randolph A. Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoby, Alma

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Randolph A. Smith, the editor of the journal "Teaching of Psychology." Covers topics, such as his background, his thoughts on issues related to the journal, his teaching experiences, and the relationship between his teaching and editorial post. (CMK)

  1. Women's Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print National Women's Health Week May 13 - 19, 2018 Join us ...

  2. Regulatory Information By Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  3. Reflecting on the experience of interviewing online: perspectives from the Internet and HIV study in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M; Bolding, G; Hart, G; Sherr, L; Elford, J

    2004-11-01

    This paper considers some of the strengths and weaknesses of conducting synchronous online interviews for qualitative research. It is based on a study among gay/bisexual men that used both qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the association between seeking sex through the Internet and HIV transmission risk. Between June 2002 and January 2004, 128 gay/bisexual men living in London were interviewed one-to-one by the first author (MD) about their experience of using the Internet to find sexual partners and negotiating condom use for anal sex. Thirty-five men were interviewed online, while 93 were interviewed face-to-face (i.e. offline). This paper draws on MD's experience of conducting these interviews--both online and face-to-face. Synchronous online interviews have the advantage of being cheap, convenient and attractive to people who do not like face-to-face interviews. However, some of the social conventions and technical limitations of computer-mediated-communication can introduce ambiguity into the online dialogue. To minimize this ambiguity, both interviewer and interviewee have to edit their online interaction. One of the distinctive features of the online interview is that it emerges as a form of textual performance. This raises fundamental questions about the suitability of the synchronous online interview for exploring sensitive topics such as risky sexual behaviour.

  4. Topics in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  5. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  6. Drug compartmentalization as strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of diclofenac sodium loaded niosomes for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Lorena; de Cindio, Bruno; Picci, Nevio; Ioele, Giuseppina; Muzzalupo, Rita

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of diclofenac sodium compartmentalization on the physico-chemical properties (such as size, drug entrapment efficiency and percutaneous permeation across rabbit skin) of niosomal vesicles used as carriers. Niosomes were prepared starting from nonionic commercial surfactants belonging to the class of Polysorbates and Pluronics: mixtures of Span 60/F127 and Tween 60/F127 at different ratios were used to obtain vesicles and all formulations were compared in terms of dimensions, morphology, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency. Moreover, the enhancing effect of niosomes on the ex vivo percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium was investigated using Franz-type diffusion chambers and compared to that obtained by using the corresponding drug solution. Results demonstrated that niosomes were spherical and homogeneous in shape. Their size was found to be dependent on the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the surfactant mixture: increasing hydrophobicity resulted in smaller vesicles. Drug incorporation led to a significant variation in vesicle size dependently from the compartment in which the drug was located. The permeation of diclofenac from free solution used as control was found to be lower respect to that obtained for all niosomal formulations, that can be considered as percutaneous permeation enhancers. In particular, the results indicated that the highest cumulative amounts of diclofenac permeated across rabbit skin after 24 h were obtained by formulations in which the drug was located in the aqueous core.

  7. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  8. Freshman Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  9. Comparing clinical effects of photodynamic therapy as a novel method with topical corticosteroid for treatment of Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Mojahedi, Seyyed Masoud; Namdari, Mahshid; Rankohi, Zahra Elmi; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-12-01

    Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder with several challenges in treatment. Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as a new treatment option for the disease. The present study compared the clinical effects of photodynamic therapy to dexamethasone mouthwash in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with oral lichen planus were included.15 patients were treated with 5% methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy using Fotosan device for 30s (630nm wavelength and 7.2-14.4J/cm 2 dose) for 4 sessions in the days 1, 4, 7, 14. In another group, the treatment was done on 15 patients by 0.5mg tab dexamethasone solution in 5cc water, rinsed 4 times in a day within two weeks. The sign score, symptoms scores (pain), clinical severity and treatment efficacy were measured at the days 15, 30, 60, 90 after beginning of the treatment. The results were subjected to Mann-whitney U test in both groups. No significant difference existed between the two modalities regarding the treatment efficacy index, sign score, symptom score and clinical severity on the 15, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment days. Decreases in patient's symptoms were statistically significant in both groups. Photodynamic therapy was as effective as the dexamethasone mouth wash in the treatment of oral lichen planus. It could be used as a safe modality in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions without identified side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  11. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  12. Computational mediation as factor of motivation and meaningful learning in education of sciences of 9th grade: astronomy topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, F. M.; Furtado, W. W.

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of using hypertext and pedagogic mediation in search of a Meaningful Learning Process in Sciences. We investigate the usage of hypertext in the teaching and learning methods of Astronomy modules. A survey was conducted with students from the 9th grade of Primary School of a public school in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. We have analyzed the possibilities that hypermedia can offer in the teaching and learning process, using as reference David Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning. The study was divided into four phases: application of an initial questionnaire on students, development of didactic material (hypertext), six classes held in a computer lab with the use of hypermedia and a final questionnaire applied in the lab after classes. This research indicated that the use of hypertext linked to pedagogical mediation processes is seen as a motivational tool and has potential to foster to Meaningful Learning.

  13. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  14. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yantosik, G. D.; Lerner, K.; Maloney, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these

  15. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous absorption of vitamins C and E from topical microemulsions using reconstructed human epidermis as a skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Branka; Gasperlin, Mirjana; Tinois-Tessoneaud, Estelle; Pirot, Fabrice; Falson, Francoise

    2009-05-01

    Antioxidants provide the mainstay for skin protection against free radical damage. The structure of microemulsions (ME), colloidal thermodynamically stable dispersions of water, oil and surfactant, allows the incorporation of both lipophilic (vitamin E) and hydrophilic (vitamin C) antioxidants in the same system. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of non-thickened (o/w, w/o and gel-like) and thickened (with colloidal silica) ME as carriers for the two vitamins using reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). The amounts of these vitamins accumulated in and permeated across the RHE were determined, together with factors affecting skin deposition and permeation. Notable differences were observed between formulations. The absorption of vitamins C and E in RHE layers was in general enhanced by ME compared to solutions. The incorporation of vitamins in the outer phase of ME resulted in greater absorption than that when vitamins were in the inner phase. The location of the antioxidants in the ME and affinity for the vehicle appear to be crucial in the case of non-thickened ME. Addition of thickener enhanced the deposition of vitamins E and C in the RHE. By varying the composition of ME, RHE absorption of the two vitamins can be significantly modulated.

  17. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  18. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  19. Parental response to a letter reporting child overweight measured as part of a routine national programme in England: results from interviews with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyanzi, Lawrence A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ells, Louisa; Shucksmith, Janet

    2016-08-20

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents' understanding and feelings about their child's weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child's weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to 'othering'. Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and lack of exercise relate closely to the obesogenic environment, particularly the

  20. Parental response to a letter reporting child overweight measured as part of a routine national programme in England: results from interviews with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Nnyanzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4–5 and in year 6 (aged 10–11, with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents’ understanding and feelings about their child’s weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. Methods One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16 were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child’s weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. Results The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to ‘othering’. Conclusions Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and

  1. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  2. Interview with Henry Jenkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.

  3. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....

  4. Computer-Assisted, Self-Interviewing (CASI) Compared to Face-to-Face Interviewing (FTFI) with Open-Ended, Non-Sensitive Questions

    OpenAIRE

    John Fairweather PhD; Tiffany Rinne PhD; Gary Steel PhD

    2012-01-01

    This article reports results from research on cultural models, and assesses the effects of computers on data quality by comparing open-ended questions asked in two formats—face-to-face interviewing (FTFI) and computer-assisted, self-interviewing (CASI). We expected that for our non-sensitive topic, FTFI would generate fuller and richer accounts because the interviewer could facilitate the interview process. Although the interviewer indeed facilitated these interviews, which resulted in more w...

