Viviene A Temple
Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities and the effects on overall physical activity levels and on health outcomes. Materials and methods. A systematic review of eight databases until January 31, 2015 identified 383 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of adults with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Six articles from the 383 citations met this criterion. Results. Three studies resulted in significant increases in physical activity behaviour; however well-controlled trials designed to improve weight status by increasing physical activity did not produce significant effects. Conclusion. Overall, the results indicate that interventions to increase physical activity should simultaneously target the individual with intellectual disability as well as their proximal environment over a sustained period of time.
Georgia C Frey
Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for youth with intellectual disabilities. Materials and methods. A systematic review of nine databases until January 31, 2015 identified 213 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of youth with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Eleven articles from the 213 citations met this criterion. Results. Nine studies reported significant increases in physical activity behavior. Conclusions. Conclusions cannot be made regarding intervention components that impacted outcome variables, if the observed effects were specifically due to the intervention or if interventions could be maintained long-term. To advance the knowledge base in this area, a concerted effort should be made to increase rigor in study conceptualization and research design.
Malik, Sumaira H; Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne
The benefits of an active lifestyle are widely documented, yet studies show that only a small proportion of adults engage in sufficient levels of physical activity. The workplace presents an ideal avenue for delivering initiatives to promote physical activity, overcoming commonly cited barriers such as a 'lack of time' and providing access to a large intersection of society. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the types of interventions workplaces implement to promote physical activity among staff, (2) describe the characteristics of those interventions, (3) understand whether these interventions positively impact on activity levels, and (4) assess the methodological quality of studies. A systematic review of workplace physical activity interventions published up to April 2011 was conducted to identify types of interventions and their outcomes. Of the 58 studies included, the majority utilized health promotion initiatives. There were six physical activity/exercise interventions, 13 counselling/support interventions, and 39 health promotion messages/information interventions. Thirty-two of these studies showed a statistically significant increase in a measure of physical activity against a control group at follow-up. While the studies included in this review show some evidence that workplace physical activity interventions can be efficacious, overall the results are inconclusive. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there is still a need for more well-designed studies to fully determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions for increasing physical activity and to identify the types of interventions that show the most promise. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc
On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and
Koring, Milena; Richert, Jana; Parschau, Linda; Ernsting, Anna; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf
Many individuals are motivated to improve their physical activity levels, but often fail to act upon their intention. Interventions fostering volitional strategies, such as action planning, coping planning, and self-efficacy beliefs, can help to translate intentions into behavior. This study examines the effectiveness and the mechanisms of a combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity among motivated individuals. Participants (N = 883) were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a waiting-list control condition. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the intervention resulted in significantly more physical activity, higher levels of action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy beliefs (p self-efficacy mediate between the intervention and physical activity. The study shows that the intervention successfully fostered physical activity and unfolds the underlying self-regulatory mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness.
Physical activity guidelines recommend that children accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. In South Africa, children from historically black communities and schools, previously disadvantaged by apartheid, have limited physical activity opportunities due to the marginalization ...
van Sluijs, Esther M F; McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J
To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Systematic review. Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children.
Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius
Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ 2 , Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.
Nooijen, Carla F. J.; Stam, Henk J.; Schoenmakers, Imte; Sluis, Tebbe; Post, Marcel; Twisk, Jos; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.
OBJECTIVE: In order to unravel the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of physical and psychosocial factors on the
Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Roebers, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Most physical education intervention studies on the positive effect of sports on self-concept development have attempted to "increase" schoolchildren's self-concept without taking the "veridicality" of the self-concept into account. The present study investigated whether a 10-week intervention in physical education would lead…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity is considered to yield substantial health benefits, the level of physical activity among European teenagers is not sufficient. Adolescence is characterized by a decline in physical activity level. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of interventions promoting physical activity among young people, but none dealt with the available evidence specific for Europe. This review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify European intervention studies published in the scientific literature since 1995. Four databases were searched, reference lists were scanned and the publication lists of the authors of the retrieved articles were checked. The ANGELO framework was used to categorise the included studies by setting and by intervention components. Results The literature search identified 20 relevant studies. Fifteen interventions were delivered through the school setting, of which three included a family component and another three a family and community component. One intervention was conducted within a community setting, three were delivered in primary care and one was delivered through the internet. Ten interventions included only an individual component, whereas the other ten used a multi-component approach. None of the interventions included only an environmental component. Main findings of the review were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvements in physical activity levels; (2 improvements in physical activity levels by school-based interventions were limited to school related physical activity with no conclusive transfer to leisure time physical activity; (3 including parents appeared to enhance school-based interventions; (4 the support of peers and the influence of direct environmental changes increased the physical activity level of
Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E
The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered
Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lim, Clarise
Promoting physical activities that involve both parents and their children would be very useful to the improved health and well-being of families, yet coactivity interventions have been particularly unsuccessful in past research. The purpose of this study was to elicit the salient parental beliefs about coactivity framed through theory of planned…
Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana
A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…
Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee
Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.
Bernard, Paquito; Carayol, Marion; Gourlan, Mathieu; Boiché, Julie; Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Bortolon, Catherine; Lareyre, Olivier; Ninot, Gregory
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has recently showed that theory-based interventions designed to promote physical activity (PA) significantly increased PA behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the moderators of the efficacy of these theory-based interventions. Seventy-seven RCTs evaluating theory-based interventions were systematically identified. Sample, intervention, methodology, and theory implementation characteristics were extracted, coded by three duos of independent investigators, and tested as moderators of interventions effect in a multiple-meta-regression model. Three moderators were negatively associated with the efficacy of theory-based interventions on PA behavior: intervention length (≥14 weeks; β = -.22, p = .004), number of experimental patients (β = -.10, p = .002), and global methodological quality score (β = -.08, p = .04). Our findings suggest that the efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote PA could be overestimated consequently due to methodological weaknesses of RCTs and that interventions shorter than 14 weeks could maximize the increase of PA behavior.
Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.
Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9 On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of
Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.
Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…
Carroll Jennifer K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15 are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months. Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2 and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3. Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4 are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on
Richards, Justin; Thorogood, Margaret; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Foster, Charles
Face-to-face interventions for promoting physical activity (PA) are continuing to be popular as remote and web 2.0 approaches rapidly emerge, but we are unsure which approach is more effective at achieving long term sustained change. To compare the effectiveness of face-to-face versus remote and web 2.0 interventions for PA promotion in community dwelling adults (aged 16 years and above). We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and some other databases (from earliest dates available to October 2012). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised trials that compared face-to-face versus remote and web 2.0 PA interventions for community dwelling adults. We included studies if they compared an intervention that was principally delivered face-to-face to an intervention that had principally remote and web 2.0 methods. To assess behavioural change over time, the included studies had a minimum of 12 months follow-up from the start of the intervention to the final results. We excluded studies that had more than a 20% loss to follow-up if they did not apply an intention-to-treat analysis. At least two review authors independently assessed the quality of each study and extracted the data. Non-English language papers were reviewed with the assistance of an interpreter who was an epidemiologist. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous measures of cardio-respiratory fitness. One study recruiting 225 apparently healthy adults met the inclusion criteria. This study took place in a high-income country. From 27,299 hits, the full texts of 193 papers were retrieved for examination against the inclusion criteria. However, there was only one paper that met the inclusion criteria. This study reported the effect of a PA intervention on cardio-respiratory fitness. There were no reported data
Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study as a systematic review investigated and analyzed interventions based on models and theories of health education and promotion in the field of physical activity in women. Materials and Methods: Three electronic databases, including Springer, Biomed Central and Science Direct were searched systematically. Only studies were selected that were quantitative, interventional and in English language as well as those that used at least one of the models and theories of health education and health promotion. Finally, 13 studies were reviewed that met the inclusion criteria and published from 2000 to 2013. Results: Of 13 studies reviewed, 10 studies measured levels of physical activity before and after the intervention, which nine interventions increased physical activity in the intervention group compared to the control group. Studies were conducted in different settings of health promotion including health care centers, community setting and workplace. The most widely used model was the Transtheoretical Model applied in eight of investigations. Conclusion: It is suggested to focus more on physical activity and duration of interventions to increase the efficacy of interventions. It is suggested to measure changes of physical activity habits in experimental and control groups in interventions based on the transtheoretical model to prepare a complementary scale to assess the efficacy of interventions. According to the results, no study had focused on changes in institutional policies or general health or providing changes in environment related to physical activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Guthrie, Nicole; Bradlyn, Andrew; Thompson, Sharon K; Yen, Sophia; Haritatos, Jana; Dillon, Fred; Cole, Steve W
Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p videogame (p < .0001). Zamzee's effects on MVPA did not diminish significantly over the course of the 6-wk study period, and were statistically significant in both females and males, and in normal- vs. high-BMI subgroups. These results provide promising initial indications that combining the Zamzee activity meter with online proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features can positively impact MVPA levels in adolescents.
Full Text Available Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p < .0001. In a subsequent randomized controlled multi-site experiment involving 182 middle school-aged children assessed for MVPA over 6 wks, intent-to-treat analyses found that those who received access to the Zamzee intervention had average MVPA levels 54% greater than those of a passive control group (p < 0.0001 and 68% greater than those of an active control group that received access to a commercially available active videogame (p < .0001. Zamzee's effects on MVPA did not diminish significantly over the course of the 6-wk study period, and were statistically significant in both females and males, and in normal- vs. high-BMI subgroups. These results provide promising initial indications that combining the Zamzee activity meter with online proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features can positively impact MVPA levels in adolescents.
Foster, Charles; Richards, Justin; Thorogood, Margaret; Hillsdon, Melvyn
Remote and web 2.0 interventions for promoting physical activity (PA) are becoming increasingly popular but their ability to achieve long term changes are unknown. To compare the effectiveness of remote and web 2.0 interventions for PA promotion in community dwelling adults (aged 16 years and above) with a control group exposed to placebo or no or minimal intervention. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and some other databases (from earliest dates available to October 2012). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared remote and web 2.0 PA interventions for community dwelling adults with a placebo or no or minimal intervention control group. We included studies if the principal component of the intervention was delivered using remote or web 2.0 technologies (for example the internet, smart phones) or more traditional methods (for example telephone, mail-outs), or both. To assess behavioural change over time, the included studies had a minimum of 12 months follow-up from the start of the intervention to the final results. We excluded studies that had more than a 20% loss to follow-up if they did not apply an intention-to-treat analysis. At least two authors independently assessed the quality of each study and extracted the data. Non-English language papers were reviewed with the assistance of an interpreter who was an epidemiologist. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the continuous measures of self-reported PA and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated. A total of 11 studies recruiting 5862 apparently healthy adults met the inclusion criteria. All of the studies took place in high-income countries. The effect of the interventions on cardiovascular fitness at one
Anne N Thorndike
Full Text Available Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise.We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses.In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002;7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline.Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more intensive hospital-based wellness programs have potential for
Amineh Sahranavard Gargari
Full Text Available Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the level of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this level decreases with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention based on the social ecological model on promotion of physical activity among female employees. In this study, 160 women employed at Shabestar universities were selected, and randomly divided into two groups of control (n=80 and intervention (n=80. The intervention group received an instructional program according to the model, including one session for general instruction and four sessions for group discussion along with daily walking for 30 minutes within 8 weeks. In order to objectively measure the physical activity, the pedometer was used and to measure the perceived physical activity, the long form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. The variables related to the components of socio-ecological model were measured using the socio-ecological model questionnaire. A significant difference was found between two groups after the intervention in terms of That is, the average number of steps in walking in the intervention group increased significantly (from 4204 to 7882 steps per day, while it did not significantly increase in the control group. Thus, it can be argued that designing and implementing the interventional programs based on the socio-ecological model can promote physical activity behavior among employed women
Lee, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Yu-Chi; Fanaw, Dilw; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Juang, Ian-Fei
To study the effect of an intervention combining self-efficacy theory and pedometers on promoting physical activity among adolescents. The beneficial effects of regular physical activity on health in youths are well-documented. However, adolescence is found to be the age of greatest decline in physical activity participation. Physical activity participation among girls was generally less frequent and less intense than boys. Therefore, there is a strong need for effective interventions that can help promote physical activity in this population. An experimental design. Two classes of female junior college students (mean age = 16) were randomly sampled from a total of four classes and, of those, one each was randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 46) or the control group (n = 48). Self-efficacy was used as a core theoretical foundation of the intervention design, and pedometers were provided to the students in the intervention group. Distances between each domestic scenic spot were illustrated graphically in a walking log for students to mark the extent of their walking or running. Students in the control group participated in a usual physical education programme. The primary outcome was a change in the number of aerobic steps. The secondary outcomes were changes in cardiopulmonary endurance and exercise self-efficacy. At 12-week follow-up, the mean change in aerobic steps was 371 steps and 108 steps in the intervention and control group, respectively. The difference in mean change between the two groups was 467 steps. Effects of the intervention on changes of cardiopulmonary endurance and perceived exercise self-efficacy scores were not found. Among adolescent girls, a 12-week intervention designed on the theoretical foundation of self-efficacy theory and provision of pedometers was found to have an effect on increasing their physical activity. The intervention, using graphs of domestic scenic spots to represent the distance of walking or running as
Boekhout, Janet M; Peels, Denise A; Berendsen, Brenda Aj; Bolman, Catherine Aw; Lechner, Lilian
Especially for single older adults with chronic diseases, physical inactivity and a poor social network are regarded as serious threats to their health and independence. The Active Plus intervention is an automated computer-tailored eHealth intervention that has been proven effective to promote physical activity (PA) in the general population of adults older than 50 years. The aim of this study was to report on the methods and results of the systematic adaptation of Active Plus to the wishes and needs of the subgroup of single people older than 65 years who have one or more chronic diseases, as this specific target population may encounter specific challenges regarding PA and social network. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was used to systematically adapt the existing intervention to optimally suit this specific target population. A literature study was performed, and quantitative as well as qualitative data were derived from health care professionals (by questionnaires, n=10) and the target population (by focus group interviews, n=14), which were then systematically integrated into the adapted intervention. As the health problems and the targeted behavior are largely the same in the original and adapted intervention, the outcome of the needs assessment was that the performance objectives remained the same. As found in the literature study and in data derived from health professionals and focus groups, the relative importance and operationalization of the relevant psychosocial determinants related to these objectives are different from the original intervention, resulting in a refinement of the change objectives to optimally fit the specific target population. This refinement also resulted in changes in the practical applications, program components, intervention materials, and the evaluation and implementation strategy for the subgroup of single, chronically impaired older adults. This study demonstrates that the adaptation of an existing intervention is an
Senne, Terry A.; Rikard, G. Linda
The objectives of this paper are: to briefly describe how teaching portfolios, in tandem with the Teaching/Learning Framework (Sprinthall & Thies-Sprinthall, 1983) can be employed as a developmental intervention to promote stage growth in teacher candidates; to report developmental stage change (moral judgment/principled thinking) results from…
M. Rahimian; M. Mohammadi; A. Mehri; M.H. Rakhshani
Abstract Aims: Regular physical activity can reduce the burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers, and can prevent early death. This study examined the impact of performing health promotion model intervention on physical activity of the health volunteers. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional research is part of a three-month Intervening study started in 2015 on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e Jaam City, Iran, which was selected by multistage r...
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Regular physical activity can reduce the burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers, and can prevent early death. This study examined the impact of performing health promotion model intervention on physical activity of the health volunteers. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional research is part of a three-month Intervening study started in 2015 on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e Jaam City, Iran, which was selected by multistage random sampling method and participants were divided into two interventional and control groups. A Demographic Questionnaire and The Persian version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to collect data. The data was analyzed in SPSS 16 using independent T, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Findings: Before the intervention the mean of perceived benefit score was 31.3±4.5 that was evaluated as “good” but self-efficacy and behavior scores were 5.8±4.1 and 912.4±750.8 that were assessed as “poor”. Physical activity had positive correlation with perceived benefits, self-efficacy, commitment, positive, emotion and situational influences and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. Overall 66.8% of the physical activity was predicted by Pender’s Health Promotion Model variables. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of physical activity and other structures of HPM in the experimental group after the intervention and its score before intervention. Conclusion: Educational program based on Pender's health promotion model is effective in improving physical activity of health volunteers.
Muellmann, Saskia; Forberger, Sarah; Möllers, Tobias; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R
It is known that regular physical activity (PA) is associated with improvements in physical, psychological, cognitive, and functional health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends 150 min of moderate exercise per week for older adults to achieve these health benefits. However, only 20-60 % of adults aged 60 years and above currently meet these recommendations for exercise. The widespread use of the internet and mobile phones among older adults may open new opportunities to promote PA in this population. Findings of previous reviews suggest that eHealth interventions are effective in promoting PA in adults of various ages. However, to date, none of these reviews have provided a differentiated picture of engagement in such interventions and effects on PA among older adults. Also, we are unaware of any studies comparing effects of participation in eHealth vs. traditional paper-and-pencil interventions on PA in this population. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of eHealth interventions promoting PA in older adults aged 55 years and above with either a non-eHealth PA intervention or a group that is not exposed to any intervention. Eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PEI, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and OpenGrey) will be searched to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies examining the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for PA promotion in adults aged 55 years and above. Two authors will independently select and review references, extract data, and assess the quality of the included studies by using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Disagreements between authors will be resolved by discussion involving a third author. If feasible, a meta-analysis will be conducted. Narrative synthesis using harvest plots will be performed, should a meta-analysis not be feasible. The proposed systematic review will be the first review that compares the effectiveness of e
Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper
Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schiltz, Holly Kristine
Visualization skills are important in learning chemistry, as these skills have been shown to correlate to high ability in problem solving. Students' understanding of visual information and their problem-solving processes may only ever be accessed indirectly: verbalization, gestures, drawings, etc. In this research, deconstruction of complex visual concepts was aligned with the promotion of students' verbalization of visualized ideas to teach students to solve complex visual tasks independently. All instructional tools and teaching methods were developed in accordance with the principles of the theoretical framework, the Modeling Theory of Learning: deconstruction of visual representations into model components, comparisons to reality, and recognition of students' their problemsolving strategies. Three physical model systems were designed to provide students with visual and tangible representations of chemical concepts. The Permanent Reflection Plane Demonstration provided visual indicators that students used to support or invalidate the presence of a reflection plane. The 3-D Coordinate Axis system provided an environment that allowed students to visualize and physically enact symmetry operations in a relevant molecular context. The Proper Rotation Axis system was designed to provide a physical and visual frame of reference to showcase multiple symmetry elements that students must identify in a molecular model. Focus groups of students taking Inorganic chemistry working with the physical model systems demonstrated difficulty documenting and verbalizing processes and descriptions of visual concepts. Frequently asked student questions were classified, but students also interacted with visual information through gestures and model manipulations. In an effort to characterize how much students used visualization during lecture or recitation, we developed observation rubrics to gather information about students' visualization artifacts and examined the effect instructors
Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F
Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Using health promotion outcomes in formative evaluation studies to predict success factors in interventions: an application to an intervention for promoting physical activity in Dutch children (JUMP-in)
Jurg, M.E.; Meij, de J.S.B.; Wal, van der M.F.; Koelen, M.A.
JUMP-in is a systematically developed intervention aimed at promoting physical activity among primary school children. It is a joint project involving different authorities and entails six school-based programme components. Measuring effects of such an intervention is a complex challenge. A common
Hoehner, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Allen, Diana; Gramann, James; Behrens, Timothy K; Floyd, Myron F; Leahy, Jessica; Liddle, Joseph B; Smaldone, David; Spain, Diara D; Tardona, Daniel R; Ruthmann, Nicholas P; Seiler, Rachel L; Yount, Byron W
We synthesized the results of 7 National Park Service pilot interventions designed to increase awareness of the health benefits from participation in recreation at national parks and to increase physical activity by park visitors. A content analysis was conducted of the final evaluation reports of the 7 participating parks. Pooled data were also analyzed from a standardized trail-intercept survey administered in 3 parks. The theme of new and diverse partnerships was the most common benefit reported across the 7 sites. The 2 parks that focused on youth showed evidence of an increase in awareness of the benefits of physical activity. Many of the other sites found high levels of awareness at baseline (approaching 90%), suggesting little room for improvement. Five of the 7 projects showed evidence of an increase in physical activity that was associated with the intervention activities. Multivariate analyses suggested that the media exposure contributed to a small but significant increase in awareness of the importance of physical activity (6%) and number of active visits (7%). Enhancements and replication of these programs represents a promising opportunity for improving partnerships between public health and recreation to increase physical activity.
Full Text Available Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches.
Steenbock, B; Pischke, C R; Schönbach, J; Pöttgen, S; Brand, T
During their preschool years children establish nutritional and physical activity (PA) habits that may contribute to the development of overweight and obesity. To examine the evidence for effective interventions promoting healthy eating and PA in childcare settings. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Campbell Collaboration for systematic reviews published between 2007 and 2014. Ten systematic reviews and three meta-analyses met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 22 intervention studies. Intervention studies were conducted in North America (N = 14), Europe (N = 5), Asia (N = 2), and Australia (N = 1). Half of these addressed ethnic minority groups or socially disadvantaged children. We extracted information about the effects regarding anthropometric measures, eating habits, and physical activity, as well as the characteristics of effective interventions, and summarized them narratively. Evidence for intervention effects on anthropometric measurements was inconclusive. Seven out of nine studies showed beneficial effects on diet-related outcomes. Only isolated effects were reported on improvements in PA. Reviews indicated that interventions which comprised (1) the development of skills and competencies, (2) medium to high parental involvement, and (3) information on behavior-health links for parents were more effective. Preschool-based interventions showed some early improvements in eating habits and PA. Evidence is limited by the small number of studies, a lack of methodological quality, and inconsistencies among outcome measures. Evidence regarding anthropometric measurements is still inconclusive.
Cruciani, F; Nugent, C; Cleland, I; McCullagh, P
Sedentary lifestyle and inadequate levels of physical activity represent two serious health risk factors. Nevertheless, within developed countries, 60% of people aged over 60 are deemed to be sedentary. Consequently, interest in behavior change to promote physical activity is increasing. In particular, the role of emerging mobile apps to facilitate behavior change has shown promising results. Smart technologies can help in providing rich context information including an objective assessment of the level of physical activity and information on the emotional and physiological state of the person. Collectively, this can be used to develop innovative persuasive solutions for adaptive behavior change. Such solutions offer potential in reducing levels of sedentary behavior. This work presents a study exploring new ways of employing smart technologies to facilitate behavior change. It is achieved by means of (i) developing a knowledge base on sedentary behaviors and recommended physical activity guidelines, and (ii) a context model able to combine information on physical activity, location, and a user's diary to develop a context-aware virtual coach with the ability to select the most appropriate behavior change strategy on a case by case basis.
Duika Burges Watson
results (reported here show that the dance mats were not used routinely enough to show a significant effect on physical activity of the intervention. This research demonstrates the benefit of using mixed methods to evaluate complex physical activity interventions. Those planning any intervention for promoting physical activity in schools need to understand the distinction between physical activity and physical education.
Burges Watson, Duika; Adams, Jean; Azevedo, Liane B; Haighton, Catherine
routinely enough to show a significant effect on physical activity of the intervention. This research demonstrates the benefit of using mixed methods to evaluate complex physical activity interventions. Those planning any intervention for promoting physical activity in schools need to understand the distinction between physical activity and physical education.
Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Killian, Reinhold
Background: Patients with severe mental illnesses have an increased physical morbidity andpremature mortality on account of somatic diseases. Patients with mental illness are nursed andcared for by the staff, who may acts as role models for the patients. Aims: The study tested theefficacy of an i...... blood pressure was seen. Indications that staff acted aspositive role models for the patients’ physical health were seen.......-month intervention study, and the interventionwas active awareness on physical health. Results: In the intervention group the staff reducedtheir waist circumference by 2.3 cm (95% CI: 0.3–4.4) when controlling for gender, age andcigarette consumption. In the control group, the staff changed their waist...... circumference by - 2.1 cm (95% CI: - 5.6–1.5). The staff in the intervention group experienced a significantreduction in diastolic blood pressure of - 5.9 mmHg (95% CI: - 9.5 to - 2.3, p=0.009). Thestudy indicated an association between the staff average change in each facility and theindividual patient...
Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil
Construction is the most resource intensive sector in the world. It consumes more than half of the total global resources; it is responsible for more than a third of the total global energy use and associated emissions; and generates the greatest and most voluminous waste stream globally. Reuse is considered to be a material and carbon saving practice highly recommended in the construction sector as it can address both waste and carbon emission regulatory targets. This practice offers the possibility to conserve resources through the reclamation of structural components and the carbon embedded in them, as well as opportunities for the development of new business models and the creation of environmental, economic, technical and social value. This paper focuses on the identification and analysis of existing interventions that can promote the reuse of construction components, and outlines the barriers and opportunities arising from this practice as depicted from the global literature. The main conclusions that derive from this study are that the combination of incentives that promote reuse of construction components and recycling of the rest of the construction materials with the provision of specialised education, skills and training would transform the way construction sector currently operates and create opportunities for new business development. Moreover, a typology system developed based on the properties and lifetime of construction components is required in order to provide transparency and guidance in the way construction components are used and reused, in order to make them readily available to designers and contractors. Smart technologies carry the potential to aid the development and uptake of this system by enabling efficient tracking, storage and archiving, while providing information relevant to the environmental and economic savings that can be regained, enabling also better decision-making during construction and deconstruction works. However, further
Kimura, Mika; Moriyasu, Ai; Kumagai, Shu; Furuna, Taketo; Akita, Shigeko; Kimura, Shuichi; Suzuki, Takao
The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual's pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57) participated in the social health program "Sumida TAKE10!" which is an educational program incorporating the "TAKE10!® for Older Adults" program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35) was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS), dietary variety score (DVS), and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence score. Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed), FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and exercise remained unchanged in both groups, and no
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and
Sum, Raymond Kim Wai; Leung, Elean Fung Lin
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an Internet-based behavioral intervention for physical activity (PA) promotion among secondary school students. It was hypothesized that the Internet-based PA promotion program could increase the PA levels of secondary school students. The action research approach together with…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.
Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra
Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff
an intervention (website) (n = 6055) or a no-intervention control group (n = 6232) in 2008. The intervention website was founded on the theories of stages of change and of planned behavior and, apart from a forum page where a physiotherapist answered questions about PA and training, was fully automated. After 3...... in the website group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we suggest that active users of a Web-based PA intervention can improve their level of PA. However, for unmotivated users, single-tailored feedback may be too brief. Future research should focus on developing more sophisticated interventions...
Laura E. Bruno
Conclusions: Opportunities to participate in a community based intervention program should be extended throughout all communities in an effort to improve holistic well-being. Further, type and duration as well as point of data collection of such programs should be differentiated in future research.
Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny
urban green space use and PAof users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource...
De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.
Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
setting. For instance schools are expected to have food and nutrition policy (FNP), physical activity policy (PAP) and a health policy. However instead of seeing these policies as separate entities this paper speculate that there is a possible interrelatedness between the policies. In other words could...
Hamilton, Kara C; Richardson, Mark T; Owens, Teirdre; Morris, Timothy; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Higginbotham, John C
The overall objective of Project SHAPE (Shaping Health using Activity Photovoice and E-Video) was to improve physical activity levels of rural, medically underserved children by designing and implementing a culturally relevant physical activity intervention. This objective was met by using a community-based participatory research approach to design and implement an intervention that would positively affect the psychosocial constructs related to increasing physical activity, which, in turn, would lead to increases in the time spent in daily physical activity. This article describes the unique design of the intervention including its theoretical framework, its interrelated components, and the logistics involved.
P Teymouri; SH Niknami; F Ghofranipour
Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA) rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized...
Fournier, M; d'Arripe-Longueville, F; Radel, R
This study aims to test the efficacy of text messaging cues (SMS) to promote physical activity (PA) habit formation in the workplace. Employees (N = 49; 28 females and 21 males, Mage = 47.5 ± 8.29 years) were randomized into two parallel groups: a PA group enrolled in a 28-week supervised PA program and a PA+SMS group enrolled in the same PA program with text messaging cues received before their PA sessions. The exercise habit was assessed every week from self-reports on an online application. PA maintenance and several physical fitness measures were also assessed prior to and after the intervention to evaluate its general impact. Mixed model analysis of the 603 observations indicated a small but significant effect of the SMS cues on the speed at which participants engaged in PA behaviors, as the significant interaction effect revealed that the slope of the exercise habit over time was slightly steeper in the PA+SMS group (B = 0.0462, P = 0.0001) than in the PA group (B = 0.0216, P = 0.01). SMS delivery had a marginal effect on the maintenance of PA behaviors 1 year after the intervention. The results suggest that text messaging can help to form PA habits at the workplace and might facilitate long-term maintenance of PA behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jia, Yingnan; Fu, Hua; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin
To understand the potential influencing factors on the effectiveness of workplace health promotion interventions and examine whether workplace health culture and physical environment can mediate the relationship between workplace health promotion and intervention effectiveness. A total of 719 participants from 10 Chinese government agencies were recruited for a prospective self-controlled trial. Questionnaires, qualitative interviews, and direct observation were used for the baseline evaluation, process evaluation, and effectiveness evaluation. Based on the results of the need assessment and risk assessment at each workplace, a two-year comprehensive health intervention was conducted by each workplace. Health outcomes including self-rated health (SRH) and mental health were measured at baseline and 24 months. Health culture was measured at 24 months. Physical environment and intervention implementation were measured at 12 months and 24 months. Compared with the baseline, the means of SRH and mental health increased significantly by 0.302 and 2.698, respectively. The SRH scores were different before and after intervention; furthermore, the differences varied by workplace. Health culture mediated the relationship between intervention implementation and intervention effectiveness, including SRH and mental health improvement, but physical environment did not. Physical environment quality was significantly negatively correlated with SRH improvement and mental health improvement. Under the relatively high-quality interventions with scores higher than 4.047 or 4.151 (out of 5), better health culture may led to greater SRH and mental health improvements. Health culture may mediate the relationship between intervention implementation and intervention effectiveness, whereas physical environment does not seem to mediate this relationship. Under relatively high-quality interventions, a better health culture may lead to more positive improvements in SRH and mental health
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is a key factor for facing the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, and should be part of every public health programs. In this context, a community-based public health program promoting PA was developed in a low-income neighborhood of the city of Saint-Denis (France. Methods This work aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 2-year PA promotion program. A quasi-experimental study was carried out using a pre/post design, with an assessment before (2013 and after (2015 the program. The interviewees were selected using a stratified random cluster sampling. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants practicing sufficient PA (WHO guidelines, and was measured using the RPAQ questionnaire. External interventions (on both neighborhood environment and inhabitants were listed. Results We collected 199 questionnaires at baseline and 217 in 2015. There was a majority of women in both samples: 64.3 % in 2013 and 58.2 % in 2015. The average age of participants was 38.1 years (+/−1.1 and 40.6 (+/−1.1 respectively. The proportion of people practicing sufficient PA was modified from 48.1 % in 2013 to 63.5 % in 2015 (p = 0.001. This was mainly driven by women whose level of PA, increased from 40.3 % to 60.3 % (p = 0.002, reaching the average national French estimation of PA level among adults (63.5 %. Conclusions This work showed a significant increase of the proportion of people practicing PA in a disadvantaged neighborhood where a community-based program promoting PA was developed. Simultaneous external interventions contributed to the results, showing the necessity of synergic interventions to reach efficiency.
Rudolph, Sabrina; Göring, Arne; Padrok, Dennis
Sports and physical activity interventions are attracting considerable attention in the context of workplace health promotion. Due to increasing digitalization, especially software-based interventions that promote physical activity are gaining acceptance in practice. Empirical evidence concerning the efficiency of software-based interventions in the context of workplace health promotion is rather low so far. This paper examines the question in what way software-based interventions are more efficient than personal-based interventions in terms of increasing the level of physical activity. A systematic review according to the specifications of the Cochrane Collaboration was conducted. Inclusion criteria and should-have criteria were defined and by means of the should-have criteria the quality score of the studies was calculated. The software-based and personal-based interventions are presented in 2 tables with the categories author, year, country, sample group, aim of the intervention, methods, outcome and study quality. A total of 25 studies are included in the evaluation (12 personal- and 13 software-based interventions). The quality scores of the studies are heterogeneous and range from 3 to 9 points. 5 personal- and 5 software-based studies achieved an increase of physical activity. Other positive effects on health could be presented in the studies, for example, a reduction in blood pressure or body-mass index. A few studies did not show any improvement in health-related parameters. This paper demonstrates that positive effects can be achieved with both intervention types. Software-based interventions show advantages due to the use of new technologies. Use of desktop or mobile applications facilitate organization, communication and data acquisition with fewer resources needed. A schooled trainer, on the other hand, is able to react to specific and varying needs of the employees. This aspect should be considered as very significant. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Jussila, Anne-Mari; Vasankari, Tommi; Paronen, Olavi; Sievanen, Harri; Tokola, Kari; Vaha-Ypya, Henri; Broberg, Anna; Aittasalo, Minna
Background Adolescents? physical activity (PA) is decreasing and sedentary behavior (SB) increasing alarmingly. Insufficient PA and excessive SB are both related to various health risks indicating that interventions to promote adolescents? PA and to reduce their SB are needed. Schools have a great potential to reach most adolescents, and in Finland health education (HE) as stand-alone subject provides an excellent platform for health promotion. This paper describes the protocol and evaluation...
Agergaard, Sine; Dankers, Silke; Munk, Mette
Existing studies on complex interventions aiming to promote youths’ participation in physical education (PE) appear to be predominantly single-methodological. The aim of this article is to examine the benefits and challenges of evaluating an intervention to increase youths’ participation...... and experiences of social inclusion in the PE context using a multi-method approach integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches. The multi-method approach allowed an integration of the findings with regard to the implementation as well as the effect of the intervention. First of all, standardized...
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori
Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nahas, Markus V; de Barros, Mauro V G; de Assis, Maria Alice A; Hallal, Pedro C; Florindo, Alex A; Konrad, Lisandra
A cross-cultural, randomized study was proposed to observe the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among high school students in 2 cities from different regions in Brazil: Recife and Florianopolis. The objective of this article is to describe the methodology and subjects enrolled in the project. Ten schools from each region were matched and randomized into intervention and control conditions. A questionnaire and anthropometry were used to collect data in the first and last month of the 2006 school year. The sample (n=2155 at baseline; 55.7% females; 49.1% in the experimental group) included students 15 to 24 years, attending nighttime classes. The intervention focused on simple environmental/organizational changes, diet and physical activity education, and personnel training. The central aspects of the intervention have been implemented in all 10 intervention schools. Problems during the intervention included teachers' strikes in both sites and lack of involvement of the canteen owners in schools. The Saude na Boa study provides evidence that public high schools in Brazil represent an important environment for health promotion. Its design and simple measurements increase the chances of it being sustained and disseminated to similar schools in Brazil.
Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.
Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles
A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention.
Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Mathis, LaTanya; Hooker, Steven P; Keller, Colleen
We examined the cultural relevance of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) in the design of a physical activity intervention for African-American women. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty-five African-American women (Mean age = 38.5 years, Mean BMI = 39.4 kg·m2) were enrolled in a series of focus groups (N = 9) to elucidate how 5 SCT constructs (ie, Behavioral Capability, Outcome Expectations, Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Social Support) can be culturally tailored in the design of a physical activity program for African-American women. For the construct of Behavioral Capability, participants were generally unaware of the amount, intensity, and types of physical activity needed for health benefits. Outcome Expectations associated with physical activity included increased energy, improved health, weight loss, and positive role modeling behaviors. Constructs of Self-efficacy and Self-regulation were elicited through the women perceiving themselves as a primary barrier to physical activity. Participants endorsed the need of a strong social support component and identified a variety of acceptable sources to include in a physical activity program (ie, family, friends, other program participants). Findings explicate the utility of SCT as a behavioral change theoretical basis for tailoring physical activity programs to African-American women.
Gulliford, Martin; Charlton, Judith; Bhattarai, Nawaraj; Rudisill, Caroline
We developed a method to model the cost-effectiveness at different levels of deprivation of an intervention to promote physical activity. The cost-effectiveness of a brief intervention in primary care was estimated by means of a Markov model stratified by deprivation quintile. Estimates for disease incidence, mortality, depression prevalence and health service utilization were obtained from 282 887 participants in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with linked deprivation scores. Discounted results were compared for least deprived and most deprived quintiles. An effective intervention to promote physical activity continuing for 5 years gave an increase in life years free from disease: least deprived 54.9 (95% interval 17.5-93.5) per 1000 participants entering model; most deprived 74.5 (22.8-128.0) per 1000. The overall incremental quality adjusted life years were: least deprived, 3.7 per 1000 and most deprived, 6.1 per 1000 with probability cost-effective at £30 000 per QALY being 52.5 and 63.3%, respectively. When the intervention was modelled to be 30% less effective in the most deprived than the least deprived quintile, the probability cost-effective was least deprived 52.9% and most deprived 55.9%. Physical activity interventions may generate greater health benefits in deprived populations. When intervention effectiveness is attenuated in deprived groups, cost-effectiveness may sometimes still be similar to that in the most affluent groups. Even with favourable assumptions, evidence was insufficient to support wider use of presently available brief primary care interventions in a universal strategy for primary prevention. © The Author 2014, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.
Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R
The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.
Schifferdecker, Karen E; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Butcher, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Sharon; Li, Zhigang; Bazos, Dorothy A
Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating. The intervention used QI tools (e.g., progress monitoring) and team-based activities and was implemented in three communities through nine monthly meetings. To assess process and outcomes, we used a longitudinal repeated-measures and mixed-methods triangulation approach with a quasi-experimental design including objective measures at three time points. Most of the 97 participants were female (85.4%), White (93.8%), and non-Hispanic/Latino (95.9%). Average age was 52 years; 28.0% had annual household income of $20,000 or less; and mean body mass index was 35. Through mixed-effects models, we found some physical activity outcomes improved. Other outcomes did not significantly change. Although participants favorably viewed the QI tools, components of the QI process such as sharing goals and data on progress in teams and during meetings were limited. Participants' requests for more education or activities around physical activity and healthy eating, rather than progress monitoring and data sharing required for QI activities, challenged ALC model implementation. An ALC model for community-based obesity prevention may be more effective when applied to preexisting teams in community-based organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Nooijen, Carla Fj; Stam, Henk J; Sluis, Tebbe; Valent, Linda; Twisk, Jos; van den Berg-Emons, Rita Jg
To assess, for people with subacute spinal cord injury, if rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioral intervention to promote physical activity leads to a better health, participation and quality of life. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation centers. A total of 39 participants analyzed (45 included), with subacute spinal cord injury in inpatient rehabilitation, dependent on a manual wheelchair (33% tetraplegia, 62% motor complete, 150 ±74 days postinjury). A behavioral intervention promoting physical activity after discharge, involving 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach trained in motivational interviewing, beginning two months before and ending six months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Physical capacity as determined during a maximal exercise test, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipid profile, and social participation (IMPACT-S) and quality of life (SF-36) were determined using questionnaires. Measurements were performed two months before discharge, at discharge, and six and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. B represents the between-group difference. Twelve months after discharge, significant intervention effects were found for diastolic blood pressure (B = -11.35 mmHg, 95% CI = -19.98 to -2.71), total cholesterol (B = -0.89 mmol/L, 95% CI = -1.59 to -0.20), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (B = -0.63 mmol/L, 95% CI = -1.25 to -0.00) and participation (B = 9.91, 95% CI = 3.34 to 16.48). A behavioral intervention promoting physical activity after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation improves social participation and seems to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease in people with subacute spinal cord injury.
Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David
To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
Chae, Duckhee; Kim, Suhee; Park, Yunhee; Hwang, Youngmee
This study was designed to determine the effect of an academic-workplace partnership intervention, "3,000 more steps," on improving physical activity (PA) and body composition of workers, and compare the characteristics of those workers who completed and did not complete the program. Participants were 70 sedentary office workers from an airline company. Pedometers determined their daily steps, and body composition was compared before and after the 8-week intervention; 39 of 70 (55.7%) participants completed the program. Daily steps increased from 5,811 to 9,240, and fat mass, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) decreased for the completers. Non-completers had lower average PA and higher average fat mass at baseline than did completers. Overall, a workplace PA program could be successfully undertaken by occupational health nurses and a research team in partnership. However, to implement a cost-effective intervention program for inactive workers, further research is needed to ascertain why some workers do not complete the program. © 2015 The Author(s).
Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza
Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores
Bauman, Adrian; Merom, Dafna; Bull, Fiona C; Buchner, David M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A
There is a global imperative to increase awareness of the emerging evidence on physical activity (PA) among older adults. "Healthy aging" has traditionally focused on preventing chronic disease, but greater efforts are required to reduce frailty and dependency and to maintain independent physical and cognitive function and mental health and well-being. This integrated review updates the epidemiological data on PA, summarizes the existing evidence-based PA guidelines, describes the global magnitude of inactivity, and finally describes the rationale for action. The first section updates the epidemiological evidence for reduced cardiometabolic risk, reduced risks of falls, the burgeoning new evidence on improved cognitive function and functional capacity, and reduced risk of depression, anxiety, and dementia. This is followed by a summary of population prevalence studies among older adults. Finally, we present a "review of reviews" of PA interventions delivered from community or population settings, followed by a consideration of interventions among the "oldest-old," where efforts are needed to increase resistance (strength) training and balance. This review identifies the global importance of considering "active aging" beyond the established benefits attributed to noncommunicable disease prevention alone. Innovative population-level efforts are required to address physical inactivity, prevent loss of muscle strength, and maintain balance in older adults. Specific investment in healthy aging requires global policy support from the World Health Organization and is implemented at the national and regional levels, in order to reduce the burden of disease and disability among older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Torres, Andrea; Sarmiento, Olga L; Stauber, Christine; Zarama, Roberto
We compared participants from the Ciclovia (streets temporarily closed to motorized vehicles and open for pedestrians) and Cicloruta (bicycle paths) programs in Bogotá, Colombia, to assess associations of program participation with physical activity, safety, social capital, and equity. We conducted 2 cross-sectional studies in October 2009 with intercept surveys: one among 1000 Ciclovia participants and the other among 1000 Cicloruta participants. Most Ciclovia participants met the physical activity recommendation in leisure time (59.5%), and most Cicloruta participants met it by cycling for transportation (70.5%). Ciclovia participants reported a higher perception of safety (51.2% regarding traffic and 42.4% about crime) and social capital (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 2.8) than did Cicloruta users. Most Cicloruta users reported living in low socioeconomic status categories (53.1%), had lower educational attainment (27%), and did not own cars (82.9%). Most Ciclovia participants reported living in middle socioeconomic status categories (64%), had low-to-middle educational attainment (51.1%), and did not own cars (66.1%). The Ciclovia and Cicloruta programs have the potential to equitably promote physical activity and provide a mobility alternative in complex urban settings such as Bogotá.
Losina, Elena; Smith, Savannah R; Usiskin, Ilana M; Klara, Kristina M; Michl, Griffin L; Deshpande, Bhushan R; Yang, Heidi Y; Smith, Karen C; Collins, Jamie E; Katz, Jeffrey N
We designed and implemented the Brigham and Women's Wellness Initiative (B-Well), a single-arm study to examine the feasibility of a workplace program that used individual and team-based financial incentives to increase physical activity among sedentary hospital employees. We enrolled sedentary, non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center who self-reported low physical activity. Eligible participants formed or joined teams of three members and wore Fitbit Flex activity monitors for two pre-intervention weeks followed by 24 weeks during which they could earn monetary rewards. Participants were rewarded for increasing their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 10% from the previous week or for meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) physical activity guidelines (150 min of MVPA per week). Our primary outcome was the proportion of participants meeting weekly MVPA goals and CDC physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes included Fitbit-wear adherence and factors associated with meeting CDC guidelines more consistently. B-Well included 292 hospital employees. Participants had a mean age of 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, 38% were obese, and 62% were non-Hispanic White. Sixty-three percent of participants wore the Fitbit ≥4 days per week for ≥20 weeks. Two-thirds were satisfied with the B-Well program, with 79% indicating that they would participate again. Eighty-six percent met either their personal weekly goal or CDC physical activity guidelines for at least 6 out of 24 weeks, and 52% met their goals or CDC physical activity guidelines for at least 12 weeks. African Americans, non-obese subjects, and those with lower impulsivity scores reached CDC guidelines more consistently. Our data suggest that a financial incentives-based workplace wellness program can increase MVPA among sedentary employees. These results should be reproduced in a randomized controlled trial. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02850094
Effectiveness of a walking group intervention to promote physical activity and cardiovascular health in predominantly non-Hispanic black and Hispanic urban neighborhoods: findings from the walk your heart to health intervention.
Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela B; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L; Woods, Sachiko
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic residents of Detroit, Michigan. The study was designed and implemented using a community-based participatory research approach that actively engaged community residents, health service providers and academic researchers. It was implemented between 2009 and 2012. WYHH was a 32-week community health promoter-facilitated walking group intervention. Groups met three times per week at community-based or faith-based organizations, and walked for 45 to 90 minutes (increasing over time). The study used a cluster randomized control design to evaluate effectiveness of WYHH, with participants randomized into intervention or lagged intervention (control) groups. Psychosocial, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected at baseline, 8, and 32 weeks, and pedometer step data tracked using uploadable peisoelectric pedometers. Participants in the intervention group increased steps significantly more during the initial 8-week intervention period, compared with the control group (β = 2004.5, p = .000). Increases in physical activity were associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index at 8 weeks, and maintained at 32 weeks. The WYHH community health promoter-facilitated walking group intervention was associated with significant reductions in multiple indicators of cardiovascular risk among predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants in a low-to-moderate income urban community. Such interventions can contribute to reductions in racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in cardiovascular mortality. © 2015 Society for Public
Salvador, Emanuel P; Ribeiro, Evelyn H; Garcia, Leandro Mt; Andrade, Douglas R; Guimaraes, Vanessa Mv; Aoki, Marcelo S; Florindo, Alex A
Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the "Ambiente Ativo" ("Active Environment") project. 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school
Mojica, Cynthia M; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Yin, Zenong; Akopian, David; Esparza, Laura A
Increasing physical activity (PA) during preadolescence and adolescence is critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. A recent report described the promising role of eHealth--the use of new media for purposes of health promotion--in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. This study assessed access/use of various media (cell phones, computers, gaming systems, Internet) among adolescent Latino girls and examined the relationship between PA and media access/use. A convenience sample of 110 Latino girls ages 11 to 14 was recruited from Girl Scouts of Southwest Texas and other groups. The media survey was self-administered (April-July 2010) on personal digital assistants. Of the girls, 55% reported owning a cell phone and spending 40 (SD = 4.2) hours per week talking, texting, listening to music, and browsing the Internet. Cell phone access increased significantly with age (p = .029). Compared to those with no cell phone, girls with a cell phone have greater odds of reporting more than 5 days of PA in the past week (odds ratio = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 14) and engaging in daily physical education classes (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.9). Since girls with cell phones report greater PA, cell phones may be an effective strategy for communicating with girls about engaging in PA. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Mendoza, Jason A; Baker, K Scott; Moreno, Megan A; Whitlock, Kathryn; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Waite, Alan; Colburn, Trina; Chow, Eric J
Physical activity (PA) may be important for preventing chronic diseases for adolescent and young adult (AYA) childhood cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PA interventions for AYA survivors are sparse, but necessary to determine effective programs for increasing PA among this population. Thus, we conducted a pilot RCT, testing the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) intervention to promote PA among AYA survivors. We recruited 14- to 18-year-olds who were ≥1-year post cancer therapy from Seattle Children's Hospital. The 10-week intervention consisted of a wearable PA-tracking device (Fitbit Flex) and a peer-based virtual support group (Facebook group). Research staff helped set step goals and awarded badges weekly. Controls received usual care. Baseline assessments occurred before randomization and follow-up assessments occurred during weeks 8-10 of the intervention period. Feasibility criteria are defined below. Qualitative interviews assessed acceptability. Exploratory outcomes included PA, quality of life, and motivation for PA. All feasibility criteria were met: we recruited 60 survivors, intervention participants wore the Fitbit on the majority (71.5%) of intervention days, and ≥90% of all participants completed questionnaires. Qualitative data confirmed intervention acceptability. Exploratory analyses found no significant adjusted group differences for change in moderate-to-vigorous PA (4.4 vs. 5.0 min/day; P = 0.92) or sedentary time (-4.5 vs. 1.0 min/day; P = 0.73), comparing intervention subjects to controls. Some modest differences were found for select subscales of quality of life and motivation for PA. This mHealth PA intervention was feasible and acceptable to AYA childhood cancer survivors and warrants a fully powered RCT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed
Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Asa; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7) and control (n = 7) groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1) a health information brochure; 2) two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3) teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed. Participants will be interviewed. The results from
Wilson, Dawn K; Friend, Ronald; Teasley, Nicole; Green, Sabra; Reaves, Irvine Lee; Sica, Domenic A
Strategic self-presentation (motivational intervention [MI]) is a theoretical approach that is distinct from social cognitive theory (SCT). Specifically, strategic self-presentation involves increasing motivation by creating cognitive dissonance and inducing shifts in self-concept by generating positive coping strategies during a videotaped session. Fifty-three healthy African American adolescents were randomized to a SCT+MI, SCT-only, or an education-only group for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and physical activity. The SCT+MI and SCT-only groups received a 12-week SCT program. Students in the SCT+MI group also participated in a strategic self-presentation videotape session. Participants completed 3-day food records, completed measures of self-concept and self-efficacy, and wore an activity monitor for 4 days at pre- and posttreatment. Both the SCT+MI (2.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.7 +/- 2.2, p .05). There were no significant time or group effects for any of the physical activity measures. Correlation analyses revealed that only the SCT+MI group showed that dietary self-concept (r = .58, r = .67, p < .05) and dietary self-efficacy (r = .65, r = .85, p < .05) were significantly correlated with posttreatment F&V intake and change in F&V intake, respectively. These findings suggest that the change in F&V intake in the SCT+MI group resulted from strategic self-presentation, which induced positive shifts in self-concept and self-efficacy.
