WorldWideScience

Sample records for interventions

  1. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  2. Interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.A.; Quint, D.J.; Sanders, W.P.; Patel, S.C.; Boulos, R.S.; Burke, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation reviews the authors' angiographic approach to interventional cases and demonstrates examples of procedures we have performed including preoperative embolizations (dural, arteriovenous malformations, meningioma, juvenile angiofibroma, gliosarcoma, glomus tympanicum, hemangiopericytoma, and spinal hemangioma), therapeutic interventions (balloon occlusion of cavernous-carotid and vertebral fistulas, intracranial and extracranial aneurysms, and angioplasty of vertebral, external carotid, and subclavian arteries), and pain management (alcohol injection of spine metastases). Potential and actual complications are reviewed

  3. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...

  4. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  5. Spinal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventional Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William T N

    2016-05-01

    The approach to the treatment of cancer in veterinary patients is constantly evolving. Whenever possible and practical, surgery is pursued because it provides the greatest opportunity for tumor control and may result in a cure. Other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, are commonplace in veterinary medicine, and the data outlining treatment regimens are growing rapidly. An absence of treatment options for veterinary cancer patients, however, has historically existed for some tumors. Interventional oncology options have opened the door to the potential for better therapeutic response and improved patient quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aortoiliac interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Atheromatosis is a systemic disease that involves various vascular beds. The most known risk factors are smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipedemia, hypertension, advanced age, black gender and male sex. Occlusive aortoiliac disease is due to atheromatosis in the vast majority of cases and is a common distribution of that pathology. Historically aortoiliac occlusions were treated with surgery. Nowadays, the endovascular minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of such lesions. The success rate is extremely high with a technical success of 96%. Long term (5 years) patency of the diseased vessel can be as high as 71%. These results combined to the advent of new materials and techniques have set the new standards for treating aortoiliac occlusive disease. The first TASC recommendations (TASC I) were recently revised (TASC II) and the new guidelines (TASC III) will be shortly published. On the other hand endovascular techniques are not always successful. Technical failure (inability to cross the lesion) is estimated to be approximately 5% in single short iliac occlusions and can rise up to 15- 20% in complex long or multiple occlusive lesions. Possible, although not very frequent, complications are dissection, rupture and distal embolization. In the case of total occlusions we can use different materials and techniques. For example in an acute or subacute total occlusion chemical (urokinase or rtPA), mechanical or aspiration thrombolysis can be implemented. These minimally invasive techniques are of the outmost importance if we consider that the majority of the patients are old with a high rate of cardiac and other co-morbidities and therefore cannot go into surgery. That is the reason why the risk of morbidity and mortality following open surgical intervention remains high (5 - 20%). In chronic lesions we can use rentry catheters, glidewires, laser or thrombolysis/thrombectomy (if the clot is not very 'old'). Nevertheless, it should

  8. Interventional Radiology: Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government affairs Global outreach Publications Annual Report IR Quarterly Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology Newsletters Practice Resources Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  9. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  10. Guideline for Early Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-134 6 - 1 Guideline for Early Interventions Maaike de Vries Impact Foundation, Dutch Knowledge & Advice Centre for Post...assistance, also referred to as ‘ early interventions ’ or ‘debriefing’, is offered following shocking events. These may be large scale disasters or...calamities, but also military deployment and individual incidents. During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing

  11. Interventional neuroradiology techniques in interventional radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kieran; Robertson, Fergus; Watkinson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This book provides accessible technique-specific information on interventional radiology procedures, in a format suitable for reference in the IR treatment room or as a carry-around guide. Offers step-by-step points, key point summaries and illustrations.

  12. Practical interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, J.; Schreyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The book is intended as a practical guide and manual for interventional radiology applications. Main emphasis is placed on the performance of the various techniques, with explanations of the various steps to be taken, illustrated by drawings or pictures. Indications, contra-indications and clinical achievements are given in brief. There is one chapter each for the following techniques: angioplasty - intra-arterial fibrinolysis - vascular stents - neuroembolisation - embolisation of other vessels - biliary interventions - abscess drainage - nephrostomy and ureteral manipulations -percutaneous fine-needle biopsy - vena cava filters - interventional radiology in infants. (orig.)

  13. Government Actions and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John B.

    2009-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that government actions and interventions prolonged and worsened the financial crisis, because they were based on faulty diagnosis of the problem and did not follow clear predictable principles.

  14. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  15. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  16. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  17. Immune interventions in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  18. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Who needs intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Who needs intervention? A phonological screening tool for children with cleft palate Children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip (CP) are at risk of speech and language delay. It is important to identify children with difficulties as early as possible in order to offer appropriate intervention. Conv....... Lieberman, M., & Lohmander, A. (2014). Observation is a valid way of assessing common variables in typical babbling and identifies infants who need further support. Acta Paediatrica, 103(12), 1251–1257. doi:10.1111/apa.12776...

  20. Anesthesia for interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Varney, R.R.; D'Agostino, H.B.; Zornow, M.; Mazzie, W.

    1989-01-01

    We recognized that the complexity and surgical nature of many interventional radiology procedures dictate essential radiologic involvement into traditional anesthesiologic areas. They reviewed our experience with a variety of interventional procedures to document complications and problems related to anesthetic use (or misuse) and compile recommendations for rational monitoring and control for these procedures. In particular, the authors have studied complications of drug therapies and the treatment of these complications; use of complex anesthesia procedures (e.g., epidural anesthesia, succinylcholine blockage); reasons for choice of drugs (e.g., fentanyl vs meperidine vs morphine); and medico-legal aspects of radiologist performing traditional anesthesiology-type procedures

  1. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...

  2. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  3. Sedoanalgesia in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Development of a save and effective protocol for analgosedation of patients undergoing painful interventional procedures. Material and Methods: In a prospective trial a consecutive series of 72 adult patients underwent analgosedation during painful interventions. A radiologist performed the analgosedation, the patients received a combination of a shortly effective piperidine derivative (Alfentanil [Rapifen trademark ]; 7.5-15 μg/kg body weight) and Benzodiazepine (midazolam [Dormicum trademark ]; 20 μg/kg body weight). After pre-procedure oxygenation patients were continuously monitored. Pain and discomfort were scored using an established visual-analog pain score (0-10). A control group (n=24) had received midazolam, pentazocine or fentanyl according to the study protocol. Results: All procedures could be carried out by an interventional radiologist and a nurse and/or technologist only. In 69/72 cases adequate analgosedation could be achieved. Injection of alfentanil was titrated, with a rapid onset and short acting effect of the analgesia. Patients reported an average pain score of 2.6 vs. 4.5 in the control group. Over 55% experienced no or mild pain (score 0-3), in the control group only 8% reached this level. Conclusion: A combination of shortly effective alfentanil and midazolam allows interventional radiologists to perform major procedures alone under effective analgosedation. This medication scheme is superior to the medication upon demand. (orig.) [de

  4. Obesogenic environment - intervention opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisberg, Mauro; Maximino, Priscila; Kain, Juliana; Kovalskys, Irina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate environmental obesogenic-related factors, such as physical activity in neighborhoods and schools, nutritional behavior, and intervention programs. Critical analysis of literature with personal point of view from infant obesity experts and political advisors for public intervention. Although obesity is a public health problem affecting several age groups, it is among children and adolescents that it plays a more important role, due to treatment complexity, high likelihood of persistence into adulthood, and association with other non-transmissible diseases while still in early age. Environment is a main component of the genesis and outcomes in the near future or long term. Modification of intake with high-density food, meal skipping, and high intake of saturated fat, sugar, and salt, associated to high levels of sedentarism are main causes of obesity. Intervention opportunities are related to modifications in political, environmental, and individual settings. School and physical activities in the educational environment are intertwined with nutrition intervention in continuous education. A critical review of some different scenarios in Latin American countries is presented. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Work–Life Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lu Calvin Ong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite disparities in the conceptualization of work–life balance (WLB and work–life harmony (WLH in the literature, there remains no evidence till date to validate these differences. Furthermore, there are currently no insights that shed light on the relationship between work–life initiatives and key business strategies of contemporary organizations. Hence, the current study investigated the differences between the constructs of WLB and WLH using a cognitive dissonance approach and assessed the impact of work–life interventions, based on these approaches, on individual creativity at work. Hundred participants, age ranging from 18 to 32 years (M = 23.94, SD = 3.87, with at least 6 months of working experience were recruited. Using an online questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned into WLB (n = 55 or WLH (n = 45 conditions. Participants were tasked to complete pre- and post-intervention measures of individual creativity, as well as a manipulation check using a cognitive dissonance scale. Results showed that participants in the WLB condition elicit higher levels of cognitive dissonance compared with participants in the WLH condition. This indicates an implicit difference in the constructs of WLB and harmony. Second, findings also suggest that work–life interventions adopting a WLH approach will have a more positive impact on individuals’ creativity at work compared with interventions targeted at achieving balance. Research, practical, and cultural implications of the findings are discussed in the article.

  6. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  7. The Weekend Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Harvey A.

    The Weekend Intervention Program (WIP) at the Wright State University School of Medicine is described in this report. Designed to address severe health and social problems while supporting the university's academic mission, the program began with the goal of addressing the health and social problems of alcohol abusers. WIP is a 72-hour intensive…

  8. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  9. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  10. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  12. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  14. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  15. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  16. Crisis Intervention: A Model Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Clyde H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A model workshop for training campus personnel in crisis intervention skills is described. This workshop combined theoretical presentations with interventions in crises simulated by student actors and actresses. The crisis interventions were videotaped and processed. Problems and issues that arose are discussed. (Author)

  17. Early intervention for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  18. Recommendations for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Descalzo, A.; Peralta, O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is set a 'radiological protection criteria' for patients and staff involved for the purpose of the doses involved are as low as reasonably achievable considering the limitations that each technique and its objectives. Establish criteria for injury prevention in the patient's skin for long exposures and intense when complications arise in the process. Set levels for some well Dimensional procedures. Establish procedures for patient dosimetry control and operator personnel. These criteria will be established by the interventional radiology team with participation of specialists in radiation protection, medical physics, dosimetry and X rays equipment specialists

  19. Interventional Cardiology: What's New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A

    2017-09-01

    Interventional cardiology in veterinary medicine continues to expand beyond the standard 3 procedures of patent ductus arteriosus occlusion, balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, and transvenous pacing. Opportunities for fellowship training; advances in equipment, including high-resolution digital fluoroscopy, real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, fusion imaging, and rotational angiography; ultrasound-guided access and vascular closure devices; and refinement of techniques, including cutting and high-pressure ballooning, intracardiac and intravascular stent implantation, septal defect occlusion, transcatheter valve implantation, and hybrid approaches, are likely to transform the field over the next decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards Sutatinable Energy Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    buildings. In the vernacular architecture problems of insulation and thermal radiation have also occurred. Their tectonic is rational, built upon material austerity and high levels of recyclability. Through a case study of a philanthropic project on revitalization of seaweed houses at the island Læsø......, Denmark, this paper investigates if the historic seaweed material and building technique has informed new constructions. Furthermore, it discusses how new interventions can be integrated into the tectonics of an existing building and if the historic knowledge can contribute to the modern concept of energy...

  1. Psychotherapeutic intervention by telephone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mozer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erika Mozer1,2, Bethany Franklin1,3, Jon Rose11Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2PGSP Stanford PsyD Consortium Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3Pacific Graduate School of Psychology Palo Alto, California, USAAbstract: Psychotherapy conducted over the telephone has received increasing amounts of empirical attention given practical advantages that side-step treatment barriers encountered in traditional office-based care. The utility and efficacy of telephone therapy appears generalizable across diverse clinical populations seeking care in community-based hospital settings. Treatment barriers common to older adults suggest that telephone therapy may be an efficient and effective mental health resource for this population. This paper describes empirical studies of telehealth interventions and case examples with psychotherapy conducted via telephone on the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of the Palo Alto Veterans’ Administration. Telephone therapy as appears to be a viable intervention with the aging population.Keywords: telehealth, rural mental health, psychotherapy, healthcare delivery, telecare

  2. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....... of psychosocial services for minority youth. The theoretical framework is social psychological, which combines theories of modernization, family relations and effects of discrimination. The article examines youths' interaction with the parents in relation to their intimate partnership formation and dynamics...

  4. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  5. Designing equitable workplace dietary interventions: perceptions of intervention deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A; Visram, Shelina; O'Malley, Claire; Summerbell, Carolyn; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A

    2017-10-16

    Workplaces are a good setting for interventions that aim to support workers in achieving a healthier diet and body weight. However, little is known about the factors that impact on the feasibility and implementation of these interventions, and how these might vary by type of workplace and type of worker. The aim of this study was to explore the views of those involved in commissioning and delivering the Better Health at Work Award, an established and evidence-based workplace health improvement programme. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals in North East England who had some level of responsibility for delivering workplace dietary interventions. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic framework analysis. A number of factors were felt to promote the feasibility and implementation of interventions. These included interventions that were cost-neutral (to employee and employer), unstructured, involved colleagues for support, took place at lunchtimes, and were well-advertised and communicated via a variety of media. Offering incentives, not necessarily monetary, was perceived to increase recruitment rates. Factors that militate against feasibility and implementation of interventions included worksites that were large in size and remote, working patterns including shifts and working outside of normal working hours that were not conducive to workers being able to access intervention sessions, workplaces without appropriate provision for healthy food on site, and a lack of support from management. Intervention deliverers perceived that workplace dietary interventions should be equally and easily accessible (in terms of cost and timing of sessions) for all staff, regardless of their job role. Additional effort should be taken to ensure those staff working outside normal working hours, and those working off-site, can easily engage with any intervention, to avoid the risk of intervention-generated inequalities (IGIs).

  6. Interventions for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley-Browne, M A; Adams, P; Mobberley, P M

    2000-01-01

    effects models. Tests for heterogeneity were undertaken. Both short-term (1 month or less) and long-term (6 months or longer) outcomes were considered. Only four RCTs of psychological treatments were identified. These RCTs were heterogeneous in terms of design, interventions, outcome measurement and follow-up periods. All had small numbers of participants. The studies had poor methodological quality features. The experimental interventions, behavioural or cognitive-behavioural therapy (BT/CBT), were more efficacious than the control interventions in the short-term (relative risk 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0. 81). There was a trend for long-term treatment with BT/CBT to be more efficacious than the control treatments, but the statistical significance of this was sensitive to the statistical model used for meta-analysis. With a fixed effect model the relative risk was 0.56 (95% CI 0.33-0.95); the relative risk with a random effects model was 0.61 (95% CI 0.25-1.47). This systematic review revealed a paucity of evidence for effective treatment of pathological gambling. As gambling is becoming more accessible in many countries and there is epidemiological evidence of increasing rates of pathological gambling, more rigorous RCTs are required.

  7. Percutaneous intervention in obstructive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souftas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention procedures in obstructive uropathy include percutaneous nephrostomy tube placements, nephroureteral stents, percutaneous nephrostomy combined with ureteral embolization, percutaneous management of stone disease, suprapubic tube placements into the bladder, and perinephric/retroperitoneal urinomas/abscesses drainages. Percutaneous nephrostomy is performed to relieve urinary obstruction or divert the urinary stream away from the ureter or bladder. Patients are given preprocedure antibiotics. Percutaneous nephrostomies can be emergent cases because of risk of pyuria and sepsis from a stagnant urine collection. The procedure is performed using both ultrasound and fluoroscopy (or fluoroscopy alone using anatomic landmarks, or an internal radiopaque calculus, or delayed phase excretion of the contrast into the renal collecting system) under local anesthesia or conscious sedation. Ureteral stents are placed to bypass an obstructing stone or to stent across of an area of stricture or ureteral laceration. Stents may be placed by the urologist via a transurethral approach or by the interventional radiologist via a percutaneous approach. The decision as to method of stent placement is based upon the location and accessibility of the ureteral pathology. Ureteral embolization is performed in patients with unresectable tumors of the pelvis with long-standing nephrostomy tubes and distal urine leaks refractory to other treatments. Coils, gelfoam and liquid embolic materials can be used. Ureteral embolization for ureteral fistulas and incontinence is technically successful in 100% of the patients. Complications include bleeding, infection, ureteral or renal injury, and deployment (or movement) of the coils within the renal pelvis. Percutaneous management of stone disease, including renal, ureteral, and bladder stones requires close cooperation between the urologist and interventional radiologist, because of availability of sonographic lithotripsy

  8. Ethics of the humanitarian intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .

  9. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2012-02-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  10. Interventional endocrinology: A futuristic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventions in endocrinology make a huge impact on life of patients with endocrine diseases. This brief communication discusses the role played by both medical and surgical interventions in practice of endocrinology. Endocrinology is branch of medicine where treatment is as close to ideal as possible. For people with hormone deficiencies, medical intervention in form of replacement with hormones generated by recombinant technologies is a perfectly natural treatment. Hormone excess is also being evaluated and treated with exceedingly precise surgical interventions with minimal morbidity.

  11. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2011-03-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  12. Interventional spinal procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreula, Cosma E-mail: cosmaandreula@tin.it; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco

    2004-05-01

    The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day.

  13. Implications for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hof

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an upper motor neurone syndrome (CP suffer from many disabling primary symptoms: spasms, weakness, and loss of dexterity. These primary ‘neurogenic’ symptoms often lead to secondary disabilities, muscle contractures, and tertiary effects, bone deformations. A common symptom of CP is hypertonia, with. the consequence that the involved muscles remain in an excessively shortened length for most of the time. As a normal reaction of the muscle tissue, the number of sarcomeres is reduced and the muscle fibers shorten permanently: a contracture develops. A possible second type of contracture is that normal muscle lengthening along with bone growth is affected. Current treatments for the secondary effects include (1 reduction of muscle force, (2lengthening of the muscle fibers by serial plaster casts, and (3surgical lengthening of tendons or aponeurosis. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the functional deficit. Bone tissue also adapts itself to abnormal forces, especially in the growth period. The hypertonias or contractures of CP so may give rise to bone malformations that interfere with function (e.g. femur endorotation or may reduce the action of muscles by changing the lever arm (e.g. ankle varus. Although prevention should always be preferred, a timely surgical intervention cannot always be avoided. The differences in treatment for the various groups require and justify an extensive laboratory investigation, including EMG recordings in gait, measurement of passive elastic properties, and long-term observation of the hypertonia.

  14. Early Intervention: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of brain development in the early years of life has led to expanded early intervention programs for very young children with or at risk for developmental disabilities. A biological basis for early intervention is explored, and brain plasticity is discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. Obesogenic environment – intervention opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Intervention opportunities are related to modifications in political, environmental, and individual settings. School and physical activities in the educational environment are intertwined with nutrition intervention in continuous education. A critical review of some different scenarios in Latin American countries is presented.

  16. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  17. Military Intervention in South America,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    size and com- position of the armed forces, and the traditional role of the 3 military in the political system. A third approach to military intervention...Structure and Military Intervention in Latin America," Archives Europeenes de Sociologie , 1I (Spring, 1961), 62-81; Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant

  18. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  19. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  20. Considerations for climate intervention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  1. Patient doses in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, F.; Ojeda, C.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Francisco Diaz, J.; Sanchez, A.; Tort, I.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in Spain. The most usual procedures in interventional cardiology are coronariography and PTCA. The first is a diagnostic technique, and the second one is interventional. Our goal has been to study procedures made during the first six months in the Interventional Cardiology Unit of the Juan Ramon Jimenez Hospital (Huelva-Spain), taking into account radiation protection issues. We have studied 178 patients; 145 of them underwent coronariography, and 33 of the patients had PTCA too. Every case was analyzed taking into account technical and dosimetric parameters. We show parameters values gathered: Diagnostic techniques (valvular and non-valvular patients), and interventional techniques (coronariography and PTCA in different or in the same intervention). Higher doses were obtained with valvular patients, although the number of frames was similar. Attending to therapeutic procedures, the highest values were gotten with the 'double' interventions. Interventional procedures exceed in 60% doses gotten in diagnostic studies: this is because of the number of series and number of frames per series. Similar values obtained by other authors have been gotten. (author)

  2. [Brief history of interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenliang; Jia, Aiqin; Li, Luoyun; Li, Chunyu

    2014-05-01

    In 1923, angiography was first successively used for the human body. In 1953, a Swedish doctor Sven-Ivar Seldinger pioneered the Seldinger technique, which laid down the foundation of interventional radiology. In 1963, Charles Dotter first proposed the idea of interventional radiology. In 1964, Charles Dotter opened a new era of percutaneous angioplasty through accidental operation, marking the formation of interventional radiology. On this basis, the techniques of balloon catheter dilation and metal stent implantation was developed. Endovascular stent was proposed in 1969. In 1973, the percutaneous angioplasty has been a breakthrough with the emergence of soft double-lumen balloon catheter. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty is applied in 1977. Since the 1990s, balloon angioplasty relegated to secondary status with the emergence of metal stent. Currently, endovascular stent have entered a new stage with the emergence of temporary stent and stent grafts and biological stent. Transcatheter arterial embolization had been one of the most important basic techniques for interventional radiology since 1965, it had also been a corresponding development with the improvement of embolic agents and catheter technology for the treatment of diseases now. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt is a comprehensive interventional radiology technology since 1967, in which the biliary system can be reached through a jugular vein, and the improvement appeared with balloon expandable stent in 1986.Since 1972, non-vascular interventional techniques was another important branch of interventional radiology. Currently, it is applied in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases of the internal organs like the pancreas, liver, kidney, spinal cord, Fallopian tubes, esophagus and other organs. In 1973, Chinese radiologist first conducted the angiography test. Interventional radiology was introduced into China in the 1980s, it was readily developed through the sponsoring of

  3. International Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Hylenaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo

  4. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  5. Interventions for impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Sander; van der Sande, Renske; Verhagen, Arianne P; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Morris, Andrew D; Butler, Christopher C; Berger, Marjolein; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2012-01-18

    Impetigo is a common, superficial bacterial skin infection, which is most frequently encountered in children. There is no generally agreed standard therapy, and guidelines for treatment differ widely. Treatment options include many different oral and topical antibiotics as well as disinfectants. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2003. To assess the effects of treatments for impetigo, including non-pharmacological interventions and 'waiting for natural resolution'. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched online trials registries for ongoing trials, and we handsearched the reference lists of new studies found in the updated search. Randomised controlled trials of treatments for non-bullous, bullous, primary, and secondary impetigo. Two independent authors undertook all steps in data collection. We performed quality assessments and data collection in two separate stages. We included 57 trials in the first version of this review. For this update 1 of those trials was excluded and 12 new trials were added. The total number of included trials was, thus, 68, with 5578 participants, reporting on 50 different treatments, including placebo. Most trials were in primary impetigo or did not specify this.For many of the items that were assessed for risk of bias, most studies did not provide enough information. Fifteen studies reported blinding of participants and outcome assessors.Topical antibiotic treatment showed better cure rates than placebo (pooled risk ratio (RR) 2. 24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61 to 3.13) in 6 studies with 575 participants. In 4 studies with 440 participants, there was no clear evidence that either of the most commonly studied topical antibiotics (mupirocin and fusidic acid) was more effective than the other

  6. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  7. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  9. THE LIMITS OF POSITIVE INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive interventions have been developed extensively in recent years and they have been tested and applied in very diverse settings. Despite the fact that most of the findings regarding their efficacy can be considered from positive to very positive, the possibility that, in some cases, positive interventions may have unexpected or even iatrogenic effects cannot be discarded. In this article, research from several sources is reviewed in order to inform decisions about what interventions might be inadequate for cases with specific characteristics or vulnerability traits. Finally, the importance of using positive interventions with caution and rigor even when working with individuals who do not have overt problems or psychological disorders is discussed.

  10. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  11. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...

  12. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  13. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  14. Banking crises and government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Hasman, Augusto; Samartín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Intervention has taken different forms in different countries and periods of time. Moreover, recent episodes showed that in front of an imminent crisis, the promise of no interventions made by governments is barely credible. In this paper we address the problem of resolving banking crises from the government perspective, taking into account the fact that preventing banking crises is crucial for the government. In addition, we introduce the moral hazard problem, inherent in the banking system,...

  15. Existential interventions in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study provides the result of a doctorate research into the impact of existential psychotherapeutic interventions with people experiencing chronic eating disorders. The results indicate that positive outcomes are correlated to therapeutic interventions which concentrate on the clients own perception of control and choice over their own eating habits. The research aim was to explore both the effects and the effectiveness of existential therapy in altering the individuals subjective int...

  16. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  17. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...

  18. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  19. Robotics in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourdjabbar, Ali; Ang, Lawrence; Behnamfar, Omid; Patel, Mitul P; Reeves, Ryan R; Campbell, Paul T; Madder, Ryan D; Mahmud, Ehtisham

    2017-11-01

    The fundamental technique of performing percutaneous cardiovascular (CV) interventions has remained unchanged and requires operators to wear heavy lead aprons to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation. Robotic technology is now being utilized in interventional cardiology partially as a direct result of the increasing appreciation of the long-term occupational hazards of the field. This review was undertaken to report the clinical outcomes of percutaneous robotic coronary and peripheral vascular interventions. Areas covered: A systematic literature review of percutaneous robotic CV interventions was undertaken. The safety and feasibility of percutaneous robotically-assisted CV interventions has been validated in simple to complex coronary disease, and iliofemoral disease. Studies have shown that robotically-assisted PCI significantly reduces operator exposure to harmful ionizing radiation without compromising procedural success or clinical efficacy. In addition to the operator benefits, robotically-assisted intervention has the potential for patient advantages by allowing more accurate lesion length measurement, precise stent placement and lower patient radiation exposure. However, further investigation is required to fully elucidate these potential benefits. Expert commentary: Incremental improvement in robotic technology and telecommunications would enable treatment of an even broader patient population, and potentially provide remote robotic PCI.