  5. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  6. Interview with Peter Jenni

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Newsletter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter.   Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...

  7. Interview with Lenny Kaye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garrigós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.

  8. Client interpersonal impacts as mediators of long-term outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy integrated with motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michael J; Romano, Felicia M; Coyne, Alice E; Westra, Henny A; Antony, Martin M

    2017-03-24

    A recent trial of generalized anxiety disorder treatment (Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating Motivational Interviewing With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Allegiance-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 768-782. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000098 ) revealed that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with motivational interviewing (MI) outperformed CBT alone across a 12-month follow up. The present study examined whether this treatment effect was mediated by MI-CBT clients engaging over time in during-session interpersonal behaviors reflecting more friendly dominance, or agentic actions, and less friendly submissiveness (FS), or trustingly compliant actions both theory-specific MI mechanisms. Clients received 15 sessions of MI-CBT (n = 42) or CBT alone (n = 43). Therapists rated client interpersonal behavior following five sessions, and clients rated their worry at baseline, each session, and 6- and 12-month follow up. Mediator and outcome variables were derived from multilevel models. Mediation was tested using a bootstrapping procedure. There was a significant indirect effect for FS. As expected, CBT clients evidenced greater increases in FS than MI-CBT clients, which in turn, though unexpectedly, related to lower 12-month worry. However, long-term CBT outcomes remained inferior to MI-CBT outcomes even with CBT clients'greater increase in FS. Results suggest that CBT outcomes are more positive when clients trustingly comply; however, MI-CBT remained superior, but for as yet unexplained reasons. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The findings highlight the clinical importance of GAD clients becoming more friendly dominant in the therapy relationship irrespective of whether they received CBT or integrative MI-CBT. Moreover, it seems clinically indicated to incorporate MI spirit and techniques into CBT when

  9. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  10. Children's developmental characteristics in the forensic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.

  11. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  12. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  13. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) as Vehicles for Topical Administration of Sesamol: In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption Study and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Offerta, Alessia; Crascì, Lucia; Micicchè, Lucia; Panico, Anna Maria; Bonina, Francesco; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Sesamol is a natural phenolic compound extracted from Sesamum indicum seed oil. Sesamol is endowed with several beneficial effects, but its use as a topical agent is strongly compromised by unfavorable chemical-physical properties. Therefore, to improve its characteristics, the aim of the present work was the formulation of nanostructured lipid carriers as drug delivery systems for topical administration of sesamol.Two different nanostructured lipid carrier systems have been produced based on the same solid lipid (Compritol® 888 ATO) but in a mixture with two different kinds of oil phase such as Miglyol® 812 (nanostructured lipid carrier-M) and sesame oil (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). Morphology and dimensional distribution of nanostructured lipid carriers have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. The release pattern of sesamol from nanostructured lipid carriers was evaluated in vitro determining drug percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Furthermore, an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to determine their antioxidant activity.From the results obtained, the method used to formulate nanostructured lipid carriers led to a homogeneous dispersion of particles in a nanometric range. Sesamol has been encapsulated efficiently in both nanostructured lipid carriers, with higher encapsulation efficiency values (> 90 %) when sesame oil was used as the oil phase (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). In vitro evidences show that nanostructured lipid carrier dispersions were able to control the rate of sesamol diffusion through the skin, with respect to the reference formulations.Furthermore, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay pointed out an interesting and prolonged antioxidant activity of sesamol, especially when vehiculated by nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Senior citizens as rescuers: Is reduced knowledge the reason for omitted lay-resuscitation-attempts? Results from a representative survey with 2004 interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkrolf, Peter; Bohn, Andreas; Lukas, Roman-Patrik; Heyse, Marko; Dierschke, Thomas; Van Aken, Hugo Karel; Hahnenkamp, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Resuscitation (CPR) provided by a bystander prior to the arrival of the emergency services is a beneficial factor for surviving a cardiac arrest (CA). Our registry-based data show, that older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Little is known on possible reasons for this finding. We sought to investigate the hypothesis that awareness of CPR measures is lower in older laypersons being a possible reason for less CPR-attempts in senior citizens. 1206 datasets on bystander resuscitations actually carried out were analyzed for age-dependent differences. Subsequently, we investigated whether the knowledge required carrying out bystander-CPR and the self-confidence to do so differ between younger and older citizens using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. 2004 interviews were performed and statistically analyzed. A lower level of knowledge to carry out bystander-CPR was seen in older individuals. For example, 82.4% of interviewees under 65 years of age, knew the correct emergency number. In this group, 66.6% named CPR as the relevant procedure in CA. Among older individuals these responses were only given by 75.1% and 49.5% (V = 0.082; P < 0.001 and V = 0.0157; P < 0.001). Additionally, a difference concerning participants' confidence in their own abilities was detectable. 58.0% of the persons younger than 65 years were confident that they would detect a CA in comparison to 44.6% of the participants older than 65 years (V = 0.120; P < 0.001). Similarly, 62.7% of the interviewees younger than 65 were certain to know what to do during CPR compared to 51.3% of the other group (V = 0.103; P < 0.001). Lower levels of older bystanders' knowledge and self-confidence might provide an explanation for why older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Further investigation is necessary to identify causal connections and optimum ways to empower bystander resuscitation.

  15. The limitations of language: male participants, stoicism, and the qualitative research interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Glass, Kc; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2013-03-01

    The semistructured, open-ended interview has become the gold standard for qualitative health research. Despite its strengths, the long interview is not well suited for studying topics that participants find difficult to discuss, or for working with those who have limited verbal communication skills. A lack of emotional expression among male research participants has repeatedly been described as a significant and pervasive challenge by health researchers in a variety of different fields. This article explores several prominent theories for men's emotional inexpression and relates them to qualitative health research. The authors argue that investigators studying emotionally sensitive topics with men should look beyond the long interview to methods that incorporate other modes of emotional expression. This article concludes with a discussion of several such photo-based methods, namely, Photovoice, Photo Elicitation, and Visual Storytelling.

  16. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    CERN Document Server

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  17. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...

  18. Nonadherence to psoriasis medication as an outcome of limited coping resources and conflicting goals: findings from a qualitative interview study with people with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneloe, R J; Bundy, C; Griffiths, C E M; Ashcroft, D M; Cordingley, L

    2017-03-01

    Medication nonadherence is known to limit the effectiveness of available therapies; however, little is known specifically about medication adherence in people with psoriasis. Medicines self-management can feel onerous to those with dermatological conditions due to the nature of therapies prescribed and many individuals with psoriasis experience additional challenges such as physical and psychological comorbidities that place significant additional demands on individuals and may undermine adherence. Viewing nonadherence to medication as an outcome of limited personal coping resources and conflicting goals may help to explain medication nonadherence. To explore individuals' perspectives of their psoriasis, medication and its management. Twenty people with psoriasis were recruited from community samples in England and interviewed in-depth about their perceptions of their psoriasis, medication, and adherence to medication and self-management advice. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Participants reported that adhering to recommended treatment regimens conflicted with the management of the physical and psychological demands of living with psoriasis. Medication usage was viewed as a source of unresolved emotional distress and, for some, resulted in poor self-reported adherence, which included medication overuse, underuse and rejection of prescribed therapies. Perceived lack of engagement by clinicians with participants' self-management difficulties was viewed as an additional source of stress and distress. Adhering to medication in psoriasis can be an additional source of considerable emotional distress. We interpreted some episodes of nonadherence to psoriasis medication as rational attempts by individuals to minimize distress and to gain control over their life. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipins Lucy A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.

  20. Interviews with information receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories

  1. Interview with Gavin Butt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson

    2008-01-01

    We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....

  2. A brief motivational interviewing as an adjunct to periodontal therapy-A potential tool to reduce relapse in oral hygiene behaviours. A three-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, J; Wennström, J L; Abrahamsson, K H

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate (ii) whether inclusion of a single motivational interviewing (MI) session, as an adjunct to periodontal therapy, might be beneficial for preventing relapse in oral hygiene behaviours among patients treated for chronic periodontitis and (ii) whether individual and clinical characteristics can be of predictive value for retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviours. This 3-year follow-up of a previously reported randomized controlled trial (RCT) study of 6-month duration included 26 patients. Patients in the test group had received one MI session by a clinical psychologist before initiation of the periodontal treatment. Otherwise, all patients followed the same treatment protocol for conventional educational intervention and non-surgical periodontal therapy. Efficacy variables assessed for evaluation of the standard of self-performed periodontal infection control were marginal bleeding index (MBI; primary efficacy variable) and plaque score (PI). The patterns of change in MBI and PI scores were similar for test and control groups over the observation period. At 3 years, both groups showed a desirable mean full-mouth MBI of 15%, a figure that was comparable to that at the short-term evaluation after active periodontal treatment. The post-treatment MBI was the only variable identified as a predictor of retained adequate oral hygiene behaviours. A single MI session as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy could not be proven to be of long-term beneficial additive effect with regard to prevention of relapse in oral hygiene behaviour. Desirable standard of self-performed infection control after active periodontal treatment predicted the retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviour over time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interview with Smithsonian NASM Spacesuit Curator Dr. Cathleen Lewis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Cathleen Lewis was interviewed by Rebecca Wright during the presentation of an "Interview with Smithsonian NASM Spacesuit Curator Dr. Cathleen Lewis" on May 14, 2012. Topics included the care, size, and history of the spacesuit collection at the Smithsonian and the recent move to the state-of-the-art permanent storage facility at the Udvar-Hazy facility in Virginia.

  4. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWERS CONDUCTING SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: THE USE OF THE PSYCHOTYPES THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS’ NONVERBAL REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sociological data is the problem that cannot lose relevance in the works of methodologists and practicing sociologists for decades. Procedures and techniques for the improvement of the quality of information for all type of survey methods are developing. The purpose of the article is to inform the interviewers conducting semi-structured or unstructured interviews of the recommendations developed on the basis of the theory of psychotypes (by V.V. Ponomarenko. This technology will allow to improve the quality of sociological data. Identification of the psychotype of the respondent and his emotional reactions to different sensitive topics during the interview are the basis of this technology. Emotional reactions can be traced by nonverbal cues (facial expressions, gestures and poses and interpreted by the technology of the analysis of nonverbal reactions developed and approved earlier. During the multi-stage experiment, the reactions significant in the course of interview were traced and analyzed - irritation, surprise, sadness, contempt, joy, fear, disgust, stress/discomfort, doubt/indecision, manifestations of mental processes. At the first phase, representatives of ‘ideal types’ of each psychotype were selected by an abridged psychological test and external diagnostics based on sensitive topics. As a result, the recommendations for a semi-structured interview were formulated. To use this technique, it is necessary to test an interviewee before the interview by the abridged psychological technique (in case there are doubts after the visual diagnostics. According to the psychotype the interviewer pays attention to the sensitive topics of the in-terview, and during the interview can reformulate the open-ended questions to reduce the sensitivity of significant topics for each respondent.

  6. Equity in interviews: do personal characteristics impact on admission interview scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection

  7. Multiple mini-interview as a predictor of performance in the objective structured clinical examination among Physician Associates in the United Kingdom: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Bhardwaj, Shailaja; Rahman, Eqram

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Patient satisfaction and health care outcomes are directly linked to useful communication skills. Therefore, excellent interpersonal skills are imperative for health care professionals. Multiple mini-interview (MMI) is designed as a selection tool to assess the communication skills of applicants in medical schools during the admission process. However, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assesses students’ communication and clinical skills at the end of their academic terms. Recently, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK, adopted MMI in the selection process for the first cohort of MSc Physician Associate trainees for the academic year 2015–2016. This study aimed to determine the likelihood of MMI as a predictor of future performance of communication skills in the OSCE. Materials and methods The anonymous data of the average scores of communication skills attained in MMI and OSCE at the end of year 1 were collected for 30 students from the Physician Associate program team. Subsequently, Pearson’s correlation was computed to determine the relationship between the average scores of communication skills attained in MMI, and OSCE during trimester 2 and trimester 3 by the Physician Associate trainees. Results The study showed positive correlation between the scores of communication skills attained in MMI and OSCE during trimester 2 (r=0.956, n=30, p<0.001) and trimester 3 (r=0.966, n=30, p<0.001). Conclusion The study provides empirical evidence for the validity of MMI as a predictor of future performance of Physician Associate trainees’ communication skills during subsequent OSCEs. PMID:29695944

  8. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  9. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  10. Interview with Dennis Pearl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…

  11. Interview with Christine Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  12. Interview with Pierre Deligne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...

  13. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  14. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  15. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  16. Milton Friedman: "TECHNOS" Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNOS, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…

  17. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available for interesting and relevant topics. The objectives of this paper is to describe topic modelling, put it in context as a useful IW technique and illustrate its use with two examples. They discuss several applications of topic modelling in the safety and security...

  18. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  19. Health, colonialism, and development: an interview with historian Randall Packard. Interview by Gilberto Hochman, Jaime Benchimol and Magali Romero Sá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Randall

    2011-06-01

    Interview with Randall Packard, William H. Welch Professor of the History of Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University and co-editor of the Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Speaking about his academic career, his activities as an editor, and his main works, Professor Packard addresses the topics of health and disease in the history of Africa; the relation between disease eradication programs and the ideology of development; the malaria eradication program; medicine, international health, and colonialism; academic production in the history of medicine in the Anglo-Saxon world; and the dynamics of scientific publishing in the field of the history of medicine.

  20. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Cuevas, J.; Villarrubia, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

  1. Skype interviewing: The new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Janghorban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.

  2. Skype interviewing: the new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.

  3. Interview with Andrew Dalby

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2016-01-01

    Andrew Dalby (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian and author of numerous articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts. Dalby studied Latin, French and Greek at the Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge. Here he also studied Romance languages and linguistics, earning a bachelor's degree in 1970. Dalby worked for fifteen years at Cambridge University Library, eventually specialising i...

  4. The In-Depth Interview as a Research Tool for Investigating the Online Intercultural Communication of Asian Internet Users in Relation to Ethics in Intercultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetscher, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Virtual intercultural communication is of great interest in intercultural research. How can a researcher gain access to this field of investigation if s/he does not or only partially speaks the languages used by the subjects? This study is an example of how categories relevant to research can be accessed through in-depth interviews. The interview…

  5. Ralph Mero: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…

  6. An Interview with Lance Olsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Segal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.

  7. Use of Low-dose Aspirin as Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Among US Adults (From the National Health Interview Survey, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; George, Mary G.; Gindi, Renee M.; Hong, Yuling; Yang, Quanhe; Ayala, Carma; Ward, Brian W.; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease take low-dose aspirin or other antiplatelet medications as secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events. Yet, no national level assessment of low-dose aspirin use for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease has been reported among a community-based population. Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we assessed low-dose aspirin use among those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We estimated the prevalence ratios of low-dose aspirin use, adjusting for sociodemographic status, health insurance, and cardiovascular risk factors. Among those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n=3,068), 76% had been instructed to take aspirin, and 88% of those were following this advice. Of those not advised, 11% took aspirin on this own. Overall, 70% were taking aspirin (including those who followed their health care provider's advice and those who were not advised but took aspirin on their own). Logistic regression models showed that women, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, those aged 40–64 years, with a high school education or with some college, or with fewer cardiovascular disease risk factors were less likely to take aspirin than men, non-Hispanic whites, those aged ≥65 years, with a college education or higher, or with all four selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, respectively. Additional analyses conducted among those with coronary heart disease only (n=2,007) showed similar patterns. In conclusion, use of low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention was 70%, with high reported adherence to health care providers' advice to take low-dose aspirin (88%), and significant variability within subgroups. PMID:25670639

  8. An ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion as a potential carrier for topical delivery of poorly water soluble drug: Development, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Randeep

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we report an ionic liquid-in-water (IL/w) microemulsion (ME) formulation which is able to solubilize etodolac (ETO), a poorly water soluble drug for topical delivery using BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as IL, Tween 80 as surfactant and ethanol as co-surfactant. The prepared ME was characterized for physicochemical parameters, subjected to ex-vivo permeation studies as well as in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies through rat skin was performed using Franz-diffusion cell and the IL/w based ME showed maximum mean cumulative percent permeation of 99.030±0.921% in comparison to oil-in-water (o/w) ME (61.548±1.875%) and oily solution (48.830±2.488%) of ETO. In-vivo anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the prepared formulations were evaluated using different rodent models and the results revealed that ETO loaded IL/w based ME was found to be more effective in controlling inflammation than oily solution, o/w ME and marketed formulation of ETO. Histopathological studies also demonstrated that IL/w based ME caused no anatomical and pathological changes in the skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  10. Interview with Herwig Wolfram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albertoni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the interview deals with the education of Herwig Wolfram in Wien and Los Angeles (one year and the relationship with the scholars who influenced him more (H. von Fichtenau, G.B. Ladner, the identification of the study of kingship and the choice of combining constantly the historical with the philological method. The interview then turns to the encounter with R. Wenskus and the theory of the ethnogenesis and the impact of this encounter on the studies of Wolfram and ultimately on the “Viennese” scholars. Another part is devoted to the book on the Goths and to the developments of the "Wien school" in relation to the study of early medieval peoples of Europe and to participation in international debate, very vibrant, on the subject. Also taken into consideration the themes of kingship, the local history, the "auxiliary disciplines" and historiographical communication and finally how research in organized and evaluated in Austria.

  11. The quality of severe mental disorder diagnoses in a national health registry as compared to research diagnoses based on structured interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvåg, Ragnar; Jönsson, Erik G; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Bjella, Thomas D; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-03-14

    Utilization of diagnostic information from national patient registries rests on the quality of the registered diagnoses. We aimed to investigate the agreement and consistency of diagnoses of psychotic and bipolar disorders in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) compared to structured interview-based diagnoses given as part of a clinical research project. Diagnostic data from NPR were obtained for the period 01.01.2008-31.12.2013 for all patients who had been included in the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study between 18.10.2002 and 01.09.2014 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 537), delusional disorder (n = 48), schizoaffective disorder (n = 118) or bipolar disorder (n = 408). Diagnostic agreement between the primary DSM-IV diagnosis in TOP and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnoses in NPR was evaluated using Cohen's unweighted nominal kappa (κ). Diagnostic consistency was calculated as the proportion of all registered severe mental disorder diagnoses in NPR that were equivalent to the primary diagnosis given in the TOP study. The proportion of patients registered with the equivalent ICD-10 diagnosis as the primary DSM-IV diagnosis given in TOP was 84.2% for the schizophrenia group, 68.8% for the delusional disorder group, 76.3% for the schizoaffective disorder group, and 78.4% for the bipolar disorder group. Diagnostic agreement was good for schizophrenia (κ = 0.74) and bipolar disorder (κ = 0.72), fair for schizoaffective disorder (κ = 0.63), and poor for delusional disorder (κ = 0.39). Among patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, 4.7% were diagnosed with ICD-10 bipolar disorder, and among patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder, 2.5% were diagnosed with ICD-10 schizophrenia. Diagnostic consistency was 84.9% for schizophrenia, 59.1% for delusional disorder, 65.9% for schizoaffective disorder, and 91

  12. Deep Unfolding for Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Lee, Chao-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.

  13. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  14. A ciência como profissão: entrevista com Carlos Chagas Filho Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A edição desta entrevista privilegia aspectos da extensa trajetória profissional de Carlos Chagas Filho, fundador do Instituto de Biofísica da Universidade do Brasil, atual Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Evidencia seu papel científico e político na ciência brasileira e no cenário internacional. As memórias de Chagas Filho abrangem a vivência no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, onde iniciou seu treinamento científico; os esforços para estruturar o Laboratório de Física Biológica, sucedido pelo Instituto de Biofísica; a atuação no Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas e na Academia Brasileira de Ciências; a participação na Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura; a presidência da Academia Pontifícia do Vaticano, que o leva a tecer considerações sobre a relação entre ciência e religião.The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  15. The Integrated Model of (Dys-) Functionality: Reconstructing Patterns of Gaming as Self-Medication in Biographical Interviews with Video Game Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Bleckmann; Nadine Jukschat

    2015-01-01

    We aim to build a new theory of highly committed problematic video gaming based on rich qualitative data and to compare it to existing theories. To do this, we used hermeneutic analytical methods and grounded theory methodology to analyze 125 hours of recording from 42 biographical interviews, 23 of them with long-term follow-up. Participants were addicted (ex-) gamers according to screening instruments, aged 16 to 44, 29 males and 13 females. The integrated (dys-) functionality model shows i...

  16. The Integrated Model of (Dys-) Functionality: Reconstructing Patterns of Gaming as Self-Medication in Biographical Interviews with Video Game Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Bleckmann, Paula; Jukschat, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to build a new theory of highly committed problematic video gaming based on rich qualitative data and to compare it to existing theories. To do this, we used hermeneutic analytical methods and grounded theory methodology to analyze 125 hours of recording from 42 biographical interviews, 23 of them with long-term follow-up. Participants were addicted (ex-) gamers according to screening instruments, aged 16 to 44, 29 males and 13 females.The integrated (dys-) functionality model shows in...

  17. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  18. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Topical application of hemostatic paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a measure to control minor surgical bleeding, surgeons usually depend on a number of hemostatic aids. Topical use of bovine thrombin is a widely used procedure to arrest such minor bleeding. A 35 year old male sergeant of Bangladesh Air Force presented with repeated development of hematoma in his left thigh without any history of trauma or previous history of bleeding. Critical analysis of the patient’s history, routine and sophisticated hematological investigations revealed that the patient developed anti-thrombin antibody following the application of hemostatic paste in the tooth socket five years back during minor dental procedure to stop ignorable bleeding episodes. Therefore, topical use of hemostatic glue/paste or bovine thrombin should be avoided to desist minor bleeding as recombinant human thrombin is now available for topical use.

  20. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  1. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  2. Interviewer-Respondent Interactions in Conversational and Standardized Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2018-01-01

    Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…

  3. Hot Topics in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2018-01-01

    There are vital topics in science teaching and learning which are mentioned frequently in the literature. Specialists advocate their importance in the curriculum as well as science teachers stress their saliency. Inservice education might well assist new and veteran teachers in knowledge and skills. The very best science lessons and units of…

  4. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  5. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  6. Topics in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  7. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  8. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  9. Disregarded use of herbal medical products and dietary supplements among surgical and medical patients as estimated by home inspection and interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Spang-Hanssen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    and DS among patients recently discharged from two hospital departments. METHODS: Patients were visited within 1 week after discharge and interviewed about their use of HMP and DS. Stored products were inspected and registered. Hospital files and discharge letters were examined to establish the frequency...... of registration. RESULTS: Totally, 83 surgical and 117 medical patients were included (n = 200), 139 patients (70%) were women. 53 patients (27%) stored no HMP or DS, whereas the home inventories of 147 patients (74%) comprised 343 products. 116 patients (58%) used HMP or DS daily and 25 patients (13%) used...

  10. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, C L; van den Berg, J; van der Zee, J

    1999-05-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. National health interview surveys are performed in most countries, but not in Greece (only regional surveys), Luxembourg, Ireland and Iceland (only multi-purpose surveys). The health interview surveys in the other 14 countries provide regular data on the main health topics. Of the 14 health topics that are examined in this inventory seven are measured in all countries. Questions on health status (e.g. self-assessed health, long-term physical disability, and height and weight) and medical consumption (e.g. consultations with the general practitioner, GP) are often included. Lifestyle topics are less often included, except smoking habits, information about which is sought in all countries. Topics like diet and drugs/narcotics are more often included in special surveys than in general health interview surveys. Despite differences in the content, frequency and methodology of national health interview surveys in different countries, these surveys are a valuable source of information on the health of Europeans.

  11. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  12. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  13. The Effect of Polyhexanide, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, and Tea Tree Oil as Topical Antiseptic Agents on In Vivo Microcirculation of the Human Skin: A Noninvasive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Tschumi, Christian; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Antiseptics are indispensable for wound management and should focus not only on the efficacy in reducing the bacterial burden but also on how much they interfere in wound healing. In this study, the authors analyzed the direct effect of topical antiseptic agents on the microcirculation of intact human skin. The perfusion dynamics were assessed before, and 10 minutes after, the volunteers' fingers of the right hand (n = 20) were immersed in the following solutions - octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, tea tree oil, and saline solution. The authors used the Oxygen to See (LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) diagnostic device for noninvasive determination of oxygen supply in microcirculation of blood perfused tissues, which combines a laser light to determine blood flow, as well as white light to determine hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin. Tea tree oil (÷19.0%) (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and polyhexanide (÷12.4%) (Lavanid, Serag Wiessner GmbH, Naila, Germany) caused a significant increase in blood flow compared to the negative control (-25.6%). Octenidine (Octenisept, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) showed a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in blood flow (÷7.2%). There were alterations in the values of hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin, but these were not significant. Perfusion is an important factor for wound healing. Therefore, it might be advantageous if antiseptic agents would increase blood flow. Tea tree oil and polyhexanide have a positive effect on skin blood flow and can therefore be used especially in critically perfused wounds, provided the adverse reactions and the antimicrobial efficacy are comparable.

  14. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachura, Z.

    1984-09-01

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  15. Design and Evaluation of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technology as a Continuous Manufacturing Process with Kolliphor® P407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Jaywant; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Amin, Purnima; Tawde, Vaishali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present context was to develop and evaluate a Kolliphor® P407-based transdermal gel formulation of diclofenac sodium by hot melt extrusion (HME) technology; central composite design was used to optimize the formulation process. In this study, we have explored first time ever HME as an industrially feasible and continuous manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of gel formulation using Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 as a gel base. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. The HME parameters such as feeding rate, screw speed, and barrel temperature were crucial for the semisolid product development, and were optimized after preliminary trials. For the processing of the gel formulation by HME, a modified screw design was used to obtain a uniform product. The obtained product was evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement, rheology, surface tension, and texture profile analysis. Moreover, it was analyzed for general appearance, spreadibility, surface morphology, and drug content. The optimized gel formulation showed homogeneity and transparent film when applied on a glass slide under microscope, pH was 7.02 and uniform drug content of 100.04 ± 2.74 (SD = 3). The DSC and XRD analysis of the HME gel formulation showed complete melting of crystalline API into an amorphous form. The Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 formed excellent gel formulation using HME with consistent viscoelastic properties of the product. An improved drug release was found for the HME gel, which showed a 100% drug release than that of a marketed product which showed only 88% of drug release at the end of 12 h. The Flux value of the HME gel was 106 than that of a marketed formulation, which showed only about 60 value, inferring a significant difference (P process for manufacturing of topical semisolid products.

  16. Health Topic XML File Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing ... information categories assigned. Example of a Full Health Topic Record A record for a MedlinePlus health topic ...

  17. Interpersonal stance in police interviews: content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.

    2013-01-01

    A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal

  18. Using student interviews for becoming a reflective geographer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case for interviewing students as an effective yet complex way to integrate reflexive practice into teaching and research. Even though many human geographers are accustomed to conducting qualitative interviews in various contexts, it is not straightforward to interview one......'s own students. This paper addresses three issues: implications of doing insider interviews; ethical issues of interviewing students where power relations are at stake and using visual co-constructions as a means of levelling the analytical power of the insider interviewer. We show how student...... interviews have enhanced our reflection-on-action and give recommendations for prospect student interviewers....

  19. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  20. Topics in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuille, A.L.

    1980-11-01

    Topics in the Yang-Mills theories of strong interactions and the quantum theories of gravity are examined, using the path integral approach, including; Yang-Mills instantons in curved spacetimes, Israel-Wilson metrics, Kaehler spacetimes, instantons and anti-instantons. (U.K.)

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  2. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  3. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Evaluation of a mock interview session on residency interview skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Topical Session on Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the management of materials. Presentations during the topical session covered key aspects of the management of materials and meant to provide an exchange of information and experience, including: Experience and lessons learnt from VLLW and non-radioactive material management in Spain and Germany with special attention to recycling (How specific solutions came about? Are there 'generic' examples for wider adoption?); Risk assessment of recycling and non-recycling: a CPD study; Waste acceptance issues within different national contexts (What constraints are there on the waste receiving body and what flexibility can the latter have? What constraints does this impose on D and D implementers? What about wastes are without current solution? What needs to be done? What about large items and 'difficult' waste in general?); Radiological characterisation of materials during decommissioning, particularly difficult situations - large volumes, large items,.. wastes, heterogeneous streams (What examples of established practice? What are the approaches or aspects that set the regulatory requirements? How can the flow rates be large but the answers acceptable? How much is needed to be known for later action, e. g., disposal, release, protection of worker, etc.); Radiological characterisation of buildings as they stand, in order to allow conventional demolition (What are strategies for optimisation of characterisation? How much needs to be known to take action later? e.g. for storage, disposal, release, cost estimation and ALARA? What needs to be done in advance and after decommissioning/dismantling?). At the end of each presentation time was allotted for discussion of the paper. Integral to the Topical Session was a facilitated plenary discussion on the topical

  6. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Menshawe SF

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahira F El-Menshawe,1 Adel A Ali,1 Mohamed A Rabeh,2 Nermeen M Khalil3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University Beni-Suef, Beni Suef, Egypt Purpose: Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data. Methods: Three different techniques were used to prepare phytosome formulations including solvent evaporation, cosolvency, and salting out. The optimized phytosome formulation was then selected using Design Expert® (version 7.0.0 depending on the highest entrapment efficiency, minimum particle size (PS, and maximum drug release within 2 hours as responses for further evaluation. The successful phytosome complex formation was investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spec­troscopy and determination of PS and zeta potential. Phytosome vesicles’ shape was evaluated using transmission electron microscope to ensure its spherical shape. After characterization of the optimized phytosome formulation, it was incorporated into a thermogel formulation. The obtained phytosomal thermogel formulation was evaluated for its clarity, homogeneity, pH, and gel transformation temperature besides rheology behavior and permeation study. An in vivo study was done to investigate the anti-weight-gain effect of soy phytosomal ther­mogel. Results: EE was found to be >99% for all

  7. Evaluation of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug-Resistant Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard – Eighth Edition” was used to determine the CHD-FA MIC values at a pH range of 3.0 to...preventing absorption of active compound (See Figure 13.) Also the topical cream formulation has been approved for 24 vaginitis to help control...Institute (CLSI) protocol M07-A9 “Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard

  8. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  9. Motivational Interviewing with computer assistance as an intervention to empower women to make contraceptive choices while incarcerated: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA, aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1 increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2 increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3 decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year. They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM and on Motivational Interviewing (MI, an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected

  10. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P levels and walking track analysis (P topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Multiple mini interview (MMI) for general practice training selection in Australia: interviewers' motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Roberts, Chris; Sureshkumar, Premala; Mossman, Karyn

    2018-01-25

    Multiple Mini Interviews (MMIs) are being used by a growing number of postgraduate training programs and medical schools as their interview process for selection entry. The Australian General Practice and Training (AGPT) used a National Assessment Centre (NAC) approach to selection into General Practice (GP) Training, which include MMIs. Interviewing is a resource intensive process, and implementation of the MMI requires a large number of interviewers, with a number of candidates being interviewed simultaneously. In 2015, 308 interviewers participated in the MMI process - a decrease from 340 interviewers in 2014, and 310 in 2013. At the same time, the number of applicants has steadily increased, with 1930 applications received in 2013; 2254 in 2014; and 2360 in 2015. This has raised concerns regarding the increasing recruitment needs, and the need to retain interviewers for subsequent years of MMIs. In order to investigate interviewers' reasons for participating in MMIs, we utilised self-determination theory (SDT) to consider interviewers' motivation to take part in MMIs at national selection centres. In 2015, 308 interviewers were recruited from 17 Regional Training Providers (RTPs) to participate in the MMI process at one of 15 NACs. For this study, a convenience sample of NAC sites was used. Forty interviewers were interviewed (n = 40; 40/308 = 13%) from five NACs. Framework analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Interviewers' motivation to take part as interviewers were largely related to their sense of duty, their desire to contribute their expertise to the process, and their desire to have input into selection of GP Registrars; a sense of duty to their profession; and an opportunity to meet with colleagues and future trainees. Interviewers also highlighted factors hindering motivation, which sometimes included the large number of candidates seen in one day. Interviewers' motivation for contributing to the MMIs was largely related

  12. New Perspectives From Unstructured Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.

  13. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and

  14. The Integrated Model of (Dys- Functionality: Reconstructing Patterns of Gaming as Self-Medication in Biographical Interviews with Video Game Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bleckmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aim to build a new theory of highly committed problematic video gaming based on rich qualitative data and to compare it to existing theories. To do this, we used hermeneutic analytical methods and grounded theory methodology to analyze 125 hours of recording from 42 biographical interviews, 23 of them with long-term follow-up. Participants were addicted (ex- gamers according to screening instruments, aged 16 to 44, 29 males and 13 females. The integrated (dys- functionality model shows in-game behavior of participants to be dysfunctional in that it hinders advancement in several distinguishable real-life biographical quests (for success, for belonging, and for autonomy and at the same time functional in that it matches these quests. The model integrates two seemingly irreconcilable research traditions: The addiction/disease model in medical-psychological research investigates dysfunctionality of gaming in pathological gamers. Game studies focus on functionality of in-game behavior and establish gamer typologies based on gaming motives. By adding the biographical context to game studies, but keeping the gamer's perspective, we show that gamers whose lives become dominated by gaming may know what they want and "virtually" get it, but still not "really" get it in the long term. "Compensatory" gaming does not, thus, equal unproblematic or "non-addicted" gaming. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150387

  15. Marion L. Williams Interview (MORS)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Marion L.

    2015-01-01

    Interviewers: Keethler, Greg; Sheldon, Robert S.. Interview location(s): Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico and United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

  16. Interview of David Elliston Allen

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David

    2009-01-01

    Interviewed on 12 April 1983 by Jack Goody and Alan Macfarlane and filmed and edited by Sarah Harrison. Made on old and low quality equipment. An interview of the historian and naturalist David Elliston Allen

  17. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1979-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 2 focuses on the integrability, continuity, and differentiability of random functions, as well as functional analysis, measure theory, operator theory, and numerical analysis.The selection first offers information on the optimal control of stochastic systems and Gleason measures. Discussions focus on convergence of Gleason measures, random Gleason measures, orthogonally scattered Gleason measures, existence of optimal controls without feedback, random necessary conditions, and Gleason measures in tensor products. The text then elaborates on an

  18. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  19. Science teacher orientations and PCK across science topics in grade 9 earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne

    2017-07-01

    While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade 9 earth science course. Through interviews and observations of one teacher's classroom across two sequentially taught, this research contests the notion that teachers hold a single way of conceptualising science teaching and learning. In this, we consider if multiple ontologies can provide potential explanatory power for characterising instructional enactments. In earlier work with the teacher in this study, using generic interview prompts and general discussions about science teaching and learning, we accepted the existence of a unitary STO and its promise of consistent reformed instruction in the classroom. However, upon close examination of instruction focused on different science topics, evidence was found to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple ontologies for shaping characteristically different epistemological constructions across science topics. This research points to the need for care in generalising about teacher practice, as it reveals that a teacher's practice, and orientation, can vary, dependent on the context and science topics taught.

  20. Junior High School Students’ Understanding and Problem Solving Skills on the Topics of Line and Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsal, I. L.; Jupri, A.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    Line and angles is important topics to learn to develop the geometry skills and also mathematics skills such as understanding and problem solving skills. But, the fact was given by Indonesian researcher show that Indonesian students’ understanding and problem solving skills still low in this topics. This fact be a background to investigate students’ understanding and problem solving skills in line and angles topics. To investigate these skills, this study used descriptive-qualitative approach. Individual written test (essay) and interview was used in this study. 72 students grade 8th from one of Junior High School in Lembang, worked the written test and 18 of them were interviewed. Based on result, almost of student were have a good instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in same area, but almost all student have a low instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in different area. Almost all student have a low relational understanding. Also, almost all student have a low problem solving skills especially in make and use strategy to solve the problem and looking back their answer. Based on result there is need a meaningfulness learning strategy, which can make students build their understanding and develop their problem solving skill independently.

  1. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  3. Topics in industrial mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsya, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  4. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  5. Interviewing When You’re Not Face-To-Face: The Use of Email Interviews in a Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Bowden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As Internet usage becomes more commonplace, researchers are beginning to explore the use of email interviews. Email interviews have a unique set of tools, advantages, and limitations, and are not meant to be blind reproductions of traditional face-to-face interview techniques. Email interviews should be implemented when: 1 researchers can justify email interviews are useful to a research project; 2 there is evidence that the target population will be open to email interviewing as a form of data collection; and 3 the justification of the email interview supports the researchers’ theoretical perspective. The objective of this study was to develop an email interviewing methodology. As with other forms of qualitative interviewing, it is important that the researcher: 1 identifies constraints; 2 adequately prepares for the interview; 3 establishes rapport; 4 asks appropriate questions; 5 actively listens; and 6 ends the email interview appropriately.

  6. Why patients self-refer to the Emergency Department: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijvanger, Nicole; Rijpsma, Douwe; Willink, Lisa; Lucassen, Peter; van Leeuwen, Henk; Edwards, Michael

    2017-06-01

    There have been multiple studies investigating reasons for patients to self-refer to the Emergency Department (ED). The majority made use of questionnaires and excluded patients with urgent conditions. The goal of this qualitative study is to explore what motives patients have to self-refer to an ED, also including patients in urgent triage categories. In a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands, a qualitative interview study focusing on reasons for self-referring to the ED was performed. Self-referred patients were included until no new reasons for attending the ED were found. Exclusion criteria were as follows: not mentally able to be interviewed or not speaking Dutch. Patients who were in need of urgent care were treated first, before being asked to participate. Interviews followed a predefined topic guide. Practicing cyclic analysis, the interview topic guide was modified during the inclusion period. Interviews were recorded on an audio recorder, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized. Two investigators independently coded the information and combined the codes into meaningful clusters. Subsequently, these were categorized into themes to build a framework of reasons for self-referral to the ED. Characteristic quotes were used to illustrate the acquired theoretical framework. Thirty self-referred patients were interviewed. Most of the participants were male (63%), with a mean age of 46 years. Two main themes emerged from the interviews that are pertinent to the patients' decisions to attend the ED: (1) health concerns and (2) practical issues. This study found that there are 2 clearly distinctive reasons for self-referral to the ED: health concerns or practical motives. Self-referral because of practical motives is probably most suitable for strategies that aim to reduce inappropriate ED visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results ...

  9. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  10. Topics in computational linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...

  11. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Opinions about the Difficulties in Understanding Introductory Quantum Physics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…

  12. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    place in the event of sensitive situations - this appeared to alleviate the pressure on interviewers to carry the burden of responsibility. Interviewers are employed to scientifically gather quantitative data, yet their effectiveness relies largely on their humanity. We propose that the personal connection generated between the interviewers and participants was important, and enabled successful follow-up rates for the study. The enjoyment of these relationships was crucial to interviewers and helped balance the negative aspects of their role. Our results suggest that experienced quantitative interviewers endeavour, as do many qualitative researchers, to carefully and respectfully negotiate the requirements of the interview within a relationship they form with participants: being sensitive to the needs of participants and respectful of their wishes - and establishing an ethical relationship.

  13. Topic Visualization and Survival Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping Jr

    2017-01-01

    Latent semantic structure in a text collection is called a topic. In this thesis, we aim to visualize topics in the scientific literature and detect active or inactive research areas based on their lifetime. Topics were extracted from over 1 million abstracts from the arXiv.org database using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Hellinger distance measures similarity between two topics. Topics are determined to be relevant if their pairwise distances are smaller than the threshold of Hellinger ...

  14. Computer assisted self interviewing in a sexual health clinic as part of routine clinical care; impact on service and patient and clinician views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka A Vodstrcil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Computer assisted self interviewing (CASI has been used at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC since 2008 for obtaining sexual history and identifying patients' risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of CASI operating at MSHC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportion of patients who decline to answer questions using CASI was determined. We then compared consultation times and STI-testing rates during comparable CASI and non-CASI operating periods. Patients and staff completed anonymous questionnaires about their experience with CASI. 14,190 patients completed CASI during the audit period. Men were more likely than women to decline questions about the number of partners they had of the opposite sex (4.4% v 3.6%, p=0.05 and same sex (8.9% v 0%, p<0.001. One third (34% of HIV-positive men declined the number of partners they had and 11-17% declined questions about condom use. Women were more likely than men to decline to answer questions about condom use (2.9% v 2.3%, p=0.05. There was no difference in the mean consultation times during CASI and non-CASI operating periods (p≥0.17. Only the proportion of women tested for chlamydia differed between the CASI and non-CASI period (84% v 88% respectively, p<0.01. 267 patients completed the survey about CASI. Most (72% men and 69% women were comfortable using the computer and reported that all their answers were accurate (76% men and 71% women. Half preferred CASI but 18% would have preferred a clinician to have asked the questions. 39 clinicians completed the staff survey. Clinicians felt that for some STI risk factors (range 11%-44%, face-to-face questioning was more accurate than CASI. Only 5% were unsatisfied with CASI. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that CASI is acceptable to both patients and clinicians in a sexual health setting and does not adversely affect various measures of clinical output.

  15. Exploring the handshake in employment interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L; Dustin, Susan L; Barrick, Murray R; Darnold, Todd C

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined how an applicant's handshake influences hiring recommendations formed during the employment interview. A sample of 98 undergraduate students provided personality measures and participated in mock interviews during which the students received ratings of employment suitability. Five trained raters independently evaluated the quality of the handshake for each participant. Quality of handshake was related to interviewer hiring recommendations. Path analysis supported the handshake as mediating the effect of applicant extraversion on interviewer hiring recommendations, even after controlling for differences in candidate physical appearance and dress. Although women received lower ratings for the handshake, they did not on average receive lower assessments of employment suitability. Exploratory analysis suggested that the relationship between a firm handshake and interview ratings may be stronger for women than for men.

  16. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50 mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325 mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50 mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325 mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1 μg/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5 mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    -anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...

  18. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  19. Topics in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

  20. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  1. Topics in CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, H. R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  2. Topical Treatment of Degenerative Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zengdong; Huang, Rongzhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews topical management strategies for degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library using MeSH terms including "topical," "treatment," "knee" and "osteoarthritis" was carried out. Original research and review articles on the effectiveness and safety, recommendations from international published guidelines and acceptability studies of topical preparations were included. Current topical treatments included for the management of knee OA include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin, salicylates and physical treatments such as hot or cold therapy. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an alternative and even first-line therapy for OA management, especially among elderly patients. Guidelines on other topical treatments vary, from recommendations against their use, to in favor as alternative or simultaneous therapy, especially for patients with contraindications to other analgesics. Although often well-tolerated and preferred by many patients, clinical care still lags in the adoption of topical treatments. Aspects of efficacy, safety and patient quality of life data require further research. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interviews with Michael Baxandall, February 3rd and 4th, 1994, Berkeley, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Langdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following interviews with Michael Baxandall were conducted in Berkeley on February 3rd and 4th of 1994. The content of these interviews include general responses about developments in art history in the years between 1960 and 1985, a period of dramatic modifications in the discipline. Among the issues are the rise of the social history of art and the sources from anthropology that informed Baxandall’s concept of the ‘Period Eye’. Baxandall talks about his own work, his personal intellectual history, and the scholars of past and current generations who influenced him. Other topics include Baxandall’s professional trajectory, the Warburg Library, and aspects of cultural history having to do with Renaissance Humanism. These interviews first appeared as an appendix to the PhD dissertation by Allan Langdale, Art History and Intellectual History: Michael Baxandall’s Work between 1963 and 1985, U. C. Santa Barbara, 1995.

  4. Interview: Rita Colwell

    OpenAIRE

    Alucozai, Milad

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Rita Colwell is a renowned microbiologist and infectious disease expert as well as a Purdue Alumna. She served as the 11th director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1998 to 2004. Currently, she serves as the President and CEO of CosmosID and is a Distinguished Professor at both the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.

  5. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  6. Staff Development and School Improvement: An Interview with Ernest Boyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    The importance of developing teachers' skills and feelings of power and professionalism is stressed in an interview with Ernest Boyer. Other topics of discussion include the establishment of a "teacher excellence fund" and the concept that school improvement is "people improvement." (DF)

  7. Picture Books about Blacks: An Interview with Opal Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Opal Moore, who discusses Black imagery in picture books published in the last four years and the institutions that circulate that imagery. Topics discussed include the issue of race pride; interracial themes; appropriate illustrations; African versus African-American books; and the roles of publishers, books reviewers,…

  8. Talking about Happiness: Interview Research and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…

  9. Open Science Interview mit PA

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  10. Open Science Interview mit IB

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  11. Interview with David Moore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  12. Interview with Eddie Reisch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    Eddie Reisch is currently working as a policy advisor for Te Reo Maori Operational Policy within the Student Achievement group with the Ministry of Education in New Zealand, where he has implemented and led a range of e-learning initiatives and developments, particularly the Virtual Learning Network (VLN). He is regarded as one of the leading…

  13. Interview with Gert Storm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Gert Storm studied biology at the Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and obtained his PhD degree in 1987 at the Department of Pharmaceutics of the same university. He is now Professor of targeted drug delivery at the University of Utrecht, as well as Professor of targeted therapeutics at the MIRA

  14. Preventing foetal alcohol syndrome with motivational interviewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... Alcohol is widely established as a teratogenic drug that is capable of ... interviewing (MI) with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) practice, borrowed from health ... certain families, heritability, linked to genetically determined.

  15. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interview: Daniel Boyd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Daniel Boyd, film teacher at West Virginia State College, describes his life and career as an independent filmmaker, including his educational background in film, efforts to market his films within the film industry, and development of scripts and films. (TES)

  17. Leaning in to "muddy" interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...

  18. Modified personal interviews: resurrecting reliable personal interviews for admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff

    2012-10-01

    Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.

  19. STS-106 Crew Interviews: Scott D. Altman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott D. Altman is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Altman became a pilot, the events that led to his interest, his career path through the Navy, and then finally, his selection by NASA as an astronaut. Other interesting information discussed in this one-on-one interview was his work on the movie set of "Top Gun," the highlights of his Navy career, and possible shorter time frame turnarounds for missions. Altman also mentions the scheduled docking with the new International Space Station (ISS) after the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module.

  20. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS - 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The procedures for the above [Administrative Circular 26(Rev. 2)] will be as for 1999.The Appraisal Report form template is available as follows:For Macintosh usersConnect to the server SRV4-Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), and then use the volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word file 'MOAS FORM' is available in the folder COM, folder Public.For PC usersStart Word; in File + New, choose document 'CERN MOAS FORM' in CERN Template.In view of the wide use of the form template, and to reduce use of paper, only the first page, pre-printed with staff members' individual data, will be distributed to divisions on request. Otherwise, this data will be transmitted electronically only.Users of the electronic template are asked to be careful to copy accurately the personal data.Personnel DivisionTel. 74480

  1. Interview with Deborah Nolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Deborah Nolan is Professor of Statistics and holds the Zaffaroni Family Chair in Undergraduate Education at the University of California-Berkeley, where she has also served as Associate Dean of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. This interview…

  2. Vint Cerf. TECHNOS Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1998-01-01

    Discussion with Vinton G. Cerf, widely known as father of the Internet and creator of the original email system, focuses on societal implications of the Internet; filtering; hypertext; email; the need for a global legal framework; e-commerce and potential for Web-based businesses; and implications of the Internet for education. (LRW)

  3. Interview with Mike Shaughnessy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Shaughnessy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Mike Shaughnessy is Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Statistics at Portland State University in Oregon. He served as co-chair for the Board for the Special Interest Group for Research in Mathematics Education of the American Educational Research Association from 2005-2007. A member of the Board of Directors of the National Council of Teachers…

  4. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739

  5. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-12-01

    Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.

  6. Elements of programming interviews the insider's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Adnan; Prakash, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This is a larger-format version of Elements of Programming Interviews. The language is C++. Specifically, the font size is larger, and the page size is 7"x10" (the regular format uses 6"x9"). The content is identical. Have you ever... Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table,...

  7. An interview guide for clinicians to identify a young disabled person's motivation to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, B J M; Wind, H; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2016-06-27

    The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in occupational health care which would aid them in their discussion of work motivation-related issues with this group. We systematically searched Pubmed, PsychInfo and Picarta. Studies were included if they described aspects of work motivation and/or instruments that assess work motivation. Based on the results of our literature survey, we developed a list of topics that had been shown to be related to work motivation. Our search resulted in 12 articles describing aspects of work motivation and 17 articles describing instruments that assess work motivation. The aspects that we found were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, self-efficacy, expectancy, values and work readiness. Based on this information we developed an interview guide that includes seven topic areas: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, expectancy, values, self- efficacy, and work readiness. The topics within the interview guide and the literature survey data that is presented will shed light on the role that motivation plays on the work participation among young people with disabilities.

  8. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  9. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  10. Teachers’ Views on ICT as a Tool in English Teaching for Students with Dyslexia : An interview study with English teachers in grades 7-9

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellin Ifverson, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) is a broad concept, which is often discussed in relation to the development of education. More specially, ICT can be seen as a tool to help teachers individualize students’ education. Students who have literacy difficulties, such as dyslexia, are in constant need of new techniques to help them learn and new tools to make their educational development easier. The aim of this thesis is to show what views teachers have regarding using ICT in Englis...

  11. Modern topics in electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  12. Topics in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this work two major topics in Conformal Field Theory are discussed. First a detailed investigation of N = 2 Superconformal theories is presented. The structure of the representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebras is investigated and the character formulae are calculated. The general structure of N = 2 superconformal theories is elucidated and the operator algebra of the minimal models is derived. The first minimal system is discussed in more detail. Second, applications of the conformal techniques are studied in the Ashkin-Teller model. The c = 1 as well as the c = 1/2 critical lines are discussed in detail

  13. Interview with Claudia Roden

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2016-01-01

    Claudia Roden is an award winning cookbook writer and cultural anthropologist based in the United Kingdom. She is co-chair with Paul Levy of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery. She was born in 1936 in Cairo, Egypt. After completing her formal education in Paris, she moved to London to study at Saint Martin's School of Art. She began her career as a painter, but soon realised following the Suez Crisis that the Jewish food culture of Egypt was disappearing which led her to begin her study...

  14. Interview with Kathleen Fitzpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Lomeña Cantos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Fitzpatrick, born in 1967, teaches Media Studies in Pomona University (California, coordinator of the MediaCommons plattaform and one of the most remarkable Digital Humantties academic. His first book The Anxiety of Obsolescence (http://www.anxietyofobsolescence.com reflects on some novelist technophilia as a mecanism to maintain his privilege status inside a media ecology increasingly comptetive. His next essay, Planned obsolecence (http://www.plannedobsolescence.net, extends his critics to the old humanities role and meditate about pressent and future of academic publications.

  15. Aikido Politics in Interview Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…

  16. An Interview with Noam Chomsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…

  17. Det foto-eliciterede interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig.......Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig....

  18. Current Events. Interview: Nuyorican Dreamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainburn, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…

  19. Training in motivational interviewing in obstetrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    -adherent interventions). Furthermore, the participants asked fewer closed and more open questions before training in motivational interview. In the assessment of proficiency and competency, most of the participants scored higher after the training in motivational interviewing. CONCLUSIONS: Training in motivational......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING......: The Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a three day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before- and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect...

  20. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.