WorldWideScience

Sample records for interventions translating research

  1. The Role of Integrated Knowledge Translation in Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread recognition across the full range of applied research disciplines, including health and social services, about the challenges of integrating scientifically derived research evidence into policy and/or practice decisions. These "disconnects" or "knowledge-practice gaps" between research production and use have spawned a new research field, most commonly known as either "implementation science" or "knowledge translation." The present paper will review key concepts in this area, with a particular focus on "integrated knowledge translation" (IKT)-which focuses on researcher-knowledge user partnership-in the area of mental health and prevention of violence against women and children using case examples from completed and ongoing work. A key distinction is made between the practice of KT (disseminating, communicating, etc.), and the science of KT, i.e., research regarding effective KT approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance of IKT for mental health intervention research with children and adolescents.

  2. Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E

    2002-09-01

    Scientific advances in the field of emotions suggest a framework for conceptualizing the emotion-related aspects of prevention programs that aim to enhance children's socioemotional competence and prevent the emergence of behavior problems and psychopathology. A conception of emotions as inherently adaptive and motivational and the related empirical evidence from several disciplines and specialities suggest 7 principles for developing preventive interventions: the utilization of positive and negative emotions, emotion modulation as a mediator of emotion utilization, emotion patterns in states and traits, different processes of emotion activation, emotion communication in early life, and the development of connections for the modular and relatively independent emotions and cognitive systems. Each principle's practical implications and application in current prevention programs are discussed.

  3. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  4. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START): study protocol to assess knowledge translation interventions in continuing care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S; Eliasziw, Misha

    2013-10-26

    Bridging the research-practice gap is an important research focus in continuing care facilities, because the population of older adults (aged 65 years and over) requiring continuing care services is the fastest growing demographic among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unlicensed practitioners, known as health care aides, provide the majority of care for residents living in continuing care facilities. However, little research examines how to sustain health care aide behavior change following initial adoption of current research evidence. We will conduct a phase III, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a stratified 2 × 2 additive factorial design, including an embedded process evaluation, in 24 supportive living facilities within the health zone of Edmonton, AB, Canada. We will determine which combination of frequency and intensity of reminders most effectively sustains the completion of the sit-to-stand activity by health care aides with residents. Frequency refers to how often a reminder is implemented; intensity refers to whether a reminder is social or paper-based. We will compare monthly reminders with reminders implemented every 3 months, and we will compare low intensity, paper-based reminders and high intensity reminders provided by a health care aide peer.Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations, Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START) will evaluate the processes that inhibit or promote the mobility innovation's sustainability among health care aides in daily practice. We will examine how the reminders are implemented and perceived by health care aides and licensed practical nurses, as well as how health care aides providing peer reminders are identified, received by their peers, and supported by their supervisors. START will connect up-to-date innovation research with the practice of health care aides providing direct care to a growing population

  7. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-12-06

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability

  8. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  9. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  10. Translating genetic research into preventive intervention: The baseline target moderated mediator design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Howe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  11. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  12. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  13. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  14. Translating Measures of Biological Aging to Test Effectiveness of Geroprotective Interventions: What Can We Learn from Research on Telomeres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waylon J. Hastings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention studies in animals suggest molecular changes underlying age-related disease and disability can be slowed or reversed. To speed translation of these so-called “geroprotective” therapies to prevent age-related disease and disability in humans, biomarkers are needed that can track changes in the rate of human aging over the course of intervention trials. Algorithm methods that measure biological processes of aging from combinations of DNA methylation marks or clinical biomarkers show promise. To identify next steps for establishing utility of these algorithm-based measures of biological aging for geroprotector trials, we considered the history a candidate biomarker of aging that has received substantial research attention, telomere length. Although telomere length possesses compelling biology to recommend it as a biomarker of aging, mixed research findings have impeded clinical and epidemiologic translation. Strengths of telomeres that should be established for algorithm biomarkers of aging are correlation with chronological age across the lifespan, prediction of disease, disability, and early death, and responsiveness to risk and protective exposures. Key challenges in telomere research that algorithm biomarkers of aging must address are measurement precision and reliability, establishing links between longitudinal rates of change across repeated measurements and aging outcomes, and clarity over whether the biomarker is a causal mechanism of aging. These strengths and challenges suggest a research agenda to advance translation of algorithm-based aging biomarkers: establish validity in young-adult and midlife individuals; test responsiveness to exposures that shorten or extend healthy lifespan; and conduct repeated-measures longitudinal studies to test differential rates of change.

  15. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  16. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  17. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

  18. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

  19. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  20. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  1. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  2. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  3. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  4. Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944

  5. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  6. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  7. Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy intervention: an experiment in translational developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M; Brown, Joshua L; Lawrence Aber, J

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to ongoing scholarship at the nexus of translational research, education reform, and the developmental and prevention sciences. It reports 2-year experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development on children's social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The study employed a school-randomized, experimental design with 1,184 children in 18 elementary schools. Children in the intervention schools showed improvements across several domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, and depression, and teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior. In addition, there were effects of the intervention on children's math and reading achievement for those identified by teachers at baseline at highest behavioral risk. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental cascades theory and lend support to the value of universal, integrated interventions in the elementary school period for promoting children's social-emotional and academic skills. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  9. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  10. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  11. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  13. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  14. Toward a Framework for Translational Research in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…

  15. The effect of a translating research into practice intervention to promote use of evidence-based fall prevention interventions in hospitalized adults: A prospective pre-post implementation study in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret A; Ripley, Robert; Tsodikov, Alex; Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Falls are a major public health problem internationally. Many hospitals have implemented fall risk assessment tools, but few have implemented interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Little research has been done to examine the effect of implementing evidence-based fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors in hospitalized adults. To evaluate the impact of implementing, in 3 U.S. hospitals, evidence-based fall prevention interventions targeted to patient-specific fall risk factors (Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle). Fall rates, fall injury rates, types of fall injuries and adoption of the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle were compared prior to and following implementation. A prospective pre-post implementation cohort design. Thirteen adult medical-surgical units from three community hospitals in the Midwest region of the U.S. Nurses who were employed at least 20hours/week, provided direct patient care, and licensed as an RN (n=157 pre; 140 post); and medical records of patients 21years of age or older, who received care on the study unit for more than 24hours during the designated data collection period (n=390 pre and post). A multi-faceted Translating Research Into Practice Intervention was used to implement the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle composed of evidence-based fall prevention interventions designed to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Dependent variables (fall rates, fall injury rates, fall injury type, use of Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle) were collected at baseline, and following completion of the 15month implementation phase. Nurse questionnaires included the Stage of Adoption Scale, and the Use of Research Findings in Practice Scale to measure adoption of evidence-based fall prevention practices. A Medical Record Abstract Form was used to abstract data about use of targeted risk-specific fall prevention interventions. Number of falls, and number and

  16. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...

  17. Fidelity considerations in translational research: Eating As Treatment - a stepped wedge, randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison Kate; Baker, Amanda; Britton, Ben; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Wolfenden, Luke; Carter, Gregory

    2015-10-15

    The confidence with which researchers can comment on intervention efficacy relies on evaluation and consideration of intervention fidelity. Accordingly, there have been calls to increase the transparency with which fidelity methodology is reported. Despite this, consideration and/or reporting of fidelity methods remains poor. We seek to address this gap by describing the methodology for promoting and facilitating the evaluation of intervention fidelity in The EAT (Eating As Treatment) project: a multi-site stepped wedge randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention to improve nutrition (primary outcome) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. In accordance with recommendations from the National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup, we sought to maximise fidelity in this stepped wedge randomised controlled trial via strategies implemented from study design through to provider training, intervention delivery and receipt. As the EAT intervention is designed to be incorporated into standard dietetic consultations, we also address unique challenges for translational research. We offer a strong model for improving the quality of translational findings via real world application of National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium recommendations. Greater transparency in the reporting of behaviour change research is an important step in improving the progress and quality of behaviour change research. ACTRN12613000320752 (Date of registration 21 March 2013).

  18. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  19. Translation of the Care of Persons with Dementia in their Environments (COPE) intervention in a publicly-funded home care context: Rationale and research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Richard H; Gitlin, Laura N; Pizzi, Laura T; Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Grady, James; Robison, Julie T; Molony, Sheila

    2016-07-01

    Dementia is the leading cause of loss of independence in older adults worldwide. In the U.S., approximately 15 million family members provide care to relatives with dementia. This paper presents the rationale and design for a translational study in which an evidence-based, non-pharmacologic intervention for older adults with dementia and family caregivers (CGs) is incorporated into a publicly-funded home care program for older adults at risk for nursing home admission. The 4-month Care of Persons with Dementia in their Environments (COPE) intervention is designed to optimize older adults' functional independence, and to improve CG dementia management skills and health-related outcomes. COPE features 10 in-home occupational therapy visits, and 1 in-home visit and 1 telephone contact by an advanced practice nurse. COPE was deemed efficacious in a published randomized clinical trial. In the present study, older adults with dementia enrolled in the Connecticut Home Care Program for Elders (CHCPE) and their CGs are randomly assigned to receive COPE plus their ongoing CHCPE services, or to continue receiving CHCPE services only. The primary outcome for older adults with dementia is functional independence; secondary outcomes are activity engagement, quality of life, and prevention or alleviation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. CG outcomes include perceived well-being and confidence in using activities to manage dementia symptoms. Translational outcomes include net financial benefit of COPE, and feasibility and acceptability of COPE implementation into the CHCPE. COPE has the potential to improve health-related outcomes while saving Medicaid waiver and state revenue-funded home care program costs nationwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  1. Effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions to improve cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Olivo, Susan Armijo; Biondo, Patricia D; Stiles, Carla R; Yurtseven, Ozden; Fainsinger, Robin L; Hagen, Neil A

    2011-05-01

    Cancer pain is prevalent, yet patients do not receive best care despite widely available evidence. Although national cancer control policies call for education, effectiveness of such programs is unclear and best practices are not well defined. To examine existing evidence on whether knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting health care providers, patients, and caregivers improve cancer pain outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to evaluate primary studies that examined effects of KT interventions on providers and patients. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported interventions targeting health care providers, four focused on patients or their families, one study examined patients and their significant others, and 16 studies examined patients only. Seven quantitative comparisons measured the statistical effects of interventions. A significant difference favoring the treatment group in least pain intensity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 1.42) and in usual pain/average pain (95% CI: 0.13, 0.74) was observed. No other statistical differences were observed. However, most studies were assessed as having high risk of bias and failed to report sufficient information about the intervention dose, quality of educational material, fidelity, and other key factors required to evaluate effectiveness of intervention design. Trials that used a higher dose of KT intervention (characterized by extensive follow-up, comprehensive educational program, and higher resource allocation) were significantly more likely to have positive results than trials that did not use this approach. Further attention to methodological issues to improve educational interventions and research to clarify factors that lead to better pain control are urgently needed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  3. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Type 2 Translational Research for CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Katherine R.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Corbett, Cynthia L.; Setter, Stephen M.; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a “bench-to-bedside” paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses “clinic and community” is the core concept of ty...

  5. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  6. The Contribution of Conceptual Frameworks to Knowledge Translation Interventions in Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. PMID:25060959

  7. The contribution of conceptual frameworks to knowledge translation interventions in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  9. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  10. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  11. Using Translated Instruments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauford, Judith E.; Nagashima, Yosuke; Wu, Ming-Hsun

    2009-01-01

    The "need for global exchange" for research is apparent in all areas of study, both because of the global interchange of commerce and the improvements that can be accomplished worldwide as people learn from one another. The globalization of higher education includes cross-cultural research projects often conducted by teams from many countries and…

  12. Knowledge translation interventions for critically ill patients: a systematic review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuff, Tasnim; Muscedere, John; Adhikari, Neill K J; Stelfox, Henry T; Dodek, Peter; Heyland, Daren K; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Cook, Deborah J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Manoharan, Venika; Currie, Jan; Cahill, Naomi; Friedrich, Jan O; Amaral, Andre; Piquette, Dominique; Scales, Damon C; Dhanani, Sonny; Garland, Allan

    2013-11-01

    We systematically reviewed ICU-based knowledge translation studies to assess the impact of knowledge translation interventions on processes and outcomes of care. We searched electronic databases (to July, 2010) without language restrictions and hand-searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing any ICU-based knowledge translation intervention (e.g., protocols, guidelines, and audit and feedback) to management without a knowledge translation intervention. We focused on clinical topics that were addressed in greater than or equal to five studies. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data on the clinical topic, knowledge translation intervention(s), process of care measures, and patient outcomes. For each individual or combination of knowledge translation intervention(s) addressed in greater than or equal to three studies, we summarized each study using median risk ratio for dichotomous and standardized mean difference for continuous process measures. We used random-effects models. Anticipating a small number of randomized controlled trials, our primary meta-analyses included randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In separate sensitivity analyses, we excluded randomized controlled trials and collapsed protocols, guidelines, and bundles into one category of intervention. We conducted meta-analyses for clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay) related to interventions that were associated with improvements in processes of care. From 11,742 publications, we included 119 investigations (seven randomized controlled trials, 112 observational studies) on nine clinical topics. Interventions that included protocols with or without education improved continuous process measures (seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial; standardized

  13. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  14. Phenylketonuria: translating research into novel therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with a rate of incidence of 1 in 10,000 in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene are the major cause of PKU, due to the loss of the catalytic activity of the enzyme product PAH. Newborn screening for PKU allows early intervention, avoiding irreparable neurological damage and intellectual disability that would arise from untreated PKU. The current primary treatment of PKU is the limitation of dietary protein intake, which in the long term may be associated with poor compliance in some cases and other health problems due to malnutrition. The only alternative therapy currently approved is the supplementation of BH4, the requisite co-factor of PAH, in the orally-available form of sapropterin dihydrochloride. This treatment is not universally available, and is only effective for a proportion (estimated 30%) of PKU patients. Research into novel therapies for PKU has taken many different approaches to address the lack of PAH activity at the core of this disorder: enzyme replacement via virus-mediated gene transfer, transplantation of donor liver and recombinant PAH protein, enzyme substitution using phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) to provide an alternative pathway for the metabolism of phenylalanine, and restoration of native PAH activity using chemical chaperones and nonsense read-through agents. It is hoped that continuing efforts into these studies will translate into a significant improvement in the physical outcome, as well as quality of life, for patients with PKU. PMID:26835324

  15. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  16. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  17. The quality of translated medical research questionnaires | Fourie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ... The design, translation approach and quality of the original translations are explained, along with the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Navigating through translational research: a social marketing compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When prominent health issues are chronic, rooted in complex behaviors, and influenced by cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, economical, and environmental variables, layered and coordinated interventions are needed. Finding solutions that are valid, reliable, and transferable represents a daunting task for researchers. We know that converting science into action is critical for advancing health, but we have failed to appropriately disseminate evidenced-informed research to practitioners. The purpose of this article is to suggest that a social marketing framework can be the compass down this road less traveled in academic research. An experience developing an evaluation toolkit is described as an example of applying social marketing strategies to knowledge translation.

  19. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  20. Translating Comparative Effectiveness Research Into Practice: Effects of Interventions on Lifestyle, Medication Adherence, and Self-care for Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity Among Black, Hispanic, and Asian Residents of Chicago and Houston, 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Jamila R; Leath, Brenda A; Truman, Benedict I; Atkinson, Donna Durant; Gary, Lisa C; Manian, Nanmathi

    In the United States, racial/ethnic minorities account for disproportionate disease and death from type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; however, interventions with measured efficacy in comparative effectiveness research are often not adopted or used widely in those communities. To assess implementation and effects of comparative effectiveness research-proven interventions translated for minority communities. Mixed-method assessment with pretest-posttest single-group evaluation design. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, research contractor, and advisory board; health centers, including a federally qualified community health center in Chicago, Illinois; and public housing facilities for seniors in Houston, Texas. A total of 97 black, Hispanic, and Asian participants with any combination of health care provider-diagnosed type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. Virtual training institutes where intervention staff learned cultural competency methods of adapting effective interventions. Health educators delivered the Health Empowerment Lifestyle Program (HELP) in Chicago; community pharmacists delivered the MyRx Medication Adherence Program in Houston. Participation rates, satisfaction with interventions during January to April 2013, and pre- to postintervention changes in knowledge, diet, and clinical outcomes were analyzed through July 2013. In Chicago, 38 patients experienced statistically significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure, increased knowledge of hypertension management, and improved dietary behaviors. In Houston, 38 subsidized housing residents had statistically nonsignificant improvements in knowledge of self-management and adherence to medication for diabetes and hypertension but high levels of participation in pharmacist home visits and group education classes. Adaptation, adoption, and implementation of HELP and MyRx demonstrated important postintervention changes among racial

  1. Knowledge Translation: Supports, Challenges, and Opportunities for Change in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Susan; Ray, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) provides a lens to examine the process of moving research-informed knowledge into early intervention practice (P. Sudsawad, 2007). The process of KT entails cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages that are mediated by factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the practitioner. Facilitators and barriers to this process may…

  2. Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...

  3. Translating cognitive behavioral interventions from bench to bedside: The feasibility and acceptability of cognitive remediation in research as compared to clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalia, Alice; Erlich, Matthew D; Soumet-Leman, Charlotte; Saperstein, Alice M

    2017-07-30

    Cognitive remediation (CR) research typically addresses internal validity, and few studies consider CR in a real-world context. This study evaluated the fit between the program conditions and treatment model in research and clinical settings, with the goal of informing future research on the contextual challenges associated with the implementation of CR. Data was drawn from an initiative by New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH), to implement CR programs for adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in 16 state operated outpatient clinics. One of these clinics first became a research site for a CR randomized clinical trial, which allowed for a comparison of the feasibility and acceptability of CR in a research as compared to a clinical setting. The research site averaged almost triple the number of referrals as the clinical sites. Over nine months 46.51% of clinic referrals were enrolled in the CR program whereas 64.29% of research referrals were enrolled. Clinical site utilization averaged 70.53% while research site utilization averaged 90.47%. At the clinical sites, 97% of respondents reported CR was an excellent or good experience. There was high treatment fidelity for program structure and content across sites. This comparison of CR in clinical and research sites highlights the decrease in referrals, enrollment and utilization that occurs when a program moves from a highly controlled setting to the real world. Still, the acceptability, fill rates and utilization indicated that CR can be successfully implemented in large scale, geographically diverse, publically funded clinic settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): a cluster randomized trial targeting system-wide improvement in substance use services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Belenko, Steven; Wiley, Tisha; Robertson, Angela A; Arrigona, Nancy; Dennis, Michael; Bartkowski, John P; McReynolds, Larkin S; Becan, Jennifer E; Knudsen, Hannah K; Wasserman, Gail A; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) study, a cooperative implementation science initiative involving the National Institute on Drug Abuse, six research centers, a coordinating center, and Juvenile Justice Partners representing seven US states. While the pooling of resources across centers enables a robust implementation study design involving 36 juvenile justice agencies and their behavioral health partner agencies, co-producing a study protocol that has potential to advance implementation science, meets the needs of all constituencies (funding agency, researchers, partners, study sites), and can be implemented with fidelity across the cooperative can be challenging. This paper describes (a) the study background and rationale, including the juvenile justice context and best practices for substance use disorders, (b) the selection and use of an implementation science framework to guide study design and inform selection of implementation components, and (c) the specific study design elements, including research questions, implementation interventions, measurement, and analytic plan. The JJ-TRIALS primary study uses a head-to-head cluster randomized trial with a phased rollout to evaluate the differential effectiveness of two conditions (Core and Enhanced) in 36 sites located in seven states. A Core strategy for promoting change is compared to an Enhanced strategy that incorporates all core strategies plus active facilitation. Target outcomes include improvements in evidence-based screening, assessment, and linkage to substance use treatment. Contributions to implementation science are discussed as well as challenges associated with designing and deploying a complex, collaborative project. NCT02672150 .

  6. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-09

    A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base

  7. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Robinson, Donita L; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry.

  8. Application of proteomics to translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, L.A.; Petricoin, E.; Garaci, E.; De Maria, R.; Belluco, C.

    2009-01-01

    Deriving public benefit from basic biomedical research requires a dedicated and highly coordinated effort between basic scientists, physicians, bioinformaticians, clinical trial coordinators, MD and PhD trainees and fellows, and a host of other skilled participants. The Istituto Superiore di Sanita/George Mason University US-Italy Oncoproteomics program, established in 2005, is a successful example of a synergistic creative collaboration between basic scientists and clinical investigators conducting translational research. This program focuses on the application of the new field of proteomics to three urgent and fundamental clinical needs in cancer medicine: 1.) Biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer, when it is still treatable, 2.) Individualizing patient therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors that block signal pathways driving cancer pathogenesis and 3.) Cancer Progenitor Cells (CSCs): When do the lethal progenitors of cancer first emerge, and how can we treat these CSCs with molecular targeted inhibitors

  9. Translator/Revisor | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On request, performs quality control of texts translated or written by clients or ... of the Official Languages Act, the IDRC Translation Unit provides service for the ... Resources and Communications documents for the purposes of internal and ...

  10. Contextual analysis and the success of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony; Levin, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    The success of translational research can ultimately be judged by the degree to which it reduces the incidence and prevalence of psychological, behavioral, and physical disorders and the major factors influencing them. In our view, we currently place insufficient emphasis on assessing our impact on the social determinants of disorders. As a result, we are failing to affect the incidence and prevalence of critical disorders. Moreover, translational research fails to take into account the full range of interventions that could significantly reduce the incidence and prevalence of our most pressing disorders. These include policy changes, media, and broad cultural change movements. In this paper, we discuss the momentous achievements the tobacco prevention movement made over the last half-century, describe how the lessons gleaned from this success can apply to other prevention efforts, and contrast this success with progress made in battling other major public health concerns. We call for an expansion of the translational research agenda to develop and evaluate broader and more comprehensive strategies to affect well-being in entire populations.

  11. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh

    2011-02-22

    The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively.Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments.

  12. Can Tymoczko be translated into Africa? Refractions of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the implications of current developments in research methodology in translation studies for translation studies in Africa. It makes use of Tymoczko's (2006, 2007) arguments in favour of the internationalisation of translation studies as well as her notions on the underlying logic of research and definition ...

  13. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  14. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-01-01

    Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of

  15. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall M Scott

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need

  16. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  18. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  19. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  20. Case Series of a Knowledge Translation Intervention to Increase Upper Limb Exercise in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Translation and sustainability of an HIV prevention intervention in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n = 82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research.

  2. A research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Christine; House, Stephanie; Spencer, Kimberly; Asquith, Pamela; Carney, Paula; Masters, Kristyn S; McGee, Richard; Shanedling, Janet; Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael

    2013-02-01

    To design and evaluate a research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers. The resulting 8-hour curriculum was implemented as part of a national mentor training trial. The mentor training curriculum was implemented with 144 mentors at 16 academic institutions. Facilitators of the curriculum participated in a train-the-trainer workshop to ensure uniform delivery. The data used for this report were collected from participants during the training sessions through reflective writing, and following the last training session via confidential survey with a 94% response rate. A total of 88% of respondents reported high levels of satisfaction with the training experience, and 90% noted they would recommend the training to a colleague. Participants also reported significant learning gains across six mentoring competencies as well as specific impacts of the training on their mentoring practice. The data suggest the described research mentor training curriculum is an effective means of engaging research mentors to reflect upon and improve their research mentoring practices. The training resulted in high satisfaction, self-reported skill gains as well as behavioral changes of clinical and translational research mentors. Given success across 16 diverse sites, this training may serve as a national model. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Translational research: cells, tissues and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to the complex space radiation environment poses an important health hazard for astronauts in long-term space missions. The central theme of NASA's space radiation health research effort is to acquire scientific knowledge to understand the mechanisms of particle radiation effects in biological systems and to use this knowledge to set exposure limits and to design countermeasures that will protect the astronauts. During the past few decades, a rich body of data has been developed to characterize HZE-induced biological responses both in vitro and in vivo using ground-based accelerator facilities available in a number of facilities around the world. Although much is known about particle-radiation-induced DNA damage and cell killing in cultured cell lines, recent evidence suggest that numerous other factors, such as membrane effects, altered gene expression, bystander effects and specific cell-type dependent features also play critical roles in cellular responses. Dose- and particle-dependent studies are also available for multicellular tissues and animal model systems where emerging information demonstrates complex interactions between cells including intercellular communications, activation of proteins, alterations in the microenvironment, tissue-specificity, and genetic status and these contribute in determining the consequences of HZE radiation. Due to the lack of human data, risk estimates depend on the extrapolation of experimental results in animals and cultured cell systems to man. In this presentation, selected topics reviewing particle radiation effects in cells, tissues and animal will be used to illustrate the importance of translational research and some of the limitations of such approaches

  4. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrative review of implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchner, Staci S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize and critique experimental and/or quasi-experimental research that has evaluated implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence into nursing practice. Successfully implementing evidence-based research can improve patient outcomes. Identifying successful implementation strategies is imperative to move research-based evidence into practice. As implementation science gains popularity, it is imperative to understand the strategies that most effectively translate research-based evidence into practice. The review used the CINAHL and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases. Articles were included if they were experimental and/or quasi-experimental research designs, were written in English, and measured nursing compliance to translation of research-based evidence. An independent review was performed to select and critique the included articles. A wide array of interventions were completed, including visual cues, audit and feedback, educational meetings and materials, reminders, outreach, and leadership involvement. Because of the complex multimodal nature of the interventions and the variety of research topics, comparison across interventions was difficult. Many difficulties exist in determining what implementation strategies are most effective for translation of research-based evidence into practice by nurses. With these limited findings, further research is warranted to determine which implementation strategies most successfully translate research-based evidence into practice.

  6. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  7. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  8. Bridging the Gap: A Canadian Perspective on Translational Kidney Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber O Molnar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 3 million Canadians. Ongoing investment in high quality kidney research is needed to improve the care of patients with kidney disease. The barriers to translating such research are discussed in this review. Sources of information: Personal knowledge, research funding body websites, and published reports. Findings: In this review, we discuss the meaning of the term translational research and present some of the programs aimed at ensuring efficient translation of scientific discoveries with a discussion of the barriers to translation. We highlight some successes and barriers to kidney research translation using recent examples of research in Canadian nephrology. We present the following examples of kidney research: (1 research aimed at identifying the causative genes for inherited kidney diseases; (2 recent discoveries in cell-based therapies for kidney disease; (3 an examination of the impact of acute kidney injury in renal transplant patients; and (4 the development of a kidney failure risk equation to improve prognosis accuracy. Limitations: This review focuses on research conducted by the authors. Implications: The process of research translation is prolonged and challenging and therefore requires resources, patience, and careful planning. With increased awareness and understanding of the barriers to research translation, researchers and funding bodies can work together to increase the rate at which important research findings reach clinical practice and improve the care of patients with kidney disease.

  9. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  10. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  11. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  12. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Légaré, France; Brouwers, Melissa C; Webster, Fiona; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon

    2016-02-29

    Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions engage patients in their own health care. Insight on which PKT interventions are effective is lacking. We sought to describe the type and impact of PKT interventions. We performed a systematic review of PKT interventions, defined as strategies that inform, educate and engage patients in their own health care. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to 2014 for English language studies that evaluated PKT interventions delivered immediately before, during or upon conclusion of clinical encounters to individual patients with arthritis or cancer. Data were extracted on study characteristics, PKT intervention (theory, content, delivery, duration, personnel, timing) and outcomes. Interventions were characterized by type of patient engagement (inform, activate, collaborate). We performed content analysis and reported summary statistics. Of 694 retrieved studies, 16 were deemed eligible (5 arthritis, 11 cancer; 12 RCTs, 4 cohort studies; 7 low, 3 uncertain, 6 high risk of bias). PKT interventions included print material in 10 studies (brochures, booklets, variety of print material, list of websites), electronic material in 10 studies (video, computer program, website) and counselling in 2 studies. They were offered before, during and after consultation in 4, 1 and 4 studies, respectively; as single or multifaceted interventions in 10 and 6 studies, respectively; and by clinicians, health educators, researchers or volunteers in 4, 3, 5 and 1 study, respectively. Most interventions informed or activated patients. All studies achieved positive impact in one or more measures of patient knowledge, decision-making, communication and behaviour. This was true regardless of condition, PKT intervention, timing, personnel, type of engagement or delivery (single or multifaceted). No studies assessed patient harms, or interventions for providers to support PKT intervention delivery. Two studies evaluated

  13. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong.......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...

  14. DW4TR: A Data Warehouse for Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Cogo, Elise; Ashoor, Huda; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, K Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-05-14

    Knowledge translation (KT also known as research utilisation, translational medicine and implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. After the implementation of KT interventions, their impact on relevant outcomes should be monitored. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) conduct a systematic search of the literature to identify the impact on healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year, or beyond the termination of funding of the initiative of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management for end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers; (2) identify factors that influence sustainability of effective KT interventions; (3) identify how sustained change from KT interventions should be measured; and (4) develop a framework for assessing sustainability of KT interventions. Comprehensive searches of relevant electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), websites of funding agencies and websites of healthcare provider organisations will be conducted to identify relevant material. We will include experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction form. They will then screen all citations, full articles and abstract data in duplicate independently. The results of the scoping review will be synthesised descriptively and used to develop a framework to assess the sustainability of KT interventions. Our results will help inform end-users (ie, patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers

  16. Leptin in humans: lessons from translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2009-03-01

    Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone in not only the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure but also in the regulation of neuroendocrine and immune function as well as the modulation of glucose and fat metabolism as shown by numerous observational and interventional studies in humans with (complete) congenital or relative leptin deficiency. These results have led to proof-of-concept studies that have investigated the effect of leptin administration in subjects with complete (congenital) leptin deficiency caused by mutations in the leptin gene as well as in humans with relative leptin deficiency, including states of lipoatrophy or negative energy balance and neuroendocrine dysfunction, as for instance seen with hypothalamic amenorrhea in states of exercise-induced weight loss. In those conditions, most neuroendocrine, metabolic, or immune disturbances can be restored by leptin administration. Leptin replacement therapy is thus a promising approach in several disease states, including congenital complete leptin deficiency, states of energy deprivation, including anorexia nervosa or milder forms of hypothalamic amenorrhea, as well as syndromes of insulin resistance seen in conditions such as congenital or acquired lipodystrophy. In contrast, states of energy excess such as garden-variety obesity are associated with hyperleptinemia that reflects either leptin tolerance or leptin resistance. For those conditions, development of leptin sensitizers is currently a focus of pharmaceutical research. This article summarizes our current understanding of leptin's role in human physiology and its potential role as a novel therapeutic option in human disease states associated with a new hormone deficiency, ie, leptin deficiency.

  17. LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Reisner, Sari L; Juvonen, Jaana; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Perrotti, Jeff; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth experience significant bullying that undermines their mental and physical health. National health organizations have called for the development of innovative strategies to address LGBTQ bullying. Pediatricians and other clinicians, medical and public health students, interdisciplinary researchers, government officials, school leaders, community members, parents, and youth from around the country came together at a national symposium entitled "LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action to Improve the Health of All Youth" in May 2016 to generate strategies to prevent LGBTQ bullying and meet the needs of LGBTQ youth experiencing bullying. This article describes key scientific findings on bullying, LGBTQ stigma, and LGBTQ bullying interventions that were shared at the symposium and provides recommendations for pediatricians to address LGBTQ bullying via clinical care, research, interventions, and policy. Symposium participants recommended that pediatricians engage in efforts to foster inclusive and affirming health care environments wherein LGBTQ youth feel comfortable discussing their identities and experiences, identify youth experiencing LGBTQ bullying, and prevent the negative health consequences of bullying among youth. Moreover, pediatricians can attend to how multiple identities (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity, disability, and others) shape youth experiences of bullying and expand intervention efforts to address LGBTQ bullying in health care settings. Pediatricians can further advocate for evidence-based, antibullying policies prohibiting bullying on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Collaboration between pediatricians and diverse stakeholders can contribute to the development and implementation of lasting change in all forms of bullying, including LGBTQ bullying. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The Benefits of Patient Involvement for Translational Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, L. van der; Garcia, E.; Laan, A.L. van der; Burg, S. van der; Boenink, M.

    2017-01-01

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement ('translation') of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  19. Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berninger, V.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Fayol, M.L.; Fayol, M.; Alamargot, D.; Berninger, V.W.

    2012-01-01

    About the book: Translation of cognitive representations into written language is one of the most important processes in writing. This volume provides a long-awaited updated overview of the field. The contributors discuss each of the commonly used research methods for studying translation; theorize

  20. Translational Research: It's Not 1960s Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Edwards, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors find Critchfield's article ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) scholarly, clear, and insightful. In it, Critchfield provides an excellent overview of translational research in behavior analysis and suggests several general strategies for increasing the…

  1. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  2. Chemoradiotherapy: successes and problems in translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of mechanistic-based clinical regimens which combine radiation and chemotherapy to improve local control and cure in solid malignancies has proven to be a difficult problem. Studies with human and animal cell lines in culture provide valuable data on the effects and mechanisms of action of radiation and anticancer drugs. They can also suggest mechanisms of interaction between drugs and radiation that might be used to obtain therapeutic gain. Studies with syngeneic rodent tumors or human tumor cell lines xenografted into immune-deficient rodents can be used to test the effects of combined modality regimens on tumors in vivo. Studies of normal tissues in rodents can be used to evaluate potential toxicities. However, at each step in this process of preclinical evaluation there are limitations of the model systems and gaps in the knowledge obtainable from the models. There are also gaps in our understanding of the biology of malignancies in human patients both before treatment and to an even greater extent during protracted therapeutic regimens. Our knowledge of the mechanisms producing dose-limiting injuries in patients is also limited, as is our understanding of the factors which influence the risk to individual patients and the interactions of drug and radiation injury in patients. The limitations of our models and our knowledge generally preclude the direct translation of preclinical findings into rationally designed, effective clinical trials, and can lead to either unexpectedly positive or disappointing results when clinical trials are developed, performed and analyzed. Successes and problems in the translation of preclinical studies of radiation/drug combinations into effective clinical regimens will be discussed and will be illustrated using our laboratory and clinical experience with agents designed to modulate tumor oxygenation and with regimens combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers or with the mitomycins

  3. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  4. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-15

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.

  5. Knowledge Translation for Cardiovascular Disease Research and Management in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shommu, Nusrat S; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

  6. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.

  7. Writing and translation process research: Bridging the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Dam-Jensen & Carmen Heine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Writing and translation are traditionally addressed as two different objects of study. However, they also share many characteristics - as revealed by the research carried out in the two fields, which often uses the same methods to investigate both areas. In this introduction, it is suggested that writing and translation can be studied as types of text production. Different dimensions of text production are sketched as examples of research topics at the interface between writing and translation. The two articles that follow this introduction explore two such dimensions: competence and profiles.

  8. Using knowledge translation as a framework for the design of a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation has been defined as the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, resulting in a stronger health-care system. Using KT activities to aid in the adoption of evidence into practice can address current health-care challenges such as increasing organizational practice standards, alleviating the risk for adverse events and meeting practitioner needs for evidence at the bedside. Two general forms of KT have been identified. These being integrated KT and end-of-grant KT. Integrated KT involves the knowledge users in the research team and in the majority of stages of the research process. End-of-grant KT relates to the translation of findings through a well-developed dissemination plan. This paper describes the process of using an integrated knowledge translation approach to design a research protocol that will examine the effectiveness of a web-based patient educational intervention. It begins with a description of integrated knowledge translation, followed by the presentation of a specific case example in which integrated knowledge translation is used to develop a nursing intervention. The major elements of integrated knowledge translation pertain to need for a knowledge user who represents the broad target user group, and who is knowledgeable in the area under investigation and who as authority to enact changes to practice. Use of knowledge users as equal partners within the research team; exploring all feasible opportunities for knowledge exchange; and working with knowledge users to identify all outcomes related to knowledge translation are the other major elements of integrated knowledge translation that are addressed throughout this paper. Furthermore, the relevance of psychosocial or educational interventions to knowledge translation is also discussed as a source of knowledge. In summary, integrated knowledge translation is an important tool for the development of new interventions, as

  9. The Translation of Basic Behavioral Research to School Psychology: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…

  10. A systematic review of the effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions for chronic noncancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT) interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of KT interventions for chronic noncancer pain management. Comprehensive searches of electronic databases, the gray literature and manual searches of journals were undertaken. Randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and controlled before-and-after studies of KT interventions were included. Data regarding interventions and primary outcomes were categorized using a standard taxonomy; a risk-of-bias approach was adopted for study quality. A narrative synthesis of study results was conducted. More than 8500 titles and abstracts were screened, with 230 full-text articles reviewed for eligibility. Nineteen studies were included, of which only a small proportion were judged to be at low risk of bias. Interactive KT education for health care providers has a positive effect on patients' function, but its benefits for other health provider- and patient-related outcomes are inconsistent. Interactive education for patients leads to improvements in knowledge and function. Little research evidence supports the effectiveness of structural changes in health systems and quality improvement processes or coordination of care. KT interventions incorporating interactive education in chronic noncancer pain led to positive effects on patients' function and knowledge about pain. Future studies should provide implementation details and use consistent theoretical frameworks to better estimate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  11. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.

  12. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.

  13. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  14. Lost in translation: Review of identification bias, translation bias and research waste in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To review how articles are retrieved from bibliographic databases, what article identification and translation problems have affected research, and how these problems can contribute to research waste and affect clinical practice. This literature review sought and appraised articles regarding identification- and translation-bias in the medical and dental literature, which limit the ability of users to find research articles and to use these in practice. Articles can be retrieved from bibliographic databases by performing a word or index-term (for example, MeSH for MEDLINE) search. Identification of articles is challenging when it is not clear which words are most relevant, and which terms have been allocated to indexing fields. Poor reporting quality of abstracts and articles has been reported across the medical literature at large. Specifically in dentistry, research regarding time-to-event survival analyses found the allocation of MeSH terms to be inconsistent and inaccurate, important words were omitted from abstracts by authors, and the quality of reporting in the body of articles was generally poor. These shortcomings mean that articles will be difficult to identify, and difficult to understand if found. Use of specialized electronic search strategies can decrease identification bias, and use of tailored reporting guidelines can decrease translation bias. Research that cannot be found, or cannot be used results in research waste, and undermines clinical practice. Identification- and translation-bias have been shown to affect time-to-event dental articles, are likely affect other fields of research, and are largely unrecognized by authors and evidence seekers alike. By understanding that the problems exist, solutions can be sought to improve identification and translation of our research. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    FACS, COL MC USA CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine 6720-A Rockledge Drive Bethesda...reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse ii. When will you destroy the research source documents, data file...requires to be reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse When will you destroy the research source documents

  16. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  17. The Culture of Translational Science Research: Participants' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R

    2013-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of "scientist" to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research.

  18. A cybersecurity primer for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakslis, Eric D; Stanley, Martin

    2016-01-20

    Virtually all health care organizations have had at least one data breach since 2012. Most of the largest data breaches and Health Care Information Privacy and Accountability Act fines could have been prevented by the simplest of strategies. Each researcher must clearly understand his or her responsibilities and liability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.

  20. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  1. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  2. From Translational Research to Translational Effectiveness: The “Patient-Centered Dental Home” Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toward revitalizing the Nation’s primary medical care system, the Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ stated that new foundational measures must be crafted for achieving high-quality, accessible, efficient health care for all Americans. The efficiency of medical care is viewed along two dimensions: first, we must continue to pursue translational research; and second, we must translate research to optimize effectiveness in specific clinical settings. It is increasingly evident that the efficiency of both translational processes is critical to the revitalization of health care, and that it rests on the practical functionality of the nexus among three cardinal entities: the researcher, the clinician, and the patient. A novel model has evolved that encapsulates this notion, and that proposes the advanced pri-mary care “medical home”, more commonly referred to as the “patient-centered medical home” (PCMH. It is a promising model for transforming the organization and delivery of primary medical care, because it is not simply a place per se, but it is a function-ing unit that delivers medical care along the fundamental principles of being patient-centered, comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible. It is energized by translational research, and its principal aim and ultimate goal is translational effectiveness. The PCMH is a model that works well within the priorities set by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the Health Care Reform Act of 2010. However, while dentistry has a clearly defined place in both Acts, the PCMH is designed for medical and nursing care. A parallel model of the “patient-centered dental home” (PCDH must be realized.

  3. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  4. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Caldas, C.; van Luenen, H.; Saghatchian, M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in

  5. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See https://ccr.cancer.gov for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  6. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardi, Anna R.; L?gar?, France; Brouwers, Melissa C.; Webster, Fiona; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions engage patients in their own health care. Insight on which PKT interventions are effective is lacking. We sought to describe the type and impact of PKT interventions. Methods We performed a systematic review of PKT interventions, defined as strategies that inform, educate and engage patients in their own health care. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to 2014 for English language studies that eva...

  7. Translational findings from cardiovascular stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Ramesh; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells to regenerate damaged myocardium has been actively investigated since the late 1990s. Consistent with the traditional view that the heart is a "postmitotic" organ that possesses minimal capacity for self-repair, much of the preclinical and clinical work has focused exclusively on introducing stem cells into the heart, with the hope of differentiation of these cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. This approach is ongoing and retains promise but to date has yielded inconsistent successes. More recently, it has become widely appreciated that the heart possesses endogenous repair mechanisms that, if adequately stimulated, might regenerate damaged cardiac tissue from in situ cardiac stem cells. Accordingly, much recent work has focused on engaging and enhancing endogenous cardiac repair mechanisms. This article reviews the literature on stem cell-based myocardial regeneration, placing emphasis on the mutually enriching interaction between basic and clinical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  10. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Robitaille, Hubert; Gane, Claire; Hébert, Jessica; Labrecque, Michel; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties. We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing. We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153) published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) and Consumers and Communication. We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%). Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1) and educational outreach (n = 1). Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15), communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7), personalized risk communication (n = 3) and mobile phone messaging (n = 1). Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective. More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  11. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Légaré

    Full Text Available Knowledge translation (KT interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties.We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing.We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153 published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC and Consumers and Communication.We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%. Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1 and educational outreach (n = 1. Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15, communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7, personalized risk communication (n = 3 and mobile phone messaging (n = 1. Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective.More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  12. IMPROVING THE REPORTING OF THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE INTERVENTIONS IN REHABILITATION RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Phil; Hoogenboom, Barb; Voight, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The foundation of evidence-based practice lies in clinical research, which is based on the utilization of the scientific method. The scientific method requires that all details of the experiment be provided in publications to support replication of the study in order to evaluate and validate the results. More importantly, clinical research can only be translated into practice when researchers provide explicit details of the study. Too often, rehabilitation exercise intervention studies lack the appropriate detail to allow clinicians to replicate the exercise protocol in their patient populations. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide guidelines for optimal reporting of therapeutic exercise interventions in rehabilitation research. 5.

  13. Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah, Simon A; Correll, Mick A; Munro, Robin E J; Sheldon, Jonathan G

    2008-09-01

    Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

  14. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  15. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Ashoor, Huda M; Cardoso, Roberta; MacDonald, Heather; Cogo, Elise; Kastner, Monika; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-04-21

    Knowledge translation (KT, also known as research utilization, and sometimes referring to implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. A KT intervention is one which facilitates the uptake of research. The long-term sustainability of KT interventions is unclear. We aimed to characterize KT interventions to manage chronic diseases that have been used for healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year or beyond the termination of initial grant funding. We conducted a scoping review by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Campbell from inception until February 2013. We included experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions for managing chronic diseases in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health service managers, and policy-makers. Articles were screened and abstracted by two reviewers, independently. The data were charted and results described narratively. We included 62 studies reported in 103 publications (total 260,688 patients) plus 41 companion reports after screening 12,328 titles and abstracts and 464 full-text articles. More than half of the studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The duration of the KT intervention ranged from 61 to 522 weeks. Nine chronic conditions were examined across the studies, such as diabetes (34 %), cardiovascular disease (28 %), and hypertension (16 %). Thirteen KT interventions were reported across the studies. Patient education was the most commonly examined (20 %), followed by self-management (17 %). Most studies (61 %) focused on patient-level outcomes (e.g. disease severity), while 31 % included system-level outcomes (e.g. number of eye examinations

  16. Translating Health Services Research into Practice in the Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan L; Fischer, Ilana; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    To summarize research relating to health services research translation in the safety net through analysis of the literature and case study of a safety net system. Literature review and key informant interviews at an integrated safety net hospital. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive literature review of translational science literature as applied to health care paired with qualitative analysis of five key informant interviews conducted with senior-level management at Denver Health and Hospital Authority. Results from the literature suggest that implementing innovation may be more difficult in the safety net due to multiple factors, including financial and organizational constraints. Results from key informant interviews confirmed the reality of financial barriers to innovation implementation but also implied that factors, including institutional respect for data, organizational attitudes, and leadership support, could compensate for disadvantages. Translating research into practice is of critical importance to safety net providers, which are under increased pressure to improve patient care and satisfaction. Results suggest that translational research done in the safety net can better illuminate the special challenges of this setting; more such research is needed. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Estimating Return on Investment in Translational Research: Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Dilts, David M.; Kirk, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSA). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This paper provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities. PMID:23925706

  18. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  19. Bias in clinical intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...... evidence is needed to evaluate their effects on the extent and direction of bias. This narrative review summarizes the findings of methodological studies on the influence of bias in clinical trials. A number of methodological studies suggest that lack of adequate randomization in published trial reports...

  20. The Borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves i...

  1. From translational research to open technology innovation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Clive; Fortune, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to question whether the emphasis placed within translational research on a linear model of innovation provides the most effective model for managing health technology innovation. Several alternative perspectives are presented that have potential to enhance the existing model of translational research. A case study is presented of innovation of a clinical decision support system. The paper concludes from the case study that an extending the triple helix model of technology transfer, to one based on a quadruple helix, present a basis for improving the performance translational research. A case study approach is used to help understand development of an innovative technology within a teaching hospital. The case is then used to develop and refine a model of the health technology innovation system. The paper concludes from the case study that existing models of translational research could be refined further through the development of a quadruple helix model of heath technology innovation that encompasses greater emphasis on user-led and open innovation perspectives. The paper presents several implications for future research based on the need to enhance the model of health technology innovation used to guide policy and practice. The quadruple helix model of innovation that is proposed can potentially guide alterations to the existing model of translational research in the healthcare sector. Several suggestions are made for how innovation activity can be better supported at both a policy and operational level. This paper presents a synthesis of the innovation literature applied to a theoretically important case of open innovation in the UK National Health Service. It draws in perspectives from other industrial sectors and applies them specifically to the management and organisation of innovation activities around health technology and the services in which they are embedded.

  2. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina

    2005-01-01

    , promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...

  3. The benefits of patient involvement for translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; van der Laan, A.L.; van der Burg, Simone; Boenink, Marianne

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  4. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's

  5. Improving research questionnaires by means of intralingual translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clear research questionnaires ultimately help to ensure the reliability and comparability of the data that they gather (Fowler 1992; Lenzner 2012; Moroney and Cameron 2016). This paper explores the intersection of best practices in the fields of questionnaire design and intralingual translation as a means to ensure clarity ...

  6. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  7. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  9. Factors associated with the implementation of the Familias Unidas intervention in a type 3 translational trial

    OpenAIRE

    St. George, Sara M.; Huang, Shi; Vidot, Denise C.; Smith, Justin D.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights how Familias Unidas, a Hispanic-specific, evidence-based, family centered preventive intervention, progressed from intervention development (type 1 translation; T1) through rigorous evaluation (T2) and examines the role of intervention fidelity—adherence and competence—in a T3 trial. Effects of participant, provider, and organizational variables on direct (observational) and indirect (self-reported) fidelity were examined as were effects of fidelity. Two structural equat...

  10. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Stig; Shoshan, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    The term 'translational research' is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether 'clean' results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research

  11. A protocol for a systematic review of the use of process evaluations in knowledge translation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Rotter, Thomas; Hartling, Lisa; Chambers, Thane; Bannar-Martin, Katherine H

    2014-12-23

    Experimental designs for evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions for professional behavior change can provide strong estimates of intervention effectiveness but offer limited insight how the intervention worked or not. Furthermore, trials provide little insight into the ways through which interventions lead to behavior change and how they are moderated by different facilitators and barriers. As a result, the ability to generalize the findings from one study to a different context, organization, or clinical problem is severely compromised. Consequently, researchers have started to explore the causal mechanisms in complementary studies (process evaluations) alongside experimental designs for evaluating KT interventions. This study focuses on improving process evaluations by synthesizing current evidence on process evaluations conducted alongside experimental designs for evaluating KT interventions. A medical research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify evidence that is relevant to process evaluations in health research. Studies will not be excluded based on design. Included studies must contain a process evaluation component aimed at understanding or evaluating a KT intervention targeting professional behavior change. Two reviewers will perform study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data to be collected include study design, details about data collection approaches and types, theoretical influences, approaches to evaluate intervention dose delivered, intervention dose received, intervention fidelity, intervention reach, data analysis, and study outcomes. This study is not registered with PROSPERO. There is widespread acceptance that the generalizability of quantitative trials of KT interventions would be significantly enhanced to other contexts, health professional groups, and clinical conditions

  12. Partnering with patients in translational oncology research: ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamzer, Marie-France; Duchange, Nathalie; Darquy, Sylviane; Marvanne, Patrice; Rambaud, Claude; Marsico, Giovanna; Cerisey, Catherine; Scotté, Florian; Burgun, Anita; Badoual, Cécile; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2017-04-08

    The research program CARPEM (cancer research and personalized medicine) brings together the expertise of researchers and hospital-based oncologists to develop translational research in the context of personalized or "precision" medicine for cancer. There is recognition that patient involvement can help to take into account their needs and priorities in the development of this emerging practice but there is currently no consensus about how this can be achieved. In this study, we developed an empirical ethical research action aiming to improve patient representatives' involvement in the development of the translational research program together with health professionals. The aim is to promote common understanding and sharing of knowledge between all parties and to establish a long-term partnership integrating patient's expectations. Two distinct committees were settled in CARPEM: an "Expert Committee", gathering healthcare and research professionals, and a "Patient Committee", gathering patients and patient representatives. A multidisciplinary team trained in medical ethics research ensured communication between the two committees as well as analysis of discussions, minutes and outputs from all stakeholders. The results highlight the efficiency of the transfer of knowledge between interested parties. Patient representatives and professionals were able to identify new ethical challenges and co-elaborate new procedures to gather information and consent forms for adapting to practices and recommendations developed during the process. Moreover, included patient representatives became full partners and participated in the transfer of knowledge to the public via conferences and publications. Empirical ethical research based on a patient-centered approach could help in establishing a fair model for coordination and support actions during cancer research, striking a balance between the regulatory framework, researcher needs and patient expectations. Our approach addresses

  13. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  14. New burns and trauma journal celebrating translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Gullo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the journal of Burns & Trauma launched in 2013 and published by the prestigious Wolters Kluwer Health. We are grateful to promote a cultural challenge toward a new horizon in the field of translational research (TR. We enjoy to work together with the common objective to perform continuous medical education programs, exploring the methods in research, designing study, and to improve multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration in the basic sciences and in the clinical trials. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure and what are its limits? More broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry as defined and revisiting at the beginning of the last decades. Translational medicine (TM should meet the demands to maintain or expanding the biomedical workforce and education programs that attract and retain young people in the translational and biomedical sciences. With this present contributes, we invite the members of the editorial board of Burns & Trauma to encourage submitting, in a special section, their personal experience about the philosophy of "Translation research." If this has a chance, welcome to the researchers, clinicians, and the allied people for their decisive contributions to strengthen the importance of a common way about the principles and methods of basic and clinical research. TR and TM represent a dynamic entity making a link, a sort of bridge, "from bench to bedside", or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. Epistemological pluralism is a critical point for conducting innovative, collaborative research which can lead to more successful integrated and successfully study

  15. Tracking the impact of translational research in psychiatry: state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Personalized treatments have become a primary goal in translational psychiatric research. They include the identification of neural circuits associated with psychiatric disorders and definition of treatment according to individual characteristics. Many new tools and technologies have been developed but further efforts are required to provide clues on how these scientific advances in psychiatry may be translated into more effective therapeutic approaches. Obstacles to the progress of translational psychiatry also involve numerous scientific, financial, ethical, logistics and regulatory aspects. Also, the goal of DSM-5 to expand “signs and symptoms” classification to incorporate biological measures may help the development of new multifactorial and dimensional models able to better understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and develop improved treatments. Finally, a better understanding on the significant response variability, cognitive functioning, role of comorbidities and treatment-resistant cases are critical for the development of prevention and intervention strategies that are more effective. PMID:22929586

  16. Advancing the management of Obstructive Airways Diseases through Translational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Baines, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel...... treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. The next challenge of translational research will be to position...... these novel treatments for OAD for optimal clinical use. At the same time, there is great potential in these treatments providing even better insights into disease mechanisms in OAD, by studying the effects of blocking individual immunological pathways. To optimise this potential, there is a need to ensure...

  17. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research......-calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information......, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique...

  18. Ethical clinical translation of stem cell interventions for neurologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cote, David J; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    The application of stem cell transplants in clinical practice has increased in frequency in recent years. Many of the stem cell transplants in neurologic diseases, including stroke, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, and demyelinating diseases, are unproven-they have not been tested...... in prospective, controlled clinical trials and have not become accepted therapies. Stem cell transplant procedures currently being carried out have therapeutic aims, but are frequently experimental and unregulated, and could potentially put patients at risk. In some cases, patients undergoing such operations...... are not included in a clinical trial, and do not provide genuinely informed consent. For these reasons and others, some current stem cell interventions for neurologic diseases are ethically dubious and could jeopardize progress in the field. We provide discussion points for the evaluation of new stem cell...

  19. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  20. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  1. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium, Post Traumatic Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY

  2. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT) interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of KT interventions for chronic noncancer pain management.METHODS: Comprehensive searches of electronic databases, the gray literature and manual searches of journals were undertaken. Ra...

  3. Translation of an instrument. The US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M; Elander, G

    1992-01-01

    Translation of a research instrument questionnaire from English to another language is analyzed in relation to principles involved, procedures followed, and problems confronted by nurse researchers from the US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project. Of paramount importance in translation are translation equivalency, congruent value orientation, and careful use of colloquialisms. It is important to recognize that copyright guidelines apply in the translation of an instrument. Approaches to solving instrument translation problems are discussed.

  4. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  5. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  6. Closing the translation gap for justice requirements in international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2012-09-01

    Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and other actors are to successfully translate them into practice because doing so is often a complicated, context-specific process. Case study research methods offer one avenue for collecting data to develop this guidance. The authors describe how such methods have been used in relation to the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's vivax malaria treatment (VHX) trial (NCT01074905). Relying on the VHX trial example, the paper shows how information can be gathered from not only international clinical researchers but also trial participants, community advisory board members and research funder representatives in order to: (1) measure evidence of responsiveness, provision of ancillary care, access to post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening in international clinical research; and (2) identify the contextual factors and roles and responsibilities that were instrumental in the fulfilment of these ethical obligations. Such empirical work is necessary to inform the articulation of obligations of justice in international research and to develop guidance on how to fulfil them in order to facilitate better adherence to guidelines' requirements.

  7. A META-COMPOSITE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT APPROACH FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S.; Tanik, Murat M.

    2013-01-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users’ needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements. PMID:23504436

  8. A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M

    2013-06-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

  9. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either “nutrition-specific interventions” (NSpI or “nutrition-sensitive interventions” (NSeI, was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated.

  10. 40 Years of Research Put p53 in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Virginie; Nguyen Van Long, Flora; Diaz, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1979, p53 has shown multiple facets. Initially the tumor suppressor p53 protein was considered as a stress sensor able to maintain the genome integrity by regulating transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. However, it rapidly came into light that p53 regulates gene expression to control a wider range of biological processes allowing rapid cell adaptation to environmental context. Among them, those related to cancer have been extensively documented. In addition to its role as transcription factor, scattered studies reported that p53 regulates miRNA processing, modulates protein activity by direct interaction or exhibits RNA-binding activity, thus suggesting a role of p53 in regulating several layers of gene expression not restricted to transcription. After 40 years of research, it appears more and more clearly that p53 is strongly implicated in translational regulation as well as in the control of the production and activity of the translational machinery. Translation control of specific mRNAs could provide yet unsuspected capabilities to this well-known guardian of the genome.

  11. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  12. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  13. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R

    2017-04-04

    Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER

  14. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  15. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  16. Illustrating idiographic methods for translation research: moderation effects, natural clinical experiments, and complex treatment-by-subgroup interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Ty A; Wittenborn, Andrea K; Raiff, Bethany R; Benedict, Neal; Kane-Gill, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A critical juncture in translation research involves the preliminary studies of intervention tools, provider training programs, policies, and other mechanisms used to leverage knowledge garnered at one translation stage into another stage. Potentially useful for such studies are rigorous techniques for conducting within-subject clinical trials, which have advanced incrementally over the last decade. However, these methods have largely not been utilized within prevention or translation contexts. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the flexibility, wide applicability, and rigor of idiographic clinical trials for preliminary testing of intervention mechanisms. Specifically demonstrated are novel uses of state-space modeling for testing intervention mechanisms of short-term outcomes, identifying heterogeneity in and moderation of within-person treatment mechanisms, a horizontal line plot to refine sampling design during the course of a clinic-based experimental study, and the need to test a treatment's efficacy as treatment is administered along with (e.g., traditional 12-month outcomes).

  17. The early career researcher's toolkit:translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Patel, Asha K.; Barnes, Amanda L.; Adams, Christopher F.; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in...

  18. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master’s Degree Programs

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of masters-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs.

  19. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  20. Translational research to improve the treatment of severe extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kate V; Penn-Barwell, J G; Rand, B C; Wenke, J C

    2014-06-01

    Severe extremity injuries are the most significant injury sustained in combat wounds. Despite optimal clinical management, non-union and infection remain common complications. In a concerted effort to dovetail research efforts, there has been a collaboration between the UK and USA, with British military surgeons conducting translational studies under the auspices of the US Institute of Surgical Research. This paper describes 3 years of work. A variety of studies were conducted using, and developing, a previously validated rat femur critical-sized defect model. Timing of surgical debridement and irrigation, different types of irrigants and different means of delivery of antibiotic and growth factors for infection control and to promote bone healing were investigated. Early debridement and irrigation were independently shown to reduce infection. Normal saline was the most optimal irrigant, superior to disinfectant solutions. A biodegradable gel demonstrated superior antibiotic delivery capabilities than standard polymethylmethacrylate beads. A polyurethane scaffold was shown to have the ability to deliver both antibiotics and growth factors. The importance of early transit times to Role 3 capabilities for definitive surgical care has been underlined. Novel and superior methods of antibiotic and growth factor delivery, compared with current clinical standards of care, have been shown. There is the potential for translation to clinical studies to promote infection control and bone healing in these devastating injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Translational research in oncology: Implications for palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunangshu Ghoshal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The label “translational research” (TR has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the laboratory bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the benefits of its investments in scientific research. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable acceleration in the pace of translational cancer medicine – genome sequencing of various human cancers has been broadly deployed in drug discovery programs, diagnostic tests have been developed to predict molecularly targeted anticancer agents, advent of cancer immunotherapies, an enhanced appreciation of the complex interactions that exist between tumor cells and their microenvironment have revolutionized the management of cancers. Treatment for cancer and palliative care (PC go hand in hand and the role of TR in PC can no longer be ignored. This paper discusses about the scientific discourse of TR in cancer care and its implications for the practice of PC. It starts with a brief reconstruction of the history of the concept and subsequently unravels how the label is used in clinical/research practice. In conclusion, TR seems to be driven by a changed relationship between science and society. “Translation” has become important because society is thought to deserve a tangible return in terms of health and quality of life on its investment in basic biomedical science.

  2. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  3. Translating a child care based intervention for online delivery: development and randomized pilot study of Go NAPSACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S. Ward

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of childhood obesity prevention initiatives, Early Care and Education (ECE programs are being asked to implement evidence-based strategies that promote healthier eating and physical activity habits in children. Translation of evidence-based interventions into real world ECE settings often encounter barriers, including time constraints, lack of easy-to-use tools, and inflexible intervention content. This study describes translation of an evidence-based program (NAPSACC into an online format (Go NAPSACC and a randomized pilot study evaluating its impact on centers’ nutrition environments. Methods Go NAPSACC retained core elements and implementation strategies from the original program, but translated tools into an online, self-directed format using extensive input from the ECE community. For the pilot, local technical assistance (TA agencies facilitated recruitment of 33 centers, which were randomized to immediate (intervention, n = 18 or delayed (control, n = 15 access groups. Center directors were oriented on Go NAPSACC tools by their local TA providers (after being trained by researchers, after which they implemented Go NAPSACC independently with minimal TA support. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument (self-report, collected prior to and following the 4-month intervention period, was used to assess impact on centers’ nutrition environments. Process data were also collected from a sample of directors and all TA providers to evaluate program usability and implementation. Results Demographic characteristics of intervention and control centers were similar. Two centers did not complete follow-up measures, leaving 17 intervention and 14 control centers in the analytic sample. Between baseline and follow-up, intervention centers improved overall nutrition scores (Cohen’s d effect size = 0.73, p = 0.15, as well as scores for foods (effect size = 0.74, p = 0

  4. No longer lost in translation: the art and science of sports injury prevention implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2011-12-01

    It is now understood that sports injury interventions will not have significant public health impact if they are not widely accepted and adopted by target sports participants. Although there has been increasing recognition of the need for intervention studies conducted within the real-world context of sports delivery, very few studies have been conducted in this important area. A major reason for this is that there are significant challenges in conducting implementation research; the more traditional sports medicine approaches may not be fully appropriate and new ways of thinking about how to design, conduct and report such research is needed. Moreover, real-world implementation of sports injury interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness needs to start to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced, as well as considering the best way to translate this knowledge to reach the audiences who most need to benefit from such research. This overview paper provides perspectives and guidance on the design, conduct and evaluation of sports injury intervention implementation studies, including better understanding of the complexity of the ecological settings for intervention delivery. Some conceptual approaches that could be adopted in future implementation studies are discussed; particular emphasis is given to intervention mapping as a tool to assist intervention development, diffusion of innovations theory to guide the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework for programme evaluation and programme design. Finally, a broad agenda for this emerging important field of sports medicine research is outlined.

  5. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  6. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  7. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  8. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... such as how to deal with intellectual property rights (‘IPRs’) that might arise out of the collection and use of samples and data in research. Only a few projects highlighted the opportunities and potential benefits of user-generated solutions and proper governance of IPRs. This paper aims to provide...... an overview and analysis of the most relevant IPRs in biobanking and to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an effective use of biobanks in translational research and innovation. Section 1 specifies challenges in finding a balance between an open and a close collaboration model. Section 2...

  9. Reorganizing the General Clinical Research Center to improve the clinical and translational research enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Ripley, Elizabeth; Coe, Antoinette; Clore, John

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) was granted a Clinical and Translational Science Award which prompted reorganization and expansion of their clinical research infrastructure. A case study approach is used to describe the implementation of a business and cost recovery model for clinical and translational research and the transformation of VCU's General Clinical Research Center and Clinical Trials Office to a combined Clinical Research Services entity. We outline the use of a Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle that facilitated a thoughtful transition process, which included the identification of required changes and cost recovery processes for implementation. Through this process, the VCU Center for Clinical and Translational Research improved efficiency, increased revenue recovered, reduced costs, and brought a high level of fiscal responsibility through financial reporting.

  10. The Afrikaans Bible translations and apartheid: research | Naude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second translation of the Afrikaans Bible goes pari passu with acquiescent social consciousness among the Afrikaners. This translation as a target text oriented translation introduces a new vocabulary of reconciliation, clearly apparent from the quotes contained in the document on church and society. The strategies of ...

  11. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  12. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  13. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  14. Understanding mechanisms of autoimmunity through translational research in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, James P; Harris, John E

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that leads to life-altering depigmentation and remains difficult to treat. However, clinical observations and translational studies over 30-40 years have led to the development of an insightful working model of disease pathogenesis: Genetic risk spanning both immune and melanocyte functions is pushed over a threshold by known and suspected environmental factors to initiate autoimmune T cell-mediated killing of melanocytes. While under cellular stress, melanocytes appear to signal innate immunity to activate T cells. Once the autoimmune T cell response is established, the IFN-γ-STAT1-CXCL10 signaling axis becomes the primary inflammatory pathway driving both progression and maintenance of vitiligo. This pathway is a tempting target for both existing and developing pharmaceuticals, but further detailing how melanocytes signal their own demise may also lead to new therapeutic targets. Research in vitiligo may be the future key to understand the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmunity, as vitiligo is common, reversible, progresses over the life of the individual, has been relatively well-defined, and is quite easy to study using translational and clinical approaches. What is revealed in these studies can lead to innovative treatments and also help elucidate the principles that underlie similar organ-specific autoimmune diseases, especially in cases where the target organ is less accessible. PMID:27764715

  15. Knowledge Translation Interventions to Improve the Timing of Dialysis Initiation: Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Elaine M T; Manns, Braden J; Garg, Amit X; Sood, Manish M; Kim, S Joseph; Naimark, David; Nesrallah, Gihad E; Soroka, Steven D; Beaulieu, Monica; Dixon, Stephanie; Alam, Ahsan; Tangri, Navdeep

    2016-01-01

    Early initiation of chronic dialysis (starting dialysis with higher vs lower kidney function) has risen rapidly in the past 2 decades in Canada and internationally, despite absence of established health benefits and higher costs. In 2014, a Canadian guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation, recommending an intent-to-defer approach, was published. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a knowledge translation intervention to promote the intent-to-defer approach in clinical practice. This study is a multicenter, 2-arm parallel, cluster randomized trial. The study involves 55 advanced chronic kidney disease clinics across Canada. Patients older than 18 years who are managed by nephrologists for more than 3 months, and initiate dialysis in the follow-up period are included in the study. Outcomes will be measured at the patient-level and enumerated within a cluster. Data on characteristics of each dialysis start will be determined by linkages with the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Primary outcomes include the proportion of patients who start dialysis early with an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and start dialysis in hospital as inpatients or in an emergency room setting. Secondary outcomes include the rate of change in early dialysis starts; rates of hospitalizations, deaths, and cost of predialysis care (wherever available); quarterly proportion of new starts; and acceptability of the knowledge translation materials. We randomized 55 multidisciplinary chronic disease clinics (clusters) in Canada to receive either an active knowledge translation intervention or no intervention for the uptake of the guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation. The active knowledge translation intervention consists of audit and feedback as well as patient- and provider-directed educational tools delivered at a comprehensive in-person medical detailing visit. Control clinics are only exposed to guideline

  16. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  17. Translational neonatology research: transformative encounters across species and disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2018-01-22

    This paper explores the laborious and intimate work of turning bodies of research animals into models of human patients. Based on ethnographic research in the interdisciplinary Danish research centre NEOMUNE, we investigate collaboration across species and disciplines, in research aiming at improving survival for preterm infants. NEOMUNE experimental studies on piglets evolved as a platform on which both basic and clinical scientists exercised professional authority. Guided by the field of multi-species research, we explore the social and material agency of research animals in the production of human health. Drawing on Anna Tsing's concept of "collaborative survival", we show that sharing the responsibility of the life and death of up to twenty-five preterm piglets fostered not only a collegial solidarity between basic and clinical scientists, but also a transformative cross-fertilization across species and disciplines-a productive "contamination"-facilitating the day-to-day survival of piglets, the academic survival of scientists and the promise of survival of preterm infants. Contamination spurred intertwined identity shifts that increased the porosity between the pig laboratory and the neonatal intensive care unit. Of particular significance was the ability of the research piglets to flexibly become animal-infant-patient hybrids in need of a united effort from basic and clinical researchers. However, 'hybrid pigs' also entailed a threat to the demarcation between humans and animals that consolidates the use of animals in biomedical research, and efforts were continuously done to keep contamination within spatial limits. We conclude that contamination facilitates transformative encounters, yet needs spatial containment to materialize bench-to-bedside translation.

  18. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  19. Research on Translation Strategy of English Subtitle Television Drama for College Students based on Cultural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Translation strategy is closely-tied with the translation of ESTD (English Subtitle Television Drama. The research of translation strategy is to serve translations of ESTD in earlier days. The 21 S century is the information times. The development of science and technology is quick. Quantities of ESTD grow explosively. Translations of English Subtitle Television Dramas play a significant role in the progress of Chinese science and technology. Although the quality of traditional manual translations is very good, the speed of translation is too slow. Traditional manual translations can not meet the need of translations of ESTD day by day. It is a new topic to face the new stern challenge and follow the development's steps of the times for technical translators. The paper will discuss the transformation of translation idea, and suggest carrying on translation strategy, web page translation and software translation. Finally, the author states her views on the implementation of computer assistant translation, the managements of translation projects and information-shared platform.

  20. Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication: Information Professionals Unlocking Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Kroth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC was held March 11-12, 2010 in Albuquerque, NM. The conference addressed the perceived gap in knowledge and training for scholarly communication principles in the National Institutes of Health (NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA Program. The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, it is hoped, to form new coalitions to address this topic at the local and national levels. This brief communication summarizes the need for theconference, highlights the general sessions in order of presentation, and introduces the EBSCC research papers appearing in this issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP. It also includes a description of a unique peer-review process methodology pioneered at EBSCC.

  1. Some experiences and opportunities for big data in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Christopher G; Ullman-Cullere, Mollie; Wood, Grant M; Lin, Simon M; He, Min; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-10-01

    Health care has become increasingly information intensive. The advent of genomic data, integrated into patient care, significantly accelerates the complexity and amount of clinical data. Translational research in the present day increasingly embraces new biomedical discovery in this data-intensive world, thus entering the domain of "big data." The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics consortium has taught us many lessons, while simultaneously advances in commodity computing methods enable the academic community to affordably manage and process big data. Although great promise can emerge from the adoption of big data methods and philosophy, the heterogeneity and complexity of clinical data, in particular, pose additional challenges for big data inferencing and clinical application. However, the ultimate comparability and consistency of heterogeneous clinical information sources can be enhanced by existing and emerging data standards, which promise to bring order to clinical data chaos. Meaningful Use data standards in particular have already simplified the task of identifying clinical phenotyping patterns in electronic health records.

  2. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  3. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  4. Reengineering the National Clinical and Translational Research Enterprise: The Strategic Plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E.; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R.; Califf, Robert M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process in turn depends upon observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public-health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation’s academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding. To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006, the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program’s overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation’s academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  5. Adaptation and translation of mental health interventions in Middle Eastern Arab countries: a systematic review of barriers to and strategies for effective treatment implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin E; Schwalbe, Craig S; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Olimat, Hmoud S; Al-Makhamreh, Sahar S; Mian, Irfan; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2013-11-01

    All too often, efficacious psychosocial evidence-based interventions fail when adapted from one culture to another. International translation requires a deep understanding of the local culture, nuanced differences within a culture, established service practices, and knowledge of obstacles and promoters to treatment implementation. This research investigated the following objectives to better facilitate cultural adaptation and translation of psychosocial and mental health treatments in Arab countries: (1) identify barriers or obstacles; (2) identify promoting strategies; and (3) provide clinical and research recommendations. This systematic review of 22 psychosocial or mental health studies in Middle East Arab countries identified more barriers (68%) than promoters (32%) to effective translation and adaptation of empirically supported psychosocial interventions. Identified barriers include obstacles related to acceptability of the intervention within the cultural context, community and system difficulties, and problems with clinical engagement processes. Whereas identified promoter strategies centre on the importance of partnering and working within the local and cultural context, the need to engage with acceptable and traditional intervention characteristics, and the development of culturally appropriate treatment strategies and techniques. Although Arab cultures across the Middle East are unique, this article provides a series of core clinical and research recommendations to assist effective treatment adaptation and translation within Arab communities in the Middle East.

  6. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  7. A cognitive profile of obesity and its translation into new interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eJansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Change your lifestyle: decrease your energy intake and increase your energy expenditure, is what obesity experts tell people who need to lose weight. Though the advice might be correct, it appears to be extremely difficult to change one’s lifestyle. Unhealthy habits usually are ingrained and hard to change, especially for people with an ‘obese cognitive profile’. Knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that maintain unhealthy eating habits is necessary for the development of interventions that can change behavior effectively. This paper discusses some cognitive processes that might maintain unhealthy eating habits and make healthier eating difficult, like increased food cue reactivity, weak executive skills and attention bias. An effort is also done to translate these basic scientific findings into new interventions which aim to tackle the sabotaging cognitive processes. Preliminary studies into the effectiveness of these interventions, if available, are presented.

  8. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  9. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 49

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  10. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 48

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  11. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 53

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  12. A Clinical Trial of Translation of Evidence Based Interventions to Mobile Tablets and Illness Specific Internet Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Carol E; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Thompson, Noreen; Hooper, Dedrick; Nelson, Eve-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method to translate an evidence based health care intervention to the mobile environment. This translation assisted patient participants to: avoid life threatening infections; monitor emotions and fatigue; keep involved in healthy activities. The mobile technology also decreased costs by reducing for example travel to visit health care providers. Testing of this translation method and its use by comparison groups of patients adds to the knowledge base for assessing te...

  13. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of mentoring as a knowledge translation intervention for implementing empirical evidence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals' use of evidence in clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners' knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals' behaviors and impact on practitioners' and patients' outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect of mentoring. Further research is needed to identify effective

  15. Measuring the Effectiveness of Mentoring as a Knowledge Translation Intervention for Implementing Empirical Evidence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. Aim To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals’ use of evidence in clinical practice. Methods A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners’ knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals’ behaviors and impact on practitioners’ and patients’ outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Linking Evidence to Action Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect

  16. Researchers and the translational reality. Interview with Karen Aboody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboody, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Karen Aboody has first-hand experience of taking a potential therapy from the laboratory into clinical trials. Here, she shares with us the challenges and rewards of going from bench to bedside, and why all biomedical researchers need to know what it takes to make the transition if they want the best chance of seeing their discoveries used to help patients. Karen Aboody received her MD at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and completed her post-doctoral training in Molecular Neurogenetics at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. After gaining experience in pathology, gene therapy and biotechnology, she joined City of Hope (COH) in 2003 to head a translational research laboratory focused on therapeutic stem cell applications for invasive and metastatic solid tumors. In 2010, she received US FDA approval for a first-in-human clinical trial for neural stem cell-mediated therapy for high-grade glioma patients. This Phase I study is ongoing at COH, supported by NCI/NIH funding. In 2010, she received an US$18 million California Institute of Regenerative Medicine Disease Team Award to develop a second-generation enzyme/prodrug stem cell-mediated brain tumor therapy for clinical trials that may also have applications for other metastatic cancers. Honors include the 2000 AANS Young Investigator Award, and 2008 ASGCT Outstanding New Investigator Award. She recently founded a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, TheraBiologics Inc., to support clinical development of neural stem cell-mediated cancer therapies.

  17. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  18. Changing the Translational Research Landscape: A Review of the Impacts of Biomedical Research Units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Soper, Bryony; Ismail, Sharif; Reding, Anais; Ling, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a review of the Biomedical Research Units (BRU) scheme, undertaken for the Department of Health. This review was a perceptions audit of senior executives involved in the scheme, and explored what impact they felt the scheme is having on the translational research landscape. More specifically, we investigated whether and how institutional relationships between NHS and academic partners, industry and other health research system players are changing because of the scheme; how the scheme is helping build critical mass in specific priority disease areas; and the effects of any changes on efforts to deliver the broader goals set out in Best Research for Best Health. The views presented are those of study informants only. The information obtained through our interviews suggests that the BRU scheme is significantly helping shape the health research system to pursue translational research and innovation, with the clear goal of realising patient benefit. The BRUs are already contributing to observable changes in institutional relationships between the NHS and academic partners: trusts and medical schools are collaborating more closely than in the past, have signed up to the same vision of translational research from bench to bedside, and are managing and governing targeted research resources more professionally and transparently than in the past. There is also a stronger emphasis on engaging industry and more strategic thinking about strengthening regional and national collaboration with other hospital trusts, PCTs, research organisations, networks and development agencies. The scheme is also transforming capacity building in the health research system. This includes (i) developing and modernising facilities and equipment for translation; (ii) building a critical mass of human resources through recruitment and training, as well as improving retention of existing expertise; and (iii) helping ensure a steady flow of funds needed to sustain research

  19. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  20. Roles of contract research organizations in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shu Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitional medicine/science is shifting the medical research paradigm from compound-based to evidence-based drug/device discovery. It is increasing interdisciplinary collaborations, enhancing usage of advanced technologies, and facilitating therapeutics reaching patients faster. The fundamental theme of evidence-based discovery is to apply what is revealed in preclinical experimentation and to bring the resulting safety and efficacy to clinics. In the medical fields, a contract research organization (CRO works like a hired agent who has corresponding knowledge and experience to conduct and complete tasks for a sponsor. The relationship is business, and the contract is for deliverables. The increasingly high volume of sponsored outsourcing work has made this for-profit business boom in the past decade. Location boundaries are being blurred under globalization in the sciences and cross-border regulatory reviews. Getting from bench to bedside is a winding road with many obstacles and high hurdles. Efficient teamwork becomes essential to materialize ideas and bring them to the market. The professionals within team communities include drug/device makers and CROs. It has become increasingly obvious that CROs play pivotal roles in the chain of discovery/design, developing product to market through in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo testing during preclinical experimentations and clinical trials. Project management teams are responsible for nurturing the materialization in a collaborative manner and enhancing the productivity of the pipelines. CROs have many functional aspects and specialties, and no one organization is fully capable of serving, i.e., integrated services, with expertise in each step of the chain to the needs of a variety of sponsors. Instead of competition among the CROs themselves, the continuously expanding market demands can be shared by Expertise-Based Integrated Services among allied CROs, in contrast to the few large CROs

  1. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  2. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program: protocol for a program of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys; theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  3. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  4. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  5. A community translational research pilot grants program to facilitate community--academic partnerships: lessons from Colorado's clinical translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Deborah S; Felzien, Maret C; Magid, David J; Calonge, B Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community-academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community- academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.

  6. Translational Environmental Research: Improving the Usefulness and Usability of Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, requests for proposals more frequently emphasize outreach to stakeholder communities, decision support, and science that serves societal needs. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and Western States Water Council emphasize the need for science translation and outreach, in order to address societal concerns with climate extremes, such as drought, the use of climate predictions, and the growing challenges of climate change. In the 1990s, the NOAA Climate Program Office developed its Regional Integrated Sciences and Asssessments program to help bridge the gap between climate science (notably, seasonal predictions) and society, to improve the flow of information to stakeholders, and to increase the relevance of climate science to inform decisions. During the same time period, the National Science Foundation initiated multi-year Science and Technology Centers and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Centers, with similar goals, but different metrics of success. Moreover, the combination of population growth, climate change, and environmental degradation has prompted numerous research initiatives on linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. This presentation reviews various models and methodologies for translating science results from field, lab, or modeling work to use by society. Lessons and approaches from cooperative extension, boundary organizations, co-production of science and policy, and medical translational research are examined. In particular, multi-step translation as practiced within the health care community is examined. For example, so- called "T1" (translation 1) research moves insights from basic science to clinical research; T2 research evaluates the effectiveness of clinical practice, who benefits from promising care regimens, and develops tools for clinicians, patients, and policy makers. T3 activities test the implementation, delivery, and spread of research results and clinical practices in order to foster

  7. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bieback

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed.

  8. Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0026 TITLE: Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium PRINCIPAL...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Consortium 5b. GRANT...mTBI) Translational Research Consortium was to improve the diagnosis and treatment of mTBI. We enrolled a total of 88 mTBI patients and 73 orthopedic

  9. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEINA LI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc.

  10. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  11. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  12. Foundations of intervention research in instrumental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A two-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy’s bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs.

  13. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  14. Intervention Studies in Suicide Prevention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To

  15. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  16. The BeUpstanding ProgramTM: Scaling up the Stand Up Australia Workplace Intervention for Translation into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve N Healy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context and purpose: Too much sitting is now recognised as a common risk factor for several health outcomes, with the workplace identified as a key setting in which to address prolonged sitting time. The Stand Up Australia intervention was designed to reduce prolonged sitting in the workplace by addressing influences at multiple-levels, including the organisation, the environment, and the individual. Intervention success has been achieved within the context of randomised controlled trials, where research staff deliver several of the key intervention components. This study describes the initial step in the multi-phase process of scaling up the Stand Up Australia intervention for workplace translation. Methods: A research-government partnership was critical in funding and informing the prototype for the scaled up BeUpstanding programTM. Evidence, protocols and materials from Stand Up Australia were adapted in collaboration with funding partner Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to ensure consistency and compatibility with existing government frameworks and resources. In recognition of the key role of workplace champions in facilitating workplace health promotion programs, the BeUpstanding programTM is designed to be delivered through a stand-alone, free, website-based toolkit using a 'train the champion' approach. Key findings and significance: The BeUpstanding programTM was influenced by the increasing recognition of prolonged sitting as an emerging health issue as well as industry demand. The research-government partnership was critical in informing and resourcing the development of the scaled-up program.

  17. Research Translation Strategies to Improve the Readability of Workplace Health Promotion Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…

  18. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  19. Improving research questionnaires by means of intralingual translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    all instances of summarising by means of intralingual translation related to the parameter of space. Annotated publications are a good example of the extension of text that this parameter encompasses. I would like to suggest that the “physical space of the text” also includes its layout and visual organisation on the page.

  20. Translating child development research into practice: Can teachers foster children's theory of mind in primary school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Translating research findings into practice should be one of the objectives of developmental psychology. Recently, research demonstrated the existence of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM) during middle childhood that are crucial for children's academic and social adjustment. This study aims to transfer the results of recent experimental studies on ToM interventions into primary-school teachers' practices. It examines whether a ToM training programme, based on conversations about mental states, can be effective under real-world school conditions and if it can be translated in such a way that it becomes suitable for primary-school teachers. Seventy-two 8- to 9-year-old children took part in the study. A total of four classes were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental (34 children, 18 boys) or to the control condition (38 children, 18 boys). The ToM group and the control group were matched at pre-test for age, ToM, socio-economic background, verbal ability, working memory, and planning. Teachers were trained in four teacher-training sessions; the classroom-training programme was delivered by teachers in four sessions (each 50 min long). Children were assessed before the intervention, after the end of the programme, and 2 months later. The ToM group improved ToM skills significantly more than the control group both in the short and in the long term. Teachers can successfully promote their pupils' ToM development during their regular teaching hours. Results are discussed in the light of the importance of ToM promotion for children's school adjustment. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. [Progress in research of mobile health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Ning, P S; Cheng, P X; Hu, G Q

    2016-10-10

    With the rapid development of mobile communication technology and the growing popularity of smartphones worldwide, mobile health has become an extension of e-Health and Tele-Health, and is of value in the research and practice of public health. In this paper, we systematically assessed research literature of mobile health' s application on disease prevention and control as well as health promotion. Based on the characteristics of current literature, this paper focused on the application of mobile health in maternal health promotion, chronic disease management, and communicable disease prevention and control to provide reference for the mobile health intervention research in China.

  2. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  3. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  4. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group......, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use....

  6. Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication: Information Professionals Unlocking Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Kroth; Holly E. Phillips; Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC) was held March 11-12, 2010 in Albuquerque, NM. The conference addressed the perceived gap in knowledge and training for scholarly communication principles in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program. The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and...

  7. The applicability of Lean and Six Sigma techniques to clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhart, Sharon A; Dembe, Allard E

    2009-10-01

    Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma in improving the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research and the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Award program. This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methods used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Examples of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current Clinical and Translational Science Award site are provided, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particular translational research phases. Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods are well suited to help achieve NIH's goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice.

  8. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  10. Data Integration Tool: From Permafrost Data Translation Research Tool to A Robust Research Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, H.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Strawhacker, C.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Thurmes, N.

    2016-12-01

    The United States National Science Foundation funded PermaData project led by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) with a team from the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) aimed to improve permafrost data access and discovery. We developed a Data Integration Tool (DIT) to significantly speed up the time of manual processing needed to translate inconsistent, scattered historical permafrost data into files ready to ingest directly into the GTN-P. We leverage this data to support science research and policy decisions. DIT is a workflow manager that divides data preparation and analysis into a series of steps or operations called widgets. Each widget does a specific operation, such as read, multiply by a constant, sort, plot, and write data. DIT allows the user to select and order the widgets as desired to meet their specific needs. Originally it was written to capture a scientist's personal, iterative, data manipulation and quality control process of visually and programmatically iterating through inconsistent input data, examining it to find problems, adding operations to address the problems, and rerunning until the data could be translated into the GTN-P standard format. Iterative development of this tool led to a Fortran/Python hybrid then, with consideration of users, licensing, version control, packaging, and workflow, to a publically available, robust, usable application. Transitioning to Python allowed the use of open source frameworks for the workflow core and integration with a javascript graphical workflow interface. DIT is targeted to automatically handle 90% of the data processing for field scientists, modelers, and non-discipline scientists. It is available as an open source tool in GitHub packaged for a subset of Mac, Windows, and UNIX systems as a desktop application with a graphical workflow manager. DIT was used to completely translate one dataset (133 sites) that was successfully added to GTN-P, nearly translate three datasets

  11. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  12. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  13. A therapist-focused knowledge translation intervention for improving patient adherence in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Folarin Omoniyi; MacDermid, Joy Christine; MacIntyre, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Nonadherence to treatment remains high among patients with musculoskeletal conditions with negative impact on the treatment outcomes, use of personal and cost of care. An active knowledge translation (KT) strategy may be an effective strategy to support practice change. The purpose of this study was to deliver a brief, interactive, multifaceted and targeted KT program to improve physiotherapist knowledge and confidence in performing adherence enhancing activities related to risk, barriers, assessment and interventions. We utilised a 2-phase approach in this KT project. Phase 1 involved the development of an adherence tool kit following a synthesis of the literature and an iterative process involving 47 end-users. Clinicians treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited from two Physiotherapy and Occupational therapy national conferences in Canada. The intervention, based on the acronym SIMPLE TIPS was tested on 51 physiotherapists in phase 2. A pre- and post-repeated measures design was used in Phase 2. Graham's knowledge-to-action cycle was used as the conceptual framework. Participants completed a pre-intervention assessment, took part in a 1-h educational session and completed a post-intervention assessment. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of evidence-based treatment adherence barriers, interventions and measures and confidence to perform evidence-based adherence practice activities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage), Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked tests. Barriers and facilitators of adherence were identified under three domains (therapist, patient, health system) in phase 1. Seventy percent of the participants completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that 46.8% of respondents explored barriers including the use of behaviour change strategies and 45.7% reported that they measured adherence but none reported the use of validated outcomes. A significant improvement in

  14. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  15. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  16. The importance of rat social behavior for translational research : An ethological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.

    2018-01-01

    At present, the preclinical research interest in rodent social behavior is focused on its use as readout parameter in animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders (‘translational research’). However, there are some major limitations that hamper progress. Pivotal is the limited translational value of

  17. Research Strategies for Academic Medical Centers: A Framework for Advancements toward Translational Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Rand; Champagne, Thomas J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This review article presents a simplified framework for thinking about research strategy priorities for academic medical centers (AMCs). The framework can serve as a precursor to future advancements in translational medicine and as a set of planning guideposts toward ultimate translational excellence. While market pressures, reform uncertainties,…

  18. Translational Neuroscience as a Tool for Intervention Development in the Context of High-Adversity Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of theory-driven models to develop and evaluate family-based intervention programs has a long history in psychology. Some of the first evidence-based parenting programs to address child problem behavior, developed in the 1970s, were grounded in causal models derived from longitudinal developmental research. The same translational…

  19. Translations of Developmental Screening Instruments: An Evidence Map of Available Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Neger, Emily N; Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children whose parents do not speak English experience significant disparities in the identification of developmental delays and disorders; however, little is known about the availability and validity of translations of developmental screeners. The goal was to create a map of the scientific evidence regarding translations of the 9 Academy of Pediatrics-recommended screening instruments into languages other than English. The authors conducted a systematic search of Medline and PsycINFO, references of identified articles, publishers' Web sites, and official manuals. Through evidence mapping, a new methodology supported by AHRQ and the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors documented the extent and distribution of published evidence supporting translations of developmental screeners. Data extraction focused on 3 steps of the translation and validation process: (1) translation methods used, (2) collection of normative data in the target language, and (3) evidence for reliability and validity. The authors identified 63 distinct translations among the 9 screeners, of which 44 had supporting evidence published in peer-reviewed sources. Of the 63 translations, 35 had at least some published evidence regarding translation methods used, 28 involving normative data, and 32 regarding reliability and/or construct validity. One-third of the translations found were of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Specific methods used varied greatly across screeners, as did the level of detail with which results were reported. Few developmental screeners have been translated into many languages. Evidence map of the authors demonstrates considerable variation in both the amount and the comprehensiveness of information available about translated instruments. Informal guidelines exist for conducting translation of psychometric instruments but not for documentation of this process. The authors propose that uniform guidelines be established for reporting translation research in peer

  20. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  1. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  2. Using a Historical Lens to Envision the Next Generation of Genomic Translation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Abrams, Leah R; Koehly, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed successive and exponential advances in genomic discovery and technology, with a broad scientific imperative pushing for continual advancements. The most consistent critique of these advances is that they have vastly outpaced translation of new knowledge into improvements in public health and medicine. We employ a historical and epistemological analysis to characterize how prevailing scientific meta-narratives have shaped the pace and priorities of research applying genomics to health promotion. We use four 'pivotal events' - the genetic characterization of Down syndrome, the launch of the Human Genome Research Project, the discovery of BRCA1, and the emergence of direct-to- consumer genetic testing - to illustrate how these scientific meta-narratives have inhibited genomic translation research. The notion that discovery should precede translation research has over-focused translation research on the latest genetic testing platform. The idea that genetic-related research has an exceptional potential for public harm has encouraged research on worst case scenarios. The perceived competition between genetics and social determinants of health has discouraged a unified research agenda to move genomic translation forward. We make a case for creating new scientific meta-narratives in which discovery and translation research agendas are envisioned as an interdependent enterprise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Translation of questionnaires into Arabic in cross-cultural research: techniques and equivalence issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-10-01

    To describe the translation process of nursing instruments into Arabic and discuss the equivalence issues arising from this process. Review of the literature. The Arabic language is essentially three different languages: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic (fuS-Ha or MSA); and colloquial Arabic (Lahja A'mmeya), which is itself divided into five different regional Arabic dialects. The Arabic fuS-Ha language is the dialect most widely used in the translation of instruments into Arabic. The literature reveals that only a few studies focused on the linguistic issues in the translation of instruments into Arabic. Brislin's back-translation emerged as the most common method widely used by researchers in studies with Arabic-speaking subjects, but not the perfect one. Linguistic issues in nursing research have not been sufficiently described and discussed in the context of Arabic language and culture. Although there is no standard guideline for instrument translation, the combined translation model is the most recommended procedure to use in cross-cultural research. Linguistic differences between the source culture and the target Arabic culture should be taken into account. Finally, we recommend the use of the fuS-Ha dialect and trilingual translators in the translation of nursing instruments into Arabic.

  4. A knowledge translation intervention to enhance clinical application of a virtual reality system in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Sveistrup, Heidi; Colquhoun, Heather; Miller, Patricia A; Finestone, Hillel; DePaul, Vincent; Harris, Jocelyn E; Velikonja, Diana

    2016-10-06

    Despite increasing evidence for the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR)-based therapy in stroke rehabilitation, few knowledge translation (KT) resources exist to support clinical integration. KT interventions addressing known barriers and facilitators to VR use are required. When environmental barriers to VR integration are less amenable to change, KT interventions can target modifiable barriers related to therapist knowledge and skills. A multi-faceted KT intervention was designed and implemented to support physical and occupational therapists in two stroke rehabilitation units in acquiring proficiency with use of the Interactive Exercise Rehabilitation System (IREX; GestureTek). The KT intervention consisted of interactive e-learning modules, hands-on workshops and experiential practice. Evaluation included the Assessing Determinants of Prospective Take Up of Virtual Reality (ADOPT-VR) Instrument and self-report confidence ratings of knowledge and skills pre- and post-study. Usability of the IREX was measured with the System Usability Scale (SUS). A focus group gathered therapist experiences. Frequency of IREX use was recorded for 6 months post-study. Eleven therapists delivered a total of 107 sessions of VR-based therapy to 34 clients with stroke. On the ADOPT-VR, significant pre-post improvements in therapist perceived behavioral control (p = 0.003), self-efficacy (p = 0.005) and facilitating conditions (p =0.019) related to VR use were observed. Therapist intention to use VR did not change. Knowledge and skills improved significantly following e-learning completion (p = 0.001) and was sustained 6 months post-study. Below average perceived usability of the IREX (19 th percentile) was reported. Lack of time was the most frequently reported barrier to VR use. A decrease in frequency of perceived barriers to VR use was not significant (p = 0.159). Two therapists used the IREX sparingly in the 6 months following the study. Therapists reported

  5. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  6. Research methodological issues in evaluating herbal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipika Bansal, Debasish Hota, Amitava ChakrabartiPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence, and is seen as the gold standard for allopathic research. Herbal therapies are not an integral part of conventional care although they are still used by patients in their health care management. These medicines need to be subjected to rigorous research to establish their effectiveness and safety. Clearly defined treatments are required and should be recorded in a manner that enables other suitably trained researchers to reproduce them reliably. Quality control of herbal products is also a prerequisite of credible clinical trials. Methodological strategies for investigating the herbal interventions and the issues regarding appropriate patient selection, randomization and blinding, placebo effects and choice of comparator, occupational standardization and the selection of appropriate study endpoints to prove efficacy are being discussed. This paper will review research options and propose some suggestions for future research design.Keywords: CAM research, herbal therapies, methodology, clinical trial

  7. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the

  8. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

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    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  9. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  10. Moving Forward in Childhood Obesity Treatment: A Call for Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…

  11. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ; (9) developing interventions and support to improve the survivorship experience; (10) a continuing need for clinical material for translational research derived from normal breast, blood, primary, relapsed, metastatic and drug-resistant cancers with expert bioinformatics support to maximise its utility. The proposed infrastructural enablers include enhanced resources to support clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo tumour models; improved access to appropriate, fully annotated clinical samples; extended biomarker discovery, validation and standardisation; and facilitated cross-discipline working. Conclusions With resources to conduct further high-quality targeted research focusing on the gaps identified, increased knowledge translating into improved clinical care should be achievable within five years. PMID:24286369

  12. Education in health research methodology: use of a wiki for knowledge translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Hamm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.

  13. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Robinson, Tracy Elizabeth; Provan, Pamela; Shaw, Tim

    2016-06-29

    The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration.

  14. Leptin in humans: lessons from translational research1234

    OpenAIRE

    Blüher, Susann; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2009-01-01

    Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone in not only the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure but also in the regulation of neuroendocrine and immune function as well as the modulation of glucose and fat metabolism as shown by numerous observational and interventional studies in humans with (complete) congenital or relative leptin deficiency. These results have led to proof-of-concept studies that have investigated the effect of leptin administration in subjects wi...

  15. Information technology for clinical, translational and comparative effectiveness research. Findings from the section clinical research informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2013-01-01

    To summarize advances of excellent current research in the new emerging field of Clinical Research Informatics. Synopsis of four key articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2013. The selection was performed by querying PubMed and Web of Science with predefined keywords. From the original set of 590 papers, a first subset of 461 articles which was in the scope of Clinical Research Informatics was refined into a second subset of 79 relevant articles from which 15 articles were retained for peer-review. The four selected articles exemplify current research efforts conducted in the areas of data representation and management in clinical trials, secondary use of EHR data for clinical research, information technology platforms for translational and comparative effectiveness research and implementation of privacy control. The selected articles not only illustrate how innovative information technology supports classically organized randomized controlled trials but also demonstrate that the long promised benefits of electronic health care data for research are becoming a reality through concrete platforms and projects.

  16. Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Madeleine J.; Minion, Joel T.; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C.; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W.; Burton, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement i...

  18. Work site health promotion research: to what extent can we generalize the results and what is needed to translate research to practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana Salyers; Gillette, Cynthia; Glasgow, Russell E; Estabrooks, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Information on external validity of work site health promotion research is essential to translate research findings to practice. The authors provide a literature review of work site health behavior interventions. Using the RE-AIM framework, they summarize characteristics and results of these studies to document reporting of intervention reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. The authors reviewed a total of 24 publications from 11 leading health behavior journals. They found that participation rates among eligible employees were reported in 87.5% of studies; only 25% of studies reported on intervention adoption. Data on characteristics of participants versus nonparticipants were reported in fewer than 10% of studies. Implementation data were reported in 12.5% of the studies. Only 8% of studies reported any type of maintenance data. Stronger emphasis is needed on representativeness of employees, work site settings studied, and longer term results. Examples of how this can be done are provided.

  19. Translational research needs us to go back to basics and collaborate: interview with Lars Sundstrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Lars Sundstrom is Director of Enterprise and Translation at the West of England Academic Health Sciences Network [1] (UK), a Professor of Practice in Translational Medicine and Co-Director of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research at Bristol University [2] (UK), and an honorary Professor of Medicine at Cardiff University (UK). He has extensive experience in translational medicine and clinical neurosciences, holding positions at several eminent universities. He has also held executive and board-level positions at several SMEs, developing new therapeutics for neurological conditions and tools for drug discovery. He has also been an advisor to several UK and local government task forces and to the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations. He was a founding member of the European Brain Council in Brussels, and set up the Severnside Alliance for Translational Research, developing a regional network partnership to link clinical and basic scientists. He was also involved in the creation of Health Research Wales.

  20. Was that Infinity or Affinity? Applying Insights from Translation Studies to Qualitative Research Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Ross

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a small but compelling body of literature arguing that transcription represents a key moment of choice and the exercise of power in the research process, many qualitative researchers appear to believe (or at least proceed as if they believe that transcription is relatively unproblematic. Translation studies and its engagement with visibility, power, authenticity and fidelity has a lot to offer to qualitative researchers working critically with transcription theory and practice. This paper explores the translation studies theories of equivalence, overt and covert translation, foreignisation and domestication, and the remainder, and demonstrates some fertile connections between transcription and translation. These connections help us to think about some broader political and cultural issues in relation to transcription and academic discourse, the complexity of equivalence and the central role of the situated transcriber. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100223

  1. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Translational research in kidney transplantation and the role of patient engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Janine F; Elliott, Meghan J; Silver, Samuel A; Lichner, Zsuzsanna; Tsampalieros, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is an evolving discipline that is intended to bridge the gaps between basic science research, clinical research, and implementation in clinical practice. It is a fluid, multidirectional process that requires strong interdisciplinary collaboration to produce research that is relevant to end-users. This review summarizes current perspectives on translational research and outlines its relevance and importance to kidney transplantation research. Sources of information used for this review include published reports, articles, and research funding websites. Tissue typing is used as an in-depth example of how translational research has been applied in the field of kidney transplant medicine, and how it has resulted in successful implementation of diagnostic and management options for sensitized individuals undergoing kidney transplantation. The value of actively involving kidney transplant stakeholders (patients, caregivers, and clinicians) in setting research priorities and determining relevant outcomes for future investigation is also discussed. This is a narrative review of the literature which has been partly influenced by the perspectives and experiences of its authors. Translational and patient-oriented research practices should be incorporated into future research endeavours in the field of kidney transplantation in order to create beneficial change in clinical practice and improve patient outcomes. Translational research which engages patients in the investigative process can enhance the likelihood that medical discoveries will have a meaningful impact at the bedside. This article applies current perspectives on translational research and patient engagement to the field of kidney transplantation, illustrating how these approaches have led to significant advancements in the field. It provides further justification for deliberate, targeted efforts to cross-collaborate and incorporate the patient voice into kidney transplant research.

  3. Translating childhood tuberculosis case management research into operational policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, N; Hinderaker, S G; Baloch, N A; Enarson, D A; Khan, M A; Morkve, O

    2011-08-01

    The control of childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been of low priority in TB programmes in high-burden settings. The objective of this paper was to describe the development and testing of tools for the management of childhood TB. The Pakistan National TB Control Programme embarked on a number of activities, including the establishment of policy guidelines for the management of childhood TB and later a guidance document, 'Case Management Desk Guide and Structured Monitoring', to demonstrate the implementation of childhood TB interventions in a programme context. Initial results showed improved case finding and treatment outcome in implementation sites compared with control districts. However, further programme attention is required to improve quality.

  4. Metabolomics and Type 2 Diabetes: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthias S; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its comorbidities have reached epidemic proportions, with more than half a billion cases expected by 2030. Metabolomics is a fairly new approach for studying metabolic changes connected to disease development and progression and for finding predictive biomarkers to enable early interventions, which are most effective against T2D and its comorbidities. In metabolomics, the abundance of a comprehensive set of small biomolecules (metabolites) is measured, thus giving insight into disease-related metabolic alterations. This review shall give an overview of basic metabolomics methods and will highlight current metabolomics research successes in the prediction and diagnosis of T2D. We summarized key metabolites changing in response to T2D. Despite large variations in predictive biomarkers, many studies have replicated elevated plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids and their derivatives, aromatic amino acids and α-hydroxybutyrate ahead of T2D manifestation. In contrast, glycine levels and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 are depressed in both predictive studies and with overt disease. The use of metabolomics for predicting T2D comorbidities is gaining momentum, as are our approaches for translating basic metabolomics research into clinical applications. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to enable informed decision-making in the realm of personalized medicine.

  5. Metabolomics and Type 2 Diabetes: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias S. Klein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D and its comorbidities have reached epidemic proportions, with more than half a billion cases expected by 2030. Metabolomics is a fairly new approach for studying metabolic changes connected to disease development and progression and for finding predictive biomarkers to enable early interventions, which are most effective against T2D and its comorbidities. In metabolomics, the abundance of a comprehensive set of small biomolecules (metabolites is measured, thus giving insight into disease-related metabolic alterations. This review shall give an overview of basic metabolomics methods and will highlight current metabolomics research successes in the prediction and diagnosis of T2D. We summarized key metabolites changing in response to T2D. Despite large variations in predictive biomarkers, many studies have replicated elevated plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids and their derivatives, aromatic amino acids and α-hydroxybutyrate ahead of T2D manifestation. In contrast, glycine levels and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 are depressed in both predictive studies and with overt disease. The use of metabolomics for predicting T2D comorbidities is gaining momentum, as are our approaches for translating basic metabolomics research into clinical applications. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to enable informed decision-making in the realm of personalized medicine.

  6. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Peter; Mavoa, Helen; Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marjory; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-04-26

    The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants' perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs) - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants' skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool "Is Research Working for You?" (IRWFY) was administered pre- and post-intervention. Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21-40 years, 69% middle-senior managers) participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied - just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d organizational-level change post-intervention. This study empirically evaluated a knowledge-broking program that aimed to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and development of a suite of national policy briefs designed to increase the enactment of obesity-related policies. The findings failed to indicate reliable improvements in research utilization at either

  7. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D

    2017-01-01

    in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given...

  8. An interdisciplinary knowledge translation intervention in long-term care: Study protocol for the vitamin D and osteoporosis study (ViDOS pilot cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Courtney C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT research in long-term care (LTC is still in its early stages. This protocol describes the evaluation of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention aimed at integrating evidence-based osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies into LTC care processes. Methods and design The Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS is underway in 40 LTC homes (n = 19 intervention, n = 21 control across Ontario, Canada. The primary objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility of delivering the KT intervention, and clinically, to increase the percent of LTC residents prescribed ≥800 IU of vitamin D daily. Eligibility criteria are LTC homes that are serviced by our partner pharmacy provider and have more than one prescribing physician. The target audience within each LTC home is the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC, an interdisciplinary team who meets quarterly. The key elements of the intervention are three interactive educational sessions led by an expert opinion leader, action planning using a quality improvement cycle, audit and feedback reports, nominated internal champions, and reminders/point-of-care tools. Control homes do not receive any intervention, however both intervention and control homes received educational materials as part of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. Primary outcomes are feasibility measures (recruitment, retention, attendance at educational sessions, action plan items identified and initiated, internal champions identified, performance reports provided and reviewed, and vitamin D (≥800 IU/daily prescribing at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of residents prescribed calcium supplements and osteoporosis medications, and falls and fractures. Qualitative methods will examine the experience of the LTC team with the KT intervention. Homes are centrally randomized to intervention and control groups in blocks of variable size using

  9. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.

  10. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  12. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  13. How US institutional review boards decide when researchers need to translate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions.

  14. Ethical Issues in Translational Research: From the Bench to Theatre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, if there is no adequate evidence of benefit to the patient, then ... In fact, international and local ethical guidelines for research involving human participants do not have specific ... they can be applied as and when they are needed at.

  15. The not-for-profit form and translational research: Kerr revisited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joiner Keith A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.

  16. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  17. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  18. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  19. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Amanda E; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  20. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  1. Engaging the underserved: a process model to mobilize rural community health coalitions as partners in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B; Ramsey, Katrina; Rollins, Nancy; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Buckley, David I; Stange, Kurt C; Fagnan, Lyle J

    2014-08-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly recognized as critical elements in research translation. Process models to develop CEnR partnerships in rural and underserved communities are needed. Academic partners transformed four established Community Health Improvement Partnerships (CHIPs) into Community Health Improvement and Research Partnerships (CHIRPs). The intervention consisted of three elements: an academic-community kickoff/orientation meeting, delivery of eight research training modules to CHIRP members, and local community-based participatory research (CBPR) pilot studies addressing childhood obesity. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of pre-/postsurveys, interviews, session evaluations, observational field notes, and attendance logs to evaluate intervention effectiveness and acceptability. Forty-nine community members participated; most (78.7%) attended five or more research training sessions. Session quality and usefulness was high. Community members reported significant increases in their confidence for participating in all phases of research (e.g., formulating research questions, selecting research methods, writing manuscripts). All CHIRP groups successfully conducted CBPR pilot studies. The CHIRP process builds on existing infrastructure in academic and community settings to foster CEnR. Brief research training and pilot studies around community-identified health needs can enhance individual and organizational capacity to address health disparities in rural and underserved communities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Foundational and Translational Research Opportunities to Improve Plant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelmore, Richard; Coaker, Gitta; Bart, Rebecca; Beattie, Gwyn; Bent, Andrew; Bruce, Toby; Cameron, Duncan; Dangl, Jeff; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Edwards, Rob; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Gassmann, Walter; Greenberg, Jean; Harrison, Richard; He, Ping; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Harvey, Jagger; Huffaker, Alisa; Hulbert, Scot; Innes, Roger; Jones, Jonathan; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Kamoun, Sophien; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Leach, Jan; Ma, Wenbo; McDowell, John; Medford, June; Meyers, Blake; Nelson, Rebecca; Oliver, Richard; Qi, Yiping; Saunders, Diane; Shaw, Michael; Smart, Christine; Subudhi, Prasanta; Torrance, Lesley; Tyler, Bret; Valent, Barbara; Walsh, John

    2018-01-01

    Summary This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses. These threats are aggravated by climate change, the globalization of agriculture, and an over-reliance on non-sustainable inputs. New analytical and computational technologies are providing unprecedented resolution at a variety of molecular, cellular, organismal, and population scales for crop plants as well as pathogens, pests, beneficial microbes, and weeds. It is now possible to both characterize useful or deleterious variation as well as precisely manipulate it. Data-driven, informed decisions based on knowledge of the variation of biotic challenges and of natural and synthetic variation in crop plants will enable deployment of durable interventions throughout the world. These should be integral, dynamic components of agricultural strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:28398839

  3. Translating University Biosensor Research to a High School Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Caryn L.; Bank, Alex; Turpeinen, Dylan; King, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    The need to increase science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates is great. To interest more students into STEM degrees, we made our graphene biosensor research portable, inexpensive, and safe to demonstrate technology development to high school students. The students increased their knowledge of biosensors and proteins, and…

  4. Translating concerns into action: a detailed qualitative evaluation of an interdisciplinary intervention on medical wards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Stephanie; Johnston, Maximillian J; Beveridge, Iain; Long, Susannah Jane; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sevdalis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To understand how frontline reports of day-to-day care failings might be better translated into improvement. Design Qualitative evaluation of an interdisciplinary team intervention capitalising on the frontline experience of care delivery. Prospective clinical team surveillance (PCTS) involved structured interdisciplinary briefings to capture challenges in care delivery, facilitated organisational escalation of the issues they identified, and feedback. Eighteen months of ethnography and two focus groups were conducted with staff taking part in a trial of PCTS. Results PCTS fostered psychological safety—a confidence that the team would not embarrass or punish those who speak up. This was complemented by a hard edge of accountability, whereby team members would regulate their own behaviour in anticipation of future briefings. Frontline concerns were triaged to managers, or resolved autonomously by ward teams, reversing what had been well-established normalisations of deviance. Junior clinicians found a degree of catharsis in airing their concerns, and their teams became more proactive in addressing improvement opportunities. PCTS generated tangible organisational changes, and enabled managers to make a convincing case for investment. However, briefings were constrained by the need to preserve professional credibility, and staff found some comfort in avoiding accountability. At higher organisational levels, frontline concerns were subject to competition with other priorities, and their resolution was limited by the scale of the challenges they described. Conclusions Prospective safety strategies relying on staff-volunteered data produce acceptable, negotiated accounts, subject to the many interdisciplinary tensions that characterise ward work. Nonetheless, these strategies give managers access to the realities of frontline cares, and support frontline staff to make incremental changes in their daily work. These are goals for learning healthcare

  5. Neuroplasticity of selective attention: Research foundations and preliminary evidence for a gene by intervention interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore A.; Neville, Helen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:28819066

  6. Neuroplasticity of selective attention: Research foundations and preliminary evidence for a gene by intervention interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore A; Neville, Helen J

    2017-08-29

    This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  7. A Collaborative Translational Autism Research Program for the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in general. With approved revised Specific Aims, during this project, we enrolled 65 families ...Butter E, et al. Exome sequencing of 43 sporadic cases with an autism spectrum disorder in a local cohort of families identifies severe de novo...enrolled in the study and enhance biomedical research on the diagnosis, causes, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in general. With

  8. From Theory to Practice: Translating Research into Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every day, or so it seems, new research shows that some aspect of lifestyle—physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and so on—affects health and longevity. For the person in the street, all this information is confusing. What is a healthy diet, for example? Although there are some common themes such as the benefit of eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, the details often differ between studies. And exactly how much physical activity is needed to improve he...

  9. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K

    2015-12-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  11. Translational Research in Pediatrics IV: Solid Tissue Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Zielke, H Ronald; Fraser, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Solid tissues are critical for child-health research. Specimens are commonly obtained at the time of biopsy/surgery or postmortem. Research tissues can also be obtained at the time of organ retrieval for donation or from tissue that would otherwise have been discarded. Navigating the ethics of solid tissue collection from children is challenging, and optimal handling practices are imperative to maximize tissue quality. Fresh biopsy/surgical specimens can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, gender, BMI, relative humidity, freeze/thaw steps, and tissue fixation solutions. Postmortem tissues are also vulnerable to agonal factors, body storage temperature, and postmortem intervals. Nonoptimal tissue handling practices result in nucleotide degradation, decreased protein stability, artificial posttranslational protein modifications, and altered lipid concentrations. Tissue pH and tryptophan levels are 2 methods to judge the quality of solid tissue collected for research purposes; however, the RNA integrity number, together with analyses of housekeeping genes, is the new standard. A comprehensive clinical data set accompanying all tissue samples is imperative. In this review, we examined: the ethical standards relating to solid tissue procurement from children; potential sources of solid tissues; optimal practices for solid tissue processing, handling, and storage; and reliable markers of solid tissue quality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  13. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-12-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs. A cross-sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical-translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work-life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0-15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0-14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical-translational training. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mentoring in Clinical‐Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda S.; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E.; Seely, Ellen W.; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's‐level trainees in clinical‐translational research training programs. A cross‐sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical‐translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work‐life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0–15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0–14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical‐translational training. PMID:26534872

  15. Plan of Action for Real-World Translation of LGBTQ Health and Aging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; McKenzie, Glenise L; Krinsky, Lisa; Emlet, Charles A

    2017-12-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of health disparities, there exists limited translational research to enhance optimal health and aging of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified * (LGBTQ) older adults. Based on the Health Equity Promotion Model that addresses the distinct needs and strengths of LGBTQ older adults, we underscore the important role of collaborations among researchers, practitioners, and communities to build community capacity. Given the rapidly shifting context, we advance principles to guide future work that will enhance translational research and the development of evidence-based practice so that LGBTQ older adults can reach their full health potential.

  16. NeuPAT: an intranet database supporting translational research in neuroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamón, Eva; Piqueras, Marta; Meseguer, Javier; Blanquer, Ignacio; Berbegall, Ana P; Tadeo, Irene; Hernández, Vicente; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Translational research in oncology is directed mainly towards establishing a better risk stratification and searching for appropriate therapeutic targets. This research generates a tremendous amount of complex clinical and biological data needing speedy and effective management. The authors describe the design, implementation and early experiences of a computer-aided system for the integration and management of data for neuroblastoma patients. NeuPAT facilitates clinical and translational research, minimizes the workload in consolidating the information, reduces errors and increases correlation of data through extensive coding. This design can also be applied to other tumor types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Translational research in addiction: toward a framework for the development of novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil E

    2011-06-15

    The development of novel substance use disorder (SUD) therapeutics is insufficient to meet the medical needs of a growing SUD patient population. The identification of translatable SUD models and tests is a crucial step in establishing a framework for SUD therapeutic development programs. The present review begins by identifying the clinical features of SUDs and highlights the narrow regulatory end-point required for approval of a novel SUD therapeutic. A conceptual overview of dependence is provided, followed by identification of potential intervention targets in the addiction cycle. The main components of the addiction cycle provide the framework for a discussion of preclinical models and their clinical analogs, all of which are focused on isolated behavioral end-points thought to be relevant to the persistence of compulsive drug use. Thus, the greatest obstacle to successful development is the gap between the multiplicity of preclinical and early clinical end-points and the regulatory end-point of sustained abstinence. This review proposes two pathways to bridging this gap: further development and validation of the preclinical extended access self-administration model; inclusion of secondary end-points comprising all of the measures highlighted in the present discussion in Phase 3 trials. Further, completion of the postdictive validation of analogous preclinical and clinical assays is of high priority. Ultimately, demonstration of the relevance and validity of a variety of end-points to the ultimate goal of abstinence will allow researchers to identify truly relevant therapeutic mechanisms and intervention targets, and establish a framework for SUD therapeutic development that allows optimal decision-making and resource allocation. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementing and translating change in health care and public organizations - what researchers know and what to do about it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    In Denmark as well in other countries, new innovative ideas are continuously introduced in order to change health care and other public organizations. As a consequence health care and other professionals are often asking themselves how to introduce these ideas effectively. When asking...... such questions professionals often turn their attention toward science in their search for answers.  As a consequence the research of three different communities of researchers doing research related to health care and public organizations are analyzed. It is concluded that each of these communities base...... their research on different metaphorical understandings of organizational change - a metaphorical understanding of change as intervention, implementation and translation. It is also concluded that some evidence about the nature of organizational change exists but that it has turned out to be difficult to reach...

  19. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  20. The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

  1. Translating Research about Domestic and Family Violence into Practice in Australia: Possibilities and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Humphreys, Cathy; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    The volume of research being conducted into domestic and family violence is increasing, yet knowledge translation in this area lags behind other fields such as healthcare. Little is known about how to effectively harness and implement research findings in the "real world," and there continue to be barriers to the use of rigorous research…

  2. Setting global standards for stem cell research and clinical translation : The 2016 ISSCR guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daley, George Q.; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F.; Barker, Roger A.; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E.; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T.; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E.; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M.; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of

  3. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  4. Lost in Translation? On Mind and Matter in Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fendt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Again and again scholars evoke a seriously dysfunctional relationship between management research and education on the one hand, and the practice of management on the other. We share this viewpoint, and with this appraisal intend to (re-open the debate. We expose some views on the intellectual and sociological roots of the malaise, advocating a philosophical stance rooted in pragmatism and particularly in John Dewey’s pragmatic stance. We outline a number of essentially workable, albeit for debate’s sake provocative and unpolished proposals for the redesign of academic institutions and of their publishing process. We sketch out radical redesign of academia—with, inter alia, (a permeable academic and practical careers, so that executives and scholars could move between and act within each others’ realities; (b a focus of management education on post-experience graduate level; and (c an academic publishing process worthy of the real-time era of the Internet.

  5. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    abstract A collaborative consortium, named “TRANSAUTOPHAGY,” has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27046256

  7. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative consortium, named "TRANSAUTOPHAGY," has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  8. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  9. 2014 section on pediatrics knowledge translation lecture: clinicians and researchers on the same path toward facilitating family goals for mobility and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Leonard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge translation (KT) lecture at the Combined Sections Meeting 2014 was a personal perspective from a researcher who had been a therapist and a longtime clinician, now a PhD candidate. To better integrate research and clinical care, KT is a seamless rather than separate process. Knowledge translation can be enhanced by improved receptivity to evidence, and increasing use of research designs that encourage and even require clinician involvement, from single-subject designs to large-scale pragmatic trials. Clinical practice databases and hiring therapists to provide intervention in research efforts also serve to integrate research and clinical care. Limitations of applying mean group research results to an individual patient were also discussed and suggest an important unanswered topic for future research. We all need to assume responsibility for the researcher-clinician partnership, making our jobs more joyful and fulfilling, and hopefully the biggest beneficiaries will be our current and future patients.

  10. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNamara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between reading processes and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’ reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  11. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  13. Identification of Translational Dermatology Research Priorities in the UK; Results of an e-Delphi Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, E.; Reynolds, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2,000 different skin diseases, thus there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. Objective This eDelphi exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions which are regarded as a priority for further investigations. Results During the first phase of the eDelphi, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel which included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, non-clinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders / genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and 8 miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes which identified a need to investigate mechanisms / pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. Conclusion It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the UK and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of subjects with skin disorders. PMID:26149834

  14. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  15. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    aroused strong interest in recent years, is reported to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. These studies support novel research ideas that are no longer focused solely on the host, but rather on the intimacy of the host-microbiota relationship. Considering the relative ease of regulating the gut microbiota[1], targeting these organisms through diet, prebiotics, probiotics, or other methods may become a useful strategy for curing diseases. To date, a large number of studies have been devoted to uncovering the relationship between microbial metabolites and human diseases, and it is highly likely that more bacterial or related pathways involved in human disease will be identified. In the future, targeting the microbiome may represent an effective and complementary strategy to current approaches for preventing and treating diseases.

  16. Breaking Free of Sample Size Dogma to Perform Innovative Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative clinical and translational research is often delayed or prevented by reviewers’ expectations that any study performed in humans must be shown in advance to have high statistical power. This supposed requirement is not justifiable and is contradicted by the reality that increasing sample size produces diminishing marginal returns. Studies of new ideas often must start small (sometimes even with an N of 1) because of cost and feasibility concerns, and recent statistical work shows that small sample sizes for such research can produce more projected scientific value per dollar spent than larger sample sizes. Renouncing false dogma about sample size would remove a serious barrier to innovation and translation. PMID:21677197

  17. Understanding factors associated with the translation of cardiovascular research: a multinational case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Funders of health research increasingly seek to understand how best to allocate resources in order to achieve maximum value from their funding. We built an international consortium and developed a multinational case study approach to assess benefits arising from health research. We used that to facilitate analysis of factors in the production of research that might be associated with translating research findings into wider impacts, and the complexities involved. Methods We built on the Payback Framework and expanded its application through conducting co-ordinated case studies on the payback from cardiovascular and stroke research in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. We selected a stratified random sample of projects from leading medical research funders. We devised a series of innovative steps to: minimize the effect of researcher bias; rate the level of impacts identified in the case studies; and interrogate case study narratives to identify factors that correlated with achieving high or low levels of impact. Results Twenty-nine detailed case studies produced many and diverse impacts. Over the 15 to 20 years examined, basic biomedical research has a greater impact than clinical research in terms of academic impacts such as knowledge production and research capacity building. Clinical research has greater levels of wider impact on health policies, practice, and generating health gains. There was no correlation between knowledge production and wider impacts. We identified various factors associated with high impact. Interaction between researchers and practitioners and the public is associated with achieving high academic impact and translation into wider impacts, as is basic research conducted with a clinical focus. Strategic thinking by clinical researchers, in terms of thinking through pathways by which research could potentially be translated into practice, is associated with high wider impact. Finally, we identified the complexity of

  18. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  19. Implementation of an audit with feedback knowledge translation intervention to promote medication error reporting in health care: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Alison M; Sales, Anne E; Brotto, Vanessa; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2015-05-19

    Health professionals strive to deliver high-quality care in an inherently complex and error-prone environment. Underreporting of medical errors challenges attempts to understand causative factors and impedes efforts to implement preventive strategies. Audit with feedback is a knowledge translation strategy that has potential to modify health professionals' medical error reporting behaviour. However, evidence regarding which aspects of this complex, multi-dimensional intervention work best is lacking. The aims of the Safe Medication Audit Reporting Translation (SMART) study are to: 1. Implement and refine a reporting mechanism to feed audit data on medication errors back to nurses 2. Test the feedback reporting mechanism to determine its utility and effect 3. Identify characteristics of organisational context associated with error reporting in response to feedback A quasi-experimental design, incorporating two pairs of matched wards at an acute care hospital, is used. Randomisation occurs at the ward level; one ward from each pair is randomised to receive the intervention. A key stakeholder reference group informs the design and delivery of the feedback intervention. Nurses on the intervention wards receive the feedback intervention (feedback of analysed audit data) on a quarterly basis for 12 months. Data for the feedback intervention come from medication documentation point-prevalence audits and weekly reports on routinely collected medication error data. Weekly reports on these data are obtained for the control wards. A controlled interrupted time series analysis is used to evaluate the effect of the feedback intervention. Self-report data are also collected from nurses on all four wards at baseline and at completion of the intervention to elicit their perceptions of the work context. Additionally, following each feedback cycle, nurses on the intervention wards are invited to complete a survey to evaluate the feedback and to establish their intentions to change

  20. A Transcription and Translation Protocol for Sensitive Cross-Cultural Team Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Birkhead, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Cecilia; Egger, Marlene J

    2017-10-01

    Assurance of transcript accuracy and quality in interview-based qualitative research is foundational for data accuracy and study validity. Based on our experience in a cross-cultural ethnographic study of women's pelvic organ prolapse, we provide practical guidance to set up step-by-step interview transcription and translation protocols for team-based research on sensitive topics. Beginning with team decisions about level of detail in transcription, completeness, and accuracy, we operationalize the process of securing vendors to deliver the required quality of transcription and translation. We also share rubrics for assessing transcript quality and the team protocol for managing transcripts (assuring consistency of format, insertion of metadata, anonymization, and file labeling conventions) and procuring an acceptable initial translation of Spanish-language interviews. Accurate, complete, and systematically constructed transcripts in both source and target languages respond to the call for more transparency and reproducibility of scientific methods.

  1. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kremer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants’ perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Methods Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants’ skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool “Is Research Working for You?” (IRWFY was administered pre- and post-intervention. Results Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21–40 years, 69% middle-senior managers participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied – just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d < .2 and only one individual scale (assess was statistically significant (p < .05. Follow up (N = 1 analyses of individual-level change indicated that while 63% of participants reported increased research utilization post-intervention, this proportion was not different to chance levels. Similar analysis

  2. Translational Research in NeuroAIDS: A Neuroimmune Pharmacology-Related Course

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled “Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)” at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by deve...

  3. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.

  4. Biology panel: coming to a clinic near you. Translational research in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.; Thames, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    The explosion of knowledge in molecular biology coupled with the rapid and continuing development of molecular techniques allow a new level of research in radiation biology aimed at understanding the processes that govern radiation damage and response in both tumors and normal tissues. The challenge to radiation biologists and radiation oncologists is to use this knowledge to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors by rapidly translating these new findings into clinical practice. This panel will focus on both sides of the therapeutic ratio coin, the manipulation of tumor control by manipulating the processes that control cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and the reduction of normal tissue morbidity by applying the emerging information on the genetic basis of radiosensitivity. Apoptosis is a form of cell death believed to represent a minor component of the clinical effects of radiation. However, if apoptosis is regulated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms, then it may be possible to produce a pro-apoptotic phenotype in the tumor cell population by modulating the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms by pharmacological intervention. Thus signaling-based apoptosis therapy, designed to overcome the relative resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis, may improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors. The explosion of information concerning cell cycle regulation in both normal and tumor cells has provided the opportunity for insights into the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic agents that can act as radiosensitizers. The second talk will explore the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints in some cancers can be exploited to improve the therapeutic index of radiation sensitizers, specifically the fluoropyrimidines which appear to act at the G1/S transition. Finally, efforts to increase tumor control will be translated into clinical practice only if such treatments do not increase the complication

  5. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  6. [French translation and validation of a short version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2-VF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Bigault, C; Audouard-Marzin, Y; Scouarnec, P; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M; Walter, M

    2017-10-30

    Training health professionals about suicidal crisis is one major line of suicide prevention worldwide. France has one of the highest suicide rates in Europe, and although crisis intervention training has been set up since 2001, there presently is no training assessment tool in the French language for health professionals trained in suicide prevention. In the four levels of Kirpatrick's education pyramid, training that takes place in France today solely assesses level one status, that is to say relative to the level of satisfaction of participants (self-report). This study proposes a validated short French version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2) of Neimeyer & Mc Innes. The SIRI-2 questionnaire assesses the ability of first line intervention in dealing with suicidal individuals. The translation methodology was inspired from Vallerand's model of cross-cultural back translation. This method is regularly used for translating from the English language to a French version. In order to translate the English version, we used an extensive 7-step methodology implicating several bilingual translators, expert reviewers (psychologists and psychiatrists) and a scientific committee. Participants were 107 students from different French universities and study programs: psychology, medicine and nursing (17 were men; average age was 26.6). Fifteen of these participants answered the SIRI-2-VF on two occasions (separated by a 15-day interval) in order to estimate the temporal stability of the instrument. The scores of the students were compared to six French experts in suicide prevention and with the original expert group who worked on the development of SIRI-2 (n=7). We used Student t Test for construct validity, Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency and Pearson's correlation coefficient for temporal stability. Following a fidelity comparison of the results of the French experts with those of the American experts, ten items presenting the least good

  7. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  8. Bridging basic science and clinical research: the EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, Tobias; Moradpour, Darius; Thimme, Robert; Zoulim, Fabien

    2014-09-01

    The EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis brought together a group of leading scientists and clinicians working on both, basic and clinical aspects of viral hepatitis, thereby building bridges from bench to bedside. This report recapitulates the presentations and discussions at the conference held in Lyon, France on November 29-30, 2013. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of viral hepatitis, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The identification of IL28B genetic polymorphisms as a major determinant for spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance was a seminal discovery. Currently, hepatologists are at the doorstep of even greater advances, with the advent of a wealth of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. Indeed, promising results have accumulated over the last months and few years, showing sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 100% with interferon-free DAA combination therapies. Thus, less than 25 years after its identification, HCV infection may soon be curable in the vast majority of patients, highlighting the great success of HCV research over the last decades. However, viral hepatitis and its clinical complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain major global challenges. New therapeutic strategies to tackle hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection are needed, as current therapies have undeniable limitations. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) can efficiently control HBV replication and reduce or even reverse liver damage. However, these drugs have to be given for indefinite periods in most patients to maintain virological and biochemical responses. Although sustained responses off treatment can be achieved by treatment with (pegylated) interferon-α, only about 10-30% of patients effectively resolve chronic hepatitis B. It was the goal of this conference to review the progress made over the last

  9. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessments for Use in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.

  10. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  11. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside...

  12. TRANSAUTOPHAGY : European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative consortium, named "TRANSAUTOPHAGY," has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in

  13. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-06-08

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues, and to offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have been identified to develop administrative, environmental or personal engineering interventions to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as arbitrary sampling methods and unreliable instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. To bridge the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies.

  14. A surgical intervention for the body politic: Generation Squeeze applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework to social determinants of health knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Paul; Swanson, Eric; Stucchi, Andrea

    2017-06-16

    The World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) observes that building political will is central to all its recommendations, because governments respond to those who organize and show up. Since younger Canadians are less likely to vote or to organize in between elections, they are less effective at building political will than their older counterparts. This results in an age gap between SDoH research and government budget priorities. Whereas Global AgeWatch ranks Canada among the top countries for aging, UNICEF ranks Canada among the least generous OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries for the generations raising young children. A surgical intervention into the body politic. Guided by the "health political science" literature, the intervention builds a non-profit coalition to perform science-based, non-partisan democratic engagement to increase incentives for policy-makers to translate SDoH research about younger generations into government budget investments. All four national parties integrated policy recommendations from the intervention into their 2015 election platforms. Three referred to, or consulted with, the intervention during the election. The intervention coincided with all parties committing to the single largest annual increase in spending on families with children in over a decade. Since many population-level decisions are made in political venues, the concept of population health interventions should be broadened to include activities designed to mobilize SDoH science in the world of politics. Such interventions must engage with the power dynamics, values, interests and institutional factors that mediate the path by which science shapes government budgets.

  15. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...

  16. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  17. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  18. Translational research in behavior analysis: historical traditions and imperative for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-05-01

    "Pure basic" science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. "Pure applied" work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both.

  19. Translating the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders into Malay: evaluation of content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Suan-Phaik; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2008-01-01

    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales. To cross-culturally adapt the instrument, the RDC/TMD underwent translation using a forward-backward method. Subjects were recruited to test the congruency between translated and original versions of the RDC/TMD. The psychometric properties of 3 domains (Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression) of the RDC/TMD were examined, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. All the items scored 93% to 100% congruency. Cronbach's alphas for Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression were 0.77, 0.71, and 0.88, respectively (n = 40). The test-retest reliability of scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and levels (Spearman's rho) for these domains showed ICCs of 0.97, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively, with a lowest ICC value of 0.84 (n = 40); the Spearman's rho values were 0.93, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. The discriminant validity between patients with pain symptoms (n = 40) and normal pain-free controls (n = 40) were statistically significant (P cultural adaptation of the RDC/TMD into the Malay language is suitable for use in Malaysia.

  20. Spanish translation and cross-language validation of a sleep habits questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carol M; Choi, Myunghan; McClain, Darya Bonds; Celaya, Alma; Quan, Stuart F

    2012-04-15

    To translate, back-translate and cross-language validate (English/Spanish) the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits Questionnaire for use with Spanish-speakers in clinical and research settings. Following rigorous translation and back-translation, this cross-sectional cross-language validation study recruited bilingual participants from academic, clinic, and community-based settings (N = 50; 52% women; mean age 38.8 ± 12 years; 90% of Mexican heritage). Participants completed English and Spanish versions of the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II one week apart in randomized order. Psychometric properties were assessed, including internal consistency, convergent validity, scale equivalence, language version intercorrelations, and exploratory factor analysis using PASW (Version18) software. Grade level readability of the sleep measure was evaluated. All sleep categories (duration, snoring, apnea, insomnia symptoms, other sleep symptoms, sleep disruptors, restless legs syndrome) showed Cronbach α, Spearman-Brown coefficients and intercorrelations ≥ 0.700, suggesting robust internal consistency, correlation, and agreement between language versions. The Epworth correlated significantly with snoring, apnea, sleep symptoms, restless legs, and sleep disruptors) on both versions, supporting convergent validity. Items loaded on 4 factors accounted for 68% and 67% of the variance on the English and Spanish versions, respectively. The Spanish-language Sleep Habits Questionnaire demonstrates conceptual and content equivalency. It has appropriate measurement properties and should be useful for assessing sleep health in community-based clinics and intervention studies among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. Both language versions showed readability at the fifth grade level. Further testing is needed with larger samples.

  1. Harmonization in preclinical epilepsy research: A joint AES/ILAE translational initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; French, Jacqueline A; O'Brien, Terence; Simonato, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Among the priority next steps outlined during the first translational epilepsy research workshop in London, United Kingdom (2012), jointly organized by the American Epilepsy Society (AES) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), are the harmonization of research practices used in preclinical studies and the development of infrastructure that facilitates multicenter preclinical studies. The AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE has been pursuing initiatives that advance these goals. In this supplement, we present the first reports of the working groups of the Task Force that aim to improve practices of performing rodent video-electroencephalography (vEEG) studies in experimental controls, generate systematic reviews of preclinical research data, and develop preclinical common data elements (CDEs) for epilepsy research in animals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  3. Once upon a time: Storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy for qualitative researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Anne; Michaud, Cécile

    2018-06-10

    Qualitative research should strive for knowledge translation toward the goal of closing the gap between knowledge and practice. However, it is often a challenge in nursing to identify knowledge translation strategies able to illustrate the usefulness of qualitative results in any given context. This article defines storytelling and uses pragmatism to examine storytelling as a strategy to promote the knowledge translation of qualitative results. Pragmatism posits that usefulness is defined by the people affected by the problem and that usefulness is promoted by modalities, like storytelling, that increase sensitivity to an experience. Indeed, stories have the power to give meaning to human behaviors and to trigger emotions, and in doing so bring many advantages. For example, by contextualizing research results and appealing to both the reason and the emotions of audiences, storytelling can help us grasp the usefulness of these research results. Various strategies exist to create stories that will produce an emotional experience capable of influencing readers' or listeners' actions. To illustrate the potential of storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy in health care, we will use our story of discovering this strategy during a qualitative study in a nursing home as an example. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Proposed Model for Translational Research at a Teaching-Intensive College of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Erin; Grady, Sarah; Vonderhaar, Jacqueline; Ruplin, Andrew

    2017-08-08

    Many American colleges of pharmacy are small, private, teaching institutions. Faculty are required to maintain a research agenda, although the publication quota is less compared with their publicly funded college of pharmacy peers. Faculty at these smaller schools conduct research with very little internal or external funding. This tends to lead to smaller, less impactful research findings. Translational research is becoming popular for research faculty as it bridges theory to practice. The Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) framework presents the steps to conduct translational research. To apply and determine if the KTA framework would be able to produce practice-impactful research at an institution that does not depend on grant funding as part of faculty research agendas. An interdisciplinary team was formed with providers at the clinical faculty's practice site. As the team moved through the KTA steps, authors documented the roles of each team member. It was clear that many different types of teams were formed throughout the KTA process. These teams were then categorized according to the Interdisciplinary Teamwork System. The final result is a proposed model of types of teams and required member roles that are necessary within each KTA step for faculty to conduct practice-impactful research at a small, private, teaching institution without substantial grant funding awards. Applying the KTA framework, two impactful original research manuscripts were developed over two academic years. Furthermore, the practitioners at the clinical faculty member's site were very pleased with the ease of conducting research, as they were never required to take a lead role. In addition, both faculty members alternated lead and support role allowing for a decreased burden of workload while producing theory-driven research. The KTA framework can create a model for translational research and may be particularly beneficial to small teaching institutions to conduct impactful research. Copyright

  5. Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project

    OpenAIRE

    Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. T...

  6. Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2014-11-01

    Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Clinical Trial of Translation of Evidence Based Interventions to Mobile Tablets and Illness Specific Internet Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carol E; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Thompson, Noreen; Hooper, Dedrick; Nelson, Eve-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method to translate an evidence based health care intervention to the mobile environment. This translation assisted patient participants to: avoid life threatening infections; monitor emotions and fatigue; keep involved in healthy activities. The mobile technology also decreased costs by reducing for example travel to visit health care providers. Testing of this translation method and its use by comparison groups of patients adds to the knowledge base for assessing technology for its impact on health outcome measures. The challenges and workflow of designing materials for the mobile format are described. Transitioning clinical trial verified interventions, previously provided in person to patients, onto tablet and internet platforms is an important process that must be evaluated. In this study, our evidence based guide’s intravenous (IV) homeCare interventions (IVhomeCare) were delivered via Apple iPad mini™ tablet audiovisual instruction / discussion sessions and on a website. Each iPad audiovisual session (n = 41), included three to five families, a mental health specialist, and healthcare professionals. Patients and their family caregivers readily learned to use the wireless mobile tablets, and the IVhomeCare interventions, as described here, were successfully translated onto these mobile technology platforms. Using Likert scale responses on a questionnaire (1 = not helpful and 5 = very helpful) participants indicated that they gained problem solving skills for home care through iPad group discussion (M = 4.60, SD = 0.60). The firewall protected videoconferencing in real time with multiple healthcare professionals effectively allowed health history taking and visual inspection of the patient’s IV insertion site for signs of infection. Supportive interactions with peer families on videoconferencing were documented during discussions. Discussion topics included low moods, fatigue, infection worry, how to maintain independence, and

  8. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a “layered” approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation. PMID:26479558

  9. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  10. Evidence-based practice, research utilization, and knowledge translation in chiropractic: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Al Zoubi, Fadi; Stuber, Kent; French, Simon D; Boruff, Jill; Corrigan, John; Thomas, Aliki

    2016-07-13

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) gaps are widespread across health disciplines. Understanding factors supporting the uptake of evidence can inform the design of strategies to narrow these EBP gaps. Although research utilization (RU) and the factors associated with EBP have been reported in several health disciplines, to date this area has not been reviewed comprehensively in the chiropractic profession. The purpose of this review was to report on the current state of knowledge on EBP, RU, and knowledge translation (KT) in chiropractic. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was used to systematically select and summarize existing literature. Searches were conducted using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms from the earliest date available in each database to May 2015. Quantitative and thematic analyses of the selected literature were conducted. Nearly 85 % (56/67) of the included studies were conducted in Canada, USA, UK or Australia. Thematic analysis for the three categories (EBP, RU, KT) revealed two themes related to EBP (attitudes and beliefs of chiropractors; implementation of EBP), three related to RU (guideline adherence; frequency and sources of information accessed; and perceived value of websites and search engines), and three related to KT (knowledge practice gaps; barriers and facilitators to knowledge use; and selection, tailoring, and implementation of interventions). EBP gaps were noted in the areas of assessment of activity limitation, determination of psychosocial factors influencing pain, general health indicators, establishing a prognosis, and exercise prescription. While most practitioners believed EBP and research to be important and a few studies suggested that traditional and online educational strategies could improve patient care, use of EBP and guideline adherence varied widely. Findings suggest that the majority of chiropractors hold favourable attitudes and beliefs toward EBP. However, much remains to be done for

  11. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  12. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  13. Translation procedures for standardised quality of life questionnaires: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Aaronson, Neil K; Blazeby, Jane; Bottomley, Andrew; Dewolf, Linda; Fayers, Peter; Johnson, Colin; Ramage, John; Scott, Neil; West, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life (EORTC QL) questionnaires are used in international trials and therefore standardised translation procedures are required. This report summarises the EORTC translation procedure, recent accomplishments and challenges. Translations follow a forward-backward procedure, independently carried out by two native-speakers of the target language. Discrepancies are arbitrated by a third consultant, and solutions are reached by consensus. Translated questionnaires undergo a pilot-testing. Suggestions are incorporated into the final questionnaire. Requests for translations originate from the module developers, physicians or pharmaceutical industry, and most translations are performed by professional translators. The translation procedure is managed and supervised by a Translation Coordinator within the EORTC QL Unit in Brussels. To date, the EORTC QLQ-C30 has been translated and validated into more than 60 languages, with further translations in progress. Translations include all major Western, and many African and Asian languages. The following translation problems were encountered: lack of expressions for specific symptoms in various languages, the use of old-fashioned language, recent spelling reforms in several European countries and different priorities of social issues between Western and Eastern cultures. The EORTC measurement system is now registered for use in over 9000 clinical trials worldwide. The EORTC provides strong infrastructure and quality control to produce robust translated questionnaires. Nevertheless, translation problems have been identified. The key to improvements may lie in the particular features and strengths of the group, consisting of researchers from 21 countries representing 25 languages and include the development of simple source versions, the use of advanced computerised tools, rigorous pilot-testing, certification procedures and insights from a unique cross

  14. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  15. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  16. Lost in translation - the role of family in interventions among adults with diabetes; a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torenholt, Rikke; Schwennesen, Nete; Willaing, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Aims Family interventions are increasingly recognized as important in the care of people with diabetes. The aim of this study was to synthesize the existing literature on family interventions among adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and to determine the degree to which they were family centred....... Methods The literature search was carried out in four databases (Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC). Two reviewers independently screened the search results. Only English-language articles about interventions on education, care and/or support of adult individuals with diabetes involving the participation...... of both the individual with diabetes and at least one family member were included. Results From an initial 1480 citations, 10 reports were included. The intervention studies varied considerably in terms of design and population. The family dimension generally represented a modest part of the interventions...

  17. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  18. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  19. Increasing knowledge of best practices for occupational therapists treating post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect: results of a knowledge-translation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Salbach, Nancy M; Ahmed, Sara; Menon, Anita; Ogourtsova, Tatiana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the feasibility of delivering a multi-modal knowledge translation intervention specific to the management of acute post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect; and (ii) the impact of the knowledge translation intervention on occupational therapists' knowledge of evidence-based unilateral spatial neglect problem identification, assessment and treatment, and self-efficacy related to evidence-based practice implementation. A 3-period (pre-post) repeated measures design. Acute care occupational therapists treating patients with post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect were recruited from two major Canadian cities. Participants completed two pre-intervention assessments, took part in a day-long interactive multi-modal knowledge translation intervention and a subsequent 8-week follow-up, and completed a post-intervention assessment. Knowledge of evidence-based problem identification, assessment and treatment of unilateral spatial neglect, and self-efficacy to perform evidence-based practice activities were measured using standard scales. The intervention was tested on 20 occupational therapists. Results indicate a significant improvement in knowledge of best practice unilateral spatial neglect management (p knowledge translation intervention is feasible and can significantly improve occupational therapists' knowledge of unilateral spatial neglect best practices and self-efficacy. The findings should help advance best practices specific to the management of post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect as well as informing knowledge translation studies in other areas of practice.

  20. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  1. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

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    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  2. Impact of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention on New School Entrants' Social Emotional Functioning and Sleep: A Translational Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Quach, Jon; Paton, Kate; Peat, Rebecca; Gold, Lisa; Arnup, Sarah; Sia, Kah-Ling; Nicolaou, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2018-05-14

    Determine the effects and costs of a brief behavioral sleep intervention, previously shown to improve child social-emotional functioning, sleep, and parent mental health, in a translational trial. Three hundred thirty-four school entrant children from 47 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, with parent-reported moderate to severe behavioral sleep problems. intervention group received sleep hygiene practices and standardized behavioral strategies delivered by trained school nurses in 2013 and 2014. Control group children could receive usual community care. Outcome measures: child social-emotional functioning (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 psychosocial health summary score-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent-reported severity, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire), behavior, academic function, working memory, child and parent quality of life, and parent mental health. At six months post randomization, 145 (of 168) intervention and 155 (of 166) control families completed the primary outcome for which there was no difference. Intervention compared with control children had fewer sleep problems (35.2% vs. 52.7% respectively, OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8, p = 0.002) and better sleep patterns (e.g., longer sleep duration). Their parents reported fewer symptoms of depression. All differences attenuated by 12 months. There was no difference in other outcomes at either time point. Intervention costs: $AUS 182/child. A brief behavioral sleep intervention, delivered by school nurses to children with behavioral sleep problems, does not improve social emotional functioning. Benefits to child sleep and parent mental health are evident at 6 but not 12 months. Approaches that increase intervention dosage may improve outcomes.

  3. CONSORT to community: translation of an RCT to a large-scale community intervention and learnings from evaluation of the upscaled program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Carly Jane; Miller, Jacqueline; Perry, Rebecca Anne; Chan, Lily Lai Hang; Daniels, Lynne Allison; Vidgen, Helen Anna; Magarey, Anthea Margaret

    2017-11-29

    Translation encompasses the continuum from clinical efficacy to widespread adoption within the healthcare service and ultimately routine clinical practice. The Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) program has previously demonstrated clinical effectiveness in the management of child obesity, and has been recently implemented as a large-scale community intervention in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to describe the translation of the evaluation framework from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to large-scale community intervention (PEACH™ QLD). Tensions between RCT paradigm and implementation research will be discussed along with lived evaluation challenges, responses to overcome these, and key learnings for future evaluation conducted at scale. The translation of evaluation from PEACH™ RCT to the large-scale community intervention PEACH™ QLD is described. While the CONSORT Statement was used to report findings from two previous RCTs, the REAIM framework was more suitable for the evaluation of upscaled delivery of the PEACH™ program. Evaluation of PEACH™ QLD was undertaken during the project delivery period from 2013 to 2016. Experiential learnings from conducting the evaluation of PEACH™ QLD to the described evaluation framework are presented for the purposes of informing the future evaluation of upscaled programs. Evaluation changes in response to real-time changes in the delivery of the PEACH™ QLD Project were necessary at stages during the project term. Key evaluation challenges encountered included the collection of complete evaluation data from a diverse and geographically dispersed workforce and the systematic collection of process evaluation data in real time to support program changes during the project. Evaluation of large-scale community interventions in the real world is challenging and divergent from RCTs which are rigourously evaluated within a more tightly-controlled clinical research setting. Constructs

  4. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik Inuit communities: a success story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Counil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  5. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  6. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  7. Recommendations for the future of translational radiobiology research: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of molecular medicine is now merging into clinical practice with the advent of molecular targeting agents, molecular pathology and molecular imaging for both diagnosis and treatment response. Radiation oncologists must therefore gain expertise in utilizing this information to drive new treatment protocols. Recognizing the importance of this issue, the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists (CARO) charged a Task Force in Translational Radiobiology to: (1) critically assess training programs and research infrastructure in relation to current and future translational radiobiology requirements; and (2) make specific recommendations to accelerate the implementation of translational science into day-to-day practice. Selected Task Force recommendations included the principle that universities and departmental Chairs increase the opportunities for academic promotion, funding, and tenure track positions of radiobiologists and translational radiation oncologists. The dedication of 4 to 5 national centers as translational 'hubs', can serve as an interface between clinicians, clinical specimens and radiobiological sciences within the context of correlative clinical trials. The model of the clinician-scientist was encouraged as an important adjunct to good clinical care to be associated with strong enticement, training and mentoring programs and 75%-protected research time. Finally, an integrated model of radiobiological training programs and mutual continuing education between clinicians and basic scientists can be facilitated through a new national radiobiology meeting sponsored by CARO. These recommendations have been accepted by the national radiation oncology membership. Such a framework may serve useful for national programs wishing to develop rapid conduits from the lab to the clinic as a means of integrating molecular biology and the day-to-day practice of radiation oncology

  8. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Empowerment interventions, knowledge translation and exchange: perspectives of home care professionals, clients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Louis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined empowerment interventions as they actually unfold in home care in the context of chronic health problems. This study aims to document the empowerment process as it plays out in interventions with adults receiving home care services. Methods/design The qualitative design chosen is a fourth generation evaluation combined with case studies. A home care team of a health and social services center situated in the Eastern Townships (Québec, Canada will be involved at every step in the study. A sample will be formed of 15 health care professionals and 30 of their home care clients and caregiver. Semi-structured interviews, observations of home care interventions and socio-demographic questionnaires will be used to collect the data. Nine instruments used by the team in prior studies will be adapted and reviewed. A personal log will document the observers' perspectives in order to foster objectivity and the focus on the intervention. The in-depth qualitative analysis of the data will illustrate profiles of enabling interventions and individual empowerment. Discussion The ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network creates a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients receiving home care services. This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment.

  10. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program.

  12. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires

  13. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  14. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  15. Development of theory-based knowledge translation interventions to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based guidelines on the early management of adults with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Mélanie; Albert, Martin; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Contandriopoulos, Damien; DuSablon, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Gagné, Annick; Laflamme, Élise; Boutin, Nathalie; Delisle, Stéphane; Pauzé, Anne-Marie; MacThiong, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Optimal, early management following a spinal cord injury (SCI) can limit individuals' disabilities and costs related to their care. Several knowledge syntheses were recently published to guide health care professionals with regard to early interventions in SCI patients. However, no knowledge translation (KT) intervention, selected according to a behaviour change theory, has been proposed to facilitate the use of SCI guidelines in an acute care setting. To develop theory-informed KT interventions to promote the application of evidence-based recommendations on the acute care management of SCI patients. The first four phases of the knowledge-to-action model were used to establish the study design. Knowledge selection was based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Knowledge adaptation to the local context was sourced from the ADAPTE process. The theoretical domains framework oriented the selection and development of the interventions based on an assessment of barriers and enablers to knowledge application. Twenty-nine recommendations were chosen and operationalized in measurable clinical indicators. Barriers related to knowledge, skills, perceived capacities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, and the environmental context and resources theoretical domains were identified. The mapping of behaviour change techniques associated with those barriers led to the development of an online educational curriculum, interdisciplinary clinical pathways as well as policies and procedures. This research project allowed us developing KT interventions according to a thorough behavioural change methodology. Exposure to the generated interventions will support health care professionals in providing the best care to SCI patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank: A standard based biospecimen and clinical data resource to enhance translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivieso Federico A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. Methods The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards, (b clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™, see http://cabig.nci.nih.gov. This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. Result The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. Conclusion The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational

  17. Are researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, effective in improving researcher behavior? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmanian, Paul E; Coe, Antoinette B; Evans, Jessica A; Longo, Daniel R; Wright, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Academic institutions funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health were challenged recently by the Institute of Medicine to expand traditional mentoring of graduate and postdoctoral scholars to include training and continuing education for faculty, professional staff, and community partners. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, are effective in improving researcher behavior. PubMed, CINAHL, and Education Research Complete databases and select journals were searched for relevant articles published from January 2000 through October 2012. A total of 3,459 papers were identified, and 114 papers were retrieved for in-depth analysis. None included randomization. Twenty-two papers reported subjects with professional degrees, interventions, and outcomes. Interventions were meetings, outreach visits, colleague mediation, audit and feedback, and multifaceted interventions. Most studies reported multifaceted interventions (68.2%), often involving mentored learning experiences, and meetings. All studies reported a change in performance, including numbers of publications or grant applications. Nine studies reported changes in competence, including writing, presentation, or analytic skills, and performance in research practice (40.9%). Even as, the quality of evidence was weak to establish causal linkages between researcher development and improved researcher behavior, nearly all the projects (81.8%) received funding from governmental agencies, professional societies, or other organizations. Those who design researcher development activities and those who evaluate the programs are challenged to develop tools and conduct studies that measure the effectiveness, costs, and sustainability of researcher development in the CTSA Program.

  18. Scientific evidence suggests a changed approach in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Schiller, Bernt; Dellve, L.

    2017-01-01

    Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performa...... to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”....

  19. Theoretical rationale for music selection in oncology intervention research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Debra S

    2012-01-01

    Music-based interventions have helped patients with cancer improve their quality of life, decrease treatment related distress, and manage pain. However, quantitative findings from music intervention studies are inconsistent. The purpose of this review was to explore the theoretical underpinnings for the selection of the music stimuli used to influence targeted outcomes. It was hypothesized that disparate findings were due in part to the atheoretical nature of music selection and the resulting diversity in music stimuli between and within studies. A systematic research synthesis including a comprehensive database and reference list search resulted in 22 studies. Included studies were compiled into two tables cataloging intervention theory, intervention content, and outcomes. A majority of studies did not provide a rationale or intervention theory for the delivery of music or choice of outcomes. Recorded music was the most common delivery method, but the specific music was rarely included within the report. Only two studies that included a theoretical framework reported null results on at least some of the outcomes. Null results are partially explained by an incomplete or mismatch in intervention theory and music selection and delivery. While the inclusion of an intervention theory does not guarantee positive results, including a theoretical rationale for the use of music, particular therapeutic processes or mechanisms, and the specifics of how music is selected and delivered increases scientific rigor and the probability of clinical translation.

  20. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Winkler, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.pelz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Stock, Peggy, E-mail: peggy.stock@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Dollinger, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dollinger@uniklinik-ulm.de [University Hospital Ulm, First Department of Medicine, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, Ulm D-89081 (Germany); Christ, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.christ@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  1. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Winkler, Sandra; Stock, Peggy; Dollinger, Matthias; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  2. Planning strategies for the avoidance of pitfalls in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, R H; Privette, A B

    2001-08-01

    With the exception of large clinical trials, few studies in nursing and other social sciences test interventions. The discipline of nursing needs to maintain a full range of research designs for continued knowledge development. Intervention research presents unique opportunities and challenges for the novice as well as the seasoned researcher. Some of these methodological challenges include the complex nature of human subjects and interventions, including many factors that interfere with the study variables. Preliminary studies often reveal challenges that may not always be predicted or reflected in research texts. These challenges may be as important as the study results for success in future research efforts. Difficulties encountered in intervention research and suggested strategies for maintaining the integrity of the study are addressed. These challenges include maintaining an adequate sample size, intervention demands, measuring variables, timing issues, and experiencing unexpected events. Strategies presented include the importance of extensive planning, minimizing subject expectations and rewarding efforts, attention to control group members, incorporating retention strategies, expanding knowledge of variables and the study population, preliminary studies as well as anticipating unexpected events. The need for enhanced communication among nurse researchers, educators and clinicians is addressed. In the current health care arena, nurse researchers must understand organizational dynamics and marketing strategies. Collaborative research efforts can increase the visibility of nursing research as well as funding opportunities.

  3. From a Viewpoint of Clinical Settings: Pharmacoepidemiology as Reverse Translational Research (rTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.

  4. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  5. Public health research: lost in translation or speaking the wrong language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; Farley, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Public health leaders, like physicians, need to make decisions that impact health based on strong evidence. To generate useful evidence for public health leaders, research must focus on interventions that have potential to impact population-level health. Often policy and environmental changes are the interventions with the greatest potential impact on population health, but studying these is difficult because of limitations in the methods typically used and emphasized in health research. To create useful evidence for policy and environmental interventions, other research methods are needed, including observational studies, the use of surveillance data for evaluation, and predictive mathematical modeling. More emphasis is needed on these types of study designs by researchers, funding agencies, and scientific journals.

  6. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  7. Reasons for Testing Mediation in the Absence of an Intervention Effect: A Research Imperative in Prevention and Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P

    2018-03-01

    Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.

  8. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  9. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  10. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  11. Establishing Guidelines for Executing and Reporting Internet Intervention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Proudfoot, J; Klein, B.; Barak, A.; Carlbring, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Lange, A; Ritterband, L.; Andersson, G.

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet interventions, guidelines for research, and evidence of effectiveness have been slower to follow. This article focuses on the quality standardization of research on Internet-delivered psychological and be...

  12. Accelerating translational research by clinically driven development of an informatics platform--a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Abugessaisa

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any

  13. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  14. [The Contribution of GMP-grade Hospital Preparation to Translational Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Atsushi; Kajiwara, Moto; Minami, Ikuko; Omura, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is important for applying the outcomes of basic research studies to practical medical treatments. In exploratory early-phase clinical trials for an innovative therapy, researchers should generally manufacture investigational agents by themselves. To provide investigational agents with safety and high quality in clinical studies, appropriate production management and quality control are essential. In the Department of Pharmacy of Kyoto University Hospital, a manufacturing facility for sterile drugs was established, independent of existing manufacturing facilities. Manuals on production management and quality control were developed according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for Investigational New Drugs (INDs). Advanced clinical research has been carried out using investigational agents manufactured in our facility. These achievements contribute to both the safety of patients and the reliability of clinical studies. In addition, we are able to do licensing-out of our technique for the manufacture of investigational drugs. In this symposium, we will introduce our GMP grade manufacturing facility for sterile drugs and discuss the role of GMP grade hospital preparation in translational research.

  15. Reporting quality of music intervention research in healthcare: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; May, Lindsey; Hernandez-Ruiz, Eugenia; Allison, Megan; Beloat, Alyssa; Daugherty, Sarah; Kurtz, Rebecca; Ott, Alyssa; Oyedele, Oladele Oladimeji; Polasik, Shelbi; Rager, Allison; Rifkin, Jamie; Wolf, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Concomitant with the growth of music intervention research, are concerns about inadequate intervention reporting and inconsistent terminology, which limits validity, replicability, and clinical application of findings. Examine reporting quality of music intervention research, in chronic and acute medical settings, using the Checklist for Reporting Music-based Interventions. In addition, describe patient populations and primary outcomes, intervention content and corresponding interventionist qualifications, and terminology. Searching MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, and PsycINFO we identified articles meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for a five-year period (2010-2015) and extracted relevant data. Coded material included reporting quality across seven areas (theory, content, delivery schedule, interventionist qualifications, treatment fidelity, setting, unit of delivery), author/journal information, patient population/outcomes, and terminology. Of 860 articles, 187 met review criteria (128 experimental; 59 quasi-experimental), with 121 publishing journals, and authors from 31 countries. Overall reporting quality was poor with <50% providing information for four of the seven checklist components (theory, interventionist qualifications, treatment fidelity, setting). Intervention content reporting was also poor with <50% providing information about the music used, decibel levels/volume controls, or materials. Credentialed music therapists and registered nurses delivered most interventions, with clear differences in content and delivery. Terminology was varied and inconsistent. Problems with reporting quality impedes meaningful interpretation and cross-study comparisons. Inconsistent and misapplied terminology also create barriers to interprofessional communication and translation of findings to patient care. Improved reporting quality and creation of shared language will advance scientific rigor and clinical relevance of music intervention research. Copyright

  16. Storytelling in community intervention research: lessons learned from the walk your heart to health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBron, Alana M; Schulz, Amy J; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities.

  17. A new spin on research translation: the Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica W; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2009-04-01

    Translating research to make it more understandable and effective (research translation) has been declared a priority in environmental health but does not always include communication to the public or residents of communities affected by environmental hazards. Their unique perspectives are also commonly missing from discussions about science and technology policy. The consensus conference process, developed in Denmark, offers a way to address this gap. The Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring, held in Boston, Massachusetts, in the fall of 2006, was designed to educate and elicit input from 15 Boston-area residents on the scientifically complex topic of human biomonitoring for environmental chemicals. This lay panel considered the many ethical, legal, and scientific issues surrounding biomonitoring and prepared a report expressing their views. The lay panel's findings provide a distinct and important voice on the expanding use of biomonitoring. In some cases, such as a call for opt-in reporting of biomonitoring results to study participants, they mirror recommendations raised elsewhere. Other conclusions have not been heard previously, including the recommendation that an individual's results should be statutorily exempted from the medical record unless permission is granted, and the opportunity to use biomonitoring data to stimulate green chemistry. The consensus conference model addresses both aspects of a broader conception of research translation: engaging the public in scientific questions, and bringing their unique perspectives to bear on public health research, practice, and policy. In this specific application, a lay panel's recommendations on biomonitoring surveillance, communication, and ethics have practical implications for the conduct of biomonitoring studies and surveillance programs.

  18. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  19. A mixed methods study of the factors that influence whether intervention research has policy and practice impacts: perceptions of Australian researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Milat, Andrew J; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Cohen, Gillian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-07-21

    To investigate researchers' perceptions about the factors that influenced the policy and practice impacts (or lack of impact) of one of their own funded intervention research studies. Mixed method, cross-sectional study. Intervention research conducted in Australia and funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council between 2003 and 2007. The chief investigators from 50 funded intervention research studies were interviewed to determine if their study had achieved policy and practice impacts, how and why these impacts had (or had not) occurred and the approach to dissemination they had employed. We found that statistically significant intervention effects and publication of results influenced whether there were policy and practice impacts, along with factors related to the nature of the intervention itself, the researchers' experience and connections, their dissemination and translation efforts, and the postresearch context. This study indicates that sophisticated approaches to intervention development, dissemination actions and translational efforts are actually widespread among experienced researches, and can achieve policy and practice impacts. However, it was the links between the intervention results, further dissemination actions by researchers and a variety of postresearch contextual factors that ultimately determined whether a study had policy and practice impacts. Given the complicated interplay between the various factors, there appears to be no simple formula for determining which intervention studies should be funded in order to achieve optimal policy and practice impacts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Technische Univ. Dresden; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2014-01-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  1. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  3. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  4. Bridging research and practice: community-researcher partnerships for replicating effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; Rebchook, G M; Kelly, J A; Adams, J; Neumann, M S

    2000-01-01

    Long-term collaborations among researchers, staff and volunteers in community-based agencies, staff in institutional settings, and health advocates present challenges. Each group has different missions, procedures, attributes, and rewards. This article reviews areas of potential conflict and suggests strategies for coping with these challenges. During the replication of five effective HIV prevention interventions, strategies for maintaining mutually beneficial collaborations included selecting agencies with infrastructures that could support research-based interventions; obtaining letters of understanding that clarified roles, responsibilities, and time frames; and setting training schedules with opportunities for observing, practicing, becoming invested in, and repeatedly implementing the intervention. The process of implementing interventions highlighted educating funders of research and public health services about (a) the costs of disseminating interventions, (b) the need for innovation to new modalities and theories for delivering effective interventions, and (c) adopting strategies of marketing research and quality engineering when designing interventions.

  5. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  6. Assessment of and Response to Data Needs of Clinical and Translational Science Researchers and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah F. Norton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Setting: As universities and libraries grapple with data management and “big data,” the need for data management solutions across disciplines is particularly relevant in clinical and translational science (CTS research, which is designed to traverse disciplinary and institutional boundaries. At the University of Florida Health Science Center Library, a team of librarians undertook an assessment of the research data management needs of CTS researchers, including an online assessment and follow-up one-on-one interviews. Design and Methods: The 20-question online assessment was distributed to all investigators affiliated with UF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI and 59 investigators responded. Follow-up in-depth interviews were conducted with nine faculty and staff members. Results: Results indicate that UF’s CTS researchers have diverse data management needs that are often specific to their discipline or current research project and span the data lifecycle. A common theme in responses was the need for consistent data management training, particularly for graduate students; this led to localized training within the Health Science Center and CTSI, as well as campus-wide training. Another campus-wide outcome was the creation of an action-oriented Data Management/Curation Task Force, led by the libraries and with participation from Research Computing and the Office of Research. Conclusions: Initiating conversations with affected stakeholders and campus leadership about best practices in data management and implications for institutional policy shows the library’s proactive leadership and furthers our goal to provide concrete guidance to our users in this area.

  7. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers ...

  8. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  9. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  10. Multisensory-Based Rehabilitation Approach: Translational Insights from Animal Models to Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Purpura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory processes permit combinations of several inputs, coming from different sensory systems, allowing for a coherent representation of biological events and facilitating adaptation to environment. For these reasons, their application in neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation has been enhanced in the last decades. Recent studies on animals and human models have indicated that, on one hand multisensory integration matures gradually during post-natal life and development is closely linked to environment and experience and, on the other hand, that modality-specific information seems to do not benefit by redundancy across multiple sense modalities and is more readily perceived in unimodal than in multimodal stimulation. In this review, multisensory process development is analyzed, highlighting clinical effects in animal and human models of its manipulation for rehabilitation of sensory disorders. In addition, new methods of early intervention based on multisensory-based rehabilitation approach and their applications on different infant populations at risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities are discussed.

  11. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  12. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Translational researches on leaf senescence for enhancing plant productivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Leaf senescence is a very important trait that limits yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops and reduces post-harvest performance and the nutritional value of horticultural crops. Significant advance in physiological and molecular understanding of leaf senescence has made it possible to devise ways of manipulating leaf senescence for agricultural improvement. There are three major strategies in this regard: (i) plant hormone biology-based leaf senescence manipulation technology, the senescence-specific gene promoter-directed IPT system in particular; (ii) leaf senescence-specific transcription factor biology-based technology; and (iii) translation initiation factor biology-based technology. Among the first strategy, the P SAG12 -IPT autoregulatory senescence inhibition system has been widely explored and successfully used in a variety of plant species for manipulating senescence. The vast majority of the related research articles (more than 2000) showed that crops harbouring the autoregulatory system displayed a significant delay in leaf senescence without any abnormalities in growth and development, a marked increase in grain yield and biomass, dramatic improvement in horticultural performance, and/or enhanced tolerance to drought stress. This technology is approaching commercialization. The transcription factor biology-based and translation initiation factor biology-based technologies have also been shown to be very promising and have great potentials for manipulating leaf senescence in crops. Finally, it is speculated that technologies based on the molecular understanding of nutrient recycling during leaf senescence are highly desirable and are expected to be developed in future translational leaf senescence research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa-A Review of Confounders and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus , have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  15. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa—A Review of Confounders and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totta Ehret

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  16. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: A Roadmap about Good Clinical Practice and Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Frati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of “Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation” by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR. Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient’s welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered.

  18. Detecting dissonance in clinical and research workflow for translational psychiatric registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofiel, Luciana; Bassi, Débora U; Ray, Ryan Kumar; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brentani, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have developed standards that allow for the comparison of workflow models derived from clinical and research tasks toward the improvement of data collection processes. In this study we used the term dissonance for the occurrences where there was a discord between clinical and research workflows. We developed workflow models for a translational research study in psychiatry and the clinic where its data collection was carried out. After identifying points of dissonance between clinical and research models we derived a corresponding classification system that ultimately enabled us to re-engineer the data collection workflow. We considered (1) the number of patients approached for enrollment and (2) the number of patients enrolled in the study as indicators of efficiency in research workflow. We also recorded the number of dissonances before and after the workflow modification. We identified 22 episodes of dissonance across 6 dissonance categories: actor, communication, information, artifact, time, and space. We were able to eliminate 18 episodes of dissonance and increase the number of patients approached and enrolled in research study trough workflow modification. The classification developed in this study is useful for guiding the identification of dissonances and reveal modifications required to align the workflow of data collection and the clinical setting. The methodology described in this study can be used by researchers to standardize data collection process.

  19. The Community Mentorship Program: Providing Community-Engagement Opportunities for Early-Stage Clinical and Translational Scientists to Facilitate Research Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Cecilia M; Kubicek, Katrina; Robles, Marisela; Kiger, Holly; Dzekov, Jeanne

    2017-02-01

    A goal of the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute (SC-CTSI) at the University of Southern California and Children's Hospital Los Angeles is to train early-stage clinical and translational scientists (CTSs) to conduct research that improves the health of diverse communities. This goal aligns well with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations emphasizing community engagement in biomedical research that facilitates research translation. The Community Mentorship Program (CMP), created to complement community-engaged research didactics, matches CTSs with community mentors who help them identify and complete community-engaged experiences that inform their research. The CMP was piloted in 2013-2015 by the SC-CTSI Workforce Development and Community Engagement cores. The CMP team matched three CTSs (assistant professors pursuing mentored career development awards) with mentors at community-based organizations (CBOs) aligned with their research interests. Each mentor-mentee pair signed a memorandum of understanding. The CMP team checked in regularly, monitoring progress and addressing challenges in CTSs' completion of their community-engaged experience. Each pair completed at least one community-engaged activity informing the CTS's research. In exit interviews, the CTSs and CBO mentors expressed satisfaction with the program and stated that they would continue to work together. The CTSs reported that the program provided opportunities to develop networks outside academia, build trust within the community, and receive feedback and learn from individuals in communities affected by their research. The CMP will be expanded to include all eligible early-career CTSs and promoted for use in similar settings outside the SC-CTSI.

  20. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  1. Design and Implementation of the International Genetics and Translational Research in Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Genetic association studies of transplantation outcomes have been hampered by small samples and highly complex multifactorial phenotypes, hindering investigations of the genetic architecture of a range of comorbidities which significantly impact graft and recipient life expectancy. We describe here the rationale and design of the International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network. The network comprises 22 studies to date, including 16494 transplant recipients and 11669 donors, of whom more than 5000 are of non-European ancestry, all of whom have existing genomewide genotype data sets. We describe the rich genetic and phenotypic information available in this consortium comprising heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplant cohorts. We demonstrate significant power in International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network to detect main effect association signals across regions such as the MHC region as well as genomewide for transplant outcomes that span all solid organs, such as graft survival, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after transplantation, and for delayed graft function in kidney only. This consortium is designed and statistically powered to deliver pioneering insights into the genetic architecture of transplant-related outcomes across a range of different solid-organ transplant studies. The study design allows a spectrum of analyses to be performed including recipient-only analyses, donor-recipient HLA mismatches with focus on loss-of-function variants and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  2. Researching for sustained translation from site cluster permeability into building courtyard and interior atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX; Defiana, Ima; Setyawan, Wahyu

    2018-03-01

    Many previous types of research have discussed the permeability of site cluster. Because of interaction and interconnected attribute, it will be better that there is its translation into lower context such as building and interior scale. In this paper, the sustainability design performance of both similar designs of courtyard and atrium are investigated continuing the recommendation of site space permeability. By researching related literature review and study through Ecotect Analysis and Ansys Fluent simulations, the pattern transformation and optimum courtyard and atrium design could comply the requirement. The results highlighted that the air movement from the site could be translated at the minimum of 50% higher to the building and indoor environment. Thus, it has potency for energy efficiency when grid, loop, and cul-de-sac site clusters, with 25% of ground coverage, have connectivity with building courtyard compared to the atrium. Energy saving is higher when using low thermal transmittance of transparent material and its lower area percentages for the courtyard walls. In general, it was more energy efficient option as part of a low rise building, while the courtyard building performed better with increasing irregular building height more than 90% of the difference.

  3. Contribution of Large Animals to Translational Research on Prenatal Programming of Obesity and Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive. Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, handlingeasiness and cost-efficiency, the main large animal species for use in biomedical research are rabbits, sheep and swine. The choice of the model depends on the research objectives. To outline the main features of the use of rabbits, sheep and swine and their contributions as translational models in prenatal programming of obesity and associated disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  5. The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

  6. From bench to clinic and back: Perspective on the 1st IQPC Translational Research conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörig Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.

  7. Bipolar disorder research 2.0: Web technologies for research capacity and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Erin E; McBride, Sally; Barnes, Steven J; Wood, Chanel S; Khatri, Nasreen; Balram Elliott, Nusha; Parikh, Sagar V

    2017-12-01

    Current Web technologies offer bipolar disorder (BD) researchers many untapped opportunities for conducting research and for promoting knowledge exchange. In the present paper, we document our experiences with a variety of Web 2.0 technologies in the context of an international BD research network: The Collaborative RESearch Team to Study psychosocial issues in BD (CREST.BD). Three technologies were used as tools for enabling research within CREST.BD and for encouraging the dissemination of the results of our research: (1) the crestbd.ca website, (2) social networking tools (ie, Facebook, Twitter), and (3) several sorts of file sharing (ie YouTube, FileShare). For each Web technology, we collected quantitative assessments of their effectiveness (in reach, exposure, and engagement) over a 6-year timeframe (2010-2016). In general, many of our strategies were deemed successful for promoting knowledge exchange and other network goals. We discuss how we applied our Web analytics to inform adaptations and refinements of our Web 2.0 platforms to maximise knowledge exchange with people with BD, their supporters, and health care providers. We conclude with some general recommendations for other mental health researchers and research networks interested in pursuing Web 2.0 strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  9. PRIME – PRocess modelling in ImpleMEntation research: selecting a theoretical basis for interventions to change clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Nigel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical research constantly produces new findings but these are not routinely translated into health care practice. One way to address this problem is to develop effective interventions to translate research findings into practice. Currently a range of empirical interventions are available and systematic reviews of these have demonstrated that there is no single best intervention. This evidence base is difficult to use in routine settings because it cannot identify which intervention is most likely to be effective (or cost effective in a particular situation. We need to establish a scientific rationale for interventions. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour, theories of human behaviour that have proved useful in other similar settings may provide a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice. The objectives of the study are: to amplify and populate scientifically validated theories of behaviour with evidence from the experience of health professionals; to use this as a basis for developing predictive questionnaires using replicable methods; to identify which elements of the questionnaire (i.e., which theoretical constructs predict clinical practice and distinguish between evidence compliant and non-compliant practice; and on the basis of these results, to identify variables (based on theoretical constructs that might be prime targets for behaviour change interventions. Methods We will develop postal questionnaires measuring two motivational, three action and one stage theory to explore five behaviours with 800 general medical and 600 general dental practitioners. We will collect data on performance for each of the behaviours. The relationships between predictor variables (theoretical constructs and outcome measures (data on performance in each survey will be assessed using multiple regression analysis and structural equation

  10. Sustaining the Clinical and Translational Research Workforce: Training and Empowering the Next Generation of Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Helen L; Gabrilove, Janice; Jackson, Rebecca; Sweeney, Carol; Fair, Alecia M; Toto, Robert

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting concern that clinician-scientists are a vanishing species and that the pipeline for clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators is in jeopardy. For the majority of current junior CTR investigators, the career path involves first obtaining a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded K-type career development award, particularly K08 and K23, and subsequently an NIH R01. This transition, popularly referred to as K2R, is a major hurdle with a low success rate and gaps in funding. In this Perspective, the authors identify factors that facilitate K2R transition and important aspects of increasing and sustaining the pipeline of CTR investigators. They also highlight significant differences in success rates of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. Early career exposure to research methodology, protected time, multidisciplinary mentoring, and institutional "culture shift" are important for fostering and rewarding team science. Mentoring is the single most important contributor to K2R success, and emerging evidence suggests that formal mentor training and team mentoring are effective. Leadership training can empower junior investigators to thrive as independent CTR investigators. Future research should focus on delineating the difference between essential and supplemental factors to achieve this transition, and mentoring methods that foster success, including those that promote K2R transition of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards National Consortium is well positioned to test existing models aimed at shortening the time frame, increasing the rate of K2R transition, and identifying strategies that improve success.

  11. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote…

  12. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  14. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  15. Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods of cell purification: a critical juncture for laboratory research and translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Peter J; Cagavi Bozkulak, Esra; Qyang, Yibing

    2012-01-01

    Research in cell biology and the development of translational technologies are driven by competition, public expectations, and regulatory oversight, putting these fields at a critical juncture. Success in these fields is quickly becoming dependent on the ability of researchers to identify and isolate specific cell populations from heterogeneous mixtures accurately and efficiently. Many methods for cell purification have been developed, and each has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in light of the intended application. Current cell separation strategies make use of surface proteins, genetic expression, and physics to isolate specific cells by phenotypic traits. Cell purification is also dependent on the cellular reagents available for use and the intended application, as these factors may preclude certain mechanisms used in the processes of labeling and sorting cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The nursing professorial unit: translating acute and critical care nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment

  18. Ethical considerations for sleep intervention in organizational psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K

    2017-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest into the role of sleep in the workplace has grown. The theoretical shift from research questions examining sleep as an outcome to placing sleep as the independent variable has increased experimental approaches to manipulating sleep in organizational studies. This is an exciting trend that is likely to continue in the organizational sciences. However, sleep experimentation can also pose special challenges for organizational researchers unaccustomed to sleep science. In this commentary, I discuss five ethical considerations of conducting negative sleep interventions in organizational psychology research. I also provide recommendations for organizational researchers-or even other researchers in disciplines outside of sleep science-who wish to implement sleep interventions in their studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Team building: electronic management-clinical translational research (eM-CTR) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, Alfred A; Parmanto, Bambang; Vecchio, Marcella L; Ahmad, Sjarif; Buch, Shama; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Groark, Stephen J; Vemuganti, Anupama; Romkes, Marjorie; Sciurba, Frank; Donahoe, Michael P; Branch, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Classical drug exposure: response studies in clinical pharmacology represent the quintessential prototype for Bench to Bedside-Clinical Translational Research. A fundamental premise of this approach is for a multidisciplinary team of researchers to design and execute complex, in-depth mechanistic studies conducted in relatively small groups of subjects. The infrastructure support for this genre of clinical research is not well-handled by scaling down of infrastructure used for large Phase III clinical trials. We describe a novel, integrated strategy, whose focus is to support and manage a study using an Information Hub, Communication Hub, and Data Hub design. This design is illustrated by an application to a series of varied projects sponsored by Special Clinical Centers of Research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the University of Pittsburgh. In contrast to classical informatics support, it is readily scalable to large studies. Our experience suggests the culture consequences of research group self-empowerment is not only economically efficient but transformative to the research process.

  20. A descriptive qualitative examination of knowledge translation practice among health researchers in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Roche, Patricia L; Bell, Courtney P; Temple, Beverley; Wittmeier, Kristy D M

    2017-09-06

    The importance of effective translation of health research findings into action has been well recognized, but there is evidence to suggest that the practice of knowledge translation (KT) among health researchers is still evolving. Compared to research user stakeholders, researchers (knowledge producers) have been under-studied in this context. The goals of this study were to understand the experiences of health researchers in practicing KT in Manitoba, Canada, and identify their support needs to sustain and increase their participation in KT. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 researchers studying in biomedical; clinical; health systems and services; and social, cultural, environmental and population health research. Interview questions were open-ended and probed participants' understanding of KT, their experiences in practicing KT, barriers and facilitators to practicing KT, and their needs for KT practice support. KT was broadly conceptualized across participants. Participants described a range of KT practice experiences, most of which related to dissemination. Participants also expressed a number of negative emotions associated with the practice of KT. Many individual, logistical, and systemic or organizational barriers to practicing KT were identified, which included a lack of institutional support for KT in both academic and non-academic systems. Participants described the presence of good relationships with stakeholders as a critical facilitator for practicing KT. The most commonly identified needs for supporting KT practice were access to education and training, and access to resources to increase awareness and promotion of KT. While there were few major variations in response trends across most areas of health research, the responses of biomedical researchers suggested a unique KT context, reflected by distinct conceptualizations of KT (such as commercialization as a core component), experiences (including frustration and lack of

  1. Translating exercise interventions to an in-home setting for seniors: preliminary impact on physical activity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondzila, Christopher J; Swartz, Ann M; Keenan, Kevin G; Harley, Amy E; Azen, Razia; Strath, Scott J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether an in-home, individually tailored intervention is efficacious in promoting increases in physical activity (PA) and improvements in physical functioning (PF) in low-active older adults. Participants were randomized to two groups for the 8-week intervention. The enhanced physical activity (EPA) group received individualized exercise programming, including personalized step goals and a resistance band training program, and the standard of care (SoC) group received a general activity goal. Pre- and post-intervention PF measures included choice step reaction time, knee extension/flexion strength, hand grip strength, and 8 ft up and go test completion time. Thirty-nine subjects completed this study (74.6 ± 6.4 years). Significant increases in steps/day were observed for both the EPA and SoC groups, although the improvements in the EPA group were significantly higher when including only those who adhered to weekly step goals. Both groups experienced significant PF improvements, albeit greater in the EPA group for the 8 ft up and go test and knee extension strength. A low cost, in-home intervention elicited improvements in both PA and PF. Future research is warranted to expand upon the size and scope of this study, exploring dose thresholds (and time frames) for PA to improve PF and strategies to further bolster adherence rates to maximize intervention benefits.

  2. Translation of associative learning models into extinction reminders delivered via mobile phones during cue exposure interventions for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kutlu, Munir G

    2014-09-01

    Despite experimental findings and some treatment research supporting the use of cues as a means to induce and extinguish cravings, interventions using cue exposure have not been well integrated into contemporary substance abuse treatments. A primary problem with exposure-based interventions for addiction is that after learning not to use substances in the presence of addiction cues inside the clinic (i.e., extinction), stimuli in the naturalistic setting outside the clinic may continue to elicit craving, drug use, or other maladaptive conditioned responses. For exposure-based substance use interventions to be efficacious, new approaches are needed that can prevent relapse by directly generalizing learning from the therapeutic setting into naturalistic settings associated with a high risk for relapse. Basic research suggests that extinction reminders (ERs) can be paired with the context of learning new and more adaptive conditioned responses to substance abuse cues in exposure therapies for addiction. Using mobile phones and automated dialing and data collection software, ERs can be delivered in everyday high-risk settings to inhibit conditioned responses to substance-use-related stimuli. In this review, we describe how associative learning mechanisms (e.g., conditioned inhibition) can inform how ERs are conceptualized, learned, and implemented to prevent substance use when delivered via mobile phones. This approach, exposure with portable reminders of extinction, is introduced as an adjunctive intervention that uses brief automated ERs between clinic visits when individuals are in high-risk settings for drug use.

  3. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rosalie J.; Shotwell, Mary P.

    2017-01-01

    Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE), a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities. PMID:29097962

  4. Translating cell-based regenerative medicines from research to successful products: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Egloff, Matthieu; Snykers, Sarah; Salinas, Gabriella Franco; Thomas, Robert; Girling, Alan; Lilford, Richard; Clermont, Gaelle; Kemp, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society-Europe (TERMIS-EU) Industry Committee as well as its TERMIS-Americas (AM) counterpart intend to address the specific challenges and needs facing the industry in translating academic research into commercial products. Over the last 3 years, the TERMIS-EU Industry Committee has worked with commercial bodies to deliver programs that encourage academics to liaise with industry in proactive collaborations. The TERMIS-EU 2013 Industry Symposium aimed to build on this commercial agenda by focusing on two topics: Operations Management (How to move a process into the good manufacturing practice [GMP] environment) and Clinical Translation (Moving a GMP process into robust trials). These topics were introduced by providing the synergistic business perspective of partnering between the multiple regenerative medicine stakeholders, throughout the life cycle of product development. Seven industry leaders were invited to share their experience, expertise, and strategies. Due to the complex nature of regenerative medicine products, partnering for their successful commercial development seems inevitable to overcome all obstacles by sharing experiences and expertise of all stakeholders. When ideally implemented, the "innovation quotient" of a virtual team resulting from the combination of internal and external project teams can be maximized through maximizing the three main dimensions: core competences, technology portfolio, and alliance management.

  5. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah; Miller, Rosalie J; Shotwell, Mary P

    2017-01-01

    Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2-19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE), a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a "change point" indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a "change point" and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities.

  6. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Weissman-Miller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE, a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities.

  7. BRIDG: a domain information model for translational and clinical protocol-driven research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Hastak, Smita; Ver Hoef, Wendy; Milius, Robert P; Slack, MaryAnn; Wold, Diane; Glickman, Michael L; Brodsky, Boris; Jaffe, Charles; Kush, Rebecca; Helton, Edward

    2017-09-01

    It is critical to integrate a