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.
Standiford Brown, Anne
This review examines recent studies investigating physical activity interventions designed specifically for adolescent girls and makes recommendations for future research and practice. Results are organized using an adapted version of Pender's Health Promotion Model. Of the 12 interventions reviewed, three increased physical activity, two improved fitness, two decreased body fat, and six sought to improve psychosocial functioning in their participants. These interventions included a variety of components, including physical, cognitive, affective, and environmental. This research summary can aid adolescent health researchers, school nurses, and pediatric health care professionals in designing strategies to increase physical activity in adolescent girls. In addition to directly increasing physical activity, future interventions should also seek to influence physical activity-related cognition affect and environment in order to bring about lasting change.
Blake, Holly; Quirk, Helen; Leighton, Paul; Randell, Tabitha; Greening, James; Guo, Boliang; Glazebrook, Cris
be taken at baseline (T0), 8 weeks (T1) and at 6-month follow-up (T2). The goal of this feasibility trial is to assess the delivery of STAK-D to promote physical activity among children with T1DM, and to assess the potential for further, definitive research to demonstrate its effectiveness. Results will provide the information necessary to design a larger randomised controlled trial and maximise the recruitment rate, intervention delivery and trial retention. ISRCTN, ISRCTN48994721 . Registered on 28 October 2016.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults with intellectual disabilities have poor dietary habits, low physical activity and weight disturbances. This study protocol describes the design and evaluation of a health intervention aiming to improve diet and physical activity in this target group. In Sweden, adults with intellectual disabilities often live in community residences where the staff has insufficient education regarding the special health needs of residents. No published lifestyle interventions have simultaneously targeted both residents and staff. Methods/Design The intervention is designed to suit the ordinary work routines of community residences. It is based on social cognitive theory and takes 12-15 months to complete. The intervention includes three components: 1 Ten health education sessions for residents in their homes; 2 the appointment of a health ambassador among the staff in each residence and formation of a network; and 3 a study circle for staff in each residence. The intervention is implemented by consultation with managers, training of health educators, and coaching of health ambassadors. Fidelity is assessed based on the participation of residents and staff in the intervention activities. The study design is a cluster-randomised trial with physical activity as primary outcome objectively assessed by pedometry. Secondary outcomes are dietary quality assessed by digital photography, measured weight, height and waist circumference, and quality of life assessed by a quality of life scale. Intermediate outcomes are changes in work routines in the residences assessed by a questionnaire to managers. Adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities living in community residences in Stockholm County are eligible for inclusion. Multilevel analysis is used to evaluate effects on primary and secondary outcomes. The impact of the intervention on work routines in community residences is analysed by ordinal regression analysis. Barriers and
de Vries Nanne K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with diabetes is increasing. BeweegKuur (Dutch for 'Exercise Therapy' is a Dutch lifestyle intervention which aims to effectively and feasibly promote physical activity and better dietary behaviour in primary health care to prevent diabetes. Methods The goal of this paper is to present the development process and the contents of the intervention, using a model of systematic health promotion planning. The intervention consists of a 1-year programme for diabetic and prediabetic patients. Patients are referred by their general practitioner (GP to a lifestyle advisor (LSA, usually the practice nurse or a physiotherapist. Based on specific inclusion criteria and in close collaboration with the patient, an individual exercise programme is designed and supervised by the LSA. This programme can be attended at existing local exercise facilities or (temporarily under the supervision of a specialized exercise coach or physiotherapist. All participants are also referred to a dietician and receive diet-related group education. In the first pilot year (2008, the BeweegKuur programme was implemented in 7 regions in the Netherlands (19 GP practices and health centres, while 14 regions (41 GP practices and health centres participated during the second year. The aim is to implement BeweegKuur in all regions of the Netherlands by 2012. Discussion The BeweegKuur programme was systematically developed in an evidence- and practice-based process. Formative monitoring studies and (controlled effectiveness studies are needed to examine the diffusion process and the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.
Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Ransdell, Lynda B; Archer, Edward
Evaluation of acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet and short message service (SMS) intervention for promoting physical activity (PA) in Hong Kong Chinese school children. An 8-week quasi-experimental study non-randomly assigned 78 school children (mean age=12.8 years) to (a) an intervention group that received a stage-matched, Internet PA program two times a week and tailored SMS messages daily; or (b) a no-treatment control. Data were collected from September 2008 until June 2009. Acceptability measures included exposure rate and participant's satisfaction. Efficacy measures were changes in stage of motivational readiness (SMR) and self-reported PA level. Intervention participants demonstrated significant pre-post increments in SMR (Z=-2.558, p=0.011) and self-reported PA level [F(1, 76)=4.50, p=0.04]. There was a non-significant trend between groups in both SMR (p=0.24) and PA (p=0.13). Despite the similar ratings of satisfaction between Internet (M=3.12±0.74) and SMS (M=3.12±0.84), participants displayed distinct patterns of exposure with 66% exhibiting a weekly login rate of 0.5 times/person and an average of 3.75 minutes/visit/person. In contrast, 79% of participants read an average of 1.3 SMS/person/week and 47% voluntarily replied to ∼3.8 SMS/person. These findings demonstrate the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet-SMS-based intervention for promoting PA in Hong Kong school children. The divergent exposure rates between the Internet and SMS may be a unique pattern for adolescents in early SMR. Future research should be cognizant of the importance of SMR since it may influence utilization and/or adherence.
Jussila, Anne-Mari; Vasankari, Tommi; Paronen, Olavi; Sievänen, Harri; Tokola, Kari; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Broberg, Anna; Aittasalo, Minna
Adolescents' physical activity (PA) is decreasing and sedentary behavior (SB) increasing alarmingly. Insufficient PA and excessive SB are both related to various health risks indicating that interventions to promote adolescents' PA and to reduce their SB are needed. Schools have a great potential to reach most adolescents, and in Finland health education (HE) as stand-alone subject provides an excellent platform for health promotion. This paper describes the protocol and evaluation (RE-AIM) of an intervention developed for three HE lessons to increase PA and reduce SB during leisure among 8(th) graders. All city-owned secondary schools in Tampere (n = 14) were invited to the study and were randomized in pairs to intervention (n = 7) and comparison group (n = 7). A specific content on PA and SB based on Health Action Process Approach model was integrated into routinely scheduled three HE lessons with the help of educational material: SoftGIS-questionnaire followed by feedback views on adolescents' current PA and SB, FeetEnergy-homework leaflet for adolescents, FeetEnergy-video in YouTube, FeetEnergy-poster for classroom and FeetEnergy-leaflet for parents. In the comparison group standard HE lessons were held. The primary indicators of Effectiveness are changes in PA and SB and in their psychosocial factors as well as in parental interference with PA and SB. The measurement points are baseline, 4 weeks after the intervention and 7 months from baseline, the last indicating also the measurement point for individual level Maintenance. The measures are accelerometers, 7-day activity diaries and questionnaires. The evaluation of Reach, Adoption and Implementation is based on the data collected during the intervention. Maintenance at organizational level is assessed two years after the intervention with a questionnaire to the HE teachers. The intervention was implemented in 2012 and the last measurements to assess organizational Maintenance were conducted in the end of
Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.
Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered
de Meij, Judith S B; van der Wal, Marcel F; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai J M
The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization process of JUMP-in-a multilevel school-based physical activity promotion program-to optimize the dissemination of the intervention and improve its effectiveness. The process evaluation concerned the constraints and success and failure factors at sociopolitical, organizational, user, and intervention levels. A mixed methods approach including qualitative and quantitative data was conducted during two school years (2006-2008). JUMP-in was successfully embedded in the Amsterdam municipal policy and in the organizational structure and daily practices of the sectors involved. A general impeding factor was the complexity of the multilevel programme requiring multidisciplinary collaboration between organizations. In addition, there was a discrepancy between the recommendation to standardize and simplify the innovation and the need to tailor the strategies to local environmental, social, and cultural aspects. This process evaluation provides challenges and remedies for managing discrepancies between prerequisites for an effective innovation and demands of daily implementation practice. The main recommendations are (a) standardized, simplified guidelines; (b) stepwise implementation; (c) formalized coalitions, integration of policy, and synchronization of tasks and protocols; and (d) smart planning and control by clear communication and feedback instruments. If these recommendations are incorporated into the JUMP-in intervention and organization, increased effectiveness and long-term effects can be expected.
Prins Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF, cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and quality of life (QoL of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36; (b Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL.
Andrea Schaller; Lea Dejonghe; Adrienne Alayli-Goebbels; Bianca Biallas; Ingo Froboese
Abstract Background Physical activity and health literacy are topics of utmost importance in the prevention of chronic diseases. The present article describes the study protocol for evaluating a cross-provider workplace-related intervention promoting physical activity and health literacy. Methods The RE-AIM Framework will be the conceptual framework of the AtRisk study. A controlled natural experiment and a qualitative study will be conducted. The cross-provider intervention is based on the c...
Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design
Background The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the ‘Health Scores!’ program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. Methods The intervention was implemented in two settings: professional football clubs and schools. Socially vulnerable children and adolescents (n = 165 intervention group, n = 440 control group, aged 10-14 year) provided self-reported data on dietary habits and physical activity before and after the four-month intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, a process evaluation was conducted. Results No intervention effects were found for several dietary behaviours, including consumption of breakfast, fruit, soft drinks or sweet and savoury snacks. Positive intervention effects were found for self-efficacy for having a daily breakfast (p sports participation no significant intervention effect was found. In total, 92 pupils completed the process evaluation, the feedback was largely positive. Conclusions The ‘Health Scores!’ intervention was successful in increasing psychosocial correlates of a healthy diet and PA. The use of professional football players as a credible source for health promotion was appealing to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:24886227
To determine which approaches promote cycling, the size of the effects, and whether there are associated benefits on physical activity or anthropometric measures, by means of a systematic review. Intervention studies with a cycling outcome measure were identified from searches of 13 databases, previous systematic reviews, Web sites, and reference lists of selected articles. International experts were asked to identify further relevant published or unpublished studies. The search was completed in January 2010. The selection criteria were controlled trials and "before and after" studies of the effect of any intervention on cycling behavior; studies had to include a minimal or no intervention comparison group or a similar population; and a specific measure of cycling before and after the intervention was required. Studies using stationary bicycles were excluded. Of 32,916 records retrieved, 118 full-text articles were assessed, and 25 were included in the quantitative analysis. Each step in the selection process was independently reviewed by a second reviewer, and disagreements were resolved. Details of the study setting, objective, intervention, sample, duration, outcome measures, and results were extracted and checked by 2 reviewers, who also assessed validity (evaluated in summary as yes/no on randomization, representativeness, comparability, measurement, and use of statistical test). Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Outcomes were summarized as absolute changes in cycling after adjustment for changes in the control group. Meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity and statistical inadequacies in the studies. Six studies [2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 cohort study, and 3 controlled repeat cross-sectional studies, all meeting ≥3 validity criteria] included interventions primarily intended to promote cycling. An RCT using individual counseling and incentives as interventions found that Swedish women with abdominal obesity in the
Shadburn, Randy Glen
Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition
Jeffrey David Lambert
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and
Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...... policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities....
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…
Effect of a 4-year workplace-based physical activity intervention program on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees: the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.
Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yanagita, Masahiko; Fujieda, Yoshiharu; Kinoshita, Fujihisa; Naito, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tanaka, Taichiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu
Individuals who are physically fit or engage in regular physical activity have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and risk of mortality. We conducted a large-scale controlled trial of interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors, during which we assessed the effect of a workplace-based intervention program, which was part of a population strategy for promoting long-term increases in physical activity, on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees. Data were collected from 2929 participants and this report presents the results of a survey conducted in five factories for the intervention group and five factories for the control group at baseline and year 5. The absolute/proportional changes in HDL-cholesterol were 2.7 mg/dL (4.8%) in the intervention group and -0.6 mg/dL (-1.0%) in the control group. The differences between the two groups in the change in serum levels of HDL-cholesterol were highly significant (pphysical activity raises serum HDL-cholesterol levels of middle-aged employees. Increased awareness of the benefits of physical activity, using environmental rearrangement and health promotion campaigns, which especially target walking, may have contributed to a beneficial change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in the participants.
Huijg, Johanna Maria
Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of primary health care-based physical activity interventions and recommendations for primary health care professionals to promote physical activity, the introduction of physical activity interventions in routine daily primary health care
Rowsell, Alison; Muller, Ingrid; Murray, Elizabeth; Little, Paul; Byrne, Christopher D; Ganahl, Kristin; Müller, Gabriele; Gibney, Sarah; Lyles, Courtney R; Lucas, Antonia; Nutbeam, Don; Yardley, Lucy
Low health literacy is associated with poor health-related knowledge, illness self-management, health service use, health, and survival, and thus addressing issues related to low health literacy has been highlighted as a pressing international priority. To explore views of a digital health promotion intervention designed to be accessible to people with lower levels of health literacy, in particular examining reactions to the interactive and audiovisual elements of the intervention. Qualitative think-aloud interviews were carried out with 65 adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, Ireland, USA, Germany, and Austria, with purposive sampling to ensure representation of people with lower levels of health literacy. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify common themes. We then systematically compared views in subgroups based on country, health literacy level, age, gender, and time since diagnosis. Most participants from the chosen countries expressed positive views of most elements and features of the intervention. Some interactive and audiovisual elements required modification to increase their usability and perceived credibility and relevance. There were some differences in views based on age and gender, but very few differences relating to health literacy level or time since diagnosis. In general, participants found the intervention content and format accessible, appropriate, engaging, and motivating. Digital interventions can and should be designed to be accessible and engaging for people with a wide range of health literacy levels.
A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301
) increases in abdominal strength (sit-ups) for both boys and girls were measured post-intervention. A school-based physical activity intervention can promote positive short-term effects on learners' physical activity participation, as well as ...
Willett, Matthew; Duda, Joan; Gautrey, Charlotte; Fenton, Sally; Greig, Carolyn; Rushton, Alison
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative articular disease, the highest cause of individual level disability and a significant socioeconomic burden to healthcare services. Patient education and physical activity (PA) prescription are recommended components of interventions in several healthcare guidelines and are commonly provided by physiotherapists. However, these interventions lack long-term clinical effectiveness. Patient adherence to PA prescription requires patients to modify their PA behaviour and appears critical in maintaining symptomatic improvements. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used in physiotherapy interventions to improve PA adherence. Medline, Cochrane and PEDro registers of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases, and key grey literature sources will be rigorously searched for randomised controlled trials that compared a physiotherapy intervention incorporating BCTs with other therapies, placebo interventions, usual care or no-treatment. Two independent researchers will conduct literature searches, assess trial eligibility, extract data, conduct risk of bias assessment (using Cochrane risk of bias tool), classify BCTs and evaluate the quality of the body of literature following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Narrative synthesis of key outcomes will be presented and meta-analysis will be performed if included trials are clinically homogenous, based on their intervention and comparator groups and outcome measures. This review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Research ethics approval is not required. This review will help inform clinicians and researchers on the most effective behavioural change techniques used in physiotherapy interventions to enhance adherence to PA prescription for patients with lower limb OA. The findings will
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and health literacy are topics of utmost importance in the prevention of chronic diseases. The present article describes the study protocol for evaluating a cross-provider workplace-related intervention promoting physical activity and health literacy. Methods The RE-AIM Framework will be the conceptual framework of the AtRisk study. A controlled natural experiment and a qualitative study will be conducted. The cross-provider intervention is based on the cooperation of the German Pension Fund Rhineland and cooperating German Statutory Health Insurances. It combines two components: a behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention and the assignment of a health coach. The single-provider intervention only includes the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention. The quantitative study (natural experiment encompasses three measuring points (T0 = start of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (baseline; T1 = end of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (16 weeks; T2 = 6 month follow-up and will compare the effectiveness of the cross-provider workplace-related intervention compared with the single provider intervention. Participants are employees with health related risk factors. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcome variables leisure time physical (primary outcome activity and health literacy (secondary outcome. The qualitative study comprises semi-structured interviews, systematic field notes of stakeholder meetings and document analyses. Discussion The AtRisk study will contribute towards the claim for cross-provider interventions and workplace-related approaches described in the new Preventive Health Care Act. The results of this study will inform providers, payers and policy makers about the effectiveness of a cross-provider workplace-related lifestyle intervention compared to a single-provider intervention. Beyond, the study will identify challenges
Schaller, Andrea; Dejonghe, Lea; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Biallas, Bianca; Froboese, Ingo
Physical activity and health literacy are topics of utmost importance in the prevention of chronic diseases. The present article describes the study protocol for evaluating a cross-provider workplace-related intervention promoting physical activity and health literacy. The RE-AIM Framework will be the conceptual framework of the AtRisk study. A controlled natural experiment and a qualitative study will be conducted. The cross-provider intervention is based on the cooperation of the German Pension Fund Rhineland and cooperating German Statutory Health Insurances. It combines two components: a behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention and the assignment of a health coach. The single-provider intervention only includes the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention. The quantitative study (natural experiment) encompasses three measuring points (T0 = start of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (baseline); T1 = end of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (16 weeks); T2 = 6 month follow-up) and will compare the effectiveness of the cross-provider workplace-related intervention compared with the single provider intervention. Participants are employees with health related risk factors. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcome variables leisure time physical (primary outcome) activity and health literacy (secondary outcome). The qualitative study comprises semi-structured interviews, systematic field notes of stakeholder meetings and document analyses. The AtRisk study will contribute towards the claim for cross-provider interventions and workplace-related approaches described in the new Preventive Health Care Act. The results of this study will inform providers, payers and policy makers about the effectiveness of a cross-provider workplace-related lifestyle intervention compared to a single-provider intervention. Beyond, the study will identify challenges for implementing cross-provider preventive
Hagberg, L A; Lindahl, B; Nyberg, L; Hellénius, M-L
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of enjoyment of exercise in a health care-based intervention aimed at promoting physical exercise in primary health care patients. In a controlled study design, the intervention group was offered a wide range of group exercises over 3 months, followed by support in designing their own exercise program. The control group received usual care. Enjoyment of exercise and exercise level were measured. Associations between enjoyment and exercise level were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Changes in enjoyment between and within study groups were analyzed by the independent and paired t-test. Associations were found between enjoyment and exercise level (r=0.36, Pexercise level (r=0.34, Pexercise was 25% higher in the intervention group than in the control group (Phealth care patients, enjoyment of exercise was associated with exercise level. Enjoyment of exercise seems to be a mediator of exercise level. Furthermore, health care-based interventions seem to be able to affect enjoyment of exercise. Enjoyment of exercise may be important for the long-term effectiveness, of health care-based interventions.
van Beurden, E; Barnett, L M; Zask, A; Dietrich, U C; Brooks, L O; Beard, J
Physical education (PE) lessons are an ideal setting to improve child fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and increase physical activity (PA) for optimal health. Despite this, few studies have assessed the potential to do both simultaneously. The "Move It Groove It" primary school intervention in New South Wales, Australia, had this opportunity. A whole school approach to implementation included establishment of school project teams, a teacher "buddy" system, project Web site, teacher training workshops, and small grants for equipment. The quasi-experimental evaluation involved 1,045 year 3 and 4 children (aged 7 to 10 years) in nine intervention and nine control rural primary schools (53% boys/47% girls). It utilised pre- and postobservational surveys of (1) mastery or near mastery levels for each of eight FMSs, (2) proportion of PE lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA), and (3) teacher- and lesson-related contextual covariates. Data were analysed by hierarchical logistic multiple regression. For FMSs, overall mastery or near mastery level at baseline was 47% ranging from 22.7% for the overarm throw among girls to 75.4% for the static balance among boys. The intervention delivered substantial improvements in every FMS for both genders ranging from 7.2% to 25.7% (13 of 16 comparisons were significant). For PA level, mean MVPA at baseline was 34.7%. Baseline MVPA for boys was 38.7% and for girls was 33.2%. The intervention was associated with a nonsignificant 4.5% increase in MVPA and a significant 3.0% increase in VPA. This translates to a gain of mastery can be gained without adversely affecting children's MVPA and VPA. To increase PA levels, we recommend increasing the number of PE lessons per week.
Gomez, Luis F; Sarmiento, Rodrigo; Ordoñez, Maria Fernanda; Pardo, Carlos Felipe; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Mallarino, Christina H; Miranda, J Jaime; Mosquera, Janeth; Parra, Diana Celmira; Reis, Rodrigo; Quistberg, Alex
This study summarizes the evidence from quantitative systematic reviews that assessed the association between urban environment attributes and physical activity. It also documents sociopolitical barriers and facilitators involved in urban interventions linked with active living in the ten most populated urban settings of Latin America. The synthesis of evidence indicates that several attributes of urban environments are associated with physical activity, including land-use mix and cycling infrastructure. The documentary analysis indicated that despite the benefits and opportunities provided by the programs and existing infrastructure in the examined cities, an overall concern is the rising inequality in the coverage and distribution of the initiatives in the region. If these programs and initiatives are to achieve a real population level effect that helps to reduce health disparities, they need to examine their social and spatial distribution within the cities so they can reach underserved populations and develop to their full potential. PMID:25748111
Lau, Patrick W C; Lau, Erica Y; Wong, Del P; Ransdell, Lynda
A growing body of research has employed information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet and mobile phones for disseminating physical activity (PA) interventions with young populations. Although several systematic reviews have documented the effects of ICT-based interventions on PA behavior, very few have focused on children and adolescents specifically. The present review aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and methodological quality of ICT-based PA interventions for children and adolescents based on evidence from randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases Medline, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched to retrieve English language articles published in international academic peer-reviewed journals from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2009. Included were articles that provided descriptions of interventions designed to improve PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes and that used randomized controlled trial design, included only children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old) in both intervention and control groups, and employed Internet, email, and/or short message services (SMS, also known as text messaging) as one or more major or assistive modes to deliver the intervention. In total, 9 studies were analyzed in the present review. All studies were published after 2000 and conducted in Western countries. Of the 9 studies, 7 demonstrated positive and significant within-group differences in at least one psychosocial or behavioral PA outcome. In all, 3 studies reported positive and significant between-group differences favoring the ICT group. When between-group differences were compared across studies, effect sizes were small in 6 studies and large in 3 studies. With respect to methodological quality, 7 of the 9 studies had good methodological quality. Failure to report allocation concealment, blinding to outcome assessment, and lack of long-term follow-up were the criteria met
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an implementation intervention to increase healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies, and practices in centre-based childcare services: study protocol.