  20. Bringing parenting interventions back to the future: How randomized microtrials may benefit parenting intervention efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Dishion, T.J.; Thomaes, S.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach is needed to promote the efficacy of parenting interventions designed to improve children's mental health. The proposed approach bridges developmental and intervention science to test which intervention elements contribute to parenting intervention program efficacy. The approach

  1. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Heath, Laura; Livingstone-Banks, Jonathan; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-15

    Healthcare professionals, including nurses, frequently advise people to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. To determine the effectiveness of nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions in adults. To establish whether nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions are more effective than no intervention; are more effective if the intervention is more intensive; differ in effectiveness with health state and setting of the participants; are more effective if they include follow-ups; are more effective if they include aids that demonstrate the pathophysiological effect of smoking. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and CINAHL in January 2017. Randomized trials of smoking cessation interventions delivered by nurses or health visitors with follow-up of at least six months. Two review authors extracted data independently. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically-validated rates if available. Where statistically and clinically appropriate, we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model and reported the outcome as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of which are new for this update. Pooling 44 studies (over 20,000 participants) comparing a nursing intervention to a control or to usual care, we found the intervention increased the likelihood of quitting (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.38); however, statistical heterogeneity was moderate (I 2 = 50%) and not explained by subgroup analysis. Because of this, we judged the quality of evidence to be moderate. Despite most studies being at unclear risk of bias in at least one domain, we did not downgrade the quality of evidence further, as restricting the main analysis to only those studies at low risk

  2. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  3. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-01-24

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.

  4. Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974

  5. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references

  6. Computational radiology for orthopaedic interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive overview of the current technological advances in computational radiology, and their applications in orthopaedic interventions. Contributed by the leading researchers in the field, this volume covers not only basic computational radiology techniques such as statistical shape modeling, CT/MRI segmentation, augmented reality and micro-CT image processing, but also the applications of these techniques to various orthopaedic interventional tasks. Details about following important state-of-the-art development are featured: 3D preoperative planning and patient-specific instrumentation for surgical treatment of long-bone deformities, computer assisted diagnosis and planning of periacetabular osteotomy and femoroacetabular impingement, 2D-3D reconstruction-based planning of total hip arthroplasty, image fusion for  computer-assisted bone tumor surgery, intra-operative three-dimensional imaging in fracture treatment, augmented reality based orthopaedic interventions and education, medica...

  7. Progress of interventional neurovascular treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-min LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays,along with the rapid development of clinical medicine and the improvement of material science and computer technology,endovascular interventional therapy has entered a new stage of development as an important part of minimally invasive medicine.It has been gradually accepted by patients and clinicians because of the minimal pain during treatment and its high effectiveness. Domestic interventional neurovascular treatment has emerged through the combined efforts of neurosurgery, neurology, vascular surgery,and radiology physicians for nearly 30 years.The principles of effectiveness,feasibility,safety and economy,have been improving the diagnosis and treatment level of neurovascular diseases.Endovascular interventional therapy has not only achieved remarkable success in treating some primary nervous system diseases but has also become an important impulsive force in the rapid development of cranial nerve medicine.

  8. Culinary Quality and foodbased interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjel, Terkel

    Introduction: Insufficient dietary intake is common among adults at risk of undernutrition. This study aims at identifying existent food-based interventions focused on culinary quality as a mean to address undernutrition. Methods: A literature review of systematic reviews was conducted in Pub......Med, during spring 2017. The reference list of identified studies was screened, using the EPPI-screening-tool. Data was extracted focusing on culinary quality and food-based interventions and synthesised in a narrative format. Results: 13 systematic reviews and 90 substudies were identified for inclusion....... Some substudies exploring the effects of culinary quality as a main intervention area, reported significant results. The results consisted in part of: increased micronutrient intake following food fortification and flavour enhancement; and increase in mean energy and macronutrient intake and MNA...

  9. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  10. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  11. Power Computations for Intervention Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. I.; Vingilis, E. R.

    2009-01-01

    In many intervention analysis applications, time series data may be expensive or otherwise difficult to collect. In this case the power function is helpful, because it can be used to determine the probability that a proposed intervention analysis application will detect a meaningful change. Assuming that an underlying autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) or fractional ARIMA model is known or can be estimated from the preintervention time series, the methodology for computing the required power function is developed for pulse, step, and ramp interventions with ARIMA and fractional ARIMA errors. Convenient formulas for computing the power function for important special cases are given. Illustrative applications in traffic safety and environmental impact assessment are discussed. PMID:19629193

  12. Brief interventions in substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Malhotra, A

    2000-04-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority.

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  14. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiew, Angela L; Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various...... interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of......, or to detoxify, metabolites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions for paracetamol overdosage irrespective of the cause of the overdose. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2017), CENTRAL (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946...

  15. Impact evaluation of infrastructure interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Ole Winckler; White, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers in this vo......The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers...... in this volume. Understanding impact means understanding the context in which an intervention takes place and the channels through which the impact on outcomes is expected to occur. Such analysis typically requires mixing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The analysis will also anticipate...

  16. Tricuspid valve interventions in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauten, Alexander; Figulla, Hans R

    2015-09-01

    When the incidence of tricuspid regurgitation is taken into account, along with its impact on functional status and long-term survival, tricuspid regurgitation is currently undertreated. Today, though transcatheter therapy of aortic, mitral- and pulmonic valve disease is well established, interventional treatment of tricuspid valve disease is still in its early stages. Currently, various promising devices are in different stages of development, but it is still too early to clarify which interventional approach in the future might result in functional and clinical success. Similarly, it is yet unclear which type of patient subpopulation will benefit from this type of treatment. Seen in the current context of the overall evolution in the adoption of catheter-based treatments for other types of structural heart disease, the need for and interest in effective interventional treatments for tricuspid regurgitation is growing.

  17. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... Eight trials enrolling a total of 1156 people met the inclusion criteria. One of these did not report cessation as an outcome. Two trials initiated multisession face to face counselling at least 6 weeks before surgery whilst six used a brief intervention. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was offered...

  18. STS Interventions: Preparing, Defending, Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervening in the Australian vaccination debate, I found that STS perspectives helped me understand the controversy but gave little guidance on how to defend against attacks. Max Liboiron comments that preparation, including support networks, should precede interventions. I was well supported in my involvement in the vaccination debate, but those who openly advocate a stigmatized view may have difficulty gaining support. Teun Zuiderent-Jerak asks what is being learned when interventions reinforce existing categories. Controversy participants can learn by being exposed to STS perspectives; controversy researchers, when attacked, can gain new information and develop new research ideas.

  19. Obesogenic environment – intervention opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate environmental obesogenic-related factors, such as physical activity in neighborhoods and schools, nutritional behavior, and intervention programs. Sources: Critical analysis of literature with personal point of view from infant obesity experts and political advisors for public intervention. Data synthesis: Although obesity is a public health problem affecting several age groups, it is among children and adolescents that it plays a more important role, due to treatment complexity, high likelihood of persistence into adulthood, and association with other non- transmissible diseases while still in early age. Environment is a main component of the genesis and outcomes in the near future or long term. Modification of intake with high-density food, meal skipping, and high intake of saturated fat, sugar, and salt, associated to high levels of sedentarism are main causes of obesity. Conclusion: Intervention opportunities are related to modifications in political, environmental, and individual settings. School and physical activities in the educational environment are intertwined with nutrition intervention in continuous education. A critical review of some different scenarios in Latin American countries is presented.

  20. [Quality assurance in interventional cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülker, H

    2009-10-01

    Quality assurance in clinical studies aiming at approval of pharmaceutical products is submitted to strict rules, controls and auditing regulations. Comparative instruments to ensure quality in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are not available in interventional cardiology, likewise in other fields of cardiovascular medicine. Quality assurance simply consists of "quality registers" with basic data not externally controlled. Based on the experiences of clinical studies and their long history of standardization it is assumed that these data may be severely flawed thus being inappropriate to set standards for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The precondition for quality assurance are quality data. In invasive coronary angiography and intervention medical indications, the decision making process interventional versus surgical revascularization, technical performance and after - care are essential aspects affecting quality of diagnostics and therapy. Quality data are externally controlled data. To collect quality data an appropriate infrastructure is a necessary precondition which is not existent. For an appropriate infrastructure investments have to be done both to build up as well as to sustain the necessary preconditions. As long as there are no infrastructure and no investments there will be no "quality data". There exist simply registers of data which are not proved to be a basis for significant assurance and enhancement in quality in interventional coronary cardiology. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  1. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Elena Andreyeva; Eugenia C. South; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical,...

  2. Peripheral vascular imaging and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Orron, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This reference addresses the entire clinical approach to the vascular system from the diagnosis of pathology to surgery or interventional radiological management. All diagnostic imaging modalities currently available are included with specific information on how to interpret various results. It features discussions of the latest therapeutic techniques, including laser angioplasty, intravascular stents, and transluminal embolization

  3. Brain aging and therapeutic interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together most up-to-date information on different aspects of brain aging and on the strategies for intervention and therapy of age-related brain disorders. It includes 18 chapters by leading researchers, and each chapter is a comprehensive and critical review of the topic...

  4. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  6. Imaging in percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi, Afshin; Guth, Stephane; Guermazi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This is one of the first books to deal specifically with imaging in percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions. The use of different imaging modalities during these procedures is well described. In the first chapter, the basic procedures and different guidance techniques are presented and discussed. The ensuing chapters describe in exhaustive detail the abilities and uses of imaging in guiding procedures ranging from biopsy and joint injection to management of pain and tumors. These procedures are extensively documented in adults as well as in the pediatric population. The third part of the book describes the different indications for vascular interventions in musculoskeletal lesions. The final chapter focuses on ultrasound-guided interventions, as they are more common and tend to be fashionable. The book is well illustrated with carefully chosen and technically excellent images. Each of the 18 chapters is written by an expert of international repute, making this book the most current and complete treatment of the subject available. It should be of great interest to interventional radiologists and also musculoskeletal and general radiologists. (orig.)

  7. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical

  8. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...

  9. Improving evaluation of obstetric interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hooft, J.

    2016-01-01

    In most pregnancies the synergy between mother and her unborn child is adequately balanced, resulting in the birth of the baby at the end of an uncomplicated pregnancy. Unfortunately, not all pregnancies and deliveries remain in such optimal balance. Many new and existing interventions can be

  10. Interventions for Dealing with Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dorinda J.

    Basic intervention strategies for dealing with client resistance include psychoanalytic, learning/behavioral, and hypnotic/paradoxical. Psychoanalytic theory views resistance as a way to avoid the anxiety aroused by increasing awareness of unconscious materials and vulnerable areas in the person's life. Resistance is dealt with after it has…

  11. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  12. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  13. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  14. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2014-02-26

    The workplace has potential as a setting through which large groups of people can be reached to encourage smoking cessation. 1. To categorize workplace interventions for smoking cessation tested in controlled studies and to determine the extent to which they help workers to stop smoking.2. To collect and evaluate data on costs and cost effectiveness associated with workplace interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (July 2013), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2013), EMBASE (1985 - June 2013), and PsycINFO (to June 2013), amongst others. We searched abstracts from international conferences on tobacco and the bibliographies of identified studies and reviews for additional references. We selected interventions conducted in the workplace to promote smoking cessation. We included only randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials allocating individuals, workplaces, or companies to intervention or control conditions. One author extracted information relating to the characteristics and content of all kinds of interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the studies, and a second author checked them. For this update we have conducted meta-analyses of the main interventions, using the generic inverse variance method to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We include 57 studies (61 comparisons) in this updated review. We found 31 studies of workplace interventions aimed at individual workers, covering group therapy, individual counselling, self-help materials, nicotine replacement therapy, and social support, and 30 studies testing interventions applied to the workplace as a whole, i.e. environmental cues, incentives, and comprehensive programmes. The trials were generally of moderate to high quality, with results that were consistent with those found in other settings. Group therapy programmes (odds ratio (OR) for cessation 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 2.80; eight trials, 1309 participants), individual

  15. Interventional-Cardiovascular MR: Role of the Interventional MR Technologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan R; Rogers, Toby; Schenke, William H; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Hansen, Michael; O'Brien, Kendall; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Lederman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Interventional-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) is a promising clinical tool for adults and children who need a comprehensive hemodynamic catheterization of the heart. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided cardiac catheterization offers radiation-free examination with increased soft tissue contrast and unconstrained imaging planes for catheter guidance. The interventional MR technologist plays an important role in the care of patients undergoing such procedures. It is therefore helpful for technologists to understand the unique iCMR preprocedural preparation, procedural and imaging workflows, and management of emergencies. The authors report their team's experience from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and a collaborating pediatric site. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  16. Coastal Hazards Impacts And Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna D. Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communitys participation in the activities like the preparation and creation of historical timeline. resource and hazard mapping as well as vulnerability assessment matrix VAM are effective tools in determining hazards impacts and interventions of a certain locality. The most common hazards are typhoons saltwater intrusion floods and drought. Data were collected through focus group discussions FGDs from respondents along coastal areas. Findings revealed that natural calamities had great impact to livelihood properties and health. The damaged business operations fishing and agricultural livelihood led to loss of income likewise the sources of water were also contaminated. Planned interventions include launching of periodic education and awareness program creation of evacuation centers and relocation sites rescue centers installation of deep well water pumps and irrigation systems solid waste management drainage and sea walls construction canal rehabilitationdredging tree planting and alternative livelihood programs.

  17. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...

  18. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  19. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  20. Intervention model in organizational climate

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas Niño, Lucila; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Psicología, Hospital Antiguo, Carrera 10 No 16ª05; Arciniegas Rodríguez, Yuly Cristina; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Psicología, Hospital Antiguo, Carrera 10 No 16ª05; Barrera Cárdenas, Mónica; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Psicología, Hospital Antiguo, Carrera 10 No 16ª05

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the intervention model in organizational climate PMCO, was effective in the Hospital of Yopal, Colombia. The following five phases, proposed by the model, were implemented: 1) problem analysis, 2) awareness, 3) strategies design and planning, at the individual, intergroup, and organizational levels, 4) implementation of the strategy, and 5) process evaluation. A design composed of two groups, experimental and control, was chosen, analyzing whether t...

  1. Bosnia: A Question of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-10

    Continue on reverse if necessary and identify Dy block number) FIELD GROUP SUB.GROUP 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if beces.sary and identify by...It will explore the rationales offered for military intervention and deduce the corresponding political goals. From there, it will be possible to...34 Nelson, p. 34. A critique of Serb strategy and tactics can be found in Tammy Arbuckle , "Yugoslavia: Strategy and Tactics of Ethnic Warfare

  2. Essential interventions for child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Mallick, Dania; Das, Jai K; Mal, Lekho; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19,000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world's under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations.

  3. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. 2014 update on interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, Felipe; de la Torre Hernández, José M; Rumoroso Cuevas, José R; García del Blanco, Bruno; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the most relevant publications and studies in the field of interventional cardiology in 2014. In the area of coronary interventional procedures, integrated treatment of acute coronary syndrome continues to be the subject of numerous studies that evaluate different devices and pharmacological and mechanical strategies that can be used without increasing the risk of hemorrhage or the need for reintervention. Certain anatomical substrates continue to generate a considerable number of publications, both on the outcomes with different stents and on the use of specific techniques. Bioabsorbable drug-eluting stents are used in increasingly complex lesions with promising results. The development of interventional procedures for structural heart disease continues to advance, with new evidence on percutaneously placed aortic valve prostheses, the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair, and the safety and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion. Finally, renal denervation has generated one of the major debates of the year. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. International harmonization of intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.

    1994-05-01

    A summary is given on international guidance on intervention levels in circumstances in which remedial actions might be considered in nuclear accident situations. The nature and limitations of international work and their effect on the resulting guidance are discussed. The basic international principles recommended can be expressed in the following compressed form: (1) serious deterministic effects should be avoided by intervention, (2) each protective measure should be justified, i.e. do more good than harm, (3) the level at which the protective measures are to be introduced should be optimized, i.e. do most good, and (4) each protective measure should be optimized separately and independent of all other countermeasures. It is of great importance that decision makers inform the public of all aspects of their decisions in order to make the decisions transparent, especially when the interventions chosen are mainly for political or social reason rather than health protection grounds. Otherwise the public may be misled and the radiological protection community will be mistrusted. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Innovations in tricuspid valve intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Tang, Gilbert H L; Verma, Subodh; Yanagawa, Bobby; Ruel, Marc; Adams, David H

    2017-03-01

    Tricuspid valve disease has received much less attention in terms of intervention. The main reason for this is the widely held belief that treatment of left-sided valve disease leads to resolution of functional tricuspid regurgitation. Recent data show that tricuspid regurgitation is not benign and that many patients will benefit from intervention at the time of left-sided valve surgery, or in isolated tricuspid disease. This review describes the latest surgical and interventional options and strategies. Latest valve guidelines now recommend a more aggressive surgical approach to the treatment of moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation, with annuloplasty being the preferred technique. Guidelines now also promote treatment of isolated significant tricuspid dilatation even without significant regurgitation, as a prophylactic strategy to prevent disease progression. This renewed interest in surgical repair has been accompanied by development of newer tricuspid annuloplasty rings. For patients in whom surgery would be high risk, transcatheter therapies are emerging as a promising alternative. Various repair devices have reported early experience. Recent surgical and transcatheter innovations in the treatment of tricuspid valve disease are promising and have the potential of removing the stigma of the tricuspid valve as the 'forgotten valve'.

  7. Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-12-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults. Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools

  8. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Bücker, Arno; Hohl, Christian; Berlis, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    Purpose  Scope and clinical importance of interventional radiology markedly evolved over the last decades. Consequently it was acknowledged as independent subspecialty by the "European Union of Medical Specialists" (UEMS). Based on radiological imaging techniques Interventional Radiology is an integral part of Radiology. Materials und Methods  In 2009 the German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a structured training in Interventional Radiology. In cooperation with the German Society of Neuroradiology (DGNR) this training was extended to also cover Interventional Neuroradiology in 2012. Tailored for this training in Interventional Radiology a structured curriculum was developed, covering the scope of this modular training. Results  The curriculum is based on the DeGIR/DGNR modular training concept in Interventional Radiology. There is also an European Curriculum and Syllabus for Interventional Radiology developed by the "Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe" (CIRSE). The presented curriculum in Interventional Radiology is designed to provide a uniform base for the training in Interventional Radiology in Germany, based on the competencies obtained during residency. Conclusion  This curriculum can be used as a basis for training in Interventional Radiology by all training sites. Key Points: · Interventional Radiology is an integral part of clinical radiology. · The German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a curriculum in Interventional Radiology. · This curriculum is an integrative basis for the training in interventional. Citation Format · Mahnken AH, Bücker A, Hohl C et al. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 309 - 311. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Nutritional intervention in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingjing; Zhu, Wenhua; Dai, Honglei; Chen, Zhouwen; Chen, Leiqian; Fang, Lizheng

    2007-01-01

    Through an interventional study in the metabolic syndrome, evaluate the feasibility of the standard nutritional intervention. Select metabolic syndrome patients from people who received a health check in our hospital and randomly allocate them into four groups. The standard interventional group received both the nutritional intervention and health education; the simple interventional group only received the nutritional intervention; the simple health educational group only received health education; the control group did not receive any intervention measure. Examine the related index of the metabolic syndrome of each group before and half a year after the intervention: waistline, blood pressure, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose etc. K-W test and Chi-square test, Bonferroni correction was used in our study. The index of the metabolic syndrome was significantly different for each of the four groups before and after intervention (pnutritional interventional group and for, the simple health education group was significantly different, but there was no difference for the other indices (p>0.05) between the standard nutritional interventional group and simple nutritional interventional group, except that the waistline difference (pnutritional intervention is an effective strategy for patients with the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Intervention: Help a Loved One Overcome Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warrant an intervention include: Alcoholism Prescription drug abuse Street drug abuse Compulsive eating Compulsive gambling People who ... org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/in-depth/intervention/ART-20047451 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  11. Change in Autism Core Symptoms with Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Rabinovich, Ana-Lia; Lahat, Eli

    2007-01-01

    It is still debated what is the best early intervention approach for autism. This study compared two intervention approaches, Eclectic-Developmental (ED) and Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) in very young children with autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nineteen children received ED intervention, using combination of methods. Twenty children…

  12. 46 CFR 502.316 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intervention. 502.316 Section 502.316 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.316 Intervention. Intervention will ordinarily not be permitted. ...

  13. 40 CFR 164.31 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intervention. 164.31 Section 164.31... GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS TO... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) Appearances, Intervention, and Consolidation § 164.31 Intervention. (a...

  14. AAC Intervention as an Immersion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Janet L.; Gorey, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication based interventions support individuals with complex communication needs in becoming effective and efficient communicators. However, there is often a disconnect between language models, communication opportunities, and desired intervention outcomes in the intervention process. This article outlines a…

  15. Bivalirudin in percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J Lehman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sam J Lehman, Derek P ChewDepartment of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Bivalirudin is a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor group of anticoagulants. It has been evaluated as an alternative to unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins in the settings of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Results of clinical trials to date suggest bivalirudin is a viable alternative to the use of a heparin combined with a glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor in these settings. Thrombin has a central role in coagulation and platelet activation in ACS and during PCI. Its direct inhibition is an attractive target for therapy in these settings. Bivalirudin is a 20 amino acid polypeptide hirudin analog. It displays bivalent and reversible binding to the thrombin molecule, inhibiting its action. Direct inhibition of thrombin with bivalirudin has theoretical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over the indirect anticoagulants. A reduction in rates of bleeding without loss of anti-thrombotic efficacy has been a consistent finding across multiple clinical trials. There may be economic benefits to the use of bivalirudin if it permits a lower rate of use of the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This article reviews the pharmacology of bivalirudin and clinical trial evidence to date. There are now data from multiple clinical trials and meta-analyses in the setting of ACS and PCI. Early results from the acute catheterization and urgent intervention strategy (ACUITY trial are discussed. Keywords: bivalirudin, direct thrombin inhibitor, acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention

  16. Nondirective counseling interventions with schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwood, J B

    1993-12-01

    Counseling interventions with paranoid schizophrenics can be daunting. While chemical, directive, and behavioral controls often are considered important, nondirective counseling techniques used by the therapeutic staff may help schizophrenic patients explore their thoughts and feelings. Several nondirective concepts pioneered by Carl Rogers are examined. These methods, which represent basic concepts of the person-centered approach, are empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. A brief illustration of an interaction with a patient diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic is presented to suggest the effectiveness of Rogerian counseling.

  17. Bias in clinical intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...... evidence is needed to evaluate their effects on the extent and direction of bias. This narrative review summarizes the findings of methodological studies on the influence of bias in clinical trials. A number of methodological studies suggest that lack of adequate randomization in published trial reports...

  18. Response to intervention in math

    CERN Document Server

    Riccomini, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Boost academic achievement for all students in your mathematics classroom! This timely resource leads the way in applying RTI to mathematics instruction. The authors describe how the three tiers can be implemented in specific math areas and illustrate RTI procedures through case studies. Aligned with the NMAP final report and IES practice guide, this book includes: Intervention strategies for number sense, fractions, problem solving, and more Procedures for teaching math using systematic and explicit instruction for assessment, instructional planning, and evaluation Essential components to con

  19. Gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Robert A; Stern, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Gratitude practice can be a catalyzing and relational healing force, often untapped in clinical practice. In this article, we provide an overview of current thinking about gratitude's defining and beneficial properties, followed by a brief review of the research on mental health outcomes that result from gratitude practice. Following an analysis of our case study of the use of gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention, we present various self-strategies and techniques for consciously choosing and cultivating gratitude. We conclude by describing ways in which gratitude might be capitalized upon for beneficial outcomes in therapeutic settings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2006-04-19

    Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning. To assess the benefits and harms of interventions for paracetamol overdose. We identified trials through electronic databases, manual searches of bibliographies and journals, authors of trials, and pharmaceutical companies until December 2005. Randomised clinical trials and observational studies were included. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality plus liver transplantation. Secondary outcome measures were clinical symptoms, (eg, hepatic encephalopathy, fulminant hepatic failure), hepatotoxicity, adverse events, and plasma paracetamol concentration. We used Peto odds ratios and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for analysis of outcomes. Random- and fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed. Ten small and low-methodological quality randomised trials, one quasi-randomised study, and 48 observational studies were identified. It was not possible to perform relevant meta-analyses of randomised trials that have addressed our outcome measures. Activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and ipecacuanha are able to reduce the absorption of paracetamol, but the clinical benefit is unclear. Of these, activated charcoal seems to have the best risk-benefit ratio. N-acetylcysteine seems preferable to placebo/supportive treatment, dimercaprol, and cysteamine, but N-acetylcysteine's superiority to methionine is unproven. It is not clear which N-acetylcysteine treatment protocol offers the best efficacy. No strong evidence supports other interventions for paracetamol overdose. N-acetylcysteine may reduce mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (Peto OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.94, one trial). Liver transplantation has the potential to be life saving in fulminant hepatic failure, but refinement of selection

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. Multimodality Imaging for Interventional Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Simona; Martini, Nicola; Pastormerlo, Luigi Emilio; Positano, Vincenzo; Berti, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, interventional cardiology has received fast and wide implementation as an effective alternative treatment to surgery for several congenital and acquired diseases. In this scenario, imaging provides solutions for most clinical needs, from diagnosis to prognosis and risk stratification, as well as anatomical and functional assessment. In this review article, we present recent innovations in medical imaging for structural heart disease and coronary artery disease, emphasizing the progress achieved in the field of multimodality imaging and the solutions proposed to some as-yet unresolved technical problems for safe and effective procedural performance. Intra-procedural guidance can be facilitated by established multimodality cardiac imaging such as transesophageal 2D and 3D echocardiography and by novel techniques as echo-fluoroscopy overlay and 3D modeling/printing. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are particularly helpful for preprocedural morphology assessment and device sizing. Successful planning, performance, and aftercare of interventions depend heavily on accurate imaging for both structural heart disease and coronary artery disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Interventions for preventing postpartum constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turawa, Eunice B; Musekiwa, Alfred; Rohwer, Anke C

    2015-09-18

    Postpartum constipation, with symptoms such as pain or discomfort, straining, and hard stool, is a common condition affecting mothers. Haemorrhoids, pain at the episiotomy site, effects of pregnancy hormones and haematinics used in pregnancy can increase the risk of postpartum constipation. Eating a high-fibre diet and increasing fluid intake is usually encouraged, although laxatives are commonly used in relieving constipation. The effectiveness and safety of available interventions for preventing postpartum constipation needs to be ascertained. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions for preventing postpartum constipation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2015), Stellenbosch University database, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 April 2015) and reference lists of included studies. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any intervention for preventing postpartum constipation versus another intervention, placebo or no intervention. Interventions could include pharmacological (e.g. laxatives) and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. acupuncture, educational and behavioural interventions).We included quasi-randomised trials. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results were pooled in a meta-analysis only where there was no substantial statistical heterogeneity. We included five trials (1208 postpartum mothers); four compared a laxative with placebo and one compared a laxative alone versus the same laxative plus a bulking agent in women who underwent surgical repair of third degree perineal tears. Trials were poorly

  4. Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedinger, Emily; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent childbearing in the United States continues to occur at high rates compared with other industrialized nations, despite a recent decline. Adolescent mothers and their offspring are at risk for negative outcomes. Recent literature exploring the consequences of teenage childbearing and interventions to ameliorate these consequences are presented. Negative consequences of adolescent childbearing can impact mothers and their offspring throughout the lifespan. These consequences are likely attributable to social and environmental factors rather than solely to maternal age. Increasing educational attainment, preventing repeat pregnancy and improving mother-child interactions can improve outcomes for mothers and their children. Home, community, school and clinic-based programs are all viable models of service delivery to this population. Connecting teen mothers with comprehensive services to meet their social, economic, health and educational needs can potentially improve long-term outcomes for both mothers and their offspring. Programs that deliver care to this population in culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate ways have demonstrated success. Future investigation of parenting interventions with larger sample sizes and that assess multiple outcomes will allow comparison among programs. Explorations of the role of the father and coparenting are also directions for future research.

  5. Patient dosimetry in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Wilson O. da; Canevaro, Lucia V.; Rodrigues, Barbara Beatriz D.

    2009-01-01

    Mapping skin doses in interventional radiology is useful to determine the probability of a possible injury, to detect areas of overlapping field and to obtain a permanent register of the most exposed skin areas. A method for the evaluation of patient doses in interventional radiology procedures is the slow film, Kodak EDR2 (Extended Dose Range). Kodak EDR 2 film was calibrated in the range of 50 kVp to 120 kVp beam qualities. Its dose-response curve was plotted up to the saturation point of 1000 mGy. Dose responses are a function of facility dependent factors including processing conditions the density sampling, and exposure monitoring equipment. The distribution and the form of all the irradiation fields have been registered in the Kodak EDR 2 films. The Dosimetric analysis was performed in a sample of 37 patients submitted the procedures coronariography and angioplasty. The film has a threshold of saturation around 1 Gy, the applied methodology is efficient to quantify the doses and to identify the distribution of the fields. (author)

  6. Burnout prevention: a review of intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, Wendy L; Plaumann, Martina; Walter, Ulla

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs at the workplace or elsewhere aimed at preventing burnout, a leading cause of work related mental health impairment. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX from 1995 to 2007. Data was also extracted from papers found through a hand search. A total of 25 primary intervention studies were reviewed. Seventeen (68%) were person-directed interventions, 2 (8%) were organization-directed and 6 (24%) were a combination of both interventions types. Eighty percent of all programs led to a reduction in burnout. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (6 months or less), while a combination of both person- and organization-directed interventions had longer lasting positive effects (12 months and over). In all cases, positive intervention effects diminished in the course of time. Intervention programs against burnout are beneficial and can be enhanced with refresher courses. Better implemented programs including both person- and organization-directed measures should be offered and evaluated. A combination of both intervention types should be further investigated, optimized and practiced. Institutions should recognize the need for and make burnout intervention programs available to employees. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Internet interventions for depression: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Westermann, Stefan; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    A wide range of Internet interventions, mostly grounded in methods of cognitive behavioral therapy, have been developed and tested for several mental disorders. The evidence to date shows that these interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of depression. Metaanalyses report small-to-medium effect sizes when Internet interventions are delivered as stand-alone self-help interventions (d=0.25-0.36), and medium-to-large effect sizes when delivered as therapist-guided interventions (d=0.58-0.78), both compared with usual care. Only a minority of people suffering from depression receive adequate treatment, and Internet interventions might help bridge the large treatment gap. This review summarizes the current body of evidence and highlights pros and cons of Internet interventions. It also outlines how they could be implemented in mental health care systems and points out unresolved questions, as well as future directions, in this research field.

  8. Deepening the reform of interventional radiology education and speeding up the development of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chuan; Liu Linxiang; Cheng Yongde

    2010-01-01

    For recent years, although interventional radiology in China has achieved rapid development, it is still facing some rigorous challenges, such as the lack of personnel in interventional field and the flowing-away of certain patients who are definitely suitable for interventional therapy. This paper aims to discuss the reform of interventional radiology education for the undergraduates, postgraduates and clinical practitioners in the medical colleges in order to seek effective solutions to these issues the interventional radiology has confronted with. (authors)

  9. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  10. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...... errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary...

  11. Patient dose in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bordes, M.; Berenguer, R.; Gomez, P.; Bejar, M.J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of dose-area product (DAP) received by 128 patients during different interventional radiological procedures in the Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, analyzing the differences between procedures classified as either vascular, non vascular, diagnostic or therapeutic. These differences can be assessed and reference dose levels can be established as a function of the variation of those parameters. Comparisons between dose-area product values obtained from this study are made with the data from nine other patient dose surveys, although explanations for some of the differences could not be obtained in some cases. The reference values in these procedures in our centre are very high due to a great number of images, so the clinical protocol should be changed to avoid this problem. (author)

  12. The interventional radiology business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A

    2012-09-01

    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Antibody induction after intrauterine interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Giers, G; Bald, R; Hansmann, M; Hanfland, P

    1993-06-01

    Immunohematologic and clinical data, i.e., antibody profile, location of the placenta, mode of cordocentesis, obtained from 48 pregnant patients with irregular erythrocyte antibodies during the last 2 years have been retrospectively evaluated. All fetuses of the patients received intrauterine transfusions for the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis. In 16 (33%) patients (group I) a secondarily induced antibody was detected after the onset of intrauterine transfusion therapy. 32 (67%) patients (group II) did not further develop new antibody specificities. Group I exhibited a significantly different distribution in the location of the placenta (p pregnant women. In group I a 5-fold higher rate of anterior than posterior placenta location was found. The mode of cordocentesis differed significantly (p antibodies by invasive intrauterine interventions in our patients depended indirectly on the location of the placenta and directly on the mode of the puncture (trans- vs. paraplacental access).

  14. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments. PMID:25866548

  16. Interventional radiology in pain treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Disease whether it is acute, chronic, or at end stage, is all too regularly accompanied by pain. Pain is often difficult to control, in malignant disease in particular, even by using appropriate medications. Anesthesiologists and pain therapists have developed new invasive therapies including nerve block, sympatholysis, and neurolysis useful for both diagnosis and pain management. To insure the efficiency and safety of these procedures, and furthermore for elaborate techniques such as vertebroplasty, cementoplasty, and radio frequency bone ablation, imaging guidance becomes mandatory. This state-of-the-art book describes the techniques elaborated by interventional radiologists in the treatment and palliation of a variety of benign and malignant painful conditions. Each chapter written by an expert in the field concentrates on a particular aspect of pain management, with emphasis on practical issues. This book will serve as an invaluable source of information for the radiologist willing to learn about new pain therapy techniques aimed at optimizing or replacing more invasive traditional methods. (orig.)

  17. Vocational rehabilitation: a multidisciplinary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobelet, C; Luthi, F; Al-Khodairy, A T; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-09-15

    Vocational rehabilitation is by definition a multidisciplinary intervention in a process linked to the facilitation of return to work or to the prevention of loss of the work. Clinical staff in contact with a person who has lost his job (general practitioner, specialized physician) must promote vocational rehabilitation. Medical rehabilitation for those with disabilities, whether new or old, has to be followed without delay by vocational rehabilitation. It is even better if these two intertwined processes are overlapping. They involve many professionals including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, vocational trainers, job counsellors, teachers, case-managers, job placement agencies. Vocational rehabilitation has a financial cost, borne by many state organizations (security, social system, social affairs) as well as by employers and private insurances, which are in case of accident, concerned by this process. However, the evidence suggests that this is recouped 2- to 10-fold as suggested by the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine.

  18. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  19. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  20. Hemodynamic Intervention of Cerebral Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui

    2005-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a pathological vascular response to hemodynamic stimuli. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms essentially alters the blood flow to stop them from continued growth and eventual rupture. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular methods are minimally invasive and hence rapidly gaining popularity. However, they are not always effective with risks of aneurysm regrowth and various complications. We aim at developing a Virtual Intervention (VI) platform that allows: patient-specific flow calculation and risk prediction as well as recommendation of tailored intervention based on quantitative analysis. This is a lofty goal requiring advancement in three areas of research: (1). Advancement of image-based CFD; (2) Understanding the biological/pathological responses of tissue to hemodynamic factors in the context of cerebral aneurysms; and (3) Capability of designing and testing patient-specific endovascular devices. We have established CFD methodologies based on anatomical geometry obtained from 3D angiographic or CT images. To study the effect of hemodynamics on aneurysm development, we have created a canine model of a vascular bifurcation anastomosis to provide the hemodynamic environment similar to those in CA. Vascular remodeling was studied using histology and compared against the flow fields obtained from CFD. It was found that an intimal pad, similar to those frequently seen clinically, developed at the flow impingement site, bordering with an area of `groove' characteristic of an early stage of aneurysm, where the micro environment exhibits an elevated wall shear stresses. To further address the molecular mechanisms of the flow-mediated aneurysm pathology, we are also developing in vitro cell culture systems to complement the in vivo study. Our current effort in endovascular device development focuses on novel stents that alters the aneurysmal flow to promote thrombotic occlusion as well as favorable remodeling. Realization of an

  1. Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelig, Rupsa C; Barton, Samantha J; Saccone, Gabriele; Kelly, Anthony J; Edwards, Steve J; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-05-11

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy affecting 0.3% to 1.0% of pregnancies, and is one of the most common indications for hospitalization during pregnancy. While a previous Cochrane review examined interventions for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, there has not yet been a review examining the interventions for the more severe condition of hyperemesis gravidarum. To assess the effectiveness and safety, of all interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnancy up to 20 weeks' gestation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (20 December 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials of any intervention for hyperemesis gravidarum. Quasi-randomized trials and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We excluded trials on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy that were not specifically studying the more severe condition of hyperemesis gravidarum. Two review authors independently reviewed the eligibility of trials, extracted data and evaluated the risk of bias. Data were checked for accuracy. Twenty-five trials (involving 2052 women) met the inclusion criteria but the majority of 18 different comparisons described in the review include data from single studies with small numbers of participants. The comparisons covered a range of interventions including acupressure/acupuncture, outpatient care, intravenous fluids, and various pharmaceutical interventions. The methodological quality of included studies was mixed. For selected important comparisons and outcomes, we graded the quality of the evidence and created 'Summary of findings' tables. For most outcomes the evidence was graded as low or very low quality mainly due to the imprecision of effect estimates. Comparisons included in the 'Summary of findings' tables are described below, the remaining comparisons are described in detail

  2. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background: Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions: Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods: In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results: 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: 1. Unadjusted indirect comparisons

  4. Adaptive Intervention Design in Mobile Health: Intervention Design and Development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design (AID) that made it possible. The CITY study was an NHLBI-sponsored, controlled 24-month randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) young adults. Methods Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, AID, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The AID strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. AID was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. Results The cellphone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive – providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools for self-tracking and receiving tailored feedback. The intervention changed over two years to

  5. The IDEFICS Community-Oriented Intervention Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Henauw, Stefaan; Verbestel, V.; Mårild, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The overall intervention programme's duration was 2 years...... the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help...... to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity...

  6. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  7. Interventional techniques in medicine and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Bar, O.; Benderitter, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Maccia, C.; Sapoval, M.; Bernier, M.O.; Pirard, Ph.; Jacob, S.; Donadille, L.; Aubert, B.; Clairand, I.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M.; Jarrige, V.; Huet, Ch.; Marchal, C.; Martin, M.; Bar, O.; Degrange, J.P.; Livarek, B.; Menechal, Ph.; Sapoval, M.; Pellerin, O.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Nineteen presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - Interventional radiology: why is it developing? (M. Sapoval); 2 - exposure particularities in interventional radiology (O. Bar); 3 - doses received by organs in interventional cardiology (C. Maccia); 4 - Patients exposure: description of cumulated exposure of patients treated in interventional cardiology (M.O. Bernier); 5 - 2004 inquiry to dermatologists about post-interventional radiology radio-dermatitis (P. Pirard); 6 - exposure and risks to operators (S. Jacob); 7 - dosimetric evaluation techniques and results about interventional imaging operators' extremities (L. Donadille and F. Merat); 8 - bibliographic study of doses received by operators with non-protected organs (B. Aubert); 9 - ORAMED European project: optimization of operational dosimeter uses in interventional radiology (I. Clairand); 10 - reference levels and dosimetric evaluation of patients (C. Maccia); 11 - optimization in coronary angioplasty (J.G. Mozziconacci, A.M. Brot and V. Jarrige); 12 - dosimetry in medical over-exposure situation (C. Huet); 13 - significant radioprotection events in interventional radiology declared to the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - status and experience feedback (C. Marchal); 14 - interventional radiology and unwanted effects (M. Benderitter); 15 - global analyses and new exposure indicators in human epidermis cells (M. Martin); 16 - radioprotection regulations and training (O. Bar); 17 - zoning and workplace analysis in interventional cardiology (J.P. Degrange); 18 - guide of good clinical practices: example of interventional cardiology (B. Livarek); 19 - how to encourage the radioprotection optimization in interventional radiology: the ASN's point of view (P. Menechal). (J.S.)

  8. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  9. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance: still tantalizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikus Christina E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The often touted advantages of MR guidance remain largely unrealized for cardiovascular interventional procedures in patients. Many procedures have been simulated in animal models. We argue these opportunities for clinical interventional MR will be met in the near future. This paper reviews technical and clinical considerations and offers advice on how to implement a clinical-grade interventional cardiovascular MR (iCMR laboratory. We caution that this reflects our personal view of the "state of the art."

  10. A Positive Psychology Intervention With Emerging Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Leontopoulou

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a positive psychology intervention in a sample of 40 young men (35%) and women (65%) aged 18-30 years. Participants were 1st and 4th year undergraduate University students, postgraduate students and working youths. The study examined the effects of a battery of interventions commonly used in positive psychology interventions, including a video and three exercises (i.e. expressing gratitude, best possible selves, goal setting) on character strengths, hope, gra...

  11. Humanitarian Intervention: Is it an Emerging Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    consideration to act independently when there is a threat to national security. Early intervention with diplomatic and economic means should be the first...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION : IS IT AN EMERGING RESPONSIBILITY? BY COMMANDER KARLYNA L. ANDERSEN...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Humanitarian Intervention : Is it an Emerging Responsibility? 5a

  12. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley-Browne, M A; Adams, P; Mobberley, P M

    2007-07-18

    effects models. Tests for heterogeneity were undertaken. Both short-term (1 month or less) and long-term (6 months or longer) outcomes were considered. Only four RCTs of psychological treatments were identified. These RCTs were heterogeneous in terms of design, interventions, outcome measurement and follow-up periods. All had small numbers of participants. The studies had poor methodological quality features. The experimental interventions, behavioural or cognitive-behavioural therapy (BT/CBT), were more efficacious than the control interventions in the short-term (relative risk 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.81). There was a trend for long-term treatment with BT/CBT to be more efficacious than the control treatments, but the statistical significance of this was sensitive to the statistical model used for meta-analysis. With a fixed effect model the relative risk was 0.56 (95% CI 0.33-0.95); the relative risk with a random effects model was 0.61 (95% CI 0.25-1.47). This systematic review revealed a paucity of evidence for effective treatment of pathological gambling. As gambling is becoming more accessible in many countries and there is epidemiological evidence of increasing rates of pathological gambling, more rigorous RCTs are required.

  13. Interventions for cough in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alex; Bailey, Chris; Caress, Ann; Tan, Jing-Yu

    2015-05-19

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 9, 2010 on "Interventions for cough in cancer". Cough is a common symptom in patients with malignancies, especially in patients with lung cancer. Cough is not well controlled in clinical practice and clinicians have few management options to treat it. The primary objective was to determine the effectiveness of interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, (other than chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy) in the management of cough in malignant disease (especially in lung cancer). For this update, we searched for relevant studies in CENTRAL and DARE (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO; AMED and CINAHL to 9 June 2014. In addition, we searched for ongoing trials via the metaRegister of controlled trials (mRCT), ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical trials (quasi-experimental trials and trials where there is a comparison group but no mention of randomisation) in participants with primary or metastatic lung cancer or other cancers. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all studies for inclusion, and extracted data from all included studies independently before reaching consensus. A third review author arbitrated on any disagreement. Meta-analysis was not attempted due to the heterogeneity of the studies. For the original version of the review, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria and examined either brachytherapy, laser or photodynamic therapy (eight studies) or a variety of pharmacological therapies (nine studies). Overall, there was an absence of credible evidence and the majority of studies were of low methodological quality and at high risk of bias. Brachytherapy in a variety of doses seemed to improve cough in selected

  14. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  15. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  16. More are awaiting for craniofacial intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong

    2006-01-01

    The scale of craniofacial intervention lies between the fields of neuro-intervention and peripheral interventional for the main purpose to investigate, diagnose and treat the disease entities originating from or supplied by the external carotid arterial system. Patients are usually refered to the oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and otolaryngeal surgery. Craniofacial intervention includes mainly the diagnosis and treatment with adjuvant embolization of high-flow vascular diseases, intra-arterial chemotherapy of malignant tumors, embolization of epistaxis, etc. At present, there is no consensus with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of some craniofacial diseases, therefore further investigation and discussion are needed. (authors)

  17. Public health interventions for arthritis: expanding the toolbox of evidence-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Teresa J; Jernick, Susan L; Hootman, Jennifer M; Sniezek, Joseph E

    2009-12-01

    Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Arthritis Program has worked to improve the quality of life for people with arthritis, in part by funding state health departments to disseminate physical activity (PA) and self-management education (SME) interventions. Initially, only one SME and two PA interventions were considered evidence-based and appropriate for people with arthritis. The purposes of this article are to describe the processes and criteria used to screen new or existing intervention programs and report the results of that screening, including an updated list of recommended intervention programs. A series of three sets of screening criteria was created in consultation with subject matter experts: arthritis appropriateness, adequacy of the evidence base, and implementability as a public health intervention. Screening interventions were categorized as Recommended, Promising Practices, Watch List, Future Possibility, or Unlikely to Meet criteria based on how well the intervention met the screening criteria. A total of 15 packaged PA interventions and six SME interventions were screened. Three PA and three SME interventions met all three sets of criteria and were added to the list of recommended public health interventions for use by CDC-funded state arthritis programs. An additional two SME interventions are developing the infrastructure for public health dissemination and were categorized as Promising Practices, and six PA interventions have evaluations underway and are on the Watch List. The CDC Arthritis Program identified arthritis-appropriate interventions that can be used effectively and efficiently in public health settings to improve the quality of life of people with arthritis. The screening criteria used offer a guide to intervention developers on necessary characteristics of interventions for use in public health settings. The expanded menu of interventions is beneficial to clinical care and public health professionals

  18. Interventions for tophi in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganathan, Melonie K; Vinik, Ophir; Bombardier, Claire; Edwards, Christopher J

    2014-10-20

    Tophi develop in untreated or uncontrolled gout. Their presence can lead to severe and potentially fatal complications. To date there have been no systematic reviews focused on the management of tophi in gout. To assess the benefits and harms of non-surgical and surgical treatments for the management of tophi in gout. We searched three databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE. We handsearched American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) abstracts from 2010 to 2011, references from included studies and trial registries. We completed the most recent search on 20 May 2013. All published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials with quasi-randomised methods of allocating participants to treatment examining interventions for tophi in gout in adults. Possible interventions included urate-lowering pharmacological treatment (e.g. benzbromarone, probenecid, allopurinol, febuxostat, pegloticase), surgical removal or other interventions such as haemodialysis. Two review authors extracted data from titles, abstracts and selected studies for detailed review, and extracted data and risk of bias independently. Major outcomes were number of participants with complete resolution of tophi, number of study participant withdrawals due to adverse events, joint pain reduction, function, quality of life, serum urate normalisation and total adverse events. Only one study, at low risk of all biases, met the inclusion criteria. This was the pooled results from two RCTs (225 participants, 145 with tophi at baseline) randomised to one of three arms; pegloticase infusion every two weeks (biweekly), monthly pegloticase infusion (pegloticase infusion alternating with placebo infusion every two weeks) and placebo. Moderate-quality evidence from one study indicated that biweekly pegloticase 8 mg infusion reduced tophi in the subset of participants with tophi, but increased withdrawals

  19. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Andreyeva, Elena; South, Eugenia C; MacDonald, John M; Branas, Charles C

    2018-01-12

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. This review examines studies that use quasi-experimental or experimental designs to compare violence outcomes for treatment and control groups before and after a change is implemented in the built environment. The most consistent evidence exists in the realm of housing and blight remediation of buildings and land. Some evidence suggests that reducing alcohol availability, improving street connectivity, and providing green housing environments can reduce violent crimes. Finally, studies suggest that neither transit changes nor school openings affect community violence. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 39 is April 1, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Exercise interventions for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Cassidy, Elizabeth E; Noorduyn, Stephen G; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-06-11

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from an injury to the developing brain. It is the most common form of childhood disability with prevalence rates of between 1.5 and 3.8 per 1000 births reported worldwide. The primary impairments associated with CP include reduced muscle strength and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, resulting in difficulties performing activities such as dressing, walking and negotiating stairs.Exercise is defined as a planned, structured and repetitive activity that aims to improve fitness, and it is a commonly used intervention for people with CP. Aerobic and resistance training may improve activity (i.e. the ability to execute a task) and participation (i.e. involvement in a life situation) through their impact on the primary impairments of CP. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive review of exercise interventions for people with CP. To assess the effects of exercise interventions in people with CP, primarily in terms of activity, participation and quality of life. Secondary outcomes assessed body functions and body structures. Comparators of interest were no treatment, usual care or an alternative type of exercise intervention. In June 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, nine other databases and four trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of children, adolescents and adults with CP. We included studies of aerobic exercise, resistance training, and 'mixed training' (a combination of at least two of aerobic exercise, resistance training and anaerobic training). Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts and potentially relevant full-text reports for eligibility; extracted all relevant data and conducted 'Risk of bias' and GRADE assessments. We included 29 trials (926 participants); 27 included children and adolescents up to the age of 19 years, three included adolescents and young adults (10 to 22 years), and one included adults over 20

  1. Radiofrequency (thermal) ablation versus no intervention or other interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Sebastian; Franke, Annegret; Mössner, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Percutaneous interventional therapies, such as radiofrequency (thermal) ablation (RFA), have been developed for early hepatocellular carcinoma. RFA competes with other interventional techniques such as percutaneous ethanol...

  2. Estimation of the effective doses for interventional employees in three common interventional diagnosis and treatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Zhu Jianguo; Min Nan; Lu Feng; Chen Yue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study and estimate the effective dose of interventional employees in the common cerebral vascular, cardiovascular and liver interventional diagnosis and treatment. Methods: The absorbed doses of tissue or organ of anthropomorphic phantom in these three procedures were estimated by the anthropomorphic phantom experiment. The effective doses were calculated by the tissue weight factor which was given by International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 103. Results: The effective doses to high, medium and low group were 24.0, 9.7, 6.8 μSv for cerebral vascular interventional diagnosis and treatment, and 36.3, 29.3, 17.8 μSv for cardiovascular interventional diagnosis and treatment, and 23.9, 11.3, 5.5 μ Sv for liver interventional diagnosis and treatment, respectively. Conclusions: The effective doses of high, medium and low group of interventional employees in cardiovascular interventional procedure are higher than those of cerebral vascular and liver interventional procedures. (authors)

  3. Hungry for an intervention? : Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F Marijn; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Vet, Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; de Wit, John B F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-related

  4. Hungry for an intervention? Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; Wit, de J.B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of

  5. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ......-specific imaging that will allow the correct pathway and planning for the interventional procedure. This will allow for the appropriate imaging workup for each individual interventional procedure (Long version)....

  6. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  7. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  8. Oral-Motor Function and Feeding Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Oral Motor Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence based as well as infant driven and family focused. In the context of anticipated maturation of…

  9. LANGUAGE INTERVENTION TO FACILITATE THE ACQUISITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ensured that the groups were of equivalent proficiency before the next phase, during which the intervention group, A, and the two c·ontrol groups, B and C weie differently managed. Phase 2. The ten subjects in group A received language intervention as a group, from a qualified language therapist three times per week.

  10. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in

  11. Implementing prevention interventions for non-communicable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing prevention interventions for non-communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The capacity of the PHC system to implement NCDs interventions is weak, necessitating a need to strengthen coordination, partnership and funding for better ...

  12. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  13. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  14. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  15. Beauty and Hope: A Moral Beauty Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Rust, Teri; Solom, Rebecca C.; Frost, Nellie; Parsons, Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical intervention regarding engagement with natural, artistic and moral beauty can lead to an increase in trait hope. In a quasi-experimental design with college students the intervention group showed significantly higher gain scores on trait hope than did the comparison group; the effect size was moderate. The experimental group also…

  16. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  17. School Librarians and Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jennifer; Antrim, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RtI) is a three-tiered model of instruction that increases learning for all students. RtI meets the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act to provide research-based instruction and interventions for students as needed. RtI is supported with federal funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and…

  18. 14 CFR 13.206 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 13.206 Section 13.206 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.206 Intervention...

  19. 14 CFR 406.137 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Adjudications § 406.137 Intervention. (a) A person may file with the Federal Docket Management... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 406.137 Section 406.137 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 16 CFR 3.14 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 3.14 Section 3.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings § 3.14 Intervention. (a) Any individual, partnership, unincorporated...

  1. 29 CFR 1921.6 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intervention. 1921.6 Section 1921.6 Labor Regulations...' COMPENSATION ACT Prehearing Procedures § 1921.6 Intervention. At any time after the institution of proceedings... trade organization, or Federal or State agency, to intervene therein. The petition shall state with...

  2. 30 CFR 769.15 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intervention. 769.15 Section 769.15 Mineral... FOR MINING PETITION PROCESS FOR DESIGNATION OF FEDERAL LANDS AS UNSUITABLE FOR ALL OR CERTAIN TYPES OF SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND FOR TERMINATION OF PREVIOUS DESIGNATIONS § 769.15 Intervention. Up to 3...

  3. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  4. 14 CFR 13.51 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 13.51 Section 13.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.51 Intervention. Any person may...

  5. The future of transcatheter mitral valve interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio; Banai, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    of transcatheter mitral valve interventions will be. The purpose of the present report is to review the current state-of-the-art of mitral valve intervention, and to identify the potential future scenarios, which might benefit most from the transcatheter repair and replacement devices under development....

  6. Interventions in individuals with specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Piyali; Dhawan, Anju

    2018-02-01

    With the growing understanding of substance use problems among special populations like women, gender minority groups, as well as in the geriatric population, there is a drive to develop sensitive interventions catering to their unique needs. This chapter is a short review of psycho-social interventions targeted towards these individuals with specific needs.

  7. Biodiversity and Tourism : Impacts and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper sets a framework for intervention in the relationship between biodiversity and tourism against the background of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is argued that intervention cannot and should not only be based on considerations of measurable impacts of tourism on biodiversity

  8. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  9. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  10. Quality Assessment on Environmental Conservation Interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for immediate attention. Development in those selected councils involves environmental use which should not ignore the question of environmental conservation interventions. The main objective this study was to assess the environmental interventions by local government authorities on quality of environment ...

  11. Exposure of cardiologists from interventional procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Gerritjan; Velders, Xandra L.; Piek, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    Data on the exposure of seven cardiologists and over 10 000 patients undergoing interventional procedures were collected. The data were collected in a study that was set up to evaluate differences in the exposure of seven cardiologists performing interventional procedures. The study revealed a

  12. Internet interventions for depressive disorders: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Riper, H.

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychotherapeutic internet interventions started in the late 1990s and since then a considerable number of trials have shown that these interventions are effective in the treatment of depression. There is also no reason to assume that they are less effective than face-to-face treatments.

  13. Page | 167 RESTORATIVE JUSTICE INTERVENTION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    In 1956, Nigeria witnessed the first commercial production of oil and since then oil and gas became the main strategic economic resource for Nigeria. Since that discovery, oil and gas form a ..... Restorative justice intervention involves mediation and conferencing to meet victims. However, in restorative justice intervention, ...

  14. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  15. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  16. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  17. Combatting Stereotype Threat: College Math Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Joelle

    2017-01-01

    This research provides new insight into stereotype threat by examining a real-world intervention in community college classrooms. Practitioners need information about which interventions work in authentic school settings to implement them and begin to bring educational equity to historically marginalized students. The experimental study examined…

  18. ALARA and planning of interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocaboy, A. [Electricite de France, Avoine (France)

    1995-03-01

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop {open_quotes}good practices{close_quotes} in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using {open_quotes}Milestones and Corridors{close_quotes}. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the {open_quotes}ALARA{close_quotes} maintenance tasks.

  19. Historical perspectives on interventional electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2003-10-01

    The history of interventional electrophysiology is long and fascinating. In the beginning, there is not simply the anatomy and physiology of the heart, but also analysis of the pulse, which indicates the activity of the heart. The analysis of the (peripheral) pulse as a mechanical expression of heart activity goes back several millennia. In China, in 280 B.C., Wang Chu Ho wrote ten books about the pulse. The Greeks called the pulse "sphygmos", and the sphygmology thus deals with a theory of this natural occurrence. In Roman times, Galen interpreted the various types of pulse according to the widespread presumption of the time, that each organ in every disease has its own form of pulse. The basic tool for arrhythmia diagnosis became the electrocardiography introduced by Willem Einthoven who obtained the first human electrogram 1902 in Leiden, The Netherlands. The growing clinical importance of electrical cardiac stimulation has been recognized and renewed as Zoll (1911-1999) in 1952 reported a successful resuscitation in cardiac standstill by external stimulation. Meanwhile all over the world, millions of patients with cardiac arrhythmias have been treated with pacemakers in the last 45 years. The concept of a fully automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system (ICD) for recognition and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was first suggested in 1970. The first implantation of the device in a human being was performed in February 1980. Further developments concern atrial and atrioventricular defibrillators, radiofrequency ablation, laser therapy and advanced antiarrhythmic surgery, new antiarrhythmic drugs and sophisticated devices for preventive pacing. The advances in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic application of pharmacologic and electrical tools as well as alternative methods will continue as rapidly as before in order to give us further significant aid in taking care of the patient.

  20. An Educational–Vocational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Friberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in student-affective entry characteristics were examined in an educational−vocational intervention at Finnish comprehensive school. The conceptual framework constructed from attitudes as learned dispositions (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975 and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985 was tested in a longitudinal study. A person-based survey questionnaire was designed, piloted, and validated. Spearman−Brown reliability was calculated. In the first observation, 669 (Time One Cohort, and in the second, 649 (Time Two Cohort subjects (girls and boys of mean ages of 14.5 and 16.0 years took the Web-based survey. The tested hypotheses were (a variables of self-determination, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation would emerge as attitudinal domains in work−life orientation; (b the experiences during the implementation of a work−life orientation program would decrease the effects of seventh-grade student background factors at the end of the program in the ninth grade, and (c work−life orientation would be effective and have efficacy in changing student attitudes in relation to further education and occupations. Three factors emerged in the Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. The factors Independence, Self-Direction, and Flexibility were used as the dependents in repeated measures in a general linear model. The factor means were subjected to a paired samples t test. There was development toward stronger Independence and Flexibility in the case of both genders. The boys had gained the girls’ seventh-grade lead at the end of the program. Self-Direction did not show any changes. Empirical findings tentatively supported the program’s efficacy in changing entry characteristics.

  1. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  2. Critical Time Intervention: Model Description and Implications for the Significance of Timing in Social Work Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel B.; Mandiberg, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the dimension of time in the design of social work interventions. Critical time intervention (CTI), an empirically supported psychosocial intervention intended to reduce the risk of homelessness by enhancing continuity of support for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) during the transition…

  3. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  4. Response to Intervention: Providing Reading Intervention to Low Income and Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Emily; McConnell, Tess

    2014-01-01

    With a renewed focus on early intervention, teachers must address the difficulties students are having as early as possible to promote their progress. Culturally and linguistically diverse students may not respond to universal interventions that have shown efficiency for mainstream populations. In order for Response to Intervention to be…

  5. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  6. Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Tervaniemi, Mari; Altenmüller, Eckart; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-08-01

    During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Music-based interventions can affect divergent functions such as motor performance, speech, or cognition in these patient groups. However, the psychological effects and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of music interventions are likely to share common neural systems for reward, arousal, affect regulation, learning, and activity-driven plasticity. Although further controlled studies are needed to establish the efficacy of music in neurological recovery, music-based interventions are emerging as promising rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional Intervention and Breakfast Behavior of Kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Cai, Chunsheng; Li, Jian; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of nutritional education on children's breakfast patterns. A kindergarten based nutrition intervention was started in September 2001 among 8 kindergartens in Hefei with a total of 2,012 children aged 4-6 years and their parent pairs. Monthly nutrition education sessions were held over two semesters in kindergartens part of the intervention arm. The approach in education and the content of other activities were uniform across all the kindergartens. A validated questionnaire was used to record breakfast behavior over 7 days including at least one weekend. The parents recorded the children's breakfast pattern (frequency, time, and food selection) at baseline, middle, and end of the study. After intervention, there were significant differences at the final stage, but none at the baseline before intervention. There were changes not only in breakfast frequency, but also in the breakfast selection. The breakfast pattern of Chinese children can be modified through nutrition education after a long term intervention.

  8. Health interventions for people who are homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Stephen W; Burns, Tom

    2014-10-25

    Homelessness has serious implications for the health of individuals and populations. Primary health-care programmes specifically tailored to homeless individuals might be more effective than standard primary health care. Standard case management, assertive community treatment, and critical time intervention are effective models of mental health-care delivery. Housing First, with immediate provision of housing in independent units with support, improves outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many different types of interventions, including case management, are effective in the reduction of substance misuse. Interventions that provide case management and supportive housing have the greatest effect when they target individuals who are the most intensive users of services. Medical respite programmes are an effective intervention for homeless patients leaving the hospital. Although the scientific literature provides guidance on interventions to improve the health of homeless individuals, health-care providers should also seek to address social policies and structural factors that result in homelessness.

  9. Arts-based interventions in healthcare education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Eacott, Bella; Willson, Suzy

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare education institutions are increasingly including arts-based interventions in their programmes. We analysed 62 studies of arts-based interventions to understand how these interventions may be beneficial, and why providing evidence continues to be a challenge for the field.Our analysis highlighted two issues. We found that 79% of the included studies reported that their interventions were successful, but without always defining this success or how it was measured. This lack of clarity was apparent in descriptions of both what arts-based interventions aimed to do, and in descriptions of how they might do this. We also found that only 34% of studies involved a collaboration with artists or arts educators, raising questions over who had the necessary experience and specialism in the arts to design and deliver such interventions.Our analysis revealed that arts-based interventions are failing to acknowledge, and subsequently capture through assessment, the process of learning in the moment. This is particularly important because arts-based pedagogies typically use embodied, practical, physical methods, in which what is being learnt cannot be separated from the process of learning. Involving artists and arts educators throughout the process of designing and delivering these interventions may help to bring clarity over what arts-based interventions are aiming to do and how they may do this, and ensure that appropriate evaluation methods are used. We suggest that close observation with feedback, and the use of reflective portfolios are two ways of assessing the process of learning in arts-based interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Transtheoretical Model-based Nursing Intervention on Lifestyle Change: A Review Focused on Intervention Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha

    2015-06-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) was used to provide tailored nursing for lifestyle management such as diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. The present study aims to assess the provision of intervention delivery methods, intervention elements, and stage-matched interventions, in order to identify ways in which information technology is used in the TTM-based research. The relevant literature was selected by two researchers using inclusion criteria after searching for "TTM (transtheoretical or stage of change)" and "nursing" from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. The selected studies were categorized in terms of study characteristics, intervention delivery method, intervention element, and use and level of stage-matched intervention. A total of 35 studies were selected including eight studies that used information communication technology (ICT). Nine different intervention delivery methods were used, of which "face-to-face" was the most common at 24 times. Of the 35 studies, 26 provided stage-matched interventions. Seven different intervention elements were used, of which "counseling" was the most common at 27 times. Of all the intervention elements, tailored feedback used ICT the most at seven instances out of nine, and there was a significant difference in the rate of ICT usage among intervention elements. ICT is not yet actively used in the TTM-based nursing interventions. Stage-matched interventions and TTM concepts were shown to be in partial use also in the TTM-based interventions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of ways to use ICT in tailored nursing interventions and to use TTM frameworks and concepts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Social media interventions to prevent HIV: A review of interventions and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.

  12. A behavior change model for internet interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Cox, Daniel J; Kovatchev, Boris P; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A

    2009-08-01

    The Internet has become a major component to health care and has important implications for the future of the health care system. One of the most notable aspects of the Web is its ability to provide efficient, interactive, and tailored content to the user. Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, researchers in behavioral medicine have been using it to develop and deliver interactive and comprehensive treatment programs with the ultimate goal of impacting patient behavior and reducing unwanted symptoms. To date, however, many of these interventions have not been grounded in theory or developed from behavior change models, and no overarching model to explain behavior change in Internet interventions has yet been published. The purpose of this article is to propose a model to help guide future Internet intervention development and predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement produced by Internet interventions. The model purports that effective Internet interventions produce (and maintain) behavior change and symptom improvement via nine nonlinear steps: the user, influenced by environmental factors, affects website use and adherence, which is influenced by support and website characteristics. Website use leads to behavior change and symptom improvement through various mechanisms of change. The improvements are sustained via treatment maintenance. By grounding Internet intervention research within a scientific framework, developers can plan feasible, informed, and testable Internet interventions, and this form of treatment will become more firmly established.

  13. Developing an intervention to overcome procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otermin-Cristeta, Solange; Hautzinger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study was the development of a reliable intervention to overcome general procrastination orientated to college students, designed to be used in practical clinical work. The workshops involved six meetings based on behavioral and cognitive techniques, paradox intervention, and psychoeducation. 175 students participated voluntarily. Their procrastination levels were measured in a pretest, post-test, and a 3-month follow-up. After the first interview, the participants were randomly divided into three groups (Intervention A, Intervention B, and a control group with no intervention). There was a significant improvement after the intervention. After 3 months, the average score was still significantly lower than in the pretest, whereas the score of the control group remained unchanged. The participants in Workshop A scored significantly lower in the post-test than the ones in Workshop B. After 3 months, the participants in Workshop B scored significantly lower in the follow up. So both interventions resulted to be effective in reducing procrastination sustainably.

  14. Transradial approach for challenging vascular access interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatzadeh, Mitra; Vijayan, Vikram; Ritter, Carsten J; Hockley, Joseph; Leong, Benjamin Dk; Sandford, Monique; Mwipatayi, Bibombe P

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous interventional procedures for vascular access are usually performed using the draining cephalic or basilic vein. The transradial approach, which has been extensively investigated for coronary angiography and intervention, could be an attractive new technique for peri-anastomotic arteriovenous fistula stenosis. From June 2012 to February 2013, 30 patients with end-stage renal failure were evaluated for transradial vascular access intervention. A 4-French (Fr) micropuncture kit was used to access the radial artery and then subsequently upgraded to a 5-Fr sheath. Fourteen patients required an upgrade to a 6-Fr sheath for the final intervention. Primary technical success (residual stenosis access was achieved in all patients. There were no peri-procedural complications. The post-interventional primary patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 88.4% and 32.8% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. The post-interventional primary assisted patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 100% and 63.3% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Based on colour-coded Duplex scan and/or photoelectric plethysmography, all access-site arteries showed normal perfusion; however, the freedom from significant radial artery restenosis was 92.4% at 12-month follow-up. The transradial approach for vascular access endovascular interventions is technically feasible and safe. It allows simultaneous treatment of peri-anastomotic lesions in fistulas with complex venous anatomy as well as lesions in the arterial inflow and central outflow. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  16. Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Asthma Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Suzanne; Bailey, Ryan; Jaffee, Katy; Markus, Anne; Gerstein, Maya; Stevens, David M; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J; Mitchell, Herman

    2017-06-01

    Researchers often struggle with the gap between efficacy and effectiveness in clinical research. To bridge this gap, the Community Healthcare for Asthma Management and Prevention of Symptoms (CHAMPS) study adapted an efficacious, randomized controlled trial that resulted in evidence-based asthma interventions in community health centers. Children (aged 5-12 years; N = 590) with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled from 3 intervention and 3 geographically/capacity-matched control sites in high-risk, low-income communities located in Arizona, Michigan, and Puerto Rico. The asthma intervention was tailored to the participant's allergen sensitivity and exposure, and it comprised 4 visits over the course of 1 year. Study visits were documented and monitored prospectively via electronic data capture. Asthma symptoms and health care utilization were evaluated at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. A total of 314 intervention children and 276 control children were enrolled in the study. Allergen sensitivity testing (96%) and home environmental assessments (89%) were performed on the majority of intervention children. Overall study activity completion (eg, intervention visits, clinical assessments) was 70%. Overall and individual site participant symptom days in the previous 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with control findings (control, change of -2.28; intervention, change of -3.27; difference, -0.99; P asthma in these high-need populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. The current practices of intervention with batterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cunha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the 70s there was a proliferation of intervention programs for batterers; however the results remain controversial. Objectives This study aims to analyse the literature published between the years of 2000 and 2013 about the effectiveness of the intervention with batterers. Methods A review of papers about intervention with batterers published during this period (2000-2013 was conducted. Social sciences databases were checked. Papers about programs for a specific public or programs with a broad intervention focus, and with female and homosexual offenders were excluded. Results Thirty-six studies that described 37 intervention programs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysed programs adopted a group format (70.3% and a cognitive-behavioural (56.8% or psychoeducational (18.9% intervention model (32.4% assumed to adopt a Duluth model. Concerning the effectiveness, results showed success rates of 39.4%-97%, dropout rates of 10%-58% and recidivism rates of 0%-65.9%. Discussion The effectiveness of intervention with batterers remains controversial, which seems to be due to the different methodologies used in the studies. Despite the inconsistencies, programs for perpetrators are an important way to reduce intimate partner violence recidivism.

  18. Narrative intervention in behavior and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Public health interventions using narratives, or stories, as a means for encouraging behavior change are common, especially in the developing world. Entertainment-education (EE) is perhaps the most widely researched form of such "narrative intervention," but many other kinds of interventions, or parts of interventions, rely on stories to convey information about behavior risk and to model risk avoidance. Although narrative interventions are often grounded in social-cognitive theory and in commonsense assumptions about the power of storytelling, they are generally undertaken without much regard for the philosophical and cognitive bases for narrative about which much has been written. Many aspects of narrative intervention in behavior and public health could be better understood in light this literature. These include the 1) challenges inherent in creating and building on a discourse around behavior change in non-Western contexts; 2) current emphasis in public health on production rather than reception and the fundamental problem of interpretation; 3) differences between messaging versus providing an alternative worldview, and finally; 4) issues surrounding the appropriate approach to the evaluation of a narrative intervention.

  19. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  20. Meta-Analysis of Complex Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Grant, Sean

    2018-04-01

    Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. We then present a menu of meta-analytic procedures for addressing various sources of complexity when answering questions about the effects of public health interventions in research syntheses. We conclude with a review of important practices and key resources for conducting meta-analyses on complex interventions, as well as future directions for research synthesis more generally. Overall, we argue that it is possible to conduct meaningful quantitative syntheses of research on the effects of public health interventions, though these meta-analyses may require the use of advanced techniques to properly consider and attend to issues of complexity.

  1. Constrained reconstructions for 4D intervention guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, J; Flach, B; Kueres, R; Semmler, W; Kachelrieß, M; Bartling, S

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided interventions are an increasingly important part of clinical minimally invasive procedures. However, up to now they cannot be performed under 4D (3D + time) guidance due to the exceedingly high x-ray dose. In this work we investigate the applicability of compressed sensing reconstructions for highly undersampled CT datasets combined with the incorporation of prior images in order to yield low dose 4D intervention guidance. We present a new reconstruction scheme prior image dynamic interventional CT (PrIDICT) that accounts for specific image features in intervention guidance and compare it to PICCS and ASD-POCS. The optimal parameters for the dose per projection and the numbers of projections per reconstruction are determined in phantom simulations and measurements. In vivo experiments in six pigs are performed in a cone-beam CT; measured doses are compared to current gold-standard intervention guidance represented by a clinical fluoroscopy system. Phantom studies show maximum image quality for identical overall doses in the range of 14 to 21 projections per reconstruction. In vivo studies reveal that interventional materials can be followed in 4D visualization and that PrIDICT, compared to PICCS and ASD-POCS, shows superior reconstruction results and fewer artifacts in the periphery with dose in the order of biplane fluoroscopy. These results suggest that 4D intervention guidance can be realized with today’s flat detector and gantry systems using the herein presented reconstruction scheme. (paper)

  2. Changes implemented during a workplace psychosocial intervention and their consistency with intervention priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Baril-Gingras, Geneviève; Cantin, Viviane; Leroux, Isabelle; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Louis; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    To describe the changes implemented as part of a workplace psychosocial intervention. The intervention was conducted in a public organization employing 1630 white-collar workers. The intervention was defined as all changes implemented to reduce adverse psychosocial work factors. A logbook was held to describe the changes implemented in the intervention group and in a comparable control group (N = 1282). Social support and reward were the psychosocial factors most targeted (41% to 83%). In comparison with the control group, the intervention group implemented four times more major changes and implemented changes, improving the employees' workload. Changes mainly targeted social support and reward. The intervention group implemented four times more major changes than the control group. The intervention group implemented changes targeting the workload, whereas no such changes were implemented in the control group.

  3. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; Lytle, Leslie A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M; Loria, Catherine M; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S; Belle, Steven H; Michie, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a shared framework for intervention description. Coding interventions at levels of the social ecological framework beyond the individual level, separate coding for behavior change initiation vs. maintenance, fidelity of BCT delivery, accounting for BCTs mode of delivery, and tailoring BCTs, present both challenges and opportunities. Deconstructing interventions and identifying the dose required to positively impact health-related outcomes could enable important gains in intervention science.

  4. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  5. Do workplace interventions reduce disability rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, T I; Nielsen, R A

    2016-12-01

    Increasing life expectancy and decreasing fertility have led to a shift in the workforce age structure towards older age groups. Deteriorating health and reduced work capacity are among the challenges to retaining older workers in the labour force. To examine whether workplace interventions to facilitate work among employees with health problems or reduced work capacity affect disability rates among employees aged 50 years and older. Data from a survey of Norwegian companies (n = 713) were linked with registry data on their employees aged 50-61 years (n = 30771). By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compared change in likelihood of receiving a full disability pension among employees in companies with and without workplace interventions. Employees in companies reporting to have workplace interventions in 2005 had a higher risk of receiving full disability pension during the period 2001-03 compared with employees in companies without such interventions [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.45]. During the period 2005-07, there was an overall reduction in disability rates (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.96) in both the intervention and control group. However, employees in companies reporting to have interventions in 2005 experienced an additional reduction in an employee's likelihood of receiving a full disability pension (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99) compared with employees in companies without interventions. Interventions to facilitate work among employees with health problems or reduced work capacity have reduced disability rates among employees aged 50-61. This suggests that companies' preventive interventions are an effective means to retain older workers with deteriorating health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Creation of a mobile intervention group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.

    1961-01-01

    This document presents the different missions and equipment of the Mobile Intervention Group which is supposed to intervene on a site of accident involving radioactive products. The authors indicate the various missions inside and outside a nuclear centre, the vehicles (with a laboratory, a decontamination set, an intervention vehicle for four persons, a liaison vehicle), the intervention equipment, the control and sampling equipment (samplers, counters), the analysis equipment, and the personnel (engineer, chemist, electronics technician, drivers, decontamination agents, sampling agents). They describe the alert procedure and the successive operations

  7. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.

    2010-01-01

    on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health...... and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range...

  8. Behavior therapy: other interventions for tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W; Himle, Michael B; Conelea, Christine A

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviewed other behavioral interventions for TS and discussed their efficacy. Clearly, the majority of behavioral interventions (habit/reversal excluded) have not been systematically evaluated enough to be deemed empirically supported monotherapies for TS. In addition to reviewing these interventions, recent advances in behavioral research on TS and a function-based model of treatment development and implementation were presented. Both of these areas are in their infancy, but point to exciting new directions in the application of behavioral sciences to the understanding of TS.

  9. Individual dosemeter with ionization chamber for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, M.

    1982-01-01

    The altogether intervention ratemeter-dosemeter is a device for work condition control and for dosimetry of intervention gang in hostile medium. A portable irradiation marker with ionization chamber either carried by staff, either put at the work post, delivers an information function of the surrounding irradiation field in which moves the intervention staff. The information is processed so as the absorbed dose rate and the absorbed dose are given simultaneously. The connection between the marker and the process device is made by a cable (up to 100m) or by radio link [fr

  10. On the Actual Risk of Bystander Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Ejbye Ernst, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Bystander studies have rarely considered the victimization risk associated with intervention into violent, dangerous emergencies. To address this gap, we aim to identify factors that influence bystanders’ risk of being physically victimized. Method: We observed bystander behavior from video...... surveillance footage of naturally occurring violence in nighttime economy settings, and data were analyzed with a logistic regression model. Results: Data show that approximately one of the six interventions results in some type of victimization, typically with a relatively low degree of severity....... The bystander’s social group membership, the setting of the emergency, and the bystander’s intervention type are estimated as risk factors for victimization....

  11. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  12. Crisis Intervention With Victims of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sandra Sutherland; Scherl, Donald J.

    1972-01-01

    This article describes three predictable and sequential phases that represent a normal cycle of emotional responses by victims of sexual assualt. A series of interventions was developed to help patients work through each phase as smoothly as possible. (Author)

  13. Tobacco interventions by dentists and dental hygienists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hanioka

    2013-02-01

    Dental researchers and educators around the world should explore new knowledge and exchange experiences to make full use of the unique opportunity of providing dental interventions against tobacco use.

  14. Effective interventions for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Joanna

    This article examines the causes of pressure ulcers and provides an overview of the best advice available in preventing them in the clinical setting. This should enable nurses to provide more effective interventions for preventing patients from developing pressure ulcers.

  15. Nonsurgical interventions after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Holm, Lena W; Cancelliere, Carol

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of nonsurgical interventions on persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "rehabilitation." Inclusion criteria were...... of 7 studies related to nonsurgical interventions were found to have a low risk of bias. One studied the effect of a scheduled telephone intervention offering counseling and education on outcome and found a significantly better outcome for symptoms (6.6 difference in adjusted mean symptom score; 95...... evidence suggests that early, reassuring educational information is beneficial after MTBI. Well-designed intervention studies are required to develop effective treatments and improve outcomes for adults and children at risk for persistent symptoms after MTBI....

  16. Nutrition Intervention Trials in Linxian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randomized controlled trials were launched in 1985 to test the effects of multiple vitamin and mineral interventions on total mortality and total and cause-specific cancer mortality in a rural Chinese population

  17. Parents' Evaluation of the IDEFICS Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    -type scale. Demographic data were collected as part of the baseline (T0 ) and first follow-up (T1 ) surveys; intervention exposure data was also collected in the T1 follow-up survey. Anthropometric data was collected in the same surveys, and child's weight status was assessed according to Cole and Lobstein....... After initial review of the univariate statistics multilevel logistic regression was conducted to analyse the influence of socio-economic factors, child's weight status and intervention exposure on parental responses. Results: In total 4,997 responses were received. Approval rates were high, and few...... positive difference, but also more likely to report that the intervention had had negative effects. Parents of overweight and obese children were more likely to report negative effects - above all, that 'the intervention had made their child feel as if he/she was "fat" or "overweight." Conclusion: While...

  18. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  19. Cognitive behavioral group intervention for Alzheimer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Serena; Moroni, Loretta; Toraldo, Alessio; Mazzà, Manuela T; Bertolotti, Giorgio; Vanacore, Nicola; Bottini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Long-term caregiving of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) frequently induces a relevant distress enhanced by inadequate coping strategies. This study aimed to explore the impact of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention on AD patients' caregivers. In particular, reduction in caregivers' global care needs and in anxiety and depression has been investigated. About 100 caregivers were divided into the following groups: CBT group intervention, self-help manual, and control have been enrolled in the study. CBT group intervention seems to be more effective than the other 2 conditions in reducing caregivers' anxiety. Furthermore, only caregivers of the CBT group showed significant needs related to reduction in care. The proposed treatment could be the core of a more structured and systematic intervention for AD patients' caregivers in Italy.

  20. Theory- and evidence-based Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence-based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning which includes recognition of the influe......In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence-based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning which includes recognition...... of the influence of community, school, peers, famely and the functional and structural domains of personality at the behavioural, psenomenological, intra-psychic and biophysical level in a dialectical process. One important aspect of the theoretical basis for presentation of this model is that the child...

  1. ARTICLE Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg,. W Cape ... determined by questionnaire; anunquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine usual food intake. Biochemical ..... complementary foods, incorrect preparation of formula feeds, and frequent ...

  2. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    ..., and an affectively neutral cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  3. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    ..., and an effectively neutral, cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  4. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    ..., and an effectively neutral cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  5. Foundations of intervention research in instrumental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A two-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy’s bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs.

  6. Risk Analysis for Nonthermal process interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last few years a number of nonthermal process interventions including ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light, high pressure processing, pulsed-electric and radiofrequency electric fields, microwave and infrared technologies, bacteriophages, etc. have been approved by regulatory agencies, ...

  7. Maintenance interventions in overweight or obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der L.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Janse, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with significant health consequences. Although several intervention programmes for children result in weight loss or stabilization in the short-term, preventing relapse after treatment remains an important challenge. This systematic review summarizes the evidence

  8. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  9. An Advocate Model for Intervention with Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Raymond M.

    1977-01-01

    Homosexual behavior has received little attention from social workers. Starting with the premise that homosexuality is a legitimate variation of life-style, the author suggests a model for social work intervention with the homosexual. (Author)

  10. Systemic Therapy: A New Brief Intervention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, H. Russell; Openlander, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Describes a newly developing mode of problem-oriented brief therapy. The systemic therapy model emphasizes the interactional context of clients' problems and represents an efficient intervention paradigm. (Author/JAC)

  11. January 2014 pulmonary journal club: interventional guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A few years ago a colleague and I were discussing the shape of healthcare in the USA. One of the comments that was made was "that despite the high costs within our system, that at least there was some standardization in the treatment of certain diseases, for example, receiving Aspirin for an acute myocardial infarction". Guidelines exist to ensure that for certain conditions a standard of care is practiced. When guidelines start to become a measuring stick for what is now considered best practice…..then it our responsibility to ensure that guidelines are rooted on high quality evidence. This paper reviewed the validity of guidelines published and practiced by several of the interventional medical societies including the American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP, American Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology (ASDIN, American Society For Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI. A total of ...

  12. Immediate field of intervention: undergraduate college Preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... field of intervention: undergraduate college Preparation: at research institutes and universities The challenge: to transform the disciplines themselves Make them relevant and responsive. First step: create innovative interactions across the higher education spectrum, between Research Institute-University-College.

  13. Intervention Engagement Moderates the Dose–Response Relationships in a Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lippke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions could lead to changes in behavior through changes in a mediator. This dose–response relationship might only hold true for those participants who are actively engaged in interventions. This Internet study investigated the role of engagement in a planning intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in addition to testing the intervention effect on planning and behavior. A sample of 701 adults (mean = 38.71 years, 81% women were randomly assigned either to a planning intervention (experimental group or to one of 2 control conditions (untreated waiting list control group or placebo active control group. Moderated mediation analyses were carried out. Significant changes over time and time × group effects revealed the effectiveness of the intervention. The effect of the intervention (time 1 on changes in behavior (time 3; 1 month after the personal deadline study participants set for themselves to start implementing their plans was mediated by changes in planning (time 2; 1 week the personal deadline. Effects of planning on behavior were documented only at a moderate level of intervention engagement. This indicates an inverse U-shaped dose–response effect. Thus, examining participants’ intervention engagement allows for a more careful evaluation of why some interventions work and others do not.

  14. Pre-pregnancy community-based intervention for couples in Malaysia: application of intervention mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A. Norris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia is experiencing a nutrition transition with burgeoning obesity, particularly in women, and a growing prevalence of non-communicable disease. These health burdens have severe implications not only for adult health but also across generations. Pre-conception health promotion could address the intergenerational risk of metabolic disease. This paper describes the development of the “Jom Mama” intervention using Intervention Mapping (IM. The Jom Mama intervention aims to improve the health of young adult couples in Malaysia prior to conception. Methods IM comprises of five steps prior to the last one, which involves the evaluation of the intervention. We used the five steps to develop the Jom Mama intervention. Results Both the process and evidence is documented providing the rationale to the selection of the key objectives of the intervention: (i increasing healthy dietary practice; (ii increasing physical activity levels, (iii reducing sedentary activity; and (iv improving social support to offset stressful lifestyles. From the IM process, Jom Mama will be health-system centred approach that uniquely combines both community health promoters and an electronic-health platform to deliver the complex intervention. Conclusion IM is an iterative process that systematically gathers “best” evidence, selects appropriate theories of behaviour change, and facilitates formative research so as to develop a complex intervention. Though the IM process is time consuming, complex, and costly, it has enriched the Jom Mama intervention with a number of notable advantages: (i intervention fashioned on formative work with stakeholders and in the target group; (ii intervention combines research evidence with theory; (iii intervention acknowledges multiple dynamics of influence; and (iv intervention is embedded within health service priorities in Malaysia for greater scale-up possibility.

  15. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  16. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, John

    2015-01-01

    John N Harvey Diabetes Research Group, Wrexham Academic Unit, Bangor University, Wrexham, UK Abstract: Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient's health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some disc...

  17. Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, J H

    1987-01-01

    Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented towards altering the individual's level of arousal. These techniques, wh...

  18. Educational intervention for liver transplantation candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...

  19. Glove Perforations During Interventional Radiological Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leena, R. V.; Shyamkumar, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intact surgical gloves are essential to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of glove perforations during interventional radiological procedures. In this study, a total of 758 gloves used in 94 interventional radiological procedures were examined for perforations. Eleven perforations were encountered, only one of which was of occult type. No significant difference in the frequency of glove perforation was found between the categories with varying time duration.

  20. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  1. Toward safe actuation for robotized interventional radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Esteveny, Laure

    2014-01-01

    In the context of interventional radiology, robotic-assisted surgery limits practitioners’ exposure to radiations and brings more accuracy to perform complex interventions. However, the presence of robot in the environment is a potential danger for the patient and the medical staff in case of unexpected interactions and manipulations.In this PhD thesis, we first focus on safety problems. An intrinsically safe mechanism is proposed. The achieved prototype allows to follow both planned trajecto...

  2. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Chen, Ted T L; Magnussen, Costan G; To, Kien G

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions in improving physical activity. EBSCO research database (and all subdatabases). Articles were published from 2000 to 2010 in English, had appropriate designs, and measured employees' physical activity, energy consumption, and/or body mass index (BMI) as primary outcomes. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Data extracted included study design, study population, duration, intervention activities, outcomes, and results. Data were synthesized into one table. Results of each relevant outcome including p values were combined. Twelve (60%) of 20 selected interventions reported an improvement in physical activity level, steps, or BMI, and there was one slowed step reduction in the intervention group. Among these, 10 were less than 6 months in duration; 9 used pedometers; 6 applied Internet-based approaches; and 5 included activities targeting social and environmental levels. Seven of 8 interventions with pre-posttest and quasi-experimental controlled design showed improvement on at least one outcome. However, 7 of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not prove effective in any outcome. Interventions that had less rigorous research designs, used pedometers, applied Internet-based approaches, and included activities at social and environmental levels were more likely to report being effective than those without these characteristics.

  4. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-07-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  5. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  6. Crisis interventions in online psychological counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amaral Medeiros da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world's population is often assailed by crises of various orders. Disasters caused by nature and by humans themselves also impact on people's mental health. Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature dealing with online psychological crisis intervention, describing and discussing their operational design, specific characteristics and applications. Method: A systematic review of literature indexed on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases identified by searches conducted from January to June of 2014. Results: The searches identified 17 empirical studies about online crisis interventions which were reviewed. Three crisis contexts emerged: 1 disasters, 2 risk/prevention of suicide, and 3 trauma. Eleven different intervention programs were described and the predominant treatment approach was cognitive behavioral therapy. The results showed that research into online psychological crisis intervention has been conducted in several different countries, especially the Netherlands and Australia, and that the users of these tools benefit from them. Conclusion: Online crisis interventions have been developed and researched in many countries around the world. In Brazil, there is still a lack of investment and research in this area.

  7. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  8. Hospital mainframe computer documentation of pharmacist interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumock, G T; Guenette, A J; Clark, T; McBride, J M

    1993-07-01

    The hospital mainframe computer pharmacist intervention documentation system described has successfully facilitated the recording, communication, analysis, and reporting of interventions at our hospital. It has proven to be time efficient, accessible, and user-friendly from the standpoint of both the pharmacist and administrator. The advantages of this system greatly outweigh manual documentation and justify the initial time investment in its design and development. In the future, it is hoped that the system can have even broader impact. Intervention/recommendations documented can be made accessible to medical and nursing staff, and as such further increase interdepartmental communication. As pharmacists embrace the pharmaceutical care mandate, documenting interventions in patient care will continue to grow in importance. Complete documentation is essential if pharmacists are to assume responsibility for patient outcomes. With time being an ever-increasing premium, and with economic and human resources dwindling, an efficient and effective means of recording and tracking pharmacist interventions will become imperative for survival in the fiscally challenged health care arena. Documentation of pharmacist intervention using a hospital mainframe computer at UIH has proven both efficient and effective.

  9. [Models of intervention in children with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Ros-Cervera, G; Millá, M G; Etchepareborda, M C; Abad, L; Téllez de Meneses, M

    2010-03-03

    Autism spectrum disorders make up a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that globally affect different higher brain functions in the individual, such as intelligence, the capacity to use language and social interaction. Today, although there is still no curative treatment for autism, there are a number of non pharmacological interventions that can modify the poor prognosis that is generally associated to this type of disorders. To briefly review the different approaches to the neuro rehabilitation of patients suffering from autism spectrum disorders, which are usually known as methods of intervention. From the categorical point of view, three types of methods of intervention can be distinguished, depending on whether the orientation is psychodynamic, biomedical or psycho educational. It is difficult to compare the results of the different methods of intervention, but researchers have identified several common elements that they should have if they are to be effective. At present, the psycho educational methods are preferred, since they are the only ones that, to date, have proved to be effective in research studies. Early intervention by diagnostic and early care centres, with the use of mixed models of psycho educational intervention that nevertheless also include an important percentage of behavioural elements, has proved to be capable of modifying the course of patients with autism spectrum disorders and is currently the most suitable approach.

  10. Interventions for treating tuberculous pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Thabane, Lehana; Volmink, Jimmy; Majombozi, Dumisani; Gumedze, Freedom; Pandie, Shaheen; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. Objectives To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017). In addition we searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal using 'tuberculosis' and 'pericard*' as search terms on 27 March 2017. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and contacted researchers in the field of tuberculous pericarditis. This is a new version of the original 2002 review. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened search outputs, evaluated study eligibility, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data; and we resolved any discrepancies by discussion and consensus. One trial assessed the effects of both corticosteroid and Mycobacterium indicus pranii treatment in a two-by-two factorial design; we excluded data from the group that received both interventions. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analysis and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Seven trials met the inclusion criteria; all were from sub-Saharan Africa and included 1959 participants, with 1051/1959 (54%) HIV-positive. All trials evaluated corticosteroids and one each evaluated colchicine, M. indicus pranii immunotherapy, and open surgical drainage. Four trials (1841 participants

  11. Opportunity of interventional radiology: advantages and application of interventional technique in biological target therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Gaojun; Lu Qin

    2007-01-01

    Interventional techniques not only provide opportunity of treatment for many diseases, but also alter the traditional therapeutic pattern. With the new century of wide application of biological therapies, interventional technique also shows extensive roles. The current biological therapy, including gene therapy, cell transplantation therapy, immunobiologic molecule therapy containing cell factors, tumor antibody or vaccine, recombined proteins, radioactive-particles and targeting materials therapy, can be locally administrated by interventional techniques. The combination of targeting biological therapies and high-targeted interventional technique holds advantages of minimal invasion, accurate delivery, vigorous local effect, and less systemic adverse reactions. Authors believe that the biological therapy may arise a great opportunity for interventional radiology, therefore interventional colleagues should grasp firmly and promptly for the development and extension in this field. (authors)

  12. Storytelling in community intervention research: lessons learned from the walk your heart to health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBron, Alana M; Schulz, Amy J; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities.

  13. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  14. Interventions for preventing obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C D; Waters, E; Edmunds, L D; Kelly, S; Brown, T; Campbell, K J

    2005-07-20

    Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or lifestyle and social support. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from 1990 to February 2005. Non-English language papers were included and experts contacted. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials with minimum duration twelve weeks. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-two studies were included; ten long-term (at least 12 months) and twelve short-term (12 weeks to 12 months). Nineteen were school/preschool-based interventions, one was a community-based intervention targeting low-income families, and two were family-based interventions targeting non-obese children of obese or overweight parents. Six of the ten long-term studies combined dietary education and physical activity interventions; five resulted in no difference in overweight status between groups and one resulted in improvements for girls receiving the intervention, but not boys. Two studies focused on physical activity alone. Of these, a multi-media approach appeared to be effective in preventing obesity. Two studies focused on nutrition education alone, but neither were effective in preventing obesity. Four of the twelve short-term studies focused on interventions to increase physical activity levels, and two of these studies resulted in minor reductions in overweight status in favour of the intervention. The other eight studies combined advice on diet and physical activity, but none had a significant impact. The studies were heterogeneous in terms of study design

  15. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Deborah F.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M.; Loria, Catherine M.; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S.; Belle, Steven H.; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a sh...

  16. From technically standardized interventions to analytically informed multi-perspective intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -size-fits-all interventions (Casebeer 2012; Donna Cross 2014). The ability to operate flexibly within shifting contexts is important to an intervention in relation to complex social phenomena. It is important to bear in mind that the contexts in which bullying takes place are characterised by ever-changing social conditions......, shifting actors and continuously emerging dilemmas and social manoeuvrings. All of these shifting conditions impact the intervention in and/or prevention of destructive social practices – and I argue that a multi-perspective intervention capable of flexible implementation will prove to be more effective...

  17. Analysis of Foreign Exchange Interventions by Intervention Agent with an Artificial Market Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Tojo, Satoshi

    We propose a multi-agent system which learns intervention policies and evaluates the effect of interventions in an artificial foreign exchange market. Izumi et al. had presented a system called AGEDASI TOF to simulate artificial market, together with a support system for the government to decide foreign exchange policies. However, the system needed to fix the amount of governmental intervention prior to the simulation, and was not realistic. In addition, the interventions in the system did not affect supply and demand of currencies; thus we could not discuss the effect of intervention correctly. First, we improve the system so as to make much of the weights of influential factors. Thereafter, we introduce an intervention agent that has the role of the central bank to stabilize the market. We could show that the agent learned the effective intervention policies through the reinforcement learning, and that the exchange rate converged to a certain extent in the expected range. We could also estimate the amount of intervention, showing the efficacy of signaling. In this model, in order to investigate the aliasing of the perception of the intervention agent, we introduced a pseudo-agent who was supposed to be able to observe all the behaviors of dealer agents; with this super-agent, we discussed the adequate granularity for a market state description.

  18. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  19. Intervention Mapping as a framework for developing an intervention at the worksite for older construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; van der Molen, Henk F; Bongers, Paulien M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Intervention Mapping approach as a framework in the development of a worksite intervention to improve the work ability of construction workers. Development of an intervention by using the Intervention Mapping approach. Construction worksite. Construction workers aged 45 years and older. According to the principles of Intervention Mapping, evidence from the literature was combined with data collected from stakeholders (e.g., construction workers, managers, providers). The Intervention Mapping approach resulted in an intervention with the following components: (1) two individual visits of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the range of influence at the worksite. Application of Intervention Mapping in the development of a worksite prevention program was useful in the construction industry to obtain a positive attitude and commitment. Stakeholders could give input regarding the program components as well as provide specific leads for the practical intervention strategy. Moreover, it also gives insight in the current theoretical and empirical knowledge in the field of improving the work ability of older workers in the construction industry.

  20. Preventive interventions for tendinopathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2016-03-01

    Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been investigated. The main objective of this study is to review current preventive interventions for tendinopathy in the major regions: ankle, knee, hip, groin, shoulder and elbow. A systematic literature search was conducted. The PubMed and Embase databases were explored to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were assessed on methodological quality and data was summarized. Ten articles were included that describe a wide variety of preventive interventions. These were divided into three categories: stretch and exercise interventions, shoe adaptations and other interventions. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Three out of ten studies showed a significant beneficial result. There is limited evidence that a long-term intervention including balance training is effective in the prevention of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Shoe adaptations in the form of shock absorbing insoles could have a preventive effect on Achilles tendinopathy. Hormone replacement therapy seems to reduce the risk for structural Achilles tendon changes in active post-menopausal women. No evidence was found for a positive effect of stretching exercises. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can increase the risk of injury in asymptomatic players with patellar tendon abnormalities. A limited amount of studies was available and more research is needed on (multifactorial) etiology, risk factors and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  2. Promoting cycling: a review of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2011-11-01

    To determine which approaches promote cycling, the size of the effects, and whether there are associated benefits on physical activity or anthropometric measures, by means of a systematic review. Intervention studies with a cycling outcome measure were identified from searches of 13 databases, previous systematic reviews, Web sites, and reference lists of selected articles. International experts were asked to identify further relevant published or unpublished studies. The search was completed in January 2010. The selection criteria were controlled trials and "before and after" studies of the effect of any intervention on cycling behavior; studies had to include a minimal or no intervention comparison group or a similar population; and a specific measure of cycling before and after the intervention was required. Studies using stationary bicycles were excluded. Of 32,916 records retrieved, 118 full-text articles were assessed, and 25 were included in the quantitative analysis. Each step in the selection process was independently reviewed by a second reviewer, and disagreements were resolved. Details of the study setting, objective, intervention, sample, duration, outcome measures, and results were extracted and checked by 2 reviewers, who also assessed validity (evaluated in summary as yes/no on randomization, representativeness, comparability, measurement, and use of statistical test). Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Outcomes were summarized as absolute changes in cycling after adjustment for changes in the control group. Meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity and statistical inadequacies in the studies. Six studies [2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 cohort study, and 3 controlled repeat cross-sectional studies, all meeting ≥3 validity criteria] included interventions primarily intended to promote cycling. An RCT using individual counseling and incentives as interventions found that Swedish women with abdominal obesity in the

  3. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Devon; Lee, Karen; Grunseit, Anne; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    To achieve population-wide health improvement, public health interventions found effective in selected samples need to be 'scaled up' and implemented more widely. The pathways through which interventions are scaled up are not well characterised. The aim of this paper is to identify examples of public health interventions which have been scaled up and to develop a conceptual framework which quantifies and describes this process. A multi-stage international literature search was undertaken to identify examples of public health interventions in high income countries that have been scaled up or implemented at scale. Initial abstract review identified articles which met all the criteria of being a: 1) public health intervention; 2) chronic disease prevention focus; 3) program delivered at a wide geographical scale (state, national or international). Interventions were reviewed and coded into a conceptual framework pathway to document their scaling up process. For each program, an in-depth review of the identified articles was undertaken along with a broad internet based search to determine the outcomes of the dissemination process. A conceptual framework of scaling up pathways was developed that involved four stages (development, efficacy testing, real world trial and dissemination) to which the 40 programs were mapped. The search identified 40 public health interventions that showed evidence of being scaled up. Four pathways were identified to capture the different scaling up trajectories taken which included: 'Type I - Comprehensive' (55%) which passed through all four stages, 'Type II - Efficacy omitters' (5%) which did not conduct efficacy testing, 'Type III - Trial omitters' (25%) which did not conduct a real world trial, and 'Type IV - At scale dissemination' (15%) which skipped both efficacy testing and a real world trial. This is the first study to classify and quantify the potential pathways through which public health interventions in high income countries are

  4. Online alcohol interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross

    2010-12-19

    There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66. The available

  5. Multidisciplinary intervention for childhood feeding difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeanne; Hill, Rebecca J; Ware, Robert S; Ziviani, Jenny; Dodrill, Pamela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether operant conditioning (OC) or systematic desensitization (SysD) intervention resulted in more improvements in dietary variety/intake, and more reductions in difficult mealtime behaviors. Children 2 to 6 years with autism spectrum disorder or with a nonmedically complex history were recruited. Feeding difficulties were confirmed based on clinical assessment. Participants were randomized to receive 10 OC or SysD sessions (parents could opt for intervention once per week, or intensively within a week). Immersive parent education was delivered across both arms. A 3-month review was provided to measure outcomes postintervention. In total, 68 participants (87%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the OC and SysD intervention groups from baseline to 3-month review. When the data were combined across both groups, however, significant improvements in primary outcome measures were observed (P education, these 2 intervention approaches are effective. Further research is required in exploring these interventions across other subgroups, and examining outcomes for longer periods.

  6. Responsiveness to Intervention in Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, Elisabeth A T; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-08-01

    We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention. Moreover, responsiveness to intervention was examined by studying to what extent scores at posttest could directly or indirectly be predicted from precursor measures. Results showed that the children with dyslexia were significantly behind in all reading and spelling measures at pretest. During the intervention, the children with dyslexia made more progress on GPC, (pseudo)word decoding accuracy and efficiency, and spelling accuracy than the typical reading group. Furthermore, we found a direct effect of the precursor measures rapid automatized naming, verbal working memory and phoneme deletion on the dyslexic children's progress in GPC speed, and indirect effects of rapid automatized naming and phoneme deletion on word and pseudoword efficiency and word decoding accuracy via the scores at pretest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Safety of Conscious Sedation In Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arepally, Aravind; Oechsle, Denise; Kirkwood, Sharon; Savader, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To identify rates of adverse events associated with the use of conscious sedation in interventional radiology.Methods: In a 5-month period, prospective data were collected on patients undergoing conscious sedation for interventional radiology procedures (n = 594). Adverse events were categorized as respiratory, sedative, or major adverse events. Respiratory adverse events were those that required oral airway placement, ambu bag, or jaw thrust. Sedation adverse events were unresponsiveness, oxygen saturation less than 90%, use of flumazenil/naloxone, or agitation. Major adverse events were hypotension, intubation, CPR, or cardiac arrest. The frequency of adverse events for the five most common radiology procedures were determined.Results: The five most common procedures (total n = 541) were biliary tube placement/exchange (n = 182), tunneled catheter placement (n 135), diagnostic arteriography (n = 125), vascular interventions (n = 52), and other catheter insertions (n = 46). Rates for respiratory, sedation, and major adverse events were 4.7%, 4.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. The most frequent major adverse event was hypotension (2.0%). Biliary procedures had the highest rate of total adverse events (p < .05) and respiratory adverse events (p < .05).Conclusion: The frequency of adverse events is low with the use of conscious sedation during interventional procedures. The highest rates occurred during biliary interventions

  8. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Speech and language intervention in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, speech and language pathologists (SLPs around the world are faced with the unique set of issues presented by their bilingual clients. Some professional associations in different countries have presented recommendations when assessing and treating bilingual populations. In children, most of the studies have focused on intervention for language and phonology/ articulation impairments and very few focus on stuttering. In general, studies of language intervention tend to agree that intervention in the first language (L1 either increase performance on L2 or does not hinder it. In bilingual adults, monolingual versus bilingual intervention is especially relevant in cases of aphasia; dysarthria in bilinguals has been barely approached. Most studies of cross-linguistic effects in bilingual aphasics have focused on lexical retrieval training. It has been noted that even though a majority of studies have disclosed a cross-linguistic generalization from one language to the other, some methodological weaknesses are evident. It is concluded that even though speech and language intervention in bilinguals represents a most important clinical area in speech language pathology, much more research using larger samples and controlling for potentially confounding variables is evidently required.

  10. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  11. Biliary intervention: Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, R.K.; Druy, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The intelligent application of the myriad of interventional biliary tract procedures requires a thorough knowledge of biliary pathology, a keen diagnostic acumen, and an awareness of the relative merits, advantages, and disadvantages of the various surgical, radiologic, and endoscopic interventional techniques. A proper understanding of the use of these techniques makes it possible to determine the etiology and level of biliary obstruction, to differentiate benign from malignant disorders, and to determine the best form of definitive or palliative therapy. The first part of the paper focuses on the differential diagnosis of obstructive biliary lesions amenable to either fluoroscopically or endoscopically performed interventions. The relative merits of invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques are discussed, with particular attention given to the accuracy and reliability of the various procedures in differentiating benign and malignant disorders as well as in predicting the therapy best suited to the lesion. The indications for biliary drainage and the use of noninvasive studies to evaluate the results of surgical or nonsurgical decompression are considered. The second part of the course highlights the practical aspects of biliary intervention in the various disease entities previously discussed. Antegrade and retrograde techniques of biliary intervention are described, with the indications and complications of each type of method illustrated. Attention is given to methods of preventing and managing the various complications. The primary topics for discussion are percutaneous and retrograde access to the biliary system, percutaneous endoscopic methods of biliary drainage, stricture dilation, biliary catheterization as an adjunct to surgery, and combined transhepatic and endoscopic procedures

  12. Rethinking estrangement, interventions, and intimate femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D; Dekeseredy, W S

    1997-12-01

    This article aims to build on M. Wilson and M. Daly's male proprietariness thesis by integrating it with a theory of interventions. The challenge thesis contributed by a number of feminists focuses on the concepts of male proprietariness, estrangement, and intimate femicide, with mechanisms identified as exit, voice, and loyalty. An elaborated version of the challenge model shows male intimate partners on a continuum of proprietariness, female intimate partners are located on a continuum of resistance, mechanisms of resistance/change are linked with the choice of different kinds of interventions, harms experienced by estranged wives/cohabitating partners can be located on a continuum of harms, and person/situational factors are included because they help account for variations in male violence via their impact on proprietariness and deviance. Loyalty/love-invoked interventions could more likely reduce intimate femicide among coresiding female intimates. The criminal justice system is usually invoked by voice and these voice-invoked interventions increase the confidence of the battered wife symbolizing society's opposition to women abuse and could most probably end battering. Exit and exit-invoked mechanism are effective in ending battering for most battered women, although they may provoke a more fatal violence among dependent partners. The effectiveness of any of the chosen interventions varies with their appropriateness and timing.

  13. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  14. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoidbach, G.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant or of any other complex industrial facility (chemical industries, refineries, and so on) in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. This 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is organized around a data base of all plant components in the facility that might be subjected to maintenance or tagout. It allows to manage, by means of intelligent and configurable 'mail service', the course of the intervention requests as well as various treatments of those requests, in a safe and efficient way, adapted to each particular organization. The concept of 'Computerized Management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by BELGATOM in 1983 for the Belgian nuclear power plants of ELECTRABEL. A first implementation of this concept was made at that time for the Doel NPP under the name POPIT (Programming Of Plant Intervention Tasks). In 1988, it was decided to proceed to a functional upgrade of the application, using advanced software and hardware techniques and products, and to realize a second implementation in the Tihange NPP under the name ACM (Application Consignation Maintenance). (author)

  15. Interventional neuroradiology of stroke, still not dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Lövblad, Karl-Olof

    2013-12-28

    Since the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trial, intravenous thrombolysis has been gaining wide acceptance as the modality of treatment for acute embolic stroke, with a current therapeutic window of up to 4.5 h. Both imaging [with either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT)] and interventional techniques (thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy) have since improved and provided us with additional imaging of the penumbra using CT or MRI and more advanced thrombolysis or thrombectomy strategies that have been embraced in many centers dealing with patients with acute cerebral ischemia. These techniques, however, have come under scrutiny due to their accrued healthcare costs and have been questioned following major recent studies. These studies basically showed that interventional techniques were not superior to the traditional intravenous thrombolysis techniques and that penumbra imaging could not determine what patients would benefit from more aggressive (i.e., interventional) treatment. We discuss this in the light of the latest developments in both diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology and point out why further studies are needed in order to define the right choices for patients with acute stroke. Indeed, these studies were in part conducted with suboptimal patient recruitment strategies and did not always use the latest interventional techniques available today. So, while these studies may have raised some relevant questions, at the same time, definitive answers have not been given, in our opinion.

  16. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E

    2016-02-03

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32

  17. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  18. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  19. Intervention Integrity in the Low Countries: Interventions Targeting Social-Emotional Behaviors in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits

    2017-01-01

    The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…

  20. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter J.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a

  1. Developing and Modeling Complex Social Interventions: Introducing the Connecting People Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling the processes involved in complex social interventions is important in social work practice, as it facilitates their implementation and translation into different contexts. This article reports the process of developing and modeling the connecting people intervention (CPI), a model of practice that supports people with mental…

  2. Development of the Social Network-Based Intervention "Powerful Together with Diabetes" Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development of the social network-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes which aims to improve diabetes self-management (DSM) among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods by stimulating social support for DSM and diminishing social influences hindering DSM (e.g., peer pressure and social norms). The intervention was specifically developed for patients with Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese backgrounds. The intervention was developed according to Intervention Mapping. This article describes the first four steps of Intervention Mapping: (1) the needs assessment; (2) development of performance and change objectives; (3) selection of theory-based methods and strategies; and (4) the translation of these into an organized program. These four steps resulted in Powerful Together with Diabetes , a 10-month group-based intervention consisting of 24 meetings, 6 meetings for significant others, and 2 meetings for participants and their spouses. The IM method resulted in a tailored approach with a specific focus on the social networks of its participants. This article concludes that the IM method helped our planning team to tailor the intervention to the needs of our target population and facilitated our evaluation design. However, in hindsight, the intervention could have been improved by investing more in participatory planning and community involvement.

  3. Early parenting intervention: Family risk and first-time parenting related to intervention effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.N.; Mesman, J.; van Zeijl, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of cumulative risk and parity on the effectiveness of a home based parenting intervention were tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing behavior. The intervention was aimed at enhancing positive

  4. Effects of delayed psychosocial interventions versus early psychosocial interventions for women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of

  5. Access to a Responsiveness to Intervention Model: Does Beginning Intervention in Kindergarten Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Bocian, Kathleen M.; Sanchez, Victoria; Beach, Kristen D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we tested the outcomes of access to a Response to Intervention (RtI) model in kindergarten or in first grade on end-of-Grade-2 reading achievement and placement in special education. Across five schools, 214 students who began having access to Tier 2 intervention in kindergarten or first grade were compared in Grades 1 and 2 with…

  6. Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This intervention report presents findings from a systematic review of "functional behavioral assessment-based interventions" conducted using the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook, version 3.0, and the Children Identified With or At Risk for an Emotional Disturbance review protocol, version 3.0. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)…

  7. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient’s health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. PMID:25657590

  8. [Intervention of Schizophrenia From the Community Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana María; Montoya González, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease for which pharmacological management is an insufficient therapeutic measure to ensure adaptation to the community and restoring the quality of life of the patient, with a multidimensional management and community interventions being necessary. Case report. This case report illustrates a multidisciplinary treatment response, based on a community care model for mental health from Envigado, Colombia. The management of schizophrenia requires multimodal interventions that include community screening, psychoeducation of individuals, their families and society, addressing different areas of operation that allow adaptation of the subject to his social environment. A integrated intervention that can be provided on a Community scale, with the implementation of policies that allow it to be applied. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. The IDEFICS Community-Oriented Intervention Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Henauw, Stefaan; Verbestel, Vera; Mårild, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help...... prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2–10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. Materials and methods: The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different...... levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity...

  10. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  11. Deterministic effects of interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, Thomas B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe deterministic radiation injuries reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that resulted from therapeutic, interventional procedures performed under fluoroscopic guidance, and to investigate the procedure or equipment-related factors that may have contributed to the injury. Reports submitted to the FDA under both mandatory and voluntary reporting requirements which described radiation-induced skin injuries from fluoroscopy were investigated. Serious skin injuries, including moist desquamation and tissues necrosis, have occurred since 1992. These injuries have resulted from a variety of interventional procedures which have required extended periods of fluoroscopy compared to typical diagnostic procedures. Facilities conducting therapeutic interventional procedures need to be aware of the potential for patient radiation injury and take appropriate steps to limit the potential for injury. (author)

  12. "Pastoral crisis intervention": toward a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, G S

    2000-01-01

    The pastoral community represents a large and often untapped resource in times of crisis. It possesses a unique aggregation of characteristics that makes it uniquely valuable amidst the turmoil of a psychological crisis. In critical incidents such as terrorism, mass disasters, violence, the loss of loved ones, and any events wherein human actions result in injury, destruction, and/or death, the pastoral community may possess especially powerful restorative attributes. Unfortunately, heretofore, there has existed no generally recognized and accepted manner in which the healing factors inherent in pastoral care have been functionally integrated with the well-formulated principles of crisis intervention. This paper represents an initial effort to elucidate how the principles of pastoral care may be functionally integrated with those of crisis intervention. The amalgam shall heretofore be referred to as "pastoral crisis intervention" and is defined herein.

  13. Soapbox: Class matters in parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Class and income level influence parenting styles and values, yet are rarely discussed in treatment approaches and parenting interventions with families. In this soapbox article, I argue that discrepancies in outcome, retention, and participation could be fruitfully addressed through a fuller understanding of the needs, realities, and parenting goals of families struggling with financial disadvantage. I compare and contrast ethnographic studies of parenting in low socioeconomic environments with the types of strategies and interventions commonly advanced in parent training programs and suggest that clinicians must become more aware of the cultural and socioeconomic overtones of those interventions in determining whether, how, and when to use them with families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Exposure of Medical Staff during Interventional Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvay, M.; Turak, O.

    2013-01-01

    The medical staff during interventional procedures receives significant doses on their hands, or parts of their body not covered with protective shielding equipment, as they are close to X-rays field. It can be stated, that interventional radiology and cardiology have one of the highest doses among the X-ray diagnostic procedures. The radiologist use X-ray machine directly in the interventional procedures. The occupational dose is measured only by one Kodak film badge worn under the lead apron for the estimation of the effective dose in Hungary. Our lecture presents the results of dose measurements on eye lens, hands, knees using LiF thermoluminescent dosemeters on the medical staff of two Hungarian hospitals. Results suggest that wearing only one film badge (or other dosemeter system) under the lead apron does not provide proper information on the real occupational dose of medical staff.(author)

  15. Reference Dose Rates for Fluoroscopy Guided Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleijns, J.; Broerse, J.J.; Hummel, W.A.; Schalij, M.J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Teeuwisse, W.; Zoetelief, J.

    1998-01-01

    The wide diversity of fluoroscopy guided interventions which have become available in recent years has improved patient care. They are being performed in increasing numbers, particularly at departments of cardiology and radiology. Some procedures are very complex and require extended fluoroscopy times, i.e. longer than 30 min, and radiation exposure of patient and medical staff is in some cases rather high. The occurrence of radiation-induced skin injuries on patients has shown that radiation protection for fluoroscopy guided interventions should not only be focused on stochastic effects, i.e. tumour induction and hereditary risks, but also on potential deterministic effects. Reference dose levels are introduced by the Council of the European Communities as an instrument to achieve optimisation of radiation protection in radiology. Reference levels in conventional diagnostic radiology are usually expressed as entrance skin dose or dose-area product. It is not possible to define a standard procedure for complex interventions due to the large inter-patient variations with regard to the complexity of specific interventional procedures. Consequently, it is not realistic to establish a reference skin dose or dose-area product for complex fluoroscopy guided interventions. As an alternative, reference values for fluoroscopy guided interventions can be expressed as the entrance dose rates on a homogeneous phantom and on the image intensifier. A protocol has been developed and applied during a nationwide survey of fluoroscopic dose rate during catheter ablations. From this survey reference entrance dose rates of respectively 30 mGy.min -1 on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with a thickness of 21 cm, and of 0.8 μGy.s -1 on the image intensifier have been derived. (author)

  16. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  17. Writing-skills Intervention Programming and its being a Component of Response to Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Dunn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a struggling writer, step-by-step instruction can be a helpful means to manage organizing and producing elaborate text. This mixed-methods project offered four struggling writers a mnemonic strategy called Ask, Reflect, Text (ART in 45-minute sessions over 22 days. The second- and fourth-grade students attended a public school in the US Pacific Northwest. As a parallel component to the project, the students’ teachers and intervention specialist met with the author for 4 one-hour sessions to discuss: 1 the children’s intervention programming and progress, and 2 the paradigm of response to intervention (RTI and their thoughts about its feasibility in classrooms. The end-of-project assessment data demonstrated that the children made progress with writing skills, but the teachers and intervention specialist felt that support personnel would be needed to manage RTI-type intervention programming in general education classrooms.

  18. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remacle, J.; Quoidbach, G.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of 'computerized management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by TRACTEBEL in 1983 for the Belgian power plants of ELECTRABEL. The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. It consists of a group of interconnected functional modules acting on a unique and homogeneous data base. A short description of 3 modules is given, i.e., the 'User' Module, the 'Equipment' Module and the 'Periodic Procedure' Module. (Z.S.)

  19. Clinical application of interventional therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Liu Qiyu; Wang Zhong; Lin Hua; Xie Budong; Zhou Xi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficiency of interventional therapy of hyperthyroidism. Methods: 70 cases of hyperthyroidism were selected and treated with embolization of the thyroid gland artery. The efficacy and complications of the therapy were observed. Results: The therapy was effect in 60 of all the 70 patients, while failed in 1 patient and relapsed in 9 cases. Specifically speaking, 2 of them hyperthyroidism crisis occurred in 2 cases, hypoparathyroidism occurred in 1 case and hypothyroidism occurred in 2 cases. Conclusion: Intervention therapy of hyperthyroidism is of advantage such as good effect, safety, microtrauma, little complication. (authors)

  20. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  1. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  2. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors. (auth)

  3. 6{sup th} interventional MRI symposium. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The ongoing progress in the field of interventional MRI and the great success of our last symposium 2004 in Boston have stimulated us to organize the 6th Interventional MRI Symposium to be held September 15-16, 2006 in Leipzig. This meeting will highlight ground-breaking research as well as cutting-edge reports from many groups. The symposium also provides a forum to network with leaders and innovators in the field. Session topics are: intraoperative MRI, vascular applications, targeted drug delivery, cryotherapy, thermometry, pulse sequences, LITT, percutaneous procedures, navigation, robotics, focused ultrasound. (uke)

  4. 6th interventional MRI symposium. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing progress in the field of interventional MRI and the great success of our last symposium 2004 in Boston have stimulated us to organize the 6th Interventional MRI Symposium to be held September 15-16, 2006 in Leipzig. This meeting will highlight ground-breaking research as well as cutting-edge reports from many groups. The symposium also provides a forum to network with leaders and innovators in the field. Session topics are: intraoperative MRI, vascular applications, targeted drug delivery, cryotherapy, thermometry, pulse sequences, LITT, percutaneous procedures, navigation, robotics, focused ultrasound. (uke)

  5. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-06-16

    Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the 'Driving Whilst Intoxicated program', plus incarceration was superior to incarceration alone for imprisoned drink-driving offenders. Results suggest

  6. MR-Guided Interventional Procedures: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Sequeiros, R.; Ojala, R.; Kariniemi, J.; Peraelae, J.; Niinimaeki, J.; Reinikainen, H.; Tervonen, O.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a potential guidance tool for a variety of procedures. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using either open surgical or percutaneous access are performed. They span from simple lesion targeting and biopsy to complex applications requiring multiple tasks performed simultaneously or in rapid succession. These tasks include instrument guidance and therapy monitoring as well as procedural follow-up. The interventional use of MRI (IMRI) is increasing steadily. This article reviews the prerequisites, systems, and clinical interventional procedures of IMRI

  7. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers' feed...... as a starting point. We find an urgent need to develop and research projects on early intervention in Nordic school culture, preferably in critical dialogue with international research in this field. , while critically discussing ideas and experiences from other countries....

  8. Interventional therapy of mesenteric venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuan; Ouyang Qiang; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of interventional therapy in treating intestinal ischemia of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Methods: Twelve cases (male 7 cases, female 5 cases; ranging from 33 to 86 years of age) of mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) were treated with percutaneous transhepatic mesenteric venous thrombectomy and thrombolysis associated with papaverin perfusion via superior mesenteric artery. Results: Seven of the 12 cases recovered; 3 cases were undertaken laparotomy; 2 died within 30 days respectively. No severe complications occurred in all of the 12 cases. Conclusions: Interventional therapy of MVT is a safe and effective method with reduction of the mortality. (authors)

  9. Interventional radiological treatment in complications of pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memis, Ahmet E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.com; Parildar, Mustafa

    2002-09-01

    Percutaneous interventional therapy plays an important role in treating complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis. With the development of cross-sectional imaging and advanced interventional techniques, percutaneous drainage has become the preferred treatment for pancreatic fluid collections such as acute collections, pseudocysts and abscesses. Abscess and pancreatic hemorrhage are the most life threatening complications of pancreatitis. Massive hemorrhage is rare but frequently lethal. As a rule, bleeding complications of pancreatitis require prompt diagnosis and an aggressive surgical approach. In unstable patients with a severely bleeding pseudoaneurysm, hemostasis can be obtained by occlusion with mechanical devices.

  10. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...

  11. Placebo interventions for all clinical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Placebo interventions are often claimed to substantially improve patient-reported and observer-reported outcomes in many clinical conditions, but most reports on effects of placebos are based on studies that have not randomised patients to placebo or no treatment. Two previous versions...... of this review from 2001 and 2004 found that placebo interventions in general did not have clinically important effects, but that there were possible beneficial effects on patient-reported outcomes, especially pain. Since then several relevant trials have been published....

  12. New era of the relationship between Chinese interventional radiology sub-society and journal of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linsun

    2009-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed interventional radiology in China to go from a very initial clinical practice to an important medical player in modern medicine. Recently, a friendly collaboration has been successfully established between the Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society and the Journal of Interventional Radiology. The Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society will take the full responsibility for the academic governance of the Journal of Interventional Radiology and the Journal of Interventional Radiology will formally become the sole interventional academic periodical of the Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society in China. This collaboration will surely make Chinese interventional radiology to initiate a new era,promote the further development of interventional radiology at home and enable the Journal of Interventional Radiology to step into the international medical circle. (authors)

  13. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  14. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  15. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...

  16. Anticipating Challenges: School-Based Social Work Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Muskat, Barbara; Cook, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research is vital for social work, as it aims to develop practice/program approaches and provide evidence to understand which interventions are effective and for whom. Despite growing attention, little social work research exists that evaluates interventions. Among the reasons for the dearth of intervention research within social work…

  17. Efficacy of an Individualized Reading Intervention with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Fall, Anna-Maria; Pyle, Nicole; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluates the efficacy of an intensive, reading intervention, a dropout prevention intervention, and an intensive, reading intervention plus dropout prevention on high school students' reading achievement and rates of dropout/school engagement. This paper focuses on the reading intervention and on reading outcomes. Data on the drop out…

  18. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  19. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  20. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-08-16

    Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts‎, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors

  1. Recurrent Pediatric Headaches: Behavioral Concepts and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent pediatric headaches are increasingly understood to be a function of both respondent and operant processes. In particular, the environment is thought to elicit internal autonomic instability and to evoke external maladaptive pain behavior. While medical interventions often provide an appropriate first line treatment, behavioral…

  2. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....

  3. Prelinguistic Communication Intervention: Birth-to-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremel-Campbell, Kathleen; Rowland, Charity

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions for narrowing the discrepancy between the knowledge base of early communication development and the implementation of effective communication interventions for severely handicapped infants and young children are offered including strategies for facilitating emerging language development, increasing positive interactions with infants,…

  4. A reading intervention programme for mathematics students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the results of Phase I of a reading skills project in 2000 (SAJHE 16(3) 2002), Phase II was undertaken to set up a reading intervention programme on a voluntary basis for students enrolled in a mathematics access module, to determine whether explicit attention given to reading would improve their reading skills ...

  5. Anesthetic considerations for interventional pulmonary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, John

    2013-02-01

    To discuss the anesthetic considerations of various procedures now performed by the interventional pulmonologist. With recent technological advances, many of these procedures represent acceptable alternatives to the invasive surgical procedures. For example, the placement of endobronchial valves can substitute for lung reduction surgery and can greatly reduce the postoperative recovery period. However, many of these complex procedures require anesthesia services. The nature and indication for the procedure as well as the patient's overall health will have an impact on the anesthetic choice. New studies have documented common complications from interventional pulmonology procedures and recent ways to avoid these complications have been suggested. Strategies to avoid obstruction, bleeding, pneumothorax and air embolism are discussed in this article. Potential benefits of high frequency jet ventilation in reducing airway pressures and, perhaps, barotraumas are cited. Novel interventional pulmonary procedures are described. As the array of diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary interventions is expanding, the types of anesthetic techniques and ventilatory modes are varying to fit the procedural requirements. Some pulmonary procedures are best accomplished in the lightly sedated patient, who is breathing spontaneously, whereas procedures that use the working channel of a rigid bronchoscope are better performed in the patient under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation that often use jet ventilation to minimize respiratory movements.

  6. Is Educational Intervention Research on the Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined intervention studies that appeared in four educational psychology journals (Cognition & Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Education) and the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) in 1983 and from 1995 to 2004. The majority of…

  7. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity and ECB Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    This paper explores the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, in the context of the intervention by the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis. The laboratory for our investigation is the Italian sovereign bond market, the largest in the Euro-zone. We use a unique data ...

  8. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  9. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  10. Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve people's understanding of the links between environment and health, with a focus on diarrheal diseases and malnutrition. Working with the community and other stakeholders, researchers will design and pilot interventions for improving health status and the environment that could be extended ...

  11. Custody Resolution Counseling: An Alternative Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Martha; Irvin, Karen

    1982-01-01

    Describes Custody Resolution Counseling (CRC), an alternative to the traditional custody study intervention, developed by the Hennepin County Minnesota Domestic Relations Division. Discusses the CRC process which helps families make their own custody decisions as opposed to court-imposed decisions, and presents a case illustration. (Author/JAC)

  12. Vascular Closure Devices in Interventional Radiology Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rafiuddin; Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan; Morgan, Robert; Uberoi, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Manual compression (MC) is a well-established technique for haemostasis following percutaneous arterial intervention. However, MC is labour and time intensive with potential limitations, particularly for patients who are coagulopathic, unable to comply with bed rest or obese and when large sheaths or anti-coagulants are used. There are a variety of vascular closure devices (VCDs) available to overcome these limitations. This review gives an overview of current VCDs, their mechanism of action, individual strengths and weaknesses, evidence base and utility in interventional radiology (IR) practice. The majority of the published evidence on VCDs is derived from patients undergoing cardiac interventions, which should be borne in mind when considering the applicability and transfer of this data for general IR practice. Overall, the evidence suggests that most VCDs are effective in achieving haemostasis with a similar rate of complications to MC although the complication profile associated with VCDs is distinct to that of MC. There is insufficient evidence to comparatively analyse the different types of VCDs currently available or reliably judge their cost-effectiveness. The interventional radiologist should have a thorough understanding of the available techniques for haemostasis and be able to identify and utilise the most appropriate strategy and closure technique for the individual patient

  13. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  14. Nutrition Intervention Program and Childhood Malnutrition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [4] These interventions include exclusive breastfeeding for at least four months and, if possible, for six months; adequate complementary feeding starting at about six months with continued breastfeeding for two years; appropriate nutritional care of sick and malnourished children; adequate intake of vitamin A for women and ...

  15. Religion and spirituality: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the ways that an individual's spirituality influences responses to life-threatening illness and dying. He begins by differentiating between religion and spirituality, and then delineates the spiritual issues that arise in a life-threatening illness including the spiritual needs that arise in the final phases of illness. Recommendations for spiritual assessments and interventions are offered.

  16. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  17. Trichotillomania: Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…

  18. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  19. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  20. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  1. Preventive interventions for tendinopathy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Objectives: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been

  2. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  3. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  4. Healthy lifestyle interventions in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main elements of the intervention programme are smoking cessation, exercise training (minimum of three times per week), education, psychosocial ... reduce health care costs through stabilising and reversing the systemic manifestations of the disease”.2 This form ... Decreased fat free mass. Impaired systemic muscle ...

  5. Parents Questioning Immunization: Evaluation of an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A.; Kennedy, Allison; Weber, Deanne; Evans, Geoff; Kong, Yuan; Salmon, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To compare attitudes of parents who filed or considered filing an exemption to school immunization requirements and/or would not have their child immunized if it were not required by law (cases) to controls. To develop and evaluate a brochure intervention for parents considering an exemption. Methods: Interviews, focus groups, mailed…

  6. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  7. Recreation intervention with adolescent offenders: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International research provides contradicting results about the impact of recreation programmes on adolescent criminal behaviour. In addition, there is a dearth of South African data regarding the outcomes of recreation as therapeutic intervention with children in conflict with the law. This article investigates the prospects ...

  8. Child Maltreatment In Nigeria: Implications For Intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic features of approaches for preventing child abuse that cut across the family, school and community of the subject of such interventions are outlined. Finally, the paper suggests the need for effective collaboration of these preventive strategies in policy making and their adaptation by social workers to suit the needs ...

  9. CASE REPORT CASE Multimodality imaging and interventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequestration was considered at this stage. An angiogram was thereafter performed to further characterise the vascularity, as well as allow embolisation of the lesion prior to surgery. (Fig. 5). Multimodality imaging and interventional management of a complex congenital vascular malformation. Aadil Ahmed, MB BCh, FCRad ...

  10. Educational Intervention to Improve the Practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of the growing usage of herbs, pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine is still in its infancy. Literatures have indicated lack of awareness as one of the major barriers to pharmacovigilance. This study evaluates the impact of an educational intervention in improving the practice of pharmacovigilance among ...

  11. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to ...

  12. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  13. Reading Interventions to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Jolene

    2012-01-01

    High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…

  14. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-09-01

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  15. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  16. Reading Intervention and Special Education Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  18. Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran Korabathina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ravikiran Korabathina1, Sidharth S Yadav1, John T Coppola2, Cezar S Staniloae21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Cardiac and Vascular Institute, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of postprocedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, endovascular interventions, transradial interventions, aorto-iliac angioplasty

  19. Towards Creating Sustainable Ecotourism Interventions: Practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the sustainability of the intervention and the subsequent widely positive views of the community are primarily attributable to the fact that the project was designed to both integrate tourism into the existing livelihoods and skill sets and also to enhance their adaptive capabilities. It is recommended that ...

  20. Physiologic stress interventions in cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Physiologic stress interventions are designed to assess the reserve capability of coronary flow and myocardial function. In the normal individual, a sufficiently intense physiologic stress may increase coronary flow and cardiac output by 500% to 600%. However, in patients with cardiac disease, these reserve responses may be absent, or considerably blunted. Thus, physiologic stress testing has proved extremely helpful in detecting cardiac abnormalities when resting cardiac function appears normal. Although dynamic exercise remains the standard approach to physiologic stress testing, a number of other interventions have been used, including: (1) isometric exercise, (2) atrial pacing, (3) cold pressor testing, (4) postextrasystolic potentiation, (5) volume loading, and (6) negative intrathoracic pressure. Each of these may be considered an alternative physiologic intervention whenever dynamic exercise is not feasible. These alternative approaches are important since, in our experience, 20% to 30% of subjects are unable to perform dynamic exercise, or exercise inadequately to produce a sufficiently intense cardiac stress. This chapter reviews physiologic considerations, indications, contraindications, protocols, and results of these physiologic stress interventions when used in combination with cardiac radionuclide procedures

  1. Interventions for treating obesity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Hiltje; Baur, Louise; Jansen, Hanneke; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A.; O'Malley, Claire; Stolk, Ronald P.; Summerbell, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. Objectives To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL

  2. Agricultural Productivity and Policy Interventions in Nyamagabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving agricultural productivity has received considerable policy intervention in many African countries and particularly in Rwanda. The question remains to know the extent to which the policy contributes to the variation being upwards or downwards of the crop productivity. There are number of determinant factors some ...

  3. SAFE MOTHERHOOD INTERVENTION STUDIES IN AFRICA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-11-01

    Nov 1, 2000 ... M. Luck, DSc, Researcher, Centro de Malária e Outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal. SAFE MOTHERHOOD INTERVENTION STUDIES IN AFRICA: A REVIEW. M. LUCK. ABSTRACT. Objective: To review the findings of ...

  4. Alterations in mentation: nursing assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, J

    1985-02-01

    Physical assessment for nursing purposes is necessarily different from that of medicine because the focus of nursing is to diagnose and treat human responses to disease rather than the disease itself. Nursing assessment pathophysiology, implications for daily living, and nursing interventions for selected functional aspects of mentation, namely language, remembering, and performing learned movements, are presented in this article.

  5. Anatomical challenges for transcatheter mitral valve intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Luk, Ngai H V; Søndergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of transcatheter aortic and pulmonary valve implantation, there is a large interest in transcatheter mitral valve interventions to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR). With the exception for the MitraClipTM (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) edge-to-edge leaflet plication...

  6. Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their goals.…

  7. Mothers' Stress, Resilience and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…

  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary bifurcation disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jens Flensted; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Banning, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    of combining the opinions of interventional cardiologists with the opinions of a large variety of other scientists on bifurcation management. The present 11th EBC consensus document represents the summary of the up-to-date EBC consensus and recommendations. It points to the fact that there is a multitude...

  9. New Mexico Response to Intervention Framework Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual details the instructional framework and guidance on the Response to Intervention (RtI) process in New Mexico. The manual includes: (1) a section on each of the three instructional tiers; (2) a glossary of key terms; (3) sample forms to assist with the Student Assistance Team (SAT) process; and (4) key resources for teachers.

  10. Interventions for Children's Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different…

  11. Can community based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the

  12. 41 CFR 50-203.5 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law judge, as the case may be, may grant leave to intervene to such extent and upon such terms as he... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Intervention. 50-203.5 Section 50-203.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...

  13. Sexual Education: An Intervention and Social Adjustment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the importance of sexuality education as an intervention and social adjustment programme for youth in secondary education in Nigeria. For this purpose, the study sought to find out using three research questions; the importance of sexuality education in secondary education; the extent to which ...

  14. Early Childhood Intervention: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…

  15. Effective Bullying-Trauma Intervention Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many sectors of society in trauma intervention. School yard bullying has been getting a lot of attention as of late. It is widely reported and analyzed repeatedly in the media. As a clinical psychologist and adjunct psychology professor for over 30 years, the author has had occasion to see bullying in many forms…

  16. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  17. 14 CFR 302.20 - Formal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) days prior to the hearing. (ii) A petition to intervene filed by a city, other public body, or a... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL... whose intervention will be conducive to the public interest and will not unduly delay the conduct of...

  18. Intervention Studies in Suicide Prevention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To

  19. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  20. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  1. Kids Having Kids: Models of Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Janet; Nakamura, Sharon; Caulfield, Rick

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a conceptual framework based on an ecological model for helping teenagers once they become parents. Discusses three social service programs for pregnant teens, including prevention and intervention programs and shelters, and proposes an alternative program that provides a home environment in cases in which parents no longer support…

  2. Intervention for Nonorganic Failure To Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Donna M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a variety of treatment options for infants and toddlers with nonorganic failure to thrive. Key elements of successful interventions are discussed and appropriate clinical applications are made. The need for a team approach to address the varied etiologically significant factors related to feeding difficulties is stressed.…

  3. American Sign Language and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddon, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…

  4. Design Interventions as a Form of Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Joachim; Boffi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Things could be different. This paper is about research methods that are explicitly oriented towards qualitative empirical exploration of the open-endedness of the world. In short, we propose that design interventions can be seen as a form of inquiry that is particularly relevant for investigating...

  5. Protection of staff in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkamu, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    This project focuses on the interventional radiology. The main objective of this project work was to provide a guidance and advice for occupational exposure and hospital management to optimize radiation protection safety and endorse safety culture. It provides practical information on how to minimize occupational exposure in interventional radiology. In the literature review all considerable parameters to reduce dose to the occupationally exposed are well discussed. These parameters include dose limit, risk estimation, use of dosimeter, personal dose record keeping, analysis of surveillance of occupational dose, investigation levels, and proper use of radiation protection tools and finally about scatter radiation dose rate. In addition the project discusses the ways to reduce occupational exposure in interventional radiology. The methods for dose reduction are minimizing fluoroscopic time, minimizing the number of fluoroscopic image, use of patient dose reduction technologies, use of collimation, planning interventional procedures, positioning in low scattered areas, use of protective shielding, use of appropriate fluoroscopic imaging equipment, giving training for the staff, wearing the dosimeters and know their own dose regularly, and management commitment to quality assurance and quality control system and optimization of radiation protection of safety. (author)

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  7. Personal autonomy in group-based interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve

    Marginalized individuals are often caught in a vicious cycle of economic or health problems, a lack of social connection and disempowerment. The present research examines interventions that provide opportunities for social inclusion to break this cycle. Specifically, in two longitudinal field

  8. Interventional therapy of atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Xu Ke; Xiao Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of interventional therapy for the atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion (ARAO). Methods: During the period of June 2001-Dec. 2007, 16 patients with ARAO (total of 16 occluded arteries) underwent interventional managements, including percutaneous endovascular renal artery revascularization, balloon dilatation angioplasty and stent placement. Follow-up survey was made at regular intervals. The patent condition of the renal artery was evaluated with ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography. The blood pressure and the renal function were determined and the data were statistically analyzed in order to assess the intermediate and long-term effect of the interventional therapy. Results: Of 16 patients, technical success was achieved in 15 (93.8%) and failure occurred in one. During a follow-up period of 9 - 24 months, 3 patients died. According to the data obtained at each patient's last follow-up survey, the hypertension fell to normal in 3 (25.0%), was improved in 7 (58.3%) and showed no marked change in 2 patients (16.7%), with a clinical efficacy of 83.3% (10 / 12). The renal function was improved in 2 (16.7%), stabilized in 6 (50%) and deteriorated in 4 patients (33.3%), with an effective rate of 66.7% (8 / 12). Conclusion: For the treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion, the interventional therapy carries high successful rate and can effectively lower the blood pressure level, in addition, it can also protect the renal function in a certain degree. (authors)

  9. Determining appropriate nutritional interventions for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, the nutritional status of 190 children. (3 - 6 years of age) living in Besters, ... While some principles of nutrition intervention have a universal application, each country or region needs ..... phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin 0 concentrations in a paediatric population. S Afr Med J 1978; 53: ...

  10. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

  11. Towards Creating Sustainable Ecotourism Interventions: Practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Towards Creating Sustainable Ecotourism Interventions: Practical Lessons from Mesomagoro, Ghana. Yet another respondent had this to say on the same theme: “The forest is meant for us to enjoy. Why should we keep it when we are suffering and it can help solve our problems? The money from tourism ...

  12. An Intervention to Improve Motivation for Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, Elisabeth; Gilmore, Linda

    2013-01-01

    A repeated measures design, with randomly assigned intervention and control groups and multiple sources of information on each participant, was used to examine whether changing the method of delivery of a school's homework program in order to better meet the students' needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence would lead to more positive…

  13. Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M.; Jarrige, V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

  14. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  15. Gestalt Therapy Interventions for Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passons, William R.

    1972-01-01

    The author offers a brief introduction to some of the basic tenets of Gestalt therapy, noting goals that are similar to those in counseling theories. He also suggests several interventions from Gestalt therapy to be considered for group counseling and discusses their applications. (Author)

  16. Gilles Jobin Collide@CERN - Strangels Intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregory Batardon

    2012-01-01

    STRANGELS Cie Gilles Jobin. Site specific choreographic intervention inside the CERN's library. Three strangels on a migration to another dimension rest at the CERN's library. Strangels need food for thoughts. Do not pay attention to them they are only strangels. Dancers : Ruth Childs, Susana Panadès Diaz, Gilles Jobin

  17. Intervention with the Selectively Mute Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porjes, Michelle D.

    1992-01-01

    Defines selective mutism as describing children who actively choose to speak to few people in selected environments, noting it is most commonly used to describe nonverbal behavior in school setting. Reviews literature from psychoanalytic and learning theory approaches. Presents intervention strategies used with two selectively mute first graders.…

  18. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  19. Is intercessory prayer valid nursing intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Cecily Wellelr

    2011-01-01

    Is the use of intercessory prayer (IP) in modern nursing a valid practice? As discussed in current healthcare literature, IP is controversial, with authors offering support for and against the efficacy of the practice. This article reviews IP literature and research, concluding IP is a valid intervention for Christian nurses.

  20. Transforming a small business: A learning intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-03-01

    Motivation for the study: This study explored the important role of small businesses; the role of management; and, more specifically, organisation development models that were developed for large corporations; as these emphasise the need to study the purpose of organisation development interventions in small businesses. Research design, approach and method: The study reported on in this article was a qualitative case study in a small brokers company with 21 staff members. The data were analysed manually by means of qualitative content analysis. Main findings: The main finding of the research concerned how experiential learning intervention provided a space for participants to start exploring, and gradually changing the dynamics of their small business, by transforming their business into a more formal company. Practical/managerial implications: The primary implication is that experiential learning interventions that are operationalised, from a psychodynamic perspective, can be valuable when consulted by small businesses during their transformation towards becoming more formal companies. Contribution/value-add: This article contributes to the OD literature on small businesses, with fewer than 50 employees, by providing data on how the learning process, that commenced during an experiential learning intervention, assisted a small company to develop its identity towards that of a more formal company.

  1. Dosimetry with slow films in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten, J.I.; Guibelalde, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Canevaro, L.; Ramirez, R.; Vano, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented a method for evaluation of patients doses in Interventional Radiology (RI). The method proposed in this work allows the simultaneous valoration of the product dose-area (PDA), the dose in the patient skin (DES) and the distribution of the irradiated fields, all of they together with their corresponding dose levels. The latter sometimes can be essential since the possible damages in skin depend not only of the doses, but also the irradiated area. The method has been resulted adequate for to evaluate doses to patients in Interventional Radiology procedures. It was possible to apply it as a routine form seeing that its not interfering significantly in the normal development of the medical intervention. The fundamental advantages of this dosimetric method in relation with the unique PDA measure or with the utilization of TLD is that it provide information about the total irradiated area, distribution and length of fields, collimation and wedge used besides that allow to determine the most irradiated zone. The visualization of the irradiated regions and the length fields utilized suggest the possibility to optimize the realization protocols of the interventional procedure in the cases in which it is considered that the doses have been very elevated. (Author)

  2. Apparatus for simulating a vascular interventional procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Dankelman, J.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus (1) for simulating a vascular interventional procedure, comprising a wire-like element (7) representing an instrument to be inserted into a vascular tree, which wire-like element can be received in a holder (3), and wherein a sensor (12, 13) is provided for

  3. Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...

  4. Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Sapoval, M.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1999-01-01

    Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that

  5. Exploring the dynamics of a free fruit at work intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, Amelia A.; Smith, Sarah A.; Bryant, Charlotte E.; Alinia, Sevil; Brandt, Kirsten; Seal, Chris J.; Tetens, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The workplace has been identified as an ideal setting for health interventions. However, few UK-based workplace intervention studies have been published. Fewer still focus on the practicalities and implications when running an intervention within the workplace setting. The objective of this paper was to qualitatively determine the perceived behaviour changes of participants in a free fruit at work intervention. Understanding the dynamics of a workplace intervention and est...

  6. Interventional neuroradiology of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Bernd; Zanella, Friedhelm E

    2003-08-01

    Vascular interventions are important and helpful for treatment of various pathologies of the head and neck. Interventional neuroradiology of the head and neck includes image-guided biopsies, vessel occlusion, and local chemotherapy. Knowledge of anatomy, functional relationships between intra- and extracranial vessels, and pathology are the basis for therapeutic success. The interventional neuroradiologist is responsible for appropriate selection of patients based on clinical information, indications, and risk assessment. Neuroradiologic imaging, especially CT and MR imaging, and appropriate analysis of angiographic findings help ensure indication for treatment and plan an intervention. Technical equipment, including an angiographic unit, catheters, needles, embolizing materials, and so forth, are important. Knowledge of hemodynamics is relevant to avoid complications and to find the optimal technique for solving the clinical problem. Indications for image-guided biopsies are preverterbal fluid-collections, spinal and paraspinal inflammations and abscesses, deep cervical malignancies, vertebral body, and skull base tumors. Special care should be taken to preserve critical structures in this region, including spinal nerve roots, cervical plexus, main peripheral nerves, and vessels. Indications for vessel occlusion are emergency situations to stop bleeding in vascular lesions (traumatic, malformation, or tumors) by reduction of pressure, preoperative reduction of blood flow to minimize the surgical risk, palliative occlusion of feeding vessels to produce tumor necrosis, or potential curative (or presurgical) occlusion of vascular malformations. Pressure reduction to support normal coagulation, such as epistaxis, in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can be achieved by proximal vessel occlusion with large particles or platinum coils. Prevention of intraoperative bleeding requires occlusion of the microvascular bed with small particles. Examples of these

  7. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  8. Treatment Integrity of Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" from 1999 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Dobey, Lisa M.; Gritter, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 10 years, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" has published, among other types of articles, behavioral intervention outcome studies related to positive behavior support. Operationally defining interventions is important to facilitating replication studies and adoption of intervention in applied settings. Furthermore,…

  9. Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feudtner Chris

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement and (grief combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy and (controlled or trial or design. We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group, 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group, and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group. Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups. Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1 excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2 stultifying between-study variation, 3 inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4 few published replication studies, and 5 methodological flaws of study design.

  10. Intervention strategies for reduction of infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Datta, N

    1985-01-01

    The Government of India has established the goal of a 50% reduction in the infant mortality rate by the year 2000 for the country as a whole as well as for each state and union territory. Experience has indicated that this is an achievable goal provided that the appropriate, cost-effective interventions are introduced. Choice of intervention strategies requires consideration of the contribution of various problems to overall infant mortality, the technical feasibility of various interventions within the context of primary health care, economic feasibility, and cultural acceptability. About 50% of deaths occur in the neonatal period, and the determinants of mortality in this stage differ from those in the postneonatal period. Pilot experiments have indicated that acute diarrheal disease can be reduced substantially by the use of oral rehydration solution. Neonatal tetanus is a completely preventable disease. Preventive interventions have a more limited role in the case of acute lower respiratory infections, although their diagnosis and treatment may be possible at the primary health care level. The problems of protein-energy malnutrition and low birthweight require improvements in maternal health and prenatal care, promotion of breastfeeding and child spacing, and growth monitoring. Longterm gains in this area require attention to behavioral and community development issues, including reduction of the sex and parity related differentials in mortality, enhancement of the status of women, improved female literacy and employment opportunities, improved intrafamilial food distribution patterns, maternity benefits, provision of potable water, intersectoral development to strengthen health care delivery, increased community participation, expanded health services, and enhancement of the pace of development. Pilot experiments and population-based studies carried out in 2 community development blocks in Haryana confirm the effectiveness of well thought-out interventions in

  11. Music interventions for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; Clark, Imogen; Tamplin, Jeanette; Bradt, Joke

    2017-01-20

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI. To assess the effects of music interventions for functional outcomes in people with ABI. We expanded the criteria of our existing review to: 1) examine the efficacy of music interventions in addressing recovery in people with ABI including gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, cognitive functioning, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events; 2) compare the efficacy of music interventions and standard care with a) standard care alone, b) standard care and placebo treatments, or c) standard care and other therapies; 3) compare the efficacy of different types of music interventions (music therapy delivered by trained music therapists versus music interventions delivered by other professionals). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015), Embase (1980 to June 2015), CINAHL (1982 to June 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2015), LILACS (1982 to January 2016), and AMED (1985 to June 2015). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted relevant experts and music therapy associations to identify unpublished research. We imposed no language restriction. We performed the original search in 2009. We included all randomised controlled trials

  12. Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Suzanne H; Anderson, Lindsey; Jenkinson, Caroline E; Whalley, Ben; Rees, Karen; Davies, Philippa; Bennett, Paul; Liu, Zulian; West, Robert; Thompson, David R; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-04-28

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death globally, although mortality rates are falling. Psychological symptoms are prevalent for people with CHD, and many psychological treatments are offered following cardiac events or procedures with the aim of improving health and outcomes. This is an update of a Cochrane systematic review previously published in 2011. To assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions (alone or with cardiac rehabilitation) compared with usual care (including cardiac rehabilitation where available) for people with CHD on total mortality and cardiac mortality; cardiac morbidity; and participant-reported psychological outcomes of levels of depression, anxiety, and stress; and to explore potential study-level predictors of the effectiveness of psychological interventions in this population. We updated the previous Cochrane Review searches by searching the following databases on 27 April 2016: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), and CINAHL (EBSCO). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions compared to usual care, administered by trained staff, and delivered to adults with a specific diagnosis of CHD. We selected only studies estimating the independent effect of the psychological component, and with a minimum follow-up of six months. The study population comprised of adults after: a myocardial infarction (MI), a revascularisation procedure (coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), and adults with angina or angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). RCTs had to report at least one of the following outcomes: mortality (total- or cardiac-related); cardiac morbidity (MI, revascularisation procedures); or participant-reported levels of depression, anxiety, or stress. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of all references for eligibility. A lead review author

  13. Technology-based interventions in social work practice: a systematic review of mental health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.

  14. Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    intervention.html?itemid=id#591 (accessed December 14, 2011). 57 Blake Hounshell, “6 ways the U.S. has faltered on Syria.”, CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2012/03...Syrian rebels and 64% state that the U.S. has no responsibility to engage in Syria. Sara Sorcher, Pew: Majority of Americans Don’t Support Intervention...Intervention, ed. J.L. Holzgreve and Robert O. Keohane, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (2003). Hounshell, Blake . “6 ways the U.S. has faltered on

  15. Theory-based interventions for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Chen, Mario; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Stockton, Laurie L

    2016-11-23

    The explicit use of theory in research helps expand the knowledge base. Theories and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, many educational interventions addressing contraception have no explicit theoretical base. To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested a theoretical approach to inform contraceptive choice and encourage or improve contraceptive use. To 1 November 2016, we searched for trials that tested a theory-based intervention for improving contraceptive use in PubMed, CENTRAL, POPLINE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. For the initial review, we wrote to investigators to find other trials. Included trials tested a theory-based intervention for improving contraceptive use. Interventions addressed the use of one or more methods for contraception. The reports provided evidence that the intervention was based on a specific theory or model. The primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraceptive choice or use. We assessed titles and abstracts identified during the searches. One author extracted and entered the data into Review Manager; a second author verified accuracy. We examined studies for methodological quality.For unadjusted dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cluster randomized trials used various methods of accounting for the clustering, such as multilevel modeling. Most reports did not provide information to calculate the effective sample size. Therefore, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. We did not conduct meta-analysis due to varied interventions and outcome measures. We included 10 new trials for a total of 25. Five were conducted outside the USA. Fifteen randomly assigned individuals and 10 randomized clusters. This section focuses on nine trials with high or

  16. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  17. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. Selection criteria All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56). Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the

  18. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-05-05

    Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56).Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the nature of the interventions provided, participant blinding was not possible, and reports of

  19. Evolving deltas: Conceptualising coevolution with engineered interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy; Nicholls, Robert; Lazar, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Mid to low latitude deltas have been populated for thousands of years due to their fertile soil and coastal location. This has led to an alteration in the land cover of deltas to primary agriculture and dense rural settlements and more recently, major cities and megacities have developed on or adjacent to many deltas. Deltas may be prosperous in terms of their outputs and services; however, they are also susceptible to many hazards due to their location and low-lying nature. Hazards include storm surges, fluvial flooding and erosion of both coastal and riverine areas, as well as subsidence, relative sea-level rise and pollution. This can have severe impacts on the delta, its population and its services. Therefore engineered interventions have been used for some time to protect the population and the valuable land from the consequences of hazards. Coevolution can be described as a feedback loop between nature and humans: each has an effect on how the other behaves and hence this inter-dependence interaction continues. Therefore the natural evolution of the delta interacts with engineered interventions, such as promoting accelerated subsidence over time, necessitating further adaptation. The deltaic landscape and associated livelihoods are thus the result of this co-evolution process between natural delta processes and engineered interventions. This presentation will identify and discuss various drivers and consequences of large scale engineered interventions, comparing and contrasting the management approaches taken in five populated deltas (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Yangtze, Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt, Mekong and Nile). The type of engineered intervention and management approaches had a direct effect on the coevolution of deltas, with each of the deltas being at different stages in terms of extent of coevolution. A qualitative timeline of the typical steps of coevolution between the human system and the delta system of the studied deltas was produced. The major

  20. Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sohni V; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food

  1. Interventions for treating post-extraction bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbargere Nagraj, Sumanth; Prashanti, Eachempati; Aggarwal, Himanshi; Lingappa, Ashok; Muthu, Murugan S; Kiran Kumar Krishanappa, Salian; Hassan, Haszelini

    2018-03-04

    Post-extraction bleeding (PEB) is a recognised, frequently encountered complication in dental practice, which is defined as bleeding that continues beyond 8 to 12 hours after dental extraction. The incidence of post-extraction bleeding varies from 0% to 26%. If post-extraction bleeding is not managed, complications can range from soft tissue haematomas to severe blood loss. Local causes of bleeding include soft tissue and bone bleeding. Systemic causes include platelet problems, coagulation disorders or excessive fibrinolysis, and inherited or acquired problems (medication induced). There is a wide array of techniques suggested for the treatment of post-extraction bleeding, which include interventions aimed at both local and systemic causes. This is an update of a review published in June 2016. To assess the effects of interventions for treating different types of post-extraction bleeding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 24 January 2018), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 24 January 2018), Embase Ovid (1 May 2015 to 24 January 2018) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 24 January 2018). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. We searched the reference lists of relevant systematic reviews. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any intervention for treating PEB, with male or female participants of any age, regardless of type of teeth (anterior or posterior, mandibular or maxillary). Trials could compare one type of intervention with another, with placebo, or with no treatment. Three pairs of review authors independently screened search records. We obtained full papers for potentially relevant trials. If data had been extracted

  2. Increasing access to psychosocial interventions for alcohol use disorders: Home based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a significant and growing public health problem in India. However, health services for AUD remain largely confined to large institutions and a significant proportion of people with AUD do not having access to help for their alcohol related problems. One way of changing this status quo is making evidence based psychosocial interventions available in communities and closer to people's homes. There is extensive evidence supporting the effectiveness of a range of psychosocial interventions for AUDs. This is further augmented by the growing evidence for the effectiveness of contextually appropriate psychosocial interventions, such as Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP) from India, that are designed to increase access to care through delivery by non-specialist health workers. The effective implementation of such interventions integrated into collaborative care models will go a long way in reducing the treatment gap for AUDs in India.

  3. Improving child survival through environmental and nutritional interventions: the importance of targeting interventions toward the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Oza, Shefali; Vidal Fuertes, Cecilia; Li, Amy Y; Lee, Diana K; Sousa, Angelica; Hogan, Margaret C; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Ezzati, Majid

    2007-10-24

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set targets related to important global poverty, health, and sustainability issues. A critical but underinvestigated question for planning and allocating resources toward the MDGs is how interventions related to one MDG might affect progress toward other goals. To estimate the reduction in child mortality as a result of interventions related to the environmental and nutritional MDGs (improving child nutrition and providing clean water, sanitation, and fuels) and to estimate how the magnitude and distribution of the effects of interventions vary based on the economic status of intervention recipients. Population-level comparative risk assessment modeling the mortality effects of interventions on child nutrition and environmental risk factors, stratified by economic status. Data on economic status, child underweight, water and sanitation, and household fuels were from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys for 42 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Data on disease-specific child mortality were from the World Health Organization. Data on the hazardous effects of each MDG-related risk factor were from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. Child mortality, stratified by comparable international quintiles of economic status. Implementing interventions that improve child nutrition and provide clean water and sanitation and clean household fuels to all children younger than 5 years would result in an estimated annual reduction in child deaths of 49,700 (14%) in Latin America and the Caribbean, 0.80 million (24%) in South Asia, and 1.47 million (31%) in sub-Saharan Africa. These benefits are equivalent to 30% to 48% of the current regional gaps toward the MDG target on reducing child mortality. Fifty percent coverage of the same environmental and nutritional interventions, as envisioned by the MDGs, would reduce child

  4. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  5. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  6. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  7. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  8. Effects of screening and brief intervention training on resident and faculty alcohol intervention behaviours: a pre- post-intervention assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okosun IS

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many hazardous and harmful drinkers do not receive clinician advice to reduce their drinking. Previous studies suggest under-detection and clinician reluctance to intervene despite awareness of problem drinking (PD. The Healthy Habits Project previously reported chart review data documenting increased screening and intervention with hazardous and harmful drinkers after training clinicians and implementing routine screening. This report describes the impact of the Healthy Habits training program on clinicians' rates of identification of PD, level of certainty in identifying PD and the proportion of patients given advice to reduce alcohol use, based on self-report data using clinician exit questionnaires. Methods 28 residents and 10 faculty in a family medicine residency clinic completed four cycles of clinician exit interview questionnaires before and after screening and intervention training. Rates of identifying PD, level of diagnostic certainty, and frequency of advice to reduce drinking were compared across intervention status (pre vs. post. Findings were compared with rates of PD and advice to reduce drinking documented on chart review. Results 1,052 clinician exit questionnaires were collected. There were no significant differences in rates of PD identified before and after intervention (9.8% vs. 7.4%, p = .308. Faculty demonstrated greater certainty in PD diagnoses than residents (p = .028 and gave more advice to reduce drinking (p = .042 throughout the program. Faculty and residents reported higher levels of diagnostic certainty after training (p = .039 and .030, respectively. After training, residents showed greater increases than faculty in the percentage of patients given advice to reduce drinking (p = .038, and patients felt to be problem drinkers were significantly more likely to receive advice to reduce drinking by all clinicians (50% vs. 75%, p = .047. The number of patients receiving advice to reduce drinking

  9. Interventions after screening for hearing difficulties: a retrospective investigation of interventions other than hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafydd Stephens

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies on screening of hearing in adult populations. Despite the high importance of interventions following screening for hearing (Wilson and Jungner, 1968 there is a dearth of information on the nature of interventions following such screening, other than hearing aid fitting (HA or referral to audiology/ENT departments (Pronk et al., 2011. In the late 1980s and early 1990s four studies were performed in Wales, which offered such other interventions to those individuals indicating hearing disabilities in screening questionnaires (eg Stephens et al., 1990; Davis et al., 1992. The majority of the patient notes from these studies were still accessible and have been examined to extract the following information: - what interventions were used other than hearing aids? - who received these interventions? - would they have been more appropriate than HAs for some of those fitted? The aim of this paper is to list the interventions provided in these studies and relate them to the initial complaints of those indicating hearing problems.

  10. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and ECB Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between credit risk and liquidity in the sovereign bond market in the context of the European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Using comprehensive set of liquidity measures obtained from a detailed, quote-level dataset for the largest interdealer market...... for Italian government bonds, we show that changes in credit risk, as measured by the credit default swap (CDS) spread, generally drive the liquidity of the market. The relationship is stronger and tighter when the CDS spread is above 500 basis points. This threshold was estimated endogenously and can...... be ascribed mainly to changes in margins and collateral. Moreover, we show that the long-term refinancing operations (LTRO) intervention by the ECB weakened the sensitivity of the liquidity provision by the market makers to changes in the Italian government's credit risk, by providing them with vastly...

  11. Active electronic personal dosemeter in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Vucic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed active electronic personal dosemeter (AEPD) was utilised in order to measure the levels and the structure of occupational exposure to scattered X-ray radiation of medical staff who performed percutaneous revascularisation therapy that involves interventional radiology (IR) on the pelvis and upper leg arteries. The AEPDs, placed on the operators' and assistants' chests, that is, above the protective apron, continuously measured and recorded the received doses and, as a novelty, dose rates as a function of time, thus yielding a unique record of occupational doses and dose rates pattern at the working place. This paper presents and discusses one typical daily pattern in which seven percutaneous interventions were performed. (authors)

  12. Reliability and Intervention Management for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; Richard Cook, J; Coupard, J; Daudin, B; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Reguero Fuentes, E; Garino, C; Golikov, K; Grillot, S; Richard Jaekel, M; Sollander, P

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010, CERN has entered a mode of continuous operation of the LHC and its injectors, which implies the continuous operation of all the infrastructure and support systems. High reliability of the machines is crucial to meet the physics goals. This high reliability must be accompanied by a fast restart after programmed stops. Since 2010, an important effort has been put in place, to ease the coordination process during the programmed stops and to reinforce the management of the interventions (preparation, approval, follow-up, traceability, closure). This paper describes the difficulties from the first year related to this coordination, and the impact on operation. The tools developed for the management of the interventions, their assets and the effect on the reliability of the LHC will also be presented and discussed.

  13. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    . The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. RESULTS: Compared with day workers, shift...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...... workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership...

  14. The interventional therapy of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changcen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of chronic lung abscess by interventional therapy under CT guidance. Methods: The group consisted of 12 patients. Firstly, the positions of abscess were localized by CT, secondly under CT guidance puncturing into the abscess with a needle and then thirdly, drain aging through the abscess and injecting some antibiotics through the needle. The treatment consisted by 16 times with an average drawing volume out 10-100 ml, during 18-28 days as a course. All patients were cured. Conclusion: The interventional therapy under CT guidance for chronic lung abscess can increase the therapeutic effect, decrease the course of treatment and avoid the operation. Therefore, it is a safe, simple and convenient method

  15. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...... policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities....

  16. Brief cognitive interventions for burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythronthwaite, J A; Lawrence, J W; Fauerbach, J A

    2001-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of 2 brief cognitive interventions in supplementing regular medical treatment for pain during burn dressing change. Forty-two burn inpatients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sensory focusing, music distraction, and usual care. Patients reported pain, pain relief satisfaction with pain control, and pain coping strategies. The sensory focusing group reported greater pain relief compared to the music distraction group and a reduction in remembered pain compared to the usual care group, although group differences were not observed on serial pain ratings. In addition, after controlling for burn size and relevant covariates, regression analyses indicated that catastrophizing predicted pain, memory for pain, and satisfaction with pain control. Refinement of the sensory focusing intervention is warranted to reduce catastrophic thinking and improve pain relief

  17. A motivational intervention for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawendowski, L A

    1998-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief psychotherapeutic intervention to increase the likelihood of a client's considering, initiating, and maintaining specific change strategies to reduce harmful behavior. MI is founded on principles of motivational psychology, client-centered therapy, and stages of change in natural recovery from addiction. Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) embeds MI within a structured format of standardized intake assessment, personalized feedback of testing results, and follow-up interview to facilitate treatment outcome evaluation. This paper presents research evidence for the efficacy of MET, a description of the methods and goals of MI counseling approach, and the rationale for MET as an appropriate brief intervention for adolescents. Specific recommendations for application of MI to adolescent smokers are offered. Copyright 1998 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  18. Psychiatric interventions for AIDS-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S W; Markowitz, J

    1986-10-01

    Although the medical and psychosocial problems posed by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are unique, interventions to treat AIDS-related psychiatric disorders are currently available. The depression, delirium, and denial that occur in medically hospitalized patients with AIDS respond to standard psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological approaches. Outpatients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex benefit from clarification, abreaction, and support if the therapist accepts the regression associated with the sick role, focuses initially on somatic rather than on psychological concerns, and overcomes unwarranted fears of contagion. Patients with AIDS-related dementia are helped considerably by early diagnosis and planning, and patients with antibodies to the AIDS virus require a psycho-educational approach that includes stress inoculation and problem-solving techniques. The authors describe the above interventions as well as common countertransference responses that impede their implementation.

  19. Interventional Sialography: A Single-Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Roger P.; Whyte, Andrew M.; Lui, Chok L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate interventional sialography for the treatment of chronic recurrent sialadenitis due to calculus and/or stricture. Methods: We performed a retrospective review and follow-up of 12 patients treated over a 3-year period. The techniques for calculus extraction by papillotomy and basket extraction, and stricture dilatation by a combination of predilation with lacrimal dilators and then angioplasty balloons are described and the literature is reviewed. Results: Follow-up of 1-40 months (mean 14.6 months) showed that 7 of 12 patients remained symptom free and 2 others became asymptomatic after an interval. There were no major complications from the procedure. Conclusion: Interventional sialography is a safe and acceptable alternative to surgery and can be considered as first-line therapy for symptomatic salivary duct calculus and stricture

  20. Radiation monitoring in interventional cardiology: a requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T.; Uruchurtu, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of procedures using fluoroscopy in interventional cardiology procedures may increase medical and patients to levels of radiation that manifest in unintended outcomes. Such outcomes may include skin injury and cancer. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and they receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Mexico does not have a formal policy for monitoring and recording the radiation dose delivered in hemodynamic establishments. Deterministic risk management can be improved by monitoring the radiation delivered from X-ray devices. The objective of this paper is to provide cardiologist, techniques, nurses, and all medical staff an information on DR levels, about X-ray risks and a simple a reliable method to control cumulative dose.

  1. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful research method that potentially allows identification of the mechanisms through which treatments affect patient outcomes. This chapter reviews the theoretical framework, research designs and statistical approaches used in mediation analysis. It describes what can...... be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...... evidence about the role of some psychological factors as potential treatment mediators, such as self-efficacy and catastrophising. Mediation analysis can equally be applied to non-psychological factors. Pre-planned and appropriately conducted mediation analysis in adequately powered clinical trials would...

  2. Patient and staff doses in interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.; Cekirge, S.; Tuerkay, T.; Turan, O.; Guelay, M.; Oenal, E.; Cil, B.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation doses for interventional examinations are generally high and therefore necessitate dose monitoring for patients and staff. Relating the staff dose to a patient dose index, such as dose-area product (DAP), could be quite useful for dose comparisons. In this study, DAP and skin doses of 57 patients, who underwent neuro-interventional examinations, were measured simultaneously with staff doses. Although skin doses were comparable with the literature data, higher DAP values of 215 and 188.6 Gy cm 2 were measured for the therapeutical cerebral and carotid examinations, respectively, owing to the use of biplane system and complexity of the procedure. Mean staff doses for eye, finger and thyroid were measured as 80.6, 77.6 and 28.8 μGy per procedure. The mean effective dose per procedure for the radiologists was 32 μSv. In order to allow better comparisons to be made, DAP normalised doses were also presented. (authors)

  3. Good clinical practice in clinical interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Herman; Diamant, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines should always be implemented and obeyed in clinical interventional studies. In this mini-review, we will address several burning questions relating to GCP in a concise 'frequently asked questions' format. While compliance to current rules and regulations is our mission, we also wish to play devil's advocate attempting to translate the rules into sizeable chunks using a high dose of common sense.

  4. Teacher Implementation of an Adolescent Reading Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines teacher implementation of an adolescent literacy intervention with a coaching component, guided by questions about fidelity of implementation (FoI) and curriculum adaptation. In the first of two studies, I used data from observations of teachers (n=17) in nine schools during the 2013-14 school year to conduct a nuanced descriptive analysis of FoI. I also analyzed weekly logs completed by literacy coaches (n=3) to examine variation in quantity and intensity of coachi...

  5. Integrating intervention targets offered by homeostatic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Marks presents "homeostatic theory" which proposes that weight gain is fostered by a "Circle of Discontent" consisting of body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and overconsumption. This innovative framework offers potential intervention approaches, including victim-blaming, stigma, and discrimination, as well as devalorizing the thin-ideal. Our article discusses possible ways that clinical health psychologists based in university settings may be uniquely positioned to consider and implement large-scale programs that have shown great promise for addressing these core issues.

  6. [Evaluation of patient doses in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropolo, R; Rampado, O; Isoardi, P; Gandini, G; Rabbia, C; Righi, D

    2001-01-01

    To verify the suitability of indicative quantities to evaluate the risk related to patient exposure, in abdominal and vascular interventional radiology, by the study of correlations between dosimetric quantities and other indicators. We performed in vivo measurements of entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) during 48 procedures to evaluate the correlation among dosimetric quantities, and an estimation of spatial distribution of exposure and effective dose (E). To measure DAP we used a transmission ionization chamber and to evaluate ESD and its spatial distribution we used radiographic film packed in a single envelope and placed near the patient's skin. E was estimated by a calculation software using data from film digitalisation. From the data derived for measurements in 27 interventional procedures on 48 patients we obtained a DAP to E conversion factor of 0.15 mSv / Gy cm2, with an excellent correlation (r=.99). We also found a good correlation between DAP and exposure parameters such as fluoroscopy time and number of images. The greatest effective dose was evaluated for a multiple procedure in the hepatic region, with a DAP value of 425 Gy cm2. The greatest ESD was about 550 mGy. For groups of patients undergoing similar interventional procedures the correlation between ESD and DAP had conversion factors from 6 to 12 mGy Gy-1 cm-2. The evaluation of ESD and E by slow films represents a valid method for patient dosimetry in interventional radiology. The good correlation between DAP and fluoroscopy time and number of images confirm the suitability of these indicators as basic dosimetric information. All the ESD values found are lower than threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  7. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  8. Renal artery intervention utilizing carbon dioxide angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Afsar, Baris; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide angiography is an established non-nephrotoxic option for imaging of the infradiaphragmatic arteries and veins. Safe performance of the technique once required a somewhat cumbersome system, however, recent innovations have simplified implementation and expanded the user base for this technique. As such, patient access has also increased. In this issue, Hameed et al. provide initial feasibility data regarding carbon dioxide angiography and renal denervation therapy. This experience may be translated into future renovascular interventions in patients with limited renal reserve.

  9. The priority intervention group in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After the storm of december 1999 in France, RTE defined and implemented a GIP, Group of Priority Intervention to manage such crisis and intervene more rapidly. A crisis drill has been organised the first of February 2001 to repair high voltage electric lines. The document presents the drill and analyses the results. Some information on the RTE missions and management facing the electric power market deregulation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol , brief intervention, military personnel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...ORGANIZATION: Research Triangle Institute Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 – 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND

  11. Contrast media properties in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laerum, F.; Enge, I.

    1989-01-01

    Potential hazards of the use of contrast media (CM) in interventional radiology are analyzed by looking into each procedure regarding interactions of CM with pharmaceutical additives, with technical equipment possibly affecting CM stability, and special local or systemic demands related to the procedure. Also the impact of these factors upon the physiological mechanisms are taken into account. (H.W.). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Interventions for motor apraxia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C; Bowen, A; Hesketh, A; Vail, A

    2008-01-23

    Apraxia is a cognitive disorder that can occur after stroke. It prevents a person from carrying out a learned movement. Various interventions are used to treat apraxia but evidence of their benefit has been lacking. To determine which therapeutic interventions targeted at motor apraxia reduce disability. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2006). In addition, we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2006), CINAHL (1982 to November 2006), PsycINFO (1974 to November 2006), the Research Index of the Occupational Therapy Journal (searched November 2006), REHABDATA (1956 to November 2006), the National Research Register (searched November 2006) and Current Controlled Trials Register (searched November 2006). We reviewed the reference lists of all articles that we identified as relevant. We made efforts to find both published and unpublished trials by writing to key authors and journals. Randomised controlled trials of therapeutic intervention for motor apraxia in stroke. One review author searched the titles, abstracts and keywords. Four review authors extracted data and analysed trial quality. We contacted investigators for further details of trials if necessary. Three trials including a total of 132 participants were included in the review. There was evidence of a small and short-lived therapeutic effect in the two studies that reported change in activities of daily living (102 participants) but this was not considered clinically significant and did not persist at the longer-term follow up. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of specific therapeutic interventions for motor apraxia after stroke. Further research of higher quality is required. As we did not review whether patients with apraxia benefit from rehabilitation input in general, they

  13. From Family Therapy to Family Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Allan M

    2015-07-01

    For many, family therapy refers to sessions in which all family members are present. Yet in contemporary psychiatry there are many ways to work with families in addition to this classic concept. This article proposes family intervention as an encompassing term for a new family paradigm in child and adolescent psychiatry. Developmental psychopathology is a guiding principle of this paradigm. A full range of ways to work with families clinically is described with clinical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of a community playground intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Robin; Reeder, Anthony Ivor; Gray, Andrew; Holt, Alec; Waters, Debra

    2012-02-01

    This study assessed whether an upgrade of playgrounds in a community was associated with changes in the physical activity of local children. The study used a natural experiment design with a local authority project to upgrade two community playgrounds as the intervention and a matched control community. Children's physical activity was measured by an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer worn for 8 days, enabling up to 6 days of data to be analyzed. A self-administered parent/guardian questionnaire was used to collect additional data, including perceptions of the neighborhood, school-travel modes, days involved in extracurricular activities, ethnicity, caregiver age, caregiver sex, household vehicle access, and household income. At baseline, 184 children (5-10 years old) participated. Of these, 156 completed the 1-year follow-up assessment (20% lost to follow-up). There was statistically significant evidence that change in mean total daily physical activity was associated with on an interaction between participant's body mass index (BMI) z-score and her or his community of residence (p = 0.006), with the intervention being associated with higher levels of activity for children with lower BMIs but lower levels for children with higher BMIs. Physical activity is not the only focus of local authority playground provision as playgrounds also have benefits for social development and fundamental movement skills. However, making sure that physical activity is always included in the design rationale and that playgrounds are designed to encourage and sustain physical activity could be a useful population health intervention. The effects of such interventions on different subgroups are of importance, especially if the effects differ over levels of BMI.

  15. Monetary Stabilization, Intervention and Real Appreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This paper investigates the adjustment process to a reduction in the rate of credit creation in an open, flexible exchange rate economy. The framework of analysis is one of rational expectations with respect to interest rates, inflation and depreciation. The special feature of the model is the role of exchange market intervention and the resulting endogeneity of the money stock. The model is of empirical interest because of the growing experience in countries such as Israel, Spain or Argentin...

  16. Interventional radiology to treat severe obstetric hemorrhages

    OpenAIRE

    Lippi, Umberto Gazi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The author discusses the recent role of interventional radiology to prevent postpartum hemorrhagic complications that represent an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality all over the world. Hence, hemorrhage control is mandatory. Traditional management and recent minimally invasive radiological procedures by means of inserting occluding balloons into appropriate vessels are analyzed. It is advisable that maternity hospitals have protocols for the management of obstetric ...

  17. Social intervention: supporting success, guiding desistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Andrew John

    2013-01-01

    Education, training and employment (ETE) are considered of great importance to desistance from crime and the rehabilitation of the offender (Clarke, 2010; Farrall, 2002; SEU: 2002). This study sets out to investigate the use and success of such an intervention in a local Probation Trust area, with a convenience sample drawn from a population of adult offenders (aged 18 years+). It makes use of a triangulation (mixed) methodology conducted through a series of assisted questionnaires undertaken...

  18. Megacities and the Proposed Urban Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    lived in slums or settlements where land is occupied illegally.58 Alongside these statistics, 90% of new settlements in Sub - Saharan Africa , in...government and expansive poverty could create the most challenging of environments for some of the best trained and most advanced militaries in the world...steps and sub -steps in detail. Chapter IV uses the UIM to plan a TSOC-led intervention into a fictitious megacity—Cairene—following an earthquake. It

  19. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation often causes major distress and anxiety in patients. The sensation of breathlessness, frequent suctioning, inability to talk, uncertainty regarding surroundings or condition, discomfort, isolation from others, and fear contribute to high levels of anxiety. Side effects of analgesia and sedation may lead to the prolongation of mechanical ventilation and, subsequently, to a longer length of hospitalization and increased cost. Therefore, non-pharmacological interventions should be considered for anxiety and stress management. Music interventions have been used to reduce anxiety and distress and improve physiological functioning in medical patients; however, their efficacy for mechanically ventilated patients needs to be evaluated. This review was originally published in 2010 and was updated in 2014. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of music therapy or music medicine interventions (as defined by the authors) on anxiety and other outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. Specifically, the following objectives are addressed in this review.1. To conduct a meta-analysis to compare the effects of participation in standard care combined with music therapy or music medicine interventions with standard care alone.2. To compare the effects of patient-selected music with researcher-selected music.3. To compare the effects of different types of music interventions (e.g., music therapy versus music medicine). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2014), CINAHL (1980 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), PsycINFO (1967 to March 2014), LILACS (1982 to March 2014), Science Citation Index (1980 to March 2014), www.musictherapyworld.net (1 March 2008) (database is no longer functional), CAIRSS for Music (to March 2014), Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to March 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2000 to March 2014), Current

  20. Anesthesia Practices for Interventional Radiology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vari, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.vari@uniroma1.it [University La Sapienza, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine (Italy); Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Les Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Chef de Pôle, Imagerie (France)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeThe Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) prompted an initiative to frame the current European status of anesthetic practices for interventional radiology, in consideration of the current variability of IR suite settings, staffing and anesthetic practices reported in the literature and of the growing debate on sedation administered by non-anesthesiologists, in Europe.MethodsAnonymous online survey available to all European CIRSE members to assess IR setting, demographics, peri-procedural care, anesthetic management, resources and staffing, pain management, data collection, safety, management of emergencies and personal opinions on the role CIRSE should have in promoting anesthetic care for interventional radiology.ResultsPredictable differences between countries and national regulations were confirmed, showing how significantly many “local” factors (type and size of centers, the availability of dedicated inpatient bed, availability of anesthesia staff) can affect the routine practice and the expansion of IR as a subspecialty. In addition, the perception of the need for IR to acquire more sedation-related skills is definitely stronger for those who practice with the lowest availability of anesthesia care.ConclusionSignificant country variations and regulations along with a controversial position of the anesthesia community on the issue of sedation administered by non-anesthesiologists substantially represent the biggest drawbacks for the expansion of peri-procedural anesthetic care for IR and for potential initiatives at an European level.