Finch, Meghan; Yoong, Sze Lin; Thomson, Rebecca J; Seward, Kirsty; Cooney, Mairead; Jones, Jannah; Fielding, Alison; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Wolfenden, Luke
Promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in early childhood is recommended as a global chronic disease prevention strategy. Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to provide children with opportunities to improve healthy eating and physical activity. Evidence to inform implementation of childcare obesity prevention guidelines into routine practice in childcare, however, is lacking. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, delivered to childcare staff, aiming to increasing service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. A pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with 165 childcare services in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Services will be randomised to receive either a 10-month evidence-based performance review intervention with other resources to support practice change, or to a waitlist control group. The primary trial outcome is the proportion of services implementing all of the following recommended healthy eating and physical activity promoting practices: written nutrition, physical activity and small screen recreation policies; providing information to families regarding healthy eating (including breastfeeding), physical activity and small screen time; providing twice weekly healthy eating learning experiences to children; providing water and only plain milk to children; providing fundamental movement skills activities for children every day; and limiting and using electronic screen time more for educational purposes and learning experiences. Effectiveness will be assessed using a telephone interview of practice implementation with childcare staff at baseline and 12 months following baseline. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer
A rehabilitation intervention to promote physical recovery following intensive care: a detailed description of construct development, rationale and content together with proposed taxonomy to capture processes in a randomised controlled trial.
Ramsay, Pam; Salisbury, Lisa G; Merriweather, Judith L; Huby, Guro; Rattray, Janice E; Hull, Alastair M; Brett, Stephen J; Mackenzie, Simon J; Murray, Gordon D; Forbes, John F; Walsh, Timothy Simon
Increasing numbers of patients are surviving critical illness, but survival may be associated with a constellation of physical and psychological sequelae that can cause ongoing disability and reduced health-related quality of life. Limited evidence currently exists to guide the optimum structure, timing, and content of rehabilitation programmes. There is a need to both develop and evaluate interventions to support and expedite recovery during the post-ICU discharge period. This paper describes the construct development for a complex rehabilitation intervention intended to promote physical recovery following critical illness. The intervention is currently being evaluated in a randomised trial (ISRCTN09412438; funder Chief Scientists Office, Scotland). The intervention was developed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing complex healthcare interventions. We ensured representation from a wide variety of stakeholders including content experts from multiple specialties, methodologists, and patient representation. The intervention construct was initially based on literature review, local observational and audit work, qualitative studies with ICU survivors, and brainstorming activities. Iterative refinement was aided by the publication of a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline (No. 83), publicly available patient stories (Healthtalkonline), a stakeholder event in collaboration with the James Lind Alliance, and local piloting. Modelling and further work involved a feasibility trial and development of a novel generic rehabilitation assistant (GRA) role. Several rounds of external peer review during successive funding applications also contributed to development. The final construct for the complex intervention involved a dedicated GRA trained to pre-defined competencies across multiple rehabilitation domains (physiotherapy, dietetics, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy), with specific training in post
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also
Rivas, Carol; Ramsay, Jean; Sadowski, Laura; Davidson, Leslie L; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela; Feder, Gene
Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency) intervention provided by service staff or others. To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN), and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it). Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status.The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years), although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also had considerable clinical heterogeneity in relation to staff delivering advocacy; setting (community, shelter
A community-based health promotion intervention using brief negotiation techniques and a pledge on dietary intake, physical activity levels and weight outcomes: lessons learnt from an exploratory trial.
Hillier, Frances C; Batterham, Alan M; Nixon, Catherine A; Crayton, Alisha M; Pedley, Claire L; Summerbell, Carolyn D
To assess the effectiveness of a brief face-to-face health promotion intervention which included a 'pledge' using brief negotiation techniques, compared with standard advice-giving techniques, delivered in a community setting. A parallel group pre-post design using randomised matched groups. Lifestyle helpers delivered the intervention (one consultation per participant). Diet, physical activity and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Qualitative data were also collected. Middlesbrough (UK). Adults living in low socio-economic areas. Recruitment and engagement of lifestyle helpers was difficult, and initial expectations that local health authority staff working in the community and community champions would act as lifestyle helpers were not realised. As a consequence, recruitment of participants was lower than anticipated. One hundred and twenty-eight adults were recruited and the retention rate was 48 % at 12 months. Barriers to participation included poor health and competing commitments. No significant differences in change in diet or physical activity behaviours, or BMI, between the intervention and control groups were observed. The control group had a significantly greater decrease in waist circumference at 12 months compared with the intervention group. This exploratory trial provides important insights in terms of recruiting lifestyle helpers for community-based health promotion interventions, specifically (i) the priorities and limitations in terms of time (regardless of their general enthusiasm) for staff employed by the local health authority, and (ii) the willingness of potential community champions to serve their local community in areas where community identity and 'spirit' are seen as lacking.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles
Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components
Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...
[Promoting a balanced diet and physical activity among children : Conditions for the successful implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies: Results of two qualitative case studies].
Steenbock, Berit; Muellmann, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R
To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In both cases, the use of existing structures facilitated introduction, implementation and maintenance. Additionally, training of staff for implementation according to standardised protocols or concepts and taking structures and work conditions of settings into account during implementation were considered essential. In both cases, conflicting interests in interdisciplinary stakeholder teams regarding intervention content and implementation were identified as a barrier. A lack of political support and insecure long-term funding only played a role in regard to the implementation and maintenance of policies. On the other hand, target groups of the multi-level intervention were not sufficiently involved in the development of intervention materials which resulted in a lack of tailoring and acceptance in the target groups. The results provide important insights into the long-term implementation of multi-level interventions and policies in different settings.
Yancey, Antronette K; Fielding, Jonathan E; Flores, George R; Sallis, James F; McCarthy, William J; Breslow, Lester
The essential role of physical activity both as an independent protective factor against numerous common chronic diseases and as a means to maintain a healthy weight is gaining increasing scientific recognition. Although the science of physical activity promotion is advancing rapidly, the practice of promoting physical activity at a population level is in its infancy. The virtual absence of a public health practice infrastructure for the promotion of physical activity at the local level presents a critical challenge to control policy for chronic disease, and particularly obesity. To translate the increasing evidence of the value of physical activity into practice will require systemic, multilevel, and multisectoral intervention approaches that build individual capability and organizational capacity for behavior change, create new social norms, and promote policy and environmental changes that support higher levels of energy expenditure across the population. This paper highlights societal changes contributing to inactivity; describes the evolution and current status of population-based public health physical activity promotion efforts in research and practice settings; suggests strategies for engaging decision makers, stakeholders, and the general public in building the necessary infrastructure to effectively promote physical activity; and identifies specific recommendations to spur the creation of a robust public health infrastructure for physical activity.
Ferrer, David A; Ellis, Rebecca
The use of social networking sites to deliver behavioral interventions is becoming more prevalent. The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the published research to determine the effectiveness of Facebook-delivered interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change. A search of interventions delivered via Facebook (as the primary delivery method or part of a multifaceted intervention) in which physical activity was the primary or secondary outcome resulted in 8 studies for review. Overall, 87.5% of the Facebook interventions reported some type of significant physical activity behavior change (ie, interactions, main effects for time, differences between conditions); however, only 2 of these interventions found this change to be significantly better for the treatment group than the control group. Future researchers are encouraged to test the effectiveness of Facebook-delivered physical activity interventions with additional control groups that receive no aspects of the intervention within experimental study designs, more diverse samples, theory-based content with assessment of mediators of behavior change, direct observations of physical activity, and long-term follow-ups. Although based on a small sample of studies, Facebook appears to be a promising delivery method for physical activity interventions.
Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A
The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly
Abstract. Background: Physical inactivity has become a global health concern and is among the 10 leading causes of death and disability. Physiotherapists are in a position to combat inactivity and effectively promote physical activity to their clients. Objectives: To establish the relationship between physical activity levels of ...
According to the Punjab Governor, Lt.General Khalid, the government will soon set up a school of biological sciences by unifying Physics, High Energy Physics and Solid State Physics departments so as to implement the government policy of promoting research in this sector (1/2 page).
Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan
Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…
Promoting physical activity, healthy eating and gross motor skills development among preschoolers attending childcare centers: Process evaluation of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention using the RE-AIM framework.
Ward, Stéphanie; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Humbert, M Louise; Bélanger, Mathieu; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Vatanparast, Hassan; Leis, Anne
The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada. Quantitative data were collected through director questionnaires at 10 months and 2 years after the initial training and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected throughout the intervention. The intervention was successful in reaching a large number of childcare centres and engaging both rural and urban communities across Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. Centres reported increasing opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating, which were generally low-cost, easy and quick to implement. However, these changes were rarely transformed into formal written policies. A total of 87% of centers reported using the physical activity resource and 68% using the nutrition resource on a weekly basis. Implementation fidelity of the initial training was high. Of those centers who received the initial training, 75% participated in the mid-point booster session training. Two year post-implementation questionnaires indicated that 47% of centers were still using the Active Play Equipment kit, while 42% were still using the physical activity resource and 37% were still using the nutrition resource. Key challenges to implementation and sustainability identified during the evaluation were consistent among all of the REAIM elements. These challenges included lack of time, lack of support from childcare staff and low parental engagement. Findings from this study suggest the implementation of
Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen
Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.
This case study reports on the evaluation of an integral life practice intervention for physical exercise and health promotion, with a stressed, 30-year-old unemployed client. The pre-test and post-test, process and outcome evaluative, research design included qualitative and quantitative, integrated and mixed method ...
Seaton, Cherisse L.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Oliffe, John L.; DeLeenheer, Damen; Medhurst, Kerensa
There is an increasing need for mental health promotion strategies that effectively engage men. Although researchers have examined the effectiveness of diverse mental wellness interventions in male-dominated industries, and reviewed suicide prevention, early intervention, and health promotion interventions for boys and men, few have focused on sex-specific program effects. The purpose of this review was to (a) extend the previous reviews to examine the effectiveness of mental health promotion...
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Troelsen, Jens
will help understand how to optimize development of physical interventions to promote physical activity. Methods Data were collected through multiple methods, including a questionnaire survey, where a representative sample of residents (≥ 16 years) living in the eight areas of intervention received...... of users supposedly was higher. Furthermore factors as availability, maintenance and simple decoding of facilities were found to affect use of the implemented facilities. Discussion Physical activity level is not determined by constrained choices but is basically based on desire and motivation to become......Introduction This mixed-method study aimed to examine whether a built environment intervention in eight Danish municipalities (the EGO project) led to increased physical activity and on the basis of the findings to identify factors affecting use of the implemented facilities. The knowledge gained...
Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen
Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)
Background: Regular participation in physical activity is associated with improved physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors. However, physical activity levels are low during and after cancer treatment. Interventions to promote physical activity in this population are needed. Mobile technology has potential, but currently, there is no mobile phone application designed to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Objectives: The first aim is to assess feasibility and...
Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes
To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the "balance intervention", which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information…
Maes, L.; Van Cauwenberghe, E.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Spittaels, H.; De Pauw, E.; Oppert, J.M.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.
Background: The worksite is a promising setting for health promotion. This review summarizes the evidence of effect of intervention studies in European countries promoting a healthy diet solely and in combination with increasing physical activity at the workplace. Methods: A systematic review of
Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.
The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.
Donnelly, Frances Cleland; Helion, John; Fry, Frank
Examined four British physical educators' teaching behaviors before and after an intervention designed to expand their teaching repertoire by learning how to promote critical thinking in physical education (CT-PE). Analysis of pre- and post-intervention videotapes indicated that all four participants displayed qualitative and quantitative changes…
Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique
To date, adolescent physical activity (PA) intervention research has focused on the school setting and suggests a need to extend interventions beyond this setting to influence teenagers' overall level of PA. But, the relative effectiveness of PA promotion strategies that can be part of such multi-setting interventions remains unknown. We completed…
To, Quyen G; Chen, Ted T L; Magnussen, Costan G; To, Kien G
To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions in improving physical activity. EBSCO research database (and all subdatabases). Articles were published from 2000 to 2010 in English, had appropriate designs, and measured employees' physical activity, energy consumption, and/or body mass index (BMI) as primary outcomes. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Data extracted included study design, study population, duration, intervention activities, outcomes, and results. Data were synthesized into one table. Results of each relevant outcome including p values were combined. Twelve (60%) of 20 selected interventions reported an improvement in physical activity level, steps, or BMI, and there was one slowed step reduction in the intervention group. Among these, 10 were less than 6 months in duration; 9 used pedometers; 6 applied Internet-based approaches; and 5 included activities targeting social and environmental levels. Seven of 8 interventions with pre-posttest and quasi-experimental controlled design showed improvement on at least one outcome. However, 7 of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not prove effective in any outcome. Interventions that had less rigorous research designs, used pedometers, applied Internet-based approaches, and included activities at social and environmental levels were more likely to report being effective than those without these characteristics.
Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.
on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health...... and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range...
Dzewaltowski, David A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Johnston, Judy A
To reduce the risk for chronic disease, adolescents should eat at least five servings of fruit and vegetables and be physically active daily. The Healthy Youth Places Project will test if an intervention strategy that implements school environmental change--with adult leader and youth participation--will influence and maintain adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Using an experimental design, middle schools will be randomized (eight intervention and eight control schools), and the health behavior of a cohort of adolescents will be assessed during Grades 6 (baseline), 7 and 8 (intervention), and 9 (follow-up). The project uses an ecologically informed social cognitive model to inform a place-based intervention that encourages participation in the process of planning and implemented environmental change in targeted adolescent physical and social environments (school lunch place and after school program place). Environmental change is defined as implemented practices, programs and policies that promote critical elements (connection, autonomy, skill-building and healthy norms) in places. These critical elements are hypothesized environmental antecedents of social cognitive mediators of behavior change. The Project develops a place-based dissemination model of multiple levels (project, school and place) that are hypothesized to build the skills and efficacy of leaders (school staff and youth) that implement environmental changes.
Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.
It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…
Full Text Available Background: As physical inactivity is particularly prevalent amongst lower-educated adolescent girls, interventions are needed. Using a co-creational approach increases their engagement and might be effective. This study aimed to: (1 describe the co-creation process, (2 evaluate how girls experienced co-creation, and (3 evaluate the effect of the co-creational interventions on physical activity, individual, sociocultural and school-based factors. Methods: Three intervention schools (n = 91 and three control schools (n = 105 across Flanders participated. A questionnaire was completed pre (September–October 2014 and post (April–May 2015. In between, sessions with a co-creation group were organised to develop and implement the intervention in each intervention school. Focus groups were conducted to evaluate the co-creational process. Results: School 1 organised sport sessions for girls, school 2 organised a fitness activity and set up a Facebook page, school 3 organised a lunch walk. Girls were positive about having a voice in developing an intervention. No significant effects were found, except for small effects on extracurricular sports participation and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Using a co-creational approach amongst adolescent girls might be a feasible approach. However, as interventions were minimal, effects were limited or undetectable. Future co-creation projects could consider the most optimal co-creation process, evaluation design and intensively test this approach.
Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.
This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…
Heller, Tamar; Fisher, Dora; Marks, Beth; Hsieh, Kelly
People with intellectual and developmental disabilities experience lower levels of healthy behaviors as do older persons, making health promotion a key priority for these populations. The aim of this paper is to review the two fields of developmental disability and aging health promotion research in order to understand strategies used by both and to identify emerging and innovative practices that disability researchers can learn from each other. We conducted scoping reviews of health promotion intervention peer reviewed articles in English from 1991 to 2011 for intellectual and developmental disabilities and from 2007 to 2011 for the more extensive gerontological literature. Two reviewers extracted data. The disability review identified 34 studies and three main types of interventions: exercise, multi-component, and health screens. The aging review identified 176 articles which had a wider variety of intervention topics and techniques, with more articles including innovative approaches to bringing interventions to community settings across a wider variety of populations. As people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are living longer, disability health promotion can look to the aging literature for ideas to incorporate in future interventions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, while the gerontological research can learn from the research in intellectual and developmental disabilities on ways to adapt health promotion interventions to people with cognitive and physical limitations. Use of universal design principles could enable greater inclusion of people with disabilities in health promotion interventions for the general aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi
aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr...... and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands, and thereby reduce the physical deterioration in a long term perspective by interventions...
Sabinsky, Marianne; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane; Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr
the school day was measured using a digital photographic method, physical activity was registered by pedometers and an electronic questionnaire was used to assess wellbeing among the pupils. A process evaluation was done. Results and conclusion: The recruitment of schools for the full health promoting school...
Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea; Mommen, Jasmine; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Disadvantaged groups are often not reached by mainstream health promotion interventions. Implementing health promotion (HP) interventions in social economy companies, can be an opportunity to reach those people. The implementation of these interventions in social economy companies was studied. Factors that could be related to the implementation of HP and being supportive towards implementation in the future, were investigated. An online, quantitative survey was sent to all 148 sheltered and social workshops in Flanders. In the questionnaire, the status of HP interventions and characteristics of the workshop were explored. Personal factors (such as attitudes towards HP, behavioural control, social norms and moral responsibility) were asked to the person responsible for implementation of HP interventions. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Respondents of 88 workshops completed the questionnaire. Almost 60% of the workshops implemented environmental or policy interventions. Having a positive attitude towards HP, being more morally responsible, and having the subjective norm that employees are positive towards health promotion at work, were related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the univariate analyses. Only attitude stayed significantly related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the multivariate analyses. Sheltered and social workshops are open to HP interventions, but more can be done to optimize the implementation. To persuade persons responsible for the implementation of HP to invest more in HP, changing attitudes concerning the benefits of health promotion for the employee and the company, is an important strategy.
Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W
There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.
Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF
Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...
O'Loughlin, J; Renaud, L; Richard, L; Gomez, L S; Paradis, G
This study investigated factors related to the perceived sustainability of 189 heart health promotion interventions initiated by a public health department or research initiative and implemented in a variety of organizations across Canada. Data were collected in a telephone survey of key informants from schools, restaurants, grocery stores, health care facilities, and sports facilities that had implemented a heart health promotion intervention (risk factor screening, courses for smoking cessation, healthy eating or physical activity, support groups to promote healthy lifestyles, environmental modification, dissemination of information) in the past 8 years. Overall, 43.6% of 189 interventions were perceived to be very permanent, 34.8% were somewhat permanent, and 21.5% were not permanent. Independent correlates of perceived sustainability included intervention used no paid staff (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) = 3.7 (1.8, 7.5)), intervention was modified during implementation (OR (95% Cl) = 2.7 (1.4, 5.0)), there was a good fit between the local provider and the intervention (OR (95% Cl) = 2.4 (1.2, 5.0)), and there was the presence of a program champion (OR (95% Cl) = 2.3 (1.2, 4.4)). Consideration of these factors by health promotion program planners could increase the potential for sustainability of health promotion interventions implemented in the community. Copyright 1998 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir
Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...
Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof
The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…
Juel, Anette; Hjorth, Peter; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
We aimed to explore beliefs about physical health from the perspective of patients with concurrent mental illness and substance use and to explore how a health promotion intervention influenced their personal agency for changing health-related behaviour. Our findings were that patients' beliefs w...
Barry Wright MD, FRCPsych
Full Text Available Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years. This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research.
Wu, Tsu-Yin; Pender, Nola; Yang, Ke-Ping
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the determinants of physical activity among adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States. Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) served as the theoretical framework for both studies (Pender, 1996). The major determinants of health behavior in the HPM are perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, activity-related affect, interpersonal influences, situational influences, commitment to a plan of action, and immediate competing demands. In Taiwan, 969 middle school students (55% males; 45% females) from Taipei provided data for the study. In the United States, the sample was collected from 286 late elementary and middle school students (48% males; 52% females). Results showed the gender differences in activity levels were apparent in the youths from both countries. In both Taiwanese and American youths, boys were more active than girls. Cross-cultural differences in the importance of barriers to physical activity emerged. Among Taiwanese adolescents, barriers did not emerge as a significant direct predictor of physical activity as they did among US adolescents. Perceived efficacy directly predicted physical activity among Taiwanese youths while it indirectly predicted physical activity and appeared to be mediated by beliefs regarding exercise benefits and barriers among American youths. In addition, the paths of effect for interpersonal influences were different when Taiwanese and US youths were compared. The findings from this paper have important and culturally-relevant information that can inform future physical activity intervention studies with diverse adolescents.
Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam R; Cooper, Pamela S; Brown, Lori M; Lusk, Sally L
Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity levels. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from such programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21); fitness (0.57); lipids (0.13); anthropometric measures (0.08); work attendance (0.19); and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is less robust given small sample sizes. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on VO2max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, -0.2 on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; and for diabetes risk, -12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity.
Rowland, Jennifer L; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Miles, Cindy; OʼNeil, Margaret E
The purpose of this report is to discuss the scope of pediatric physical therapy practice in health promotion and fitness for youth with disabilities. Evidence is provided that supports integration of health promotion and fitness strategies in physical therapy clinical management. Physical therapists' roles in community-based adapted sports and fitness interventions and reimbursement considerations are discussed. Physical therapists are in a unique position to provide expertise in the design and implementation of health promotion and fitness programs for youth with disabilities. These programs are important to promote active, healthy lifestyles and reduce comorbidities associated with sedentary behaviors and unhealthy weight, which are often seen in youth with disabilities. Pediatric physical therapists should incorporate health promotion and fitness strategies into practice.
Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia
Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…
Method: A systematic review was chosen as a design to identify primary studies that answered the following research question: What is the current evidence on interventions to promote psychiatric patients' compliance to mental health treatment? Selected electronic databases were thoroughly searched. Studies were ...
van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah
This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a
Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron
With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.
Berg, Machteld Heleen van den
The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the
... the prevalence of chronic diseases of lifestyle in later years. Recommendations on how to promote physically active lifestyles among South African youth are proffered. Key words: Physical activity, lifestyle, chronic diseases, youth, promotion. (Af. J. Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance: 2003 9(2): 200-206) ...
King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying
Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…
Full Text Available Inactivity and an unhealthy diet amongst others have led to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity even in young children. Since most health behaviours develop during childhood health promotion has to start early. The setting kindergarten has been shown as ideal for such interventions. “Join the Healthy Boat” is a kindergarten-based health promotion programme with a cluster-randomised study focussing on increased physical activity, reduced screen media use, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as a higher fruit and vegetable intake. Intervention and materials were developed using Bartholomew’s Intervention Mapping approach considering Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development. The programme is distributed using a train-the-trainer approach and currently implemented in 618 kindergartens. The effectiveness of this one-year intervention with an intervention and a control group will be examined in 62 kindergartens using standardised protocols, materials, and tools for outcome and process evaluation. A sample of 1021 children and their parents provided consent and participated in the intervention. Results of this study are awaited to give a better understanding of health behaviours in early childhood and to identify strategies for effective health promotion. The current paper describes development and design of the intervention and its implementation and planned evaluation. Trial Registration. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, ID: DRKS00010089.
Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Smedegaard, Søren
promotion for all should increase the focus on the Self-Determination Theory as a lever for increasing motivation. Solving the global inactivity problem is likely to be dependent on more children and youth having and maintaining positive experiences with human movement in an inclusive social climate.......Background Physical activity at school can improve mental health of all children – especially if it is tailored to children’s needs and conducted in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention...... from 1-4 the mean self-perceived athletic competence was 2.95, body attractiveness 2.75, and physical self-worth 3.12. However, a large minority had low self-perceptions. Mean Physical Activity Enjoyment was rated on a scale from 7-35 and the overall mean was 28.7. Follow-up data will be collected...
Badland, H. M.; Schofield, G. M.
Aim: To examine the worksite physical activity intervention literature and discuss whether the findings are applicable to New Zealand worksite environments. Data sources: Information was sourced from major health databases using key words physical activity, intervention, worksite, workplace, and health promotion. The remainder of the literature search was directed from citations in the articles sourced from the original search. Study selection: Studies included in the review were related to w...
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…
Christensen, Marie Ernst; Thorø, Karsten
, Department of Physiotherapy, Department of Nutrition and Health, VIA University College, Aarhus, Denmark. Background Previous studies have shown that the workplace is an ideal arena for health promotion interventions. Most studies focus on the ways in which health promoting interventions influence the health...... related behavior of the co-workers. However, knowledge about how to apply the knowledge taught in the BSc. degree programs in health related areas is limited. In the summer of 2011 the Department of Physiotherapy, Aarhus and the professional BSc. program in nutrition and health moved to a new campus...... with the purpose of A: researching the employees’ mobility in the context of participating in training on Campus and B: investigating the students’ benefit from such a co-operation. Results Recruitment for the project was done in five companies with approx. 1.500 employees. From this target population a total...
Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Matosevic, Tihana; Park, A-La; Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David
This systematic review explored the effectiveness of technology-based interventions in promoting the mental health and wellbeing of people aged 65 and over. Data were collected as part of a wider review commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England on the effectiveness of different actions to promote the mental wellbeing and independence of older people. All studies identified through this review were subject to a detailed critical appraisal of quality, looking at internal and external validity. Twenty-one papers covering evaluations of technological interventions were identified. They examined the psychosocial effects of technologies for education, exposure to, and/or training to use, computers and the internet, telephone/internet communication and computer gaming. Few studies took the form of randomized controlled trials, with little comparability in outcome measures, resulting in an inconsistent evidence base with moderate strength and quality. However, three out of six studies with high or moderate quality ratings (all focused on computer/internet training) reported statistically significant positive effects on psychosocial outcomes, including increased life satisfaction and experienced social support, as well as reduced depression levels among intervention recipients. The review results highlight the need for more methodologically rigorous studies evaluating the effects of technology-based interventions on mental wellbeing. Well-performed technology-based interventions to promote various aspects of mental wellbeing, as identified in this review, can serve as best practice examples in this emerging field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school......-community approach to influencing determinants of healthy and balanced growing up’. Qualitative case study research was carried out in a school in the Netherlands. Data sources included project documents, interviews and observations. Thematic analysis was carried out combining the different data sources. The case...... study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...
Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S
Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.
Griffith, Derek M; Bergner, Erin M; Cornish, Emily K; McQueen, Chelsea M
Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men. Following PRISMA guidelines, nine articles representing seven studies that met our criteria were identified: six published studies that provided data for African American men, and one published study provided data for Latino men. Consistent with previous reviews, more research is needed to better understand how gender can be incorporated in physical activity interventions for African American and Latino men. Future interventions should explore how being an adult male and a man of color shapes motivations, attitudes, and preferences to be physically active. Studies should consider how race and ethnicity intersect with notions of masculinity, manhood and Machismo to enhance the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for these populations. Despite the health benefits of physical activity, rates of these behaviors remain low among African American and Latino men. It is essential to determine how best to increase the motivation and salience for these men to overcome the obesogenic environments and contexts in which they often live.
Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Irwin, Brandon C
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based intervention to promote physical activity and self-worth among working mothers. Participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned to receive a standard web-based intervention or an enhanced intervention that included group dynamics strategies to promote engagement. The 8-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory. Each week, participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks: listen to a podcast related to well-being, complete a workbook assignment, and communicate with other participants on a discussion board. Participants in the enhanced condition received an additional weekly task to enhance group cohesion. Data were collected at baseline, week 8, and week 16. Physical activity (P working mothers. Group dynamics strategies only minimally enhanced user engagement, and future studies are needed to optimize web-based intervention designs.
Welch, V.; Petkovic, J.; Pardo, J. Pardo; Rader, T.; Tugwell, P.
Abstract Introduction: Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. Methods: We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Results: Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Conclusion: Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural), which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported on the
Welch, V; Petkovic, J; Pardo Pardo, J; Rader, T; Tugwell, P
Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural), which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported on the level of intervention use and all of these reported
Full Text Available Introduction: Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. Methods: We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter, blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Results: Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Conclusion: Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural, which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported
Pronk, Nicolaas P
The contemporary workplace setting is in need of interventions that effectively promote higher levels of occupational and habitual physical activity. It is the purpose of this paper to outline an evidence-based approach to promote physical activity in the business and industry sector in support of a National Physical Activity Plan. Comprehensive literature searches identified systematic reviews, comprehensive reviews, and consensus documents on the impact of physical activity interventions in the business and industry sector. A framework for action and priority recommendations for practice and research were generated. Comprehensive, multicomponent work-site programs that include physical activity components generate significant improvements in health, reduce absenteeism and sick leave, and can generate a positive financial return. Specific evidence-based physical activity interventions are presented. Recommendations for practice include implementing comprehensive, multicomponent programs that make physical activity interventions possible, simple, rewarding and relevant in the context of a social-ecological model. The business and industry sector has significant opportunities to improve physical activity among employees, their dependents, and the community at-large and to reap important benefits related to worker health and business performance.
Objectives. Non-communicable diseases and limited participation in school physical education have become increasing concerns in South Africa. In response to these concerns, a schoolbased physical activity intervention, Healthnutz, was implemented in three primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg.
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A
Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.
Lee, Amelia M.
Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…
Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J
The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences.
Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Roesch, Scott
This study examined the reciprocal relationship between Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion following the implementation of a 6-month promotora-delivered pilot intervention. A one-group study design was used to promote leisure-time physical activity and build neighborhood cohesion among 143 churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California. Using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged panel model, leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion (assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months) were analyzed. Leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion increased across time. Neighborhood cohesion at 3 months predicted leisure-time physical activity at 6 months. A promotora model in the context of a faith-based setting may be appropriate to promote Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and make socioenvironmental improvements.
Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW, a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928 will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Proper, Karin I; Lambert, Estelle V; van Wier, Marieke F; Pillay, Julian D; Nossel, Craig; Adonis, Leegale; Van Mechelen, Willem
Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees' preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928) will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting employees at increased risk for CVD is preferred. Importantly
Souza, Evanice Avelino de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Nogueira, Júlia Aparecida Devidé; Azevedo Júnior, Mario Renato de
This article provides a systematic literature review on physical activity and/or healthy eating interventions among Brazilian students. Complete articles published from 2004 to 2009 were searched in the SciELO, MEDLINE, and CAPES electronic databases, in the articles' references, and through contacts with authors. Six studies covered nutritional interventions, another six analyzed nutrition and physical activity, and one discussed changes in body composition. Interventions produced different results according to their objectives: increase in weekly physical activity; improvement in eating habits and knowledge on nutrition; and decrease in overweight and obesity. School health promotion programs are essential for raising awareness on the relevance of health promotion and the adoption of healthy habits. However, further longitudinal studies are needed to produce evidence on sustainability of programs and healthy habits.
Prell, Hillevi C; Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Lena M; Lissner, Lauren
This study examined the effect of 2 school-based interventions on adolescents' consumption and knowledge of fish with the hypothesis that home economics education would enhance the effect of modifications in the school canteen. The school lunch intervention (SL) focused on changes in the school canteen, and the school lunch + home economics intervention (SL + HE) in addition consisted of changes in the home economics syllabus. Pupils in the 8th grade (n = 228) from 3 schools in Göteborg, Sweden, participated (control, n = 83; SL group, n = 58; SL + HE group, n = 87). A controlled design was used in which behavior and knowledge were assessed before and after the intervention. In contrast to much previous research of this type, measurement of behavior was based primarily on direct observation as opposed to self-reported intakes. Behavior (fish consumption) was measured individually by structured observations in the school canteen 5 times (once a week) when fish was served. Nutritional knowledge was measured by means of 10 items in a questionnaire. To analyze changes in behavior, a nonparametric statistical method assessing systematic change in paired ordered categoric variables was used. At follow-up evaluation, consumption had increased significantly in the SL + HE group, a change that also differed from the control group. In addition, significant positive changes in knowledge were observed in both intervention groups, but not in controls. The results suggest that dietary change was achieved by modifying conditions in the school canteen together with changing the home economics syllabus. This study shows the importance of the school in the promotion of dietary change among adolescents.
Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina
Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.
This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…
Bradford, Natalie Katrina; Chan, Raymond Javan
The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Included studies were identified though a range of electronic databases through to May 2016. Studies were critically appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Seventeen studies, comprising a total of 2314 participants aged 13-39years were included in this review. Participants in 15 studies were survivors of childhood cancer, with only two studies specifically recruiting survivors of cancer diagnosed during young adulthood. Ten studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs); the remaining seven were before and after studies. The quality of studies was variable across all appraised domains; risk of bias was evident in regards to recruitment, measures of exposure and outcomes, confounding factors, attrition and lost-to follow-up. Studies evaluated a range of health promotion and psychological interventions to improve health related and process outcomes. Eleven studies reported modest positive outcomes, with psychological and physical activity interventions achieving greater success compared to general health promotion interventions. This review highlights the lack of high-quality studies for optimising the health and well-being of AYA cancer survivors. No conclusive evidence favouring specific interventions were identified, although recommendations for future studies are made. Interventions delivered face-to-face and those that facilitate peer-to-peer support hold promise. Harnessing social media and technology to deliver interventions is likely to increase and these
Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.
Zhou, Xiao; Perez-Cueto, Armando; dos Santos, Quenia
Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence...... and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were...... of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet...
Caperchione, Cristina M; Sharp, Paul; Bottorff, Joan L; Stolp, Sean; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Errey, Sally; Christian, Holly; Healy, Theresa; Medhurst, Kerensa; Lamont, Sonia
Many health promotion programs hold little "manly" appeal and as a consequence fail to influence men's self-health practices. That said, the workplace can provide an important delivery point for targeted health promotion programs by supporting positive aspects of masculinity. The purpose of this article is to, a) describe the intervention design and study protocol examining the feasibility of a gender-sensitive workplace health promotion intervention focusing on physical activity and healthy eating in male-dominated rural and remote worksites, and b) report baseline findings. This study is a non-randomized quasi-experimental intervention trial examining feasibility and acceptability, and estimated intervention effectiveness. The POWERPLAY program was developed through consultations with men and key workplace personnel, and by drawing on a growing body of men's health promotion research. The program includes masculine print-based messaging, face-to-face education sessions, friendly competition, and self-monitoring concerning physical activity and healthy eating. Male participants (N=139) were recruited from four worksites in northern British Columbia, Canada. Baseline data were collected via computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey which assessed physical activity, dietary behavior and workplace environment. This protocol will also be used to collect follow-up data at 6months. A process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, will be undertaken to assess feasibility and acceptability among participants and worksites. Study outcomes will guide intervention refinement and further testing in a sufficiently powered randomized control trial. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adamo, Kristi Bree; Wasenius, Niko Sebastian; Grattan, Kimberly Paige; Harvey, Alysha Leila Jean; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Barrowman, Nicolas James; Goldfield, Gary Scott
To investigate the effect of a preschool physical activity intervention program delivered in licensed childcare settings, with or without a parent-facilitated home component, on children's daily physical activity, sedentary time, and body composition. For this cluster randomized controlled trial, 18 childcare centers were randomly allocated in equal numbers to the typical curriculum comparison group, childcare intervention alone (CC), or childcare intervention with parental involvement. Accelerometers were used to asses physical activity and sedentary time, and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Linear mixed model regression analyses showed no differences between the CC, the childcare intervention with parental involvement, and the comparison groups in changes from baseline to 6 months in total physical activity (P for time × group interaction = .665) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (P for time × group interaction = .164) when adjusted for baseline physical activity levels. Furthermore, no group differences were found for changes in light physical activity, sedentary time, or anthropometric variables. An affordable and easily scalable preschool intervention program delivered in licensed childcare settings, with or without the addition of a parent-driven home physical activity promotion, seems to have no significant effect on physical activity, sedentary time, or body composition. ISRCTN: ISRCTN94022291. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin
of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities.Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network...... by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. METHODS AND DESIGN: HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet...... consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well...
Babar, Z U; Polwin, A; Kan, S W; Amerasinghe, N; McCarthy, S; Rasheed, F; Stewart, J; Lessing, C; Ragupathy, R; Scahill, S L
In New Zealand, the use of generic medicines is advocated by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency of New Zealand (PHARMAC). Among other interventions, PHARMAC uses educational awareness campaigns to educate pharmacists to promote the uptake of generic medicines. However, the opinion of pharmacists regarding these interventions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting medicine brand changes. A cross-sectional study design was employed to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding brand changes. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected pharmacists in New Zealand. In second component of the study, five community pharmacies in the Auckland region were selected through convenience sampling, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with a pharmacist in each site. One-hundred and eighty seven questionnaires were returned and analyzed (response rate of 37.4%). Sixty-eight percent of pharmacists supported brand changes and 98.4% mentioned that PHARMAC is responsible for informing them of brand changes. Over half (51.3%) of pharmacists found the current interventions effective, and 39.6% were satisfied with the current brand change information provided by PHARMAC. The majority (94.7%) of pharmacists currently receive faxed information but many indicated (70.8%) that they prefer email notifications. Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. Patient acceptance and claims about effectiveness were the main factors in determining the difficulty of brand substitution. Fewer than half of the respondents felt that interventions were implemented with enough preparation time for a brand change. The ideal lead-in time was in the range of three to six months. Pharmacists expressed a number of concerns about brand changes such as the frequency at which they occur and the lack of generic stock
Full Text Available Only one out of seven patients recovers after a first episode of psychosis despite psychiatric care. Rehabilitation interventions have been developed to improve functional outcomes and to promote recovery. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the main psychiatric rehabilitation interventions following a search of the electronic databases Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using combinations of terms relating to cognitive remediation, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapies, and schizophrenia. Eighty articles relevant to the topic of interest were found. According to results, cognitive remediation has been found to be effective in reducing the impact of cognitive impairment, social skills in the learning a variety of skills and to a lesser extent in reducing negative symptoms, psychoeducation in improving compliance and reducing relapses, and cognitive therapy in reducing the intensity of or distress related to positive symptoms. All psychosocial rehabilitation interventions should be considered as evidence-based practices for schizophrenia and need to become a major part of the standard treatment of the disease.
Evans Philip H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long
Full Text Available Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies’ duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people’s dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account.
Lock, C A; Kaner, E F
Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.
Full Text Available Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement.
Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.
PURPOSE:: to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and evaluate potential benefits with reference to common interventions; i.e. prolonged exercise and strength training. METHODS:: 36 untrained men were divided into groups...... that completed 12 weeks of intense interval running (INT; total training time 40 min a week), prolonged running ( approximately 150 min/week), strength training ( approximately 150 min/week) or continued their habitual life-style without participation in physical training. RESULTS:: The improvement...... in cardiorespiratory fitness was superior in INT (14+/-2% increase in VO2max) compared to the other two exercise interventions (7+/-2% and 3+/-2% increases). The blood glucose concentration 2 hours following oral ingestion of 75 g of glucose was lowered to a similar extent following training in the INT (from 6...
Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…
Laine, Johanna; Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Pietilä, Eija; Koivuneva, Mikko; Valtonen, Hannu; Kankaanpää, Eila
This systematic review synthesizes the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of population-level interventions to promote physical activity. A systematic literature search was conducted between May and August 2013 in four databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Only primary and preventive interventions aimed at promoting and maintaining physical activity in wide population groups were included. An economic evaluation of both effectiveness and cost was required. Secondary interventions and interventions targeting selected population groups or focusing on single individuals were excluded. Interventions were searched for in six different categories: (1) environment, (2) built environment, (3) sports clubs and enhanced access, (4) schools, (5) mass media and community-based, and (6) workplace. The systematic search yielded 2058 articles, of which 10 articles met the selection criteria. The costs of interventions were converted to costs per person per day in 2012 U.S. dollars. The physical activity results were calculated as metabolic equivalent of task hours (MET-hours, or MET-h) gained per person per day. Cost-effectiveness ratios were presented as dollars per MET-hours gained. The intervention scale and the budget impact of interventions were taken into account. The most efficient interventions to increase physical activity were community rail-trails ($.006/MET-h), pedometers ($.014/MET-h), and school health education programs ($.056/MET-h). Improving opportunities for walking and biking seems to increase physical activity cost-effectively. However, it is necessary to be careful in generalizing the results because of the small number of studies. This review provides important information for decision makers.
Broyles, Stephanie T; Myers, Candice A; Drazba, Kathryn T; Marker, Arwen M; Church, Timothy S; Newton, Robert L
The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood crime moderated the response (increases in steps) to a pilot intervention to increase physical activity in children. Twenty-seven insufficiently active children aged 6-10 years (mean age = 8.7 years; 56 % female; 59 % African American) were randomly assigned to an intensive intervention group (IIG) or minimal intervention group (MIG). Change in average daily number of steps from baseline was regressed against an index of neighborhood crime in a multilevel repeated-measures model that included a propensity score to reduce confounding. Safer neighborhoods were associated with higher increases in steps during the pilot intervention (interaction p = 0.008). Children in the IIG living in low-crime neighborhoods significantly increased their physical activity (5275 ± 1040 steps/day) while those living in high-crime neighborhoods did not (1118 ± 1007) (p for difference = 0.046). In the IIG, the increase in daily steps was highly correlated with neighborhood crime (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for physical activity interventions to account for participants' environments in their design and/or delivery. To promote healthy behaviors in less-supportive environments, future studies should seek to understand how environments modify intervention response and to identify mediators of the relationship between environment and intervention.
Bonomi, A G; Westerterp, K R
Obesity represents a strong risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Strategies for disease prevention often promote lifestyle changes encouraging participation in physical activity. However, determining what amount of physical activity is necessary for achieving specific health benefits has been hampered by the lack of accurate instruments for monitoring physical activity and the related physiological outcomes. This review aims at presenting recent advances in activity-monitoring technology and their application to support interventions for health promotion. Activity monitors have evolved from step counters and measuring devices of physical activity duration and intensity to more advanced systems providing quantitative and qualitative information on the individuals' activity behavior. Correspondingly, methods to predict activity-related energy expenditure using bodily acceleration and subjects characteristics have advanced from linear regression to innovative algorithms capable of determining physical activity types and the related metabolic costs. These novel techniques can monitor modes of sedentary behavior as well as the engagement in specific activity types that helps to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, advances in activity monitoring have the potential to support the design of response-dependent physical activity recommendations that are needed to generate effective and personalized lifestyle interventions for health promotion.
Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Kääriäinen, Maria
To examine the effects of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass index, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms for overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years). Overweight and obesity have increased among adolescents globally and physical activity has decreased. Healthcare systems face challenges promoting physical activity and in treating obesity. Promotion of physical activity must be effective and school nurses should be equipped with the information and resources required to implement counselling for overweight and obese adolescents. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted according to procedures by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Research studies published between 1950-2013 were identified from the following databases. CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid) and PsycINFO. Selected studies were reviewed for quality and a risk-of-bias assessment was conducted for the included studies. A narrative synthesis was used to report results, while a fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to analyse the interventions effects on physical activity and body mass index. Fourteen published studies were included to this review. Supervised exercise interventions most affected adolescents' body mass index. The interventions effect on adolescents' physical activity was small and heterogeneous. Two interventions positively affected psychological symptoms. Interventions were complex, with more than one component and the aspect that effectively promotes physical activity in obese adolescents was not clear. However, it seems that exercise interventions affect the body mass index of overweight or obese adolescents. Interventions that include a component for promoting physical activity with or without supervised exercise can affect subsequent physical activity and body mass index. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estabrooks, Paul A; Glasgow, Russ E; Xu, Stan; Dzewaltowski, David A; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah; Almeida, Fabio A; Thayer, Amy N; Smith-Ray, Renae L
OBJECTIVES: Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of regular physical activity (PA), specific goals for increased population levels of PA, and strongly recommended strategies to promote PA, there is no evidence suggesting that the prevalence of PA is improving. If PA intervention research is to be improved, theory should be used as the basis for intervention development, participant context or environment should be considered in the process, and intervention characteristics that will heighten the likelihood of translation into practice should be implemented (e.g., ease of implementation, low human resource costs). The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the aforementioned concepts within the intervention development process associated with CardiACTION an ongoing randomized 2 × 2 factorial trial. METHODS: The Ecological Model of Physical Activity integrated with Protection Motivation Theory was used to inform the design of the interventions. This integrated model was selected to allow for the development of theory-based individual, environmental, and individually + environmentally targeted physical activity interventions. All intervention strategies were matched to proposed mediators of behavior change. Strategies were then matched to the most appropriate interactive technology (i.e., interactive computer session, automated telephone counseling, and tailored mailings) delivery channel. CONCLUSIONS: The potential implications of this study include determining the independent and combined influence of individual and environment mechanisms of behavior change on intervention effectiveness. In addition, all intervention models are developed to be scalable and disseminable to a broad audience at a low cost.
Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Li, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Ren, Jun; Li, Chao-lin
To evaluate the comprehensive workplace health promotion intervention effect in a pharmaceutical company. The evaluation was conducted by using questionnaires, access to information, on-site surveys, satisfaction surveys and interviews. After the intervention, the awareness rate of the staff on "Occupational Disease Prevention Law", occupational disease prevention measures, the definition of hypertension, HIV transmission and high blood pressure, coronary heart disease preventive measures, have been raised from 72.4%, 13.8%, 67.5%, 45.8%, 51.7% to 97.8%, 19.9%, 82.3%, 94.7%, 53.1% respectively. The lifestyle of the staff has been improved, the improvement rate of smoking, drinking, having breakfast 4 times a week and above are 98.5%, 70.2% and 30.6% separately. Out of the 47 evaluation indicators, 41 meet the requirements, 5 basically meet the requirements. After implementing workplace health promotion activities, the level of occupational safety and health management of the pharmaceutical company has been enhanced, the physical and mental health of the staff have been promoted. The WHP comprehensive interventions are feasible and effective.
Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S
Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Menezes, Mariana Carvalho de; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
To analyze the effects of an intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model on anthropometric and dietetic profile among women in the Primary Health Care in Brazil. Randomized controlled trial. The control group participated in physical activity and open group-education regarding nutrition of usual care. The intervention group participated in 10 workshops based on the Transtheoretical Model. Seventy-one women completed the study, with a mean age of 57.9±11.7years. Participants in the intervention group showed an improved body perception, reduced weight and body mass index post-intervention, and lower consumption of calories and foods high in fat. Significant weight reduction in the intervention group was associated with higher per capita income, reduced consumption of protein, reduced consumption of lipids, and the removal of visible fat from red meat and skin from chicken. An intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model promoted reduction in consumption of foods high in calories and fat, with positive effects on weight and body perception. These results provide evidence of the applicability and benefit of the Transtheoretical Model within primary care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike
To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses. . Cross-sectional survey. . Australia and New Zealand. . 119 registered oncology nurses. . Self-reported online survey completed once per participant. . Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses. . Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience. . Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients. . Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.
Floriani, Victoria; Kennedy, Christine
Physical activity has been highlighted internationally as a beneficial intervention for weight control and the improvement of physical and mental health. This review highlights findings from recent literature to guide office-based promotion of physical activity for obesity treatment and prevention. Children worldwide participate in far less than the current physical activity recommendations. Family-based activity provides children with positive role modeling as well as motivational support for maintaining an active lifestyle. The integration of physical activity into daily life can be an effective alternative to sports and structured exercise programs. Decreasing sedentary behaviors is also a positive contribution, although its link to physical activity levels is still unclear. Some families may see neighborhood safety and access to recreational facilities as barriers to keeping their children physically active. Research in the field of pediatric obesity and overweight treatment and prevention continues to find challenges and solutions. Promotion of physical activity by the pediatric provider is demonstrated by current evidence to be a positive intervention against this global problem.
The objectives of the study were to conduct a systematic literature review examining the specific intervention techniques in an updated taxonomy of behaviour change techniques that were included in successful interventions to change physical activity behaviour in low-income individuals, to assess the relevant behaviour ...
Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.
W. Brouwer (Wendy); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); R. Crutzen (Rik); J. de Nooijer (Jascha); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke)
textabstractBackground: The Internet has become a popular medium for the delivery of tailored healthy lifestyle promoting interventions. The actual reach of Internet-delivered interventions seems, however, lower than expected, and attrition from interventions is generally high. Characteristics of an
Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Andersson, Eva; Best, James
The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have...... quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden...
Furtado, Otávio Luis; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Lieberman, Lauren Joy; Gutierrez, Gustavo Luis
The authors conducted a systematic literature review on physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairment (VI). Five databases were searched to identify studies involving the population of interest and physical activity practices. After evaluating 2,495 records, the authors found 18 original full-text studies published in English they considered eligible. They identified 8 structured exercise-training studies that yielded overall positive effect on physical-fitness and motor-skill outcomes. Five leisure-time-physical-activity and 5 instructional-strategy interventions were also found with promising proposals to engage and instruct children and youth with VI to lead an active lifestyle. However, the current research on physical activity interventions for children and youth with VI is still limited by an absence of high-quality research designs, low sample sizes, use of nonvalidated outcome measures, and lack of generalizability, which need to be addressed in future studies.
Pate, Russell R; Flynn, Jennifer I; Dowda, Marsha
Obesity rates among children and adolescents in developed countries have increased dramatically since the 1970s. During that same period, numerous secular changes have combined to reduce the demand for physical activity in day-to-day life, and many barriers to physical activity are now evident. As a consequence, most children and adolescents do not meet the accepted public health guidelines for physical activity. Accordingly, public health interventions are needed to increase physical activity in adolescence. Such interventions, if successfully implemented, can be expected to improve fitness and health as well as reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young people. Promotion of physical activity in populations of children and adolescents will require comprehensive strategic planning and adoption of new policies in multiple societal sectors. This paper highlights nine initiatives that can address the problem of physical activity in children. The initiatives are to: establish comprehensive school physical activity programming; demand high quality physical education; require physical activity in early child care and education; require physical activity in afterschool programs; create equity in community resources; activate youth sports programs; re-normalize active transport to school; institutionalize clinic-based physical activity assessment and counseling; and build activity-friendly homes. A case will be made for comprehensive national and international strategic planning aimed at effective and large-scale implementation of these initiatives and tactics.
Du, HuiYun; Everett, Bronwyn; Newton, Phillip J; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M
To explore the conceptual underpinnings of self-efficacy to address the barriers to participating in physical activity and propose a model of intervention. The benefits of physical activity in reducing cardiovascular risk have led to evidence-based recommendations for patients with heart disease, including those with chronic heart failure. However, adherence to best practice recommendations is often suboptimal, particularly in those individuals who experience high symptom burden and feel less confident to undertake physical activity. Self-efficacy is the degree of confidence an individual has in his/her ability to perform behaviour under several specific circumstances. Four factors influence an individual's level of self-efficacy: (1) past performance, (2) vicarious experience, (3) verbal persuasion and (4) physiological arousal. Discursive. Using the method of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore the conceptual underpinnings of self-efficacy to address the barriers to participating in physical activity and proposes a model of intervention, the Home-Heart-Walk, to promote physical activity and monitor functional status. Implementing effective interventions to promote physical activities require appreciation of factors impacting on behaviour change. Addressing concepts relating to self-efficacy in physical activity interventions may promote participation and adherence in the longer term. The increasing burden of chronic disease and the emphasis on self-management strategies underscore the importance of promoting adherence to recommendations, such as physical activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Leone, Liliana; Ling, Tom; Baldassarre, Laura; Barnett, Lisa M; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina
The alarming epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity at paediatric age urges societies to rise to the challenge of ensuring an active lifestyle. As one response to this, business enterprises are increasingly engaged in promoting sport and physical activity (PA) initiatives within the frame of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, comparative analyses among industry sectors of CSR strategies for PA promotion with a particular focus on children are still lacking. This study aimed to explore (i) what are the CSR strategies for PA promotion adopted in different industry sectors and (ii) whether corporate engagement in promoting PA for children is supportive of children's rights to play and be physically active. Corporate pledges pertaining to CSR initiatives to promote PA were analysed. The hypothesis was that companies from different sectors employ different CSR strategies and that companies with a higher profile as regard to public health concerns for children tend to legitimate their action by adopting a compensatory strategy. Results show that the issue of PA promotion is largely represented within CSR commitments. CSR strategies for PA promotion vary across industry sectors and the adoption of a compensatory strategy for rising childhood obesity allows only a limited exploitation of the potential of CSR commitments for the provision of children's rights to play and be physically active. Actors within the fields of public health ethics, human rights and CSR should be considered complementary to develop mainstreaming strategies and improve monitoring systems of PA promotion in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Okely, Anthony D; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cotton, Wayne; Peralta, Louisa; Miller, Judith; Batterham, Marijka; Janssen, Xanne
Slowing the decline in participation in physical activity among adolescent girls is a public health priority. This study reports the outcomes from a multi-component school-based intervention (Girls in Sport), focused on promoting physical activity among adolescent girls. Group randomized controlled trial in 24 secondary schools (12 intervention and 12 control). Assessments were conducted at baseline (2009) and at 18 months post-baseline (2010). The setting was secondary schools in urban, regional and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. All girls in Grade 8 in 2009 who attended these schools were invited to participate in the study (N = 1769). Using a Health Promoting Schools and Action Learning Frameworks, each school formed a committee and developed an action plan for promoting physical activity among Grade 8 girls. The action plan incorporated strategies in three main areas - i) the formal curriculum, ii) school environment, and iii) home/school/community links - based on the results of formative data from target girls and staff and on individual needs of the school. A member of the research team supported each school throughout the intervention. The main outcome measure was accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) spent in physical activity. Data were analyzed from December 2011 to March 2012. 1518 girls (mean age 13.6y ±0.02) were assessed at baseline. There was a significant decline in TPA from baseline to 18-month follow-up with no differences between girls in the intervention and control schools. Only one-third of schools (4/12) implemented the intervention as per their action plan. Per-protocol analyses on these schools revealed a smaller decline in percentage of time spent in MVPA among girls in the intervention group (adjusted difference 0.5%, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.99, P = 0.05). The Girls in Sport intervention was not effective in reducing the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls. Lack of implementation by most
Peters, S; Hentschke, C; Pfeifer, K
Internet-based interventions open a chance to improve the sustainability of rehabilitation in general and of exercise therapy in particular. The internet can be the sole intervention component on the one hand as well as a supportive tool for a traditional "Face-to-Face" intervention on the other hand. In this article, 2 studies in the setting of health promotion are outlined. Those studies evaluated an e-Training program in different administration forms. Study 1: 90 adults with a sedentary lifestyle were randomized into 3 treatment groups: Group fitness ("Face-to-Face"), individually supervised training ("Face-to-Face") and e-Training (internet-based). The respective intervention took place across 3 months and each continued for a maintenance phase of 4 months. Muscular fitness, sports activities and health-related quality of life were assessed at 3 points in time: right before the intervention, after the first 3 months, and finally, after the maintenance -phase. Study 2: 509 adults with a high self-rated risk of recurrent back pain participated in the intervention "Rückengesundheit ERlangen", which lasted for 6 months: a combined program with its content delivered "Face-to-Face" and via e-Training. The analysis was conducted in a pre-post design without control group. Several psychosocial outcome variables were assessed (e.g., fear-avoidance beliefs/FABQ-D) and the cardio-pulmonary endurance capacity. In study 1 and in study 2, significant improvements over time in all intervention groups were measured in nearly all of the dependent variables, with the exception of the physical component summary of health-related quality of life (HRQL) (SF-36) in study 1, as well as its mental component summary (SF-36) and the endurance capacity in study 2. In study 1, the graphical comparison (confidence interval) of e-Training with the "Face-to-Face" interventions shows a similar efficacy of both of them. A gender-specific evaluation reveals that the mental component of HRQL
Dobbins, Maureen; Husson, Heather; DeCorby, Kara; LaRocca, Rebecca L
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.9 million deaths worldwide are attributable to physical inactivity and at least 2.6 million deaths are a result of being overweight or obese. In addition, WHO estimates that physical inactivity causes 10% to 16% of cases each of breast cancer, colon, and rectal cancers as well as type 2 diabetes, and 22% of coronary heart disease and the burden of these and other chronic diseases has rapidly increased in recent decades. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence of the effectiveness of school-based interventions in promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. The search strategy included searching several databases to October 2011. In addition, reference lists of included articles and background papers were reviewed for potentially relevant studies, as well as references from relevant Cochrane reviews. Primary authors of included studies were contacted as needed for additional information. To be included, the intervention had to be relevant to public health practice (focused on health promotion activities), not conducted by physicians, implemented, facilitated, or promoted by staff in local public health units, implemented in a school setting and aimed at increasing physical activity, included all school-attending children, and be implemented for a minimum of 12 weeks. In addition, the review was limited to randomized controlled trials and those that reported on outcomes for children and adolescents (aged 6 to 18 years). Primary outcomes included: rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the school day, time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity during the school day, and time spent watching television. Secondary outcomes related to physical health status measures including: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and pulse rate. Standardized tools were used by two
Ickes, M.J.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.
Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.
Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi
A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high...
Phillips, Siobhan M; Collins, Linda M; Penedo, Frank J; Courneya, Kerry S; Welch, Whitney; Cottrell, Alison; Lloyd, Gillian R; Gavin, Kara; Cella, David; Ackermann, Ronald T; Siddique, Juned; Spring, Bonnie
Fit2Thrive is a theory-guided physical activity promotion trial using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) to test efficacy for improving physical activity of five technology-supported physical activity promotion intervention components among breast cancer survivors. This trial will recruit 256 inactive breast cancer survivors nationwide. All participants will receive the core intervention which includes a Fitbit and standard self-monitoring Fit2Thrive smartphone application which will be downloaded to their personal phone. Women will be randomized to one of 32 conditions in a factorial design involving five factors with two levels: support calls (No vs. Yes), app type (standard vs. deluxe), text messaging (No vs. Yes), online gym (No vs. Yes) and Fitbit Buddy (No vs. Yes). The proposed trial examines the effects of the components on physical activity at 12 and 24weeks. Results will support the selection of a final package of intervention components that has been optimized to maximize physical activity and is subject to an upper limit of cost. The optimized intervention will be tested in a future trial. Fit2Thrive is the first trial to use the MOST framework to develop and test a physical activity promotion intervention in breast cancer survivors and will lead to an improved understanding of how to effectively change survivors' physical activity. These findings could result in more scalable, effective physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors, and, ultimately, improve health and disease outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil
specific behaviour change techniques can increase physical activity, although one review suggested that self-regulatory techniques may be counterproductive when promoting physical activity among older people. Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to assess which behaviour change techniques may be associated with greater participation in physical activity among people with dementia. What does this study add? Interventions showed mixed promise for increasing physical activity and little effect on participant adherence. Goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source are promising approaches. No technique showed promise for increasing adherence to physical activity interventions among people with dementia. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren
on physical self-perception and enjoyment of physical activity among children aged 10-13 years. Methods An intervention based on Self-Determination Theory was developed and pilot tested in close co-operation with schools and targeted 1) physical education lessons, 2) in-class activity, and 3) physical...... activity in recess. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 Danish schools were randomized to either intervention or control. Study population included 3.136 children aged 10-13 years at baseline. Survey data (socio-demographics, physical activity, self-efficacy, physical enjoyment, physical self......-perception, and HRQoL) was collected prior to intervention and after 9 months. Results At baseline 2.892 children (92%) completed the survey. Mean physical self-perceptions [1-4] were generally high; Athletic Competence: 2.95, Body Attractiveness: 2.75, Physical Self-Worth: 3.12. However, a large minority had low self...
Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo
Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…
Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.
Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…
Tristão Parra, Maíra; Porfírio, Gustavo J M; Arredondo, Elva M; Atallah, Álvaro N
To review and assess the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered in faith-based organizations. We searched the Cochrane Library, DoPHER, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, WHO ICTRP, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases until January 2016, without restriction of language or publication date. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials investigating physical activity interventions for adults delivered in faith-based organizations. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. We used relative risk and mean difference with 95% confidence interval to estimate the effect of the interventions on measures of physical activity, physical fitness, and health. The review included 18 studies. Study participants were predominantly female, and the majority of trials were conducted in the United States. Study heterogeneity did not allow us to conduct meta-analyses. Although interventions delivered in faith-based organizations increased physical activity and positively influenced measures of health and fitness in participants, the quality of the evidence was very low. Faith-based organizations are promising settings to promote physical activity, consequently addressing health disparities. However, high-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to adequately assess the effectiveness of interventions delivered in faith-based organizations.
Morano, Milena; Rutigliano, Irene; Rago, Alfonso; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo
In the context of a 6-mo obesity program, incorporating school- and family-based components, nutritional education, fun-type skill-learning physical activities, and exercise training, this study examined relationships among changes in nutritional status, physical fitness, and some psychosocial and behavioral treatment-related outcomes, using a before and after comparison. Eighteen obese and overweight children ages 10 to 12 y were assessed with respect to body weight, height, circumferences, skinfold thickness, and fat mass. Health-related fitness tests, and self-reported physical activity enjoyment and perceived physical ability also were administered. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; dietary habits were collected using a 7-d food diary. The WinFood software was used for the estimation of nutrient and caloric intake. After treatment, children showed decreases in body mass index z-score (P = 0.001), body fat percentage (P < 0.001), arm (P = 0.003) and waist circumferences (P = 0.004), and skinfold thickness (P < 0.008). Actual (P < 0.001) and perceived (P < 0.03) physical abilities, physical activity enjoyment (P = 0.03), and psychosocial HRQoL (P < 0.05) also improved from pre- to postintervention. Participants reported reductions in total and commercial food caloric intakes (P < 0.001), with higher protein and lower fat consumptions (P < 0.001) after the program. The findings from the present study highlight the importance of combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity interventions in overweight children, and place emphasis on directing such interventions toward improving perceived physical competence that could lead to increased exercise adherence and promotion of the health benefits associated with it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PReS-FINAL-2148: Rheumates@work a cognitive behavioural internet based intervention promoting physical activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Preliminary results of a randomized clinical trail
Bos, J; Armbrust, W.; Geertzen, J.; Sauer, P.; Dijkstra, P.; Van Brussel, M.; Cappon, J.; Lelieveld, O.
Introduction: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a chronic disease in which periods of active inflammation alternate with periods of inactive disease in an unpredictable way. Although impairments are most pronounced in children with disease activity, deficits like fatigue, decreased physical
A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.
Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....
Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Taguri, Masataka; Inoue, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Bauman, Adrian; Lee, I-Min; Miyachi, Motohiko; Kawachi, Ichiro
Evidence from a limited number of short-term trials indicates the difficulty in achieving population-level improvements in physical activity (PA) through community-wide interventions (CWIs). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-year CWI for promoting PA in middle-aged and older adults using a cluster randomized design. We randomized 12 communities in Unnan, Japan, to either intervention (9) or control (3). Additionally, intervention communities were randomly allocated to three subgroups by different PA types promoted. Randomly sampled residents aged 40-79 years responded to the baseline survey (n = 4414; 74%) and were followed at 1, 3 and 5 years (78-83% response rate). The intervention was a 5-year CWI using social marketing to promote PA. The primary outcome was a change in recommended levels of PA. Compared with control communities, adults achieving recommended levels of PA increased in intervention communities [adjusted change difference = 4.6 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 8.8)]. The intervention was effective for promoting all types of recommended PAs, i.e. aerobic (walking, 6.4%), flexibility (6.1%) and muscle-strengthening activities (5.7%). However, a bundled approach, which attempted to promote all forms of PAs above simultaneously, was not effective (1.3-3.4%, P ≥ 0.138). Linear dose-response relationships between the CWI awareness and changes in PA were observed (P ≤ 0.02). Pain intensity decreased in shoulder (intervention and control) and lower back (intervention only) but there was little change difference in all musculoskeletal pain outcomes between the groups. The 5-year CWI using the focused social marketing strategy increased the population-level of PA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Jirathananuwat, Areeya; Pongpirul, Krit
Physically active (PA) people have a lower risk of various diseases, compared to those with sedentary lifestyles. Evidence on the effects of PA promoting programs in the workplace is large, and several systematic reviews (SR) and/or meta-analyses (MA) have been published. However, they have failed to consider factors that could influence interventions. This paper aimed to classify and describe interventions to promote PA in the workplace based on evidence from SR/MA. A literature search for SR/MA was done using PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct (January 2006-February 2015). Quality assessment of SR/MA was performed using AMSTAR. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was used for classifying the interventions into predisposing, enabling, reinforcing, environment, and policy domains of focus. Eleven SR/MA included 220 primary studies, of which 139 (63%) were randomized controlled trials. Of 48 interventions identified, 22 (46%) and 17 (35%) focused on predisposing or enabling employees to have more PA, respectively. Of the 22 predisposing factors, 6 were information delivery, 5 were self-motivation, and 11 were program training. The enabling approaches were 12 instrument resources and 5 health service facilities. The reinforcing approaches were 4 incentive and 3 social support. The remaining interventions focused on the environmental development and policy regulation. This systematic meta-review classified interventions using appropriate framework and described the intervention pattern.
Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor
The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.
Broekhuizen, Karen; Simmons, David; Devlieger, Roland
intervention), a healthy eating promotion intervention (HE intervention), or a physical activity promotion intervention (PA intervention). Main outcome measures were gestational weight gain, fasting glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and societal costs. Results: Between...... intervention strategy. At 35-37 weeks, it depends on the decision-makers' willingness to pay per kilogram reduction in gestational weight gain whether the HE + PA intervention is cost-effective for gestational weight gain, whereas it was not cost-effective for fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. After delivery...
Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....
Sally L. Kitch
Full Text Available Environmental humanists make compelling arguments about the importance of the environmental humanities (EH for discovering new ways to conceptualize and address the urgent challenges of the environmental crisis now confronting the planet. Many environmental scientists in a variety of fields are also committed to incorporating socio-cultural analyses in their work. Despite such intentions and rhetoric, however, and some humanists’ eagerness to incorporate science into their own work, “radical interdisciplinarity [across the humanities and sciences] is ... rare ... and does not have the impact one would hope for” (Holm et al. 2013, p. 32. This article discusses reasons for the gap between transdisciplinary intentions and the work being done in the environmental sciences. The article also describes a project designed to address that gap. Entitled “From Innovation to Progress: Addressing Hazards of the Sustainability Sciences”, the project encourages humanities interventions in problem definition, before any solution or action is chosen. Progress offers strategies for promoting expanded stakeholder engagement, enhancing understanding of power struggles and inequities that underlie problems and over-determine solutions, and designing multiple future scenarios based on alternative values, cultural practices and beliefs, and perspectives on power distribution and entitlement.
Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper
The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....
Arendse, Gillian J.
In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.
Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina
Physical activity promotes health in children and adolescents, but activity levels are low. The Internet offers opportunities for physical activity interventions because children and adolescents are widely exposed to the web and enjoy being online. This review investigated the success of Internet-based interventions designed to increase physical activity in children and adolescents. Of the 13 studies we included, five reported that Internet-based interventions had significant effects on most physical activities. Internet-based physical activity interventions in children and adolescents are potentially successful, but interdisciplinary, child-centred collaboration is needed to design interventions that align with their Internet experiences and preferences. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura
The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward
Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.
McGough, Ellen; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability. Through the use of common clinical tests to identify cognitive and noncognitive functional markers of disease, detection and intervention can occur at earlier stages, including preclinical stages of disease. Physical activity and exercise interventions to address modifiable risk factors and impairments can play a pivotal role in the prevention and delay of functional decline, ultimately reducing the incidence of dementia. This article discusses prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation in the context of preserving brain health and preventing Alzheimer disease and related dementias in aging adults. Rehabilitation professionals have opportunities to slow disease progression through research, practice, and education initiatives. From a clinical perspective, interventions that target brain health through lifestyle changes and exercise interventions show promise for preventing stroke and associated neurovascular diseases in addition to dementia. Physical therapists are well positioned to integrate primary health promotion into practice for the prevention of dementia and other neurological conditions in older adults.
During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.
Bezner, Janet R
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States is chronic, or noncommunicable, diseases. The impact of chronic diseases on health and wellness can be significantly altered by individual health and behavior choices or modifications. Furthermore, the burden of chronic disease goes beyond health and the health care system and may influence an individual's wellness. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a basis for understanding the terms "health" and "wellness," (2) to identify the knowledge and skills physical therapists need to address behaviors that promote health and wellness and treat and protect against chronic disease, and (3) to discuss barriers and opportunities associated with integrating the promotion of health and wellness into physical therapist practice. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Thing, Lone Friis
Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientation...... of Danish society as an expression of a continued civilizing of the body. In national governmental health messages sports participation and general physical activity are presented as an essential health-promoting instrument that keeps illness and disease away, thereby prolong life. But the all......-pervading guide to physical activity and sport - often with a focus on quantitative dimensions like frequency, duration and intensity - as measurable effects and risks, has resulted in a rationalisation of many movement cultures for large selections of the population. Health messages are then presented using...
This research examined the relationship between beliefs about physical activity, physical activity levels, age and the promotional practices for physical activity employed by Air Force squadron commanders...
Verhaeghe, Nick; De Smedt, Delphine; De Maeseneer, Jan; Maes, Lea; Van Heeringen, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven
There is a higher prevalence of obesity in individuals with mental disorders compared to the general population. The results of several studies suggested that weight reduction in this population is possible following psycho-educational and/or behavioural weight management interventions. Evidence of the effectiveness alone is however inadequate for policy making. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. A Markov decision-analytic model using a public payer perspective was applied, projecting the one-year results of a 10-week intervention over a time horizon of 20 years, assuming a repeated yearly implementation of the programme. Scenario analysis was applied evaluating the effects on the results of alternative modelling assumptions. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effects on the results of varying key input parameters. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 27,096€/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in men, and 40,139€/QALY in women was found in the base case. Scenario analysis assuming an increase in health-related quality of life as a result of the body mass index decrease resulted in much better cost-effectiveness in both men (3,357€/QALY) and women (3,766€/QALY). The uncertainty associated with the intervention effect had the greatest impact on the model. As far as is known to the authors, this is the first health economic evaluation of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. Such research is important as it provides payers and governments with better insights how to spend the available resources in the most efficient way. Further research examining the cost-effectiveness of health promotion targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders is required.
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias
Providing feedback is a technique to promote health behavior that is emphasized by behavior change theories. However, these theories make contradicting predictions regarding the effect of the feedback sign-that is, whether the feedback signals success or failure. Thus, it is unclear whether positive or negative feedback leads to more favorable behavior change in a health behavior intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the feedback sign in a health behavior change intervention. Data from participants (N=1623) of a 6-month physical activity intervention was used. Participants received a feedback email at the beginning of each month. Feedback was either positive or negative depending on the participants' physical activity in the previous month. In an exploratory analysis, change in monthly step count averages was used to evaluate the feedback effect. The feedback sign did not predict the change in monthly step count averages over the course of the intervention (b=-84.28, P=.28). Descriptive differences between positive and negative feedback can be explained by regression to the mean. The feedback sign might not influence the effect of monthly feedback emails sent out to participants of a large-scale physical activity intervention. However, randomized studies are needed to further support this conclusion. Limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed. ©Jan-Niklas Kramer, Tobias Kowatsch. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.06.2017.
Griffiths, P E; West, C
The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Rob J J; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P
Recent studies increasingly show adolescent health-related behaviors to be interrelated, interacting synergistically and sharing several common determinants. Therefore, research increasingly focuses on studying interventions that target a range of health behaviors simultaneously. This report describes the results of a pilot study of a secondary school-based, health-promoting intervention that simultaneously targets a range of adolescent health behaviors via a whole-school approach. We collected self-reported behavioral data via an annual online questionnaire to 336 students. We collected data before the intervention implementation and after the intervention's first completed, 3-year curriculum cycle on the fourth-grade students (15- to 16-year-olds). We analyzed differences between pre- and postintervention groups. Significant behavioral changes were reported for extreme alcohol use, smoking, sedentary time, and bullying behaviors. Certain behaviors were significantly different only in girls: namely, weekly alcohol use, ever having used cannabis, compulsive Internet or computer use score, compulsive gaming score, and recent bully victimization. Differences in several sedentary time behaviors (television watching and Internet or computer use) were significant only in boys. No changes were reported regarding body mass index; physical activity; or the time spent on, or the compulsiveness of, video game playing. In addition, the postintervention group showed significantly fewer psychosocial problems. The intervention successfully changed student health behaviors on many accounts. It remains largely unclear as to what causes the different effects for boys and girls. Further studies regarding multiple health behavior targeting interventions for adolescents are required. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko
To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.
Johnson, S.; Healey, A.; Evans, J.; Murphy, M.; Crawshaw, M.; Gould, D.
AIM: To identify, describe and detail the cognitive thought processes, decision-making, and physical actions involved in the preparation and successful performance of core interventional radiology procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five commonly performed core interventional radiology procedures were selected for cognitive task analysis. Several examples of each procedure being performed by consultant interventional radiologists were videoed. The videos of those procedures, and the steps required for successful outcome, were analysed by a psychologist and an interventional radiologist. Once a skeleton algorithm of the procedures was defined, further refinement was achieved using individual interview techniques with consultant interventional radiologists. Additionally a critique of each iteration of the established algorithm was sought from non-participating independent consultant interventional radiologists. RESULTS: Detailed task descriptions and decision protocols were developed for five interventional radiology procedures (arterial puncture, nephrostomy, venous access, biopsy-using both ultrasound and computed tomography, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). Identical tasks performed within these procedures were identified and standardized within the protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Complex procedures were broken down and their constituent processes identified. This might be suitable for use as a training protocol to provide a universally acceptable safe practice at the most fundamental level. It is envisaged that data collected in this way can be used as an educational resource for trainees and could provide the basis for a training curriculum in interventional radiology. It will direct trainees towards safe practice of the highest standard. It will also provide performance objectives of a simulator model
Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew
There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren
Purpose Physical activity at school can improve mental health of all children – especially if it is targeted to children’s needs and executed in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention......-perception, and HRQoL) was collected prior to intervention and after 9 months. Results At baseline 2.892 children (92%) completed the survey. Mean physical self-perceptions [1-4] were generally high; Athletic Competence: 2.95, Body Attractiveness: 2.75, Physical Self-Worth: 3.12. However, a large minority had low self...
Full Text Available Regular physical activity (PA is an underlying factor since childhood and adolescence for having a healthy and active future for life. The aim of this stud y was to review the evidence on increasing the youth PA to develop the national program at country level. At first, the databases were searched using the sensitive keywords, and systematic reviews of the relevant databases were extracted. The studies were evaluated in terms of relevance and methodological quality for effective interventions that were detected. These cases were also identified in the effective interventions: disadvantages, benefits, costs, methods, and limitations of early studies, which were based on systematic review of the studies. Three interventions were identified as physical education curriculum reform, the creation of extra-curricular activities, as well as approaches to environmental and social support. Evidences showed that the relative impact of these interventions were not high. Thus, a combination of all three options of integrated approach is recommended for reducing the sedentary lifestyle of youths.
Roth, Kristina; Kriemler, Susi; Lehmacher, Walter; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Hebestreit, Helge
This study aimed to evaluate a multicomponent, child-appropriate preschool intervention program led by preschool teachers to enhance physical activity (PA) and motor skill performance (MS) in 4- and 5-yr-old children. Evaluation involved 709 children (mean age, 4.7 ± 0.6 yr; 49.5% girls) from 41 preschools (intervention group, n = 21; control group, n = 20) in the rural and urban surroundings of two German cities. Children in the intervention group received a daily PA intervention lasting 30 min and PA homework over one academic year, which was designed by professionals but led by preschool teachers. The intervention included educational components for parents and teachers. Primary outcomes were MS (composite MS score) and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) by accelerometry. Measurements were performed at baseline, midintervention, and postintervention as well as 2-4 months after the end of intervention. Intervention effects were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis adjusted for group, sex, age, baseline outcomes, urban/rural location of the preschool, and cluster (preschool). Compared with controls, children in the intervention group showed positive effects in MS at postintervention (estimate effect, 0.625 z-score points; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.276-0.975; P = 0.001) and at follow-up (estimate effect, 0.590 z-score points; 95% CI, 0.109-1.011; P = 0.007) and an increase in MVPA from baseline to postintervention by 0.5% of total wearing time (95% CI, 0.002%-1.01%; P = 0.049) at borderline significance. There was no benefit on MVPA for the intervention group between baseline and follow-up. A child-appropriate, multidimensional PA intervention could sustainably improve MS but not PA. Findings suggest that a change in health-related behaviors is difficult. Future research should implement participatory intervention components in preschool setting and better integrate the families of the children.
Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...
Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline
Early intervention (EI) for children with physical disabilities is advocated as a means of enhancing child outcomes and family functioning. The issues confronted by service providers in delivering this support have received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of frontline EI staff…
Seabra, Ana C; Maia, José; Seabra, André F; Welk, Greg; Brustad, Robert; Fonseca, António M
The Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model provides an integrated approach to understanding the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors influencing physical activity (PA) behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adapted version of the YPAP model for explaining PA among Portuguese schoolchildren. A random cross-sectional sample of 683 children (8-10 years of age) attending elementary public schools in the north of Portugal completed a detailed survey assessing attraction to PA, perceived physical competence, parental influences and leisure time PA. Structural equation modeling techniques were conducted (EQS6.1). Attraction to PA was directly associated with children's PA participation (β = 0.271, P physical competence imposed an indirect effect on children's PA through children's attraction to PA (β = 0.253, P effect on children's PA through perceived physical competence and attraction to PA (β = 0.318 and 0.662, respectively, P physical competence and parental influence were not directly associated with children's PA (β = 0.069 and 0.180, respectively, P > .05). The adapted version of YPAP model was useful in explaining PA participation in elementary Portuguese schoolchildren. Intervention programs intended to enhance attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and favorable parental influence should be developed to promote children's PA participation.
Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.
Carla FJ Nooijen
Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural
Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre
This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing attention is given to the effects of health promotion programs targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. The design of evaluation studies of public health interventions poses several problems and the current literature appears to provide only limited evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders living in sheltered housing. In this paper, the design of the study and baseline findings are described. Methods/design The design consists of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial. All sheltered housing organisations in the Flanders region (Belgium were asked if they were interested to participate in the study and if they were having a preference to serve as intervention or control group. Those without a preference were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Individuals in the intervention group receive a 10-week health promotion intervention above their treatment as usual. Outcome assessments occur at baseline, at 10 and at 36 weeks. The primary outcomes include body weight, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and fat mass. Secondary outcomes consist of physical activity levels, eating habits, health-related quality of life and psychiatric symptom severity. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be examined by calculating the Cost-Effectiveness ratio and through economic modeling.Twenty-five sheltered housing organisations agreed to participate. On the individual level 324 patients were willing to participate, including 225 individuals in the intervention group and 99 individuals in the control group. At baseline, no statistical significant differences between the two groups were found for the primary outcome variables. Discussion This is the first trial
Direito, Artur; Walsh, Deirdre; Hinbarji, Moohamad; Albatal, Rami; Tooley, Mark; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph
Few interventions to promote physical activity (PA) adapt dynamically to changes in individuals' behavior. Interventions targeting determinants of behavior are linked with increased effectiveness and should reflect changes in behavior over time. This article describes the application of two frameworks to assist the development of an adaptive evidence-based smartphone-delivered intervention aimed at influencing PA and sedentary behaviors (SB). Intervention mapping was used to identify the determinants influencing uptake of PA and optimal behavior change techniques (BCTs). Behavioral intervention technology was used to translate and operationalize the BCTs and its modes of delivery. The intervention was based on the integrated behavior change model, focused on nine determinants, consisted of 33 BCTs, and included three main components: (1) automated capture of daily PA and SB via an existing smartphone application, (2) classification of the individual into an activity profile according to their PA and SB, and (3) behavior change content delivery in a dynamic fashion via a proof-of-concept application. This article illustrates how two complementary frameworks can be used to guide the development of a mobile health behavior change program. This approach can guide the development of future mHealth programs.
Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F
Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Woodin, Erica M; O'Leary, K Daniel
Motivational interviewing is a brief non-confrontational intervention designed to enhance motivation to reduce harmful behavior (Miller and Rollnick 2002). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing as a targeted prevention approach for partner aggression in emerging adulthood. Participants were 50 college dating couples between 18 and 25 years old who reported at least one act of male-to-female physical aggression in their current relationships. After completing a 2-hour assessment session, half of all couples were randomly assigned to a 2-hour individualized motivational feedback session targeting physical aggression and risk factors for aggression. The remaining couples received minimal, non-motivational feedback. Follow-up surveys were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months later. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that, compared to the control condition, the motivational feedback intervention led to reductions in physical aggression and harmful alcohol use and to less acceptance of female psychological aggression and male psychological aggression (among women only). Lagged analyses indicated that changes in physical aggression were predicted by reductions in psychological aggression and by lower acceptance of both male and female psychological aggression. Reductions in physical aggression predicted lower anxiety and greater relationship investment and male relationship commitment over time. These findings suggest that a brief motivational intervention is a useful prevention approach for high-risk dating couples, with benefits to both individual and relationship functioning.
Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelefs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine
In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be
Ubert, Tobias; Forberger, Sarah; Gansefort, Dirk; Zeeb, Hajo; Brand, Tilman
Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and leadership, is among the recommended core strategies. However, little guidance is provided on how to achieve a high degree of community capacity. This study aims to identify practical strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion among older adults (50 years or older) and to evaluate their success. A literature review was conducted using scientific databases (PsycInfo and Web of Sciences) and grey literature (national and international project databases), and 14 studies (16 articles) were identified. Five groups of capacity building strategies emerged from the literature: (1) building community coalitions and networks, (2) training of professionals, (3) training of laypersons, (4) strengthening competence and awareness in the target population, and (5) allocation of financial resources. All studies used more than one strategy. Coalition building and strengthening competence and awareness were most frequently used. Feasibility and acceptability of the capacity building strategies were demonstrated. However, intervention effects on PA behavior and other relevant outcomes were inconsistent. The one study that systematically compared different capacity building approaches did not find any evidence for beneficial effects of intensified capacity building. More rigorous research evaluating the efficacy of specific strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion is needed.
van Stralen, M.M.; de Meij, J.; te Velde, S.J.; van der Wal, W.F.; van Mechelen, W.; Knol, D.L.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
Background: Important health benefits can be achieved when physical activity in children from low socio-economic status is promoted and sedentariness is limited. By specifying the mediating mechanisms of existing interventions one can improve future physical activity interventions. This study
Boudreau, Francois; Godin, Gaston; Poirier, Paul
The promotion of regular physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes poses a challenge for public health authorities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a computer-tailoring print-based intervention to promote the adoption of regular physical activity among people with type 2 diabetes. An experimental design was…
Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Linnig, Stefan; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirco; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine
Worksite health promotion programs have been identified as strongly effective in decreasing body weight and increasing awareness and change in health behavior. Aim of this study is to determine the effects of a multi-component intervention in workplace health promotion. In a controlled study trail, 1,573 workers of a logistics company had the chance to participate in a one year worksite health promotion program. Main elements of the multi-component intervention were physical activity training in combination with nutrition counseling. Employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and then again after twelve month. Main outcome variables were changes in body weight and health behaviors. Secondary outcomes were subjective health indicators. Our results showed preliminary improvements in physical activity and eating behavior among normal weight and overweight/obesity weight groups. No significant weight reduction could be found, only a minimal reduction of BMI. The reduction was larger in the overweight group. Workers considered overweight or obese showed significantly greater body weight loss and changes in eating behavior than workers with a normal weight status. Workers with obesity/overweight scored their general health status significantly lower than their colleagues with normal weight status. No significant improvements were found for overall perception of health status between baseline and follow-up in the BMI-groups. This 12-month intervention-control study suggests that a well-implemented multi-component workplace health promotion program may support substantial change in health behavior (e.g. nutrition and physical activity). It is indicated that overweight employees may especially profit from such worksite health promotion. An investigation of long-term effects of this multi-component intervention is strongly recommended.
Elisa Isabel SÁNCHEZ-ROMERO
Full Text Available This study presents an intervention program in order to promote values in people with mild intellectual disabilities. The program is structured in several sessions of physical activity and adapted physical/sporting activities in an educational context directed to socio-labor insertion of collective with mild intellectual disabilities. The intervention was applied to a sample of 12 participants. The Spanish version of the Sport Value Questionnaire (SVQ-E was the measurement instrument as well as recording observations for collecting data in the post-dilemma debates an observational record for collecting data in post-dilemma debates. Judgment of the students improved with respect to each value after the program. In addition, results indicate that subjects considered more important the values of the program than the ones not worked.
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
Background and aim In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. Methods The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. Results After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. Conclusion This study provides a unique insight into consumers’ values and motivations that affect consumers’ decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity. PMID:29038710
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. This study provides a unique insight into consumers' values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity.
Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew
There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. PMID:25060959
Marcus, Bess H; Hartman, Sheri J; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I; Linke, Sarah E; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Rojas, Carlos
Internet-based interventions show promise as an effective channel for promoting physical activity. However, a paucity of research has been conducted among underserved groups despite recent increases in Internet access and physical activity-related health disparities in these communities. Thus, the current randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an individually tailored, Internet-based physical activity intervention for Latinas. This program was culturally and linguistically adapted for the target population through extensive formative research. Two hundred eighteen sedentary Latinas were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. The Physical Activity Internet Intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model, utilizes a website with features including self-monitoring, goal setting, discussion forum, links to online resources, individually tailored and motivation-matched physical activity feedback reports, and exercise tip sheets. Participants receive regular emails over the first 6months with a tapered dose during the second 6months (maintenance phase) to alert them to new content on the website. The main outcome is differences in minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and accelerometer data. High reach, low cost, culturally relevant Internet-based interventions that encourage physical activity among Latinas could help reduce health disparities and thus have a substantial positive impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of study was to assess the efficacy of a 16-week Baduanjin qigong training intervention in promoting physical fitness and health for adults. An experimental design was adopted, and subjects were assigned randomly into an experimental group (n=55 and a control group (n=55. In the intervention group comprised of adults, there were no significant variations in blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and vital capacity indices. The body weight and body mass index (BMI dropped in the intervention group. Compared with the control group, the skinfold thicknesses decreased at lower corner of scapula, triceps brachii, and abdomen, with a statistical significance (P<0.001; P=0.005; P=0.003. By comparing the physical fitness indices, it was found that the increase of the results of sit-and-reach test in the intervention group had statistical significance (P=0.001. In conclusion, it was found by our trial that Baduanjin exercise could significantly improve the physical flexibility and subcutaneous adipose accumulation in the healthy adults.
Young, Tiffany; Sharpe, Chantelle
Grandparents and the grandchildren they raise may experience stress related to their caregiving relationship that negatively impacts their health. Thus, there is a need to develop intergenerational health promotion interventions for these kinship families. An 8-week intergenerational physical activity intervention for kinship families was developed and implemented. The specific goal was to understand the process of implementing the intervention. Content analysis of observational data provided an in-depth account of the intervention's process (ie, recruitment, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and context). Community and support service organizations referred more participants to the study than individual stakeholders. Most participants attended approximately 10 classes, and the grandparents were more engaged than the grandchildren during the classes. Intervention fidelity was confirmed with the fidelity checklist and observational notes. Health emerged as a barrier to participation, while the intergenerational nature of the intervention was a facilitator. Lastly, the context domain described how the grandparents' complex lives affected their ability to participate, while the dedication of the recreation staff helped the intervention to proceed efficiently. The distinct details gleaned from this study can provide guidance on how to develop and implement future intergenerational interventions.
Agarwal, Sanjeev; Cicone, Caitlin; Chang, Philip
Exposure to interventional pain procedures is now a required component of training in physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies as mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Data regarding resident exposure and competency in these procedures remain limited. Objectives were to determine the volume and type of exposure physical medicine and rehabilitation residents have to interventional pain procedures and to obtain faculty-perceived opinions regarding competency of incoming fellows as it pertains to interventional pain management. Online surveys were sent to program directors of physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies and fellowship directors of interventional spine, sports medicine, and pain medicine fellowships. Surveys inquired about educational methods, the volume of procedures in which residents actively participate, and faculty-perceived competency of trainees performing procedures. Thirty-nine residency programs and 27 fellowships responded to the surveys. Of the 39 residencies that responded, there was great variation in the exposure residents receive. Most programs reported that residents have moderate exposure to common procedures such as ultrasound-guided knee injections and lumbar epidural injections. In addition, while most residency program directors report graduates to be "fairly prepared" (33%) to "well prepared" (20.5%) with regard to spine procedures, most fellowship directors (63%) describe incoming fellows to be at the "beginner" level.
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Aleksandra J. Borek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with ‘standard’ preventive programmes (e.g. weight loss programmes. Interventions promoting strategies to improve health and wellbeing of parent carers are needed, tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Methods We developed a group-based health promotion intervention for parent carers by following six steps of the established Intervention Mapping approach. Parent carers co-created the intervention programme and were involved in all stages of the development and testing. We conducted a study of the intervention with a group of parent carers to examine the feasibility and acceptability. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess health and wellbeing pre and post-intervention and at 2 month follow up. Participants provided feedback after each session and took part in a focus group after the end of the programme. Results The group-based Healthy Parent Carers programme was developed to improve health and wellbeing through engagement with eight achievable behaviours (CLANGERS – Connect, Learn, be Active, take Notice, Give, Eat well, Relax, Sleep, and by promoting empowerment and resilience. The manualised intervention was delivered by two peer facilitators to a group of seven parent carers. Feedback from participants and facilitators was strongly positive. The study was not powered or designed to test effectiveness but changes in measures of participants’ wellbeing and depression were in a positive direction both at the end of the intervention and 2 months later which suggest that there may be a potential to achieve benefit. Conclusions The Healthy Parent Carers programme appears feasible and acceptable. It was valued by, and was perceived to have benefited participants. The results will underpin future refinement of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying critical life transitions in people’s physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited, and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity. This study will be investigating whether a theory-based physical activity intervention can maintain or improve moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity measured via accelerometry of new parents over a 6 month period following intervention compared to a control group. Methods This study is a 6-month longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Parents are measured at baseline (2 months postpartum with two assessment points at 6 weeks (3.5 months postpartum and 3 months (5 months postpartum and a final follow-up assessment at 6 months (8 months postpartum. The content of the theory-based intervention was derived from the results of our prior longitudinal trial of new parents using an adapted theory of planned behavior framework to predict changes in physical activity. Results A total of 152 couples have been recruited to date. Sixteen couples dropped out after baseline and a total of 88 couples have completed their 6-month measures. Discussion If the intervention proves successful, couple-based physical activity promotion efforts among parents could be a promising avenue to pursue to help mitigate the declines of physical activity levels during parenthood. These findings could inform
Quinlan, Alison; Rhodes, Ryan E; Beauchamp, Mark R; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M
Identifying critical life transitions in people's physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited), and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity. This study will be investigating whether a theory-based physical activity intervention can maintain or improve moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity measured via accelerometry of new parents over a 6 month period following intervention compared to a control group. This study is a 6-month longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Parents are measured at baseline (2 months postpartum) with two assessment points at 6 weeks (3.5 months postpartum) and 3 months (5 months postpartum) and a final follow-up assessment at 6 months (8 months postpartum). The content of the theory-based intervention was derived from the results of our prior longitudinal trial of new parents using an adapted theory of planned behavior framework to predict changes in physical activity. A total of 152 couples have been recruited to date. Sixteen couples dropped out after baseline and a total of 88 couples have completed their 6-month measures. If the intervention proves successful, couple-based physical activity promotion efforts among parents could be a promising avenue to pursue to help mitigate the declines of physical activity levels during parenthood. These findings could inform public health materials and practitioners. This trial has been
Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd
The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.
Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y
There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.
Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.
Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…
Dirige, Ofelia V; Carlson, Jordan A; Alcaraz, John; Moy, Karen L; Rock, Cheryl L; Oades, Riz; Sallis, James F
Intervening in organizations allows for targeting multiple levels of influence and greater potential for sustainability. To evaluate an 18-month nutrition and physical activity (NPA) intervention (Siglang Buhay) conducted through culturally specific organizations. Site randomized trial with an active control group. Eighteen Filipino-American social clubs in San Diego County, California. Members of Filipino-American social clubs randomly assigned to NPA (n = 337) or cancer education (CE; n = 336) conditions. Two to 3 members from each organization were trained to implement the interventions. The NPA focused on promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity and on decreasing dietary fat intake using health education, behavior change skills development, and organizational policy change. Cancer education focused on cancer education and cancer screening. Outcomes measured at baseline and at 18 months included 7-day self-reported physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables and low-fat foods, as well as stage of change for these 3 behaviors. Longitudinal mixed-effects regression models indicated that the NPA participants showed significant increases in physical activity (B = 4.04; P eating 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day or more (OR = 2.26; P = not significant). Using culturally specific organizations to deliver NPA interventions was feasible and effective among Filipino-Americans. Similar multilevel approaches should be investigated in other cultures.
Christiansen, Lars B.; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brondeel, Ruben
on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years. Methods Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1......Purpose Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing......) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior...
Christiansen, Lars B.; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brondeel, Ruben
Purpose Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing......) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior...... on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years. Methods Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1...
Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina
Breastfeeding is an essential source of nutrition for young babies; however, it is challenging for employed mothers to continue breastfeeding with employment, especially if workplace support is minimal or missing. In Pakistan, from 1983 to 2008, the prevalence of breastfeeding at 6 months has decreased from 96% to 31%. In this region, workplace barriers have been reported as one of the reasons that result in early cessation of breastfeeding among working mothers. This paper aims at reviewing global literature to explore workplace interventions that can promote the breastfeeding practices among working mothers in Pakistan. A literature search of peer reviewed databases, including CINHAL (1980-2009), MEDLINE (1980-2009), Pub Med (1980-2009), Springer Link (1980-2008), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3rd quarter, 2008), was undertaken. Considering the pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria, out of more than 500 literature sources, 50 were shortlisted and reviewed. A review of global literature revealed that in order to promote breastfeeding practices among employed mothers, the most powerful workplace interventions include: educating working mothers about management of breastfeeding with employment; enhancing employers' awareness about benefits of breastfeeding accommodation at workplace; arranging physical facilities for lactating mothers (including privacy, childcare facilities, breast pumps, and breast milk storage facilities); providing job-flexibility to working mothers; and initiating mother friendly policies at workplace that support breastfeeding. In Pakistani workplace settings, where little attention is paid to sustain breastfeeding practices among working mothers, there is a need to initiate lactation support programmes. These programmes can be made effective by implementing composite interventions at the level of breastfeeding working mothers, employers, and workplace. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier
Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R
Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Marrara, Kamilla Tays; Marino, Diego Marmorato; de Held, Priscila Antonichelli; de Oliveira Junior, Antônio Delfino; Jamami, Maurício; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires
To verify the outcome of different physical therapy interventions in activities of daily living of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-two COPD individuals were randomly divided into three groups: the Lower Limb Training Group (LLTG, n=8) performed treadmill exercise, Upper Limb Training Group (ULTG, n=8) performed upper limb (UL) training, and Control Group (CG, n=6) underwent bronchial hygiene therapy for 6 weeks, three times per week. The following were simulated in the activities of the daily living test: blackboard erasing, weight lifting exercise, stair climbing and treadmill walking. The duration of these tasks was 5 min of blackboard erasing and weight lifting, and 6 min of stair climbing and treadmill walking. Intragroup analysis presented a significant post-treatment ventilatory demand (V(E)/MVV) decrease for the LLTG during basal conditions and walking, and significant decrease during blackboard erasing and walking for the ULTG, with similar metabolic demand (VO(2)/VO(2)max) for both groups. Dyspnoea decreased significantly in the LLTG during post-treatment walking and increased for CG. The number of stairs climbed decreased significantly for the CG and increased for LLTG and ULTG post treatment, along with the walked distance for LLTG. The intergroup analysis presented significant differences in post-treatment dyspnoea with greater values observed for the CG during walking. The different protocols utilized promoted benefits towards physical exercise tolerance, particularly in the ULTG that presented better performance in sustained UL tasks, which may suggest better conditioning and coordination of the muscles involved in UL elevation.
Backman, Desiree R; Kohatsu, Neal D; Paciotti, Brian M; Byrne, Jennifer V; Kizer, Kenneth W
Prevention is the most cost-effective approach to promote population health, yet little is known about the delivery of health promotion interventions in the nation's largest Medicaid program, Medi-Cal. The purpose of this study was to inventory health promotion interventions delivered through Medi-Cal Managed Care Plans; identify attributes of the interventions that plans judged to have the greatest impact on their members; and determine the extent to which the plans refer members to community assistance programs and sponsor health-promoting community activities. The lead health educator from each managed care plan was asked to complete a 190-item online survey in January 2013; 20 of 21 managed care plans responded. Survey data on the health promotion interventions with the greatest impact were grouped according to intervention attributes and measures of effectiveness; quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Health promotion interventions judged to have the greatest impact on Medi-Cal members were delivered in various ways; educational materials, one-on-one education, and group classes were delivered most frequently. Behavior change, knowledge gain, and improved disease management were cited most often as measures of effectiveness. Across all interventions, median educational hours were limited (2.4 h), and median Medi-Cal member participation was low (265 members per intervention). Most interventions with greatest impact (120 of 137 [88%]) focused on tertiary prevention. There were mixed results in referring members to community assistance programs and investing in community activities. Managed care plans have many opportunities to more effectively deliver health promotion interventions. Establishing measurable, evidence-based, consensus standards for such programs could facilitate improved delivery of these services.
A painful shoulder presents challenges in examination, diagnosis and intervention for the physical therapist because of the complexity of the structures involved. A common cause of shoulder pain is shoulder impingement syndrome. This was first described as a condition in which the soft tissues of the subacromial space were chronically entrapped and compressed between the humeral head and the subacromial arch. This definition does not account for the myriad potential causes of shoulder impingement conditions, as forms of impingement other than subacromial soft tissue compression may explain different symptomatic shoulder injuries. This paper describes shoulder impingement syndromes that have been hypothesized, identified and analyzed in the literature. Physical Therapy examination and intervention for these syndromes are also discussed. PMID:25792938
Barnidge, Ellen K; Baker, Elizabeth A; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R; Brownson, Ross C
Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We created a regional partnership to leverage resources and enhance environmental and policy interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity in rural southeast Missouri. Partners were engaged in a participatory action planning process that included prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating promising evidence-based interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. Group interviews were conducted with Healthier MO community partners post intervention to evaluate resource sharing and sustainability efforts of the regional partnership. Community partners identified the benefits and challenges of resource sharing within the regional partnership as well as the opportunities and threats to long-term partnership sustainability. The partners noted that the regional participatory process was difficult, but the benefits outweighed the challenges. Regional rural partnerships may be an effective way to leverage relationships to increase the capacity of rural communities to implement environmental and policy interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity.
Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W; McManus, Alison; Leung, Moon; Wong, Peggy; White, Mike J
Increased lifestyle physical activity, for instance, use of active transport, is a current public health target. Active transport interventions that target stair climbing are consistently successful in English-speaking populations yet unsuccessful in Hong Kong. We report two further studies on active transport in the Hong Kong Chinese. Pedestrians on a mass transit escalator system (study 1) and in an air-conditioned shopping mall (study 2) were encouraged to take the stairs for their cardiovascular health by point-of-choice prompts. Observers coded sex, age, and walking on the mass transit system, with the additional variables of presence of children and bags coded in the shopping mall. In the first study, a 1-wk baseline was followed by 4 wk of intervention (N = 76,710) whereas in the second study (shopping mall) a 2-wk baseline was followed by a 2-wk intervention period (N = 18,257). A small but significant increase in stair climbing (+0.29%) on the mass transit system contrasted with no significant changes in the shopping mall (+0.09%). The active transport of walking on the mass transit system was reduced at higher rates of humidity and temperature, with steeper slopes for the effects of climate variables in men than in women. These studies confirm that lifestyle physical activity interventions do not have universal application. The context in which the behavior occurs (e.g., climate) may act as a barrier to active transport.
Panter, Jenna; Guell, Cornelia; Prins, Rick; Ogilvie, David
Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing. We extracted theoretical and conceptual material and used thematic analysis in an in-depth, configurative narrative approach to synthesis. Our initial searches identified 2760 potential sources from fields including public health, sociology, behavioural science and transport, of which 104 were included. By first separating out and then drawing together this material, we produced a synthesis that identified five high-level conceptual themes: one concerning outcomes (physical activity as a behaviour and a socially embedded practice), one concerning exposures (environmental interventions as structural changes) and three concerning how interventions bring about their effects (the importance of social and physical context; (un) observable mechanisms linking interventions and changes in physical activity; and interventions as events in complex systems). These themes are inter-related but have rarely been considered together in the disparate literatures. Drawing on these insights, we present a more generalisable way of thinking about how environmental interventions work which could be used in future evaluation studies. Environmental and policy interventions are socially embedded and operate within a
Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.
Adele Anna Teleman
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.
Painter, Patricia; Clark, Lauren; Olausson, Jill
Despite practice guidelines (KDOQI [Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative]) recommending regular assessment of physical function and encouragement of physical activity, few clinics in the United States objectively assess physical function/physical activity or provide recommendations for physical activity in their patient care. Qualitative methods were used to develop an understanding of practice patterns related to physical function assessment and physical activity encouragement by dialysis staff. Data were collected in one outpatient university-based hemodialysis clinic. 15 patient care staff were interviewed and 6 patients were observed. Semistructured interviews of patient care staff were conducted, along with nonparticipant observations of the clinic environment and operations and review of archival materials. Coding of the interviews was descriptive, followed by interpretive coding by the research team. On-site field notes were transcribed for analysis. There was universal unawareness of the KDOQI guideline related to physical function/physical activity; however, all staff thought their patients would benefit from physical activity. There were no objective assessments of physical function and no resources or training to facilitate physical activity encouragement. Staff described deteriorating physical function in their patients, which was frustrating and disappointing. Barriers to physical activity included clinical/disease factors, staff "overaccommodation," and a system of dialysis care that facilitates sedentary behavior and does not require or incentivize clinics to promote physical activity. The patient care technicians were interested and thought that they had time to promote physical activity, but thought that they were unprepared to do so, indicating a need for education and training and a need to develop protocols to address the issue as routine practice. This was a single university-based center; however, because hemodialysis procedures are
Van Kessel, Gisela; Kavanagh, Madeleine; Maher, Carol
Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls' perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention. Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years) with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy. Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered "uncool". Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention. This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications.
Gisela Van Kessel
Full Text Available Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls' perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention.Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy.Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered "uncool". Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention.This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications.
El Dib, R. P.; Verbeek, J.; Atallah, A. N.; Andriolo, R. B.; Soares, B. G. O.
Background Noise induced hearing loss can only be prevented by eliminating or lowering noise exposure levels. Where the source of the noise can not be eliminated workers have to rely on hearing protective equipment. Several trials have been conducted to study the effectiveness of interventions to
Five studies measuring condom use with regular non-paying partners recorded less consistent condom use with these partners. This review illustrates the existence of sufficient evidence showing the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting correct and consistent condom use by FSWs. Keywords: commercial sex ...
Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard
... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...
Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard
... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...
Quintiliani, Lisa M; Whiteley, Jessica A
Health promotion efforts targeting nontraditional college students (older, part-time enrollment, and working) may be an optimal way to reach large populations that potentially face health disparities. A randomized trial was undertaken to examine the feasibility of a nutrition and physical activity behavioral intervention among nontraditional undergraduate college students at a large urban public university. Over 8 weeks, participants received either (1) a brief tailored feedback report plus three motivational interviewing-based calls from trained peer counselors (intervention; n = 40) or (2) the report only (control; n = 20). Participants mean age was 32 years (SD = 10), 58 % were female, 47 % were racial/ethnic minorities, and 25 % reported receiving public health insurance. Most (78 %) intervention group participants completed at least two of three peer counseling calls. At follow-up, those in the intervention vs. control group self-reported beneficial, but non-statistically significant changes in fruits and vegetables (+0.7 servings/day), sugary drinks (-6.2 oz/day), and fast food visits (-0.2 visits/week). For physical activity, there was a non-statistically significant decrease in moderate-vigorous physical activity (107.2 min/week) in the intervention vs. Overall satisfaction with the program was high, although there were recommendations made for improving the structure and number of calls. Findings indicate that the intervention was feasible with promising effects on nutrition behaviors and the need to better target physical activity behaviors. Future work entails implementation in a larger sample with objectively measured behaviors.
Quintiliani, Lisa M.; Whiteley, Jessica A.
Health promotion efforts targeting nontraditional college students (older, part-time enrollment, working) may be an optimal way to reach large populations that potentially face health disparities. A randomized trial was undertaken to examine the feasibility of a nutrition and physical activity behavioral intervention among nontraditional undergraduate college students at a large urban public university. Over 8-weeks, participants received either 1) a brief tailored feedback report plus 3 motivational interviewing-based calls from trained peer counselors (intervention; n=40) or 2) or the report only (control; n=20). Participants mean age was 32 years (SD=10), 58% were female, 47% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 25% reported receiving public health insurance. Most (78%) intervention group participants completed at least 2 of 3 peer counseling calls. At follow-up, those in the intervention vs. control group self-reported beneficial, but non-statistically significant changes in fruits & vegetables (+0.7 servings/day), sugary drinks (−6.2 ounces/day), and fast food visits (−0.2 visits/week). For physical activity, there was a non-statistically significant decrease in moderate-vigorous physical activity (107.2 minutes/week) in the intervention vs. control group. Overall satisfaction with the program was high, although there were recommendations made for improving the structure and number of calls. Findings indicate the intervention was feasible with promising effects on nutrition behaviors and the need to better target physical activity behaviors. Future work entails implementation in a larger sample with objectively measured behaviors. PMID:25994357
Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.
Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…
Liu, Jj; Davidson, E; Bhopal, Rs; White, M; Johnson, Mrd; Netto, G; Deverill, M; Sheikh, A
There is now a considerable body of evidence revealing that a number of ethnic minority groups in the UK and other economically developed countries experience disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality compared with the majority white European-origin population. Across these countries, health-promoting approaches are increasingly viewed as the long-term strategies most likely to prove clinically effective and cost-effective for preventing disease and improving health outcomes in those with established disease. To identify, appraise and interpret research on the approaches employed to maximise the cross-cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and improving healthy eating for African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations. Two national conferences; seven databases of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews of health promotion interventions aimed at the general population, including the Clinical Evidence, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network databases (1950-2009); 11 databases of research on adapted health promotion interventions for ethnic minority populations, including BIOSIS, EMBASE and MEDLINE (1950-2009); and in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of researchers and health promoters. Theoretically based, mixed-methods, phased programme of research that involved user engagement, systematic reviews and qualitative interviews, which were integrated through a realist synthesis. Following a launch conference, two reviewers independently identified and extracted data from guidelines and systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for the general population and any guidance offered in relation to how to interpret this evidence for ethnic minority populations. Data were thematically analysed. Reviewers then independently identified and critically appraised studies
Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K
In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls' self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the 'supply-side' perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the 'demand-side' perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and encouraging more parental involvement). The development of
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design: The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1 poverty, 2 body image ideals, 3 gender, 4 parents and home life, 5 demographic factors, 6 perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7 human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions: Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for
Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T
Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
Mortensen Ole S
Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and
Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Per Morten Fredriksen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
McNally, Richard J; Bryant, Richard A; Ehlers, Anke
In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they hoped that their interventions would mitigate psychological distress and prevent the emergence of this syndrome. Typically developing in response to horrific, life-threatening events, such as combat, rape, and earthquakes, PTSD is characterized by reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., intrusive recollections of the trauma, nightmares), emotional numbing and avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and hyperarousal (e.g., exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping). People vary widely in their vulnerability for developing PTSD in the wake of trauma. For example, higher cognitive ability and strong social support buffer people against PTSD, whereas a family or personal history of emotional disorder heightens risk, as does negative appraisal of one's stress reactions (e.g., as a sign of personal weakness) and dissociation during the trauma (e.g., feeling unreal or experiencing time slowing down). However, the vast majority of trauma survivors recover from initial posttrauma reactions without professional help. Accordingly, the efficacy of interventions designed to mitigate acute distress and prevent long-term psychopathology, such as PTSD, needs to be evaluated against the effects of natural recovery. The need for controlled evaluations of early interventions has only recently been widely acknowledged. Psychological debriefing-the most widely used method-has undergone increasing empirical scrutiny, and the results have been disappointing. Although the majority of debriefed survivors describe the experience as helpful, there is no convincing evidence that debriefing reduces the incidence of PTSD, and some controlled studies
Carter, Cindy L; Onicescu, Georgiana; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Sterba, Katherine R; Tomsic, James; Alberg, Anthony J
Physical activity benefits cancer survivors, but the comparative effectiveness of a team-based delivery approach remains unexplored. The hypothesis tested was that a team-based physical activity intervention delivery approach has added physical and psychological benefits compared to a group-based approach. A team-based sport accessible to survivors is dragon boating, which requires no previous experience and allows for diverse skill levels. In a non-randomized trial, cancer survivors chose between two similarly structured 8-week programs, a dragon boat paddling team (n = 68) or group-based walking program (n = 52). Three separate intervention rounds were carried out in 2007-2008. Pre-post testing measured physical and psychosocial outcomes. Compared to walkers, paddlers had significantly greater (all p team cohesion, program adherence/attendance, and increased upper-body strength. For quality-of-life outcomes, both interventions were associated with pre-post improvements, but with no clear-cut pattern of between-intervention differences. These hypothesis-generating findings suggest that a short-term, team-based physical activity program (dragon boat paddling) was associated with increased cohesion and adherence/attendance. Improvements in physical fitness and psychosocial benefits were comparable to a traditional, group-based walking program. Compared to a group-based intervention delivery format, the team-based intervention delivery format holds promise for promoting physical activity program adherence/attendance in cancer survivors.
Miller, Lauren S; Gramzow, Richard H
Although the mental and physical benefits of physical activity are well-established, there is a racial/ethnic disparity in activity such that minorities are much less likely to engage in physical activity than are White individuals. Research suggests that a lack of motivation may be an important barrier to physical activity for racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, interventions that increase participants' motivation may be especially useful in promoting physical activity within these groups. Physical activity interventions that utilized the clinical technique of motivational interviewing (MI) in conjunction with the theoretical background of self-determination theory (SDT) have been effective in increasing White individuals' physical activity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear the extent to which these results apply to minority populations. The current study involves conducting a 12-week physical activity intervention based on SDT and MI to promote physical activity in a racially/ethnically-diverse sample. It is hypothesized that this intervention will successfully increase physical activity in participants. Specifically, it is expected that minorities will experience a greater relative increase in physical activity than Whites within the intervention group because minorities are expected to have lower baseline levels of activity. Results from this study will give us a greater understanding of the generalizability of SDT interventions designed to improve motivation for physical activity and level of physical activity. Clinical Trials Gov. Identifier NCT02250950 Registered 24 September 2014.
Lauren S. Miller
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mental and physical benefits of physical activity are well-established, there is a racial/ethnic disparity in activity such that minorities are much less likely to engage in physical activity than are White individuals. Research suggests that a lack of motivation may be an important barrier to physical activity for racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, interventions that increase participants’ motivation may be especially useful in promoting physical activity within these groups. Physical activity interventions that utilized the clinical technique of motivational interviewing (MI in conjunction with the theoretical background of self-determination theory (SDT have been effective in increasing White individuals’ physical activity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear the extent to which these results apply to minority populations. Methods/Design The current study involves conducting a 12-week physical activity intervention based on SDT and MI to promote physical activity in a racially/ethnically-diverse sample. It is hypothesized that this intervention will successfully increase physical activity in participants. Specifically, it is expected that minorities will experience a greater relative increase in physical activity than Whites within the intervention group because minorities are expected to have lower baseline levels of activity. Discussion Results from this study will give us a greater understanding of the generalizability of SDT interventions designed to improve motivation for physical activity and level of physical activity. Trial registration Clinical Trials Gov. Identifier NCT02250950 Registered 24 September 2014.
Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Christopher G; Herbert, Robert D; Elkins, Mark R
The objective of this study was to identify core journals in physical therapy by identifying those that publish the most randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions, provide the highest-quality reports of randomized controlled trials, and have the highest journal impact factors. This study was an audit of a bibliographic database. All trials indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were analyzed. Journals that had published at least 80 trials were selected. The journals were ranked in 4 ways: number of trials published; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal, regardless of publication year; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal from 2000 to 2009; and 2008 journal impact factor. The top 5 core journals in physical therapy, ranked by the total number of trials published, were Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, Spine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), and Chest. When the mean total PEDro score was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Stroke, Spine, and Clinical Rehabilitation. When the mean total PEDro score of the trials published from 2000 to 2009 was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, and Pain. The most highly ranked physical therapy-specific journals were Physical Therapy (ranked eighth on the basis of the number of trials published) and Journal of Physiotherapy (ranked first on the basis of the quality of trials). Finally, when the 2008 impact factor was used for ranking, the top 5 journals were JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, and Thorax. There were no significant relationships among the rankings on the basis of trial quality, number of trials, or journal impact factor. Physical therapists who are trying to keep up-to-date by reading the best
Franken, S.C.M.; Smit, C.R.; Buijzen, M.A.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their
Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Long, Michael W; Resch, Stephen C; Pipito, Andrea A; Wei, Emily R; Gortmaker, Steven L
Participation in recommended levels of physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and reduced chronic disease risk. To inform investment in prevention initiatives, we simulate the national implementation, impact on physical activity and childhood obesity and associated cost-effectiveness (versus the status quo) of six recommended strategies that can be applied throughout childhood to increase physical activity in US school, afterschool and childcare settings. In 2016, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) systematic review process identified six interventions for study. A microsimulation model estimated intervention outcomes 2015-2025 including changes in mean MET-hours/day, intervention reach and cost per person, cost per MET-hour change, ten-year net costs to society and cases of childhood obesity prevented. First year reach of the interventions ranged from 90,000 youth attending a Healthy Afterschool Program to 31.3 million youth reached by Active School Day policies. Mean MET-hour/day/person increases ranged from 0.05 MET-hour/day/person for Active PE and Healthy Afterschool to 1.29 MET-hour/day/person for the implementation of New Afterschool Programs. Cost per MET-hour change ranged from cost saving to $3.14. Approximately 2500 to 110,000 cases of children with obesity could be prevented depending on the intervention implemented. All of the six interventions are estimated to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents in the US population and prevent cases of childhood obesity. Results do not include other impacts of increased physical activity, including cognitive and behavioral effects. Decision-makers can use these methods to inform prioritization of physical activity promotion and obesity prevention on policy agendas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang
Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.
Mendez, Roberto Della Rosa; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Spana, Thaís Moreira; Cornélio, Marília Estevam; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; Pérez-Nebra, Amalia Raquel
to validate the content of persuasive messages for promoting walking among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The messages were constructed to strengthen or change patients' attitudes to walking. the selection of persuasive arguments was based on behavioral beliefs (determinants of attitude) related to walking. The messages were constructed based in the Elaboration Likelihood Model and were submitted to content validation. the data was analyzed with the content validity index and by the importance which the patients attributed to the messages' persuasive arguments. Positive behavioral beliefs (i.e. positive and negative reinforcement) and self-efficacy were the appeals which the patients considered important. The messages with validation evidence will be tested in an intervention study for the promotion of the practice of physical activity among patients with CHD.
Fleig, Lena; Pomp, Sarah; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia
Follow-up intervention boosters are supposed to promote exercise maintenance beyond initial treatment. The current quasi-experimental study investigated the benefits of adding telephone-delivered intervention boosters to a self-management exercise intervention for rehabilitants. Psycho-social mechanisms by which the intervention boosters promote exercise maintenance were examined. Between 2009 and 2011, individuals in cardiac and orthopedic rehabilitation (N = 1,166) were allocated to either a self-management exercise intervention or a control group (i.e., questionnaire only). In addition to standard rehabilitation, participants in the intervention group were offered a series of telephone-delivered intervention boosters after 6 weeks and again after 6 months. Self-efficacy, action planning, and satisfaction with previous exercise outcomes were reassessed 12 months after discharge. Habit strength and exercise were measured 18 months after rehabilitation. The intervention with boosters promoted the maintenance of planning, self-efficacy, satisfaction, exercise, and habit strength. Changes in exercise were simultaneously mediated by changes in planning, self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Changes in habit strength were sequentially mediated by planning and exercise. Interventions with boosters that focus on action planning, self-efficacy, and satisfaction help to maintain self-directed postrehabilitation exercise. Frequent exercise performance, in turn, can strengthen exercise habits. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Käll, Lina B; Nilsson, Michael; Lindén, Thomas
Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic performance. A controlled cross-sectional design was used to investigate the hypothesis that the intervention program would increase the proportion of students in grade 5 who achieved the national learning goals in Swedish, mathematics, and English compared with 3 reference schools. Academic results from the years prior to and during the intervention program were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses assessed the odds of achieving the national learning goals when the intervention program was integrated into the elementary curricula. Higher proportions of students in the intervention school achieved the national goals in all 3 subjects compared with the reference schools after initiation of the intervention program. The odds for achieving the national learning goals in the intervention school increased 2-fold (p < .05), whereas these odds either did not change or decreased in the reference schools. Promoting physical activity in school by means of a curriculum-based intervention program may improve children's educational outcome. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC settings have a pivotal role in shaping children’s dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1 the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2–5 years attending centre-based childcare; (2 intervention characteristics which are associated with promoting healthy eating and; (3 recommendations for child-health policies and practices. An Umbrella review of systematic reviews was undertaken using a standardized search strategy in ten databases. Twelve systematic reviews were examined using validated critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Children’s dietary food intake and food choices were significantly influenced. Interventions to prevent obesity did not significantly change children’s anthropometric measures or had mixed results. Evidence was more convincing if interventions were multi-component, addressed physical activity and diet, targeted individual-level and environmental-level determinants and engaged parents. Positive outcomes were mostly facilitated by researchers/external experts and these results were not replicated when implemented in centres by ECEC providers without this support. The translation of expert-led interventions into practice warrants further exploration of implementation drivers and barriers. Based on the evidence reviewed, recommendations are made to inform child-health directed practices and policies.
Matwiejczyk, Louisa; Mehta, Kaye; Scott, Jane; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings have a pivotal role in shaping children's dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1) the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2-5 years attending centre-based childcare; (2) intervention characteristics which are associated with promoting healthy eating and; (3) recommendations for child-health policies and practices. An Umbrella review of systematic reviews was undertaken using a standardized search strategy in ten databases. Twelve systematic reviews were examined using validated critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Children's dietary food intake and food choices were significantly influenced. Interventions to prevent obesity did not significantly change children's anthropometric measures or had mixed results. Evidence was more convincing if interventions were multi-component, addressed physical activity and diet, targeted individual-level and environmental-level determinants and engaged parents. Positive outcomes were mostly facilitated by researchers/external experts and these results were not replicated when implemented in centres by ECEC providers without this support. The translation of expert-led interventions into practice warrants further exploration of implementation drivers and barriers. Based on the evidence reviewed, recommendations are made to inform child-health directed practices and policies.
Mahdizadeh, Mehri; Peymam, Nooshin; Taghipour, Ali; Esmaily, Habibolah; Mahdizadeh, Seyed Mousa
Physical activity regularly is one of the important aspects of healthy lifestyle, which has an essential role in reducing the burden of disease and death. Diabetes is a typical general health problem. The aim of this study to determine the effect of education based on social cognitive theory on promoting physical activity among women with diabetes II in Iran. In this randomized control study, 82 diabetic females were randomly selected then were assigned into two groups: intervention (n=41) and control (n=41). Educational intervention was planned then performed during 7 sessions of 60-min in accordance with social-cognitive theory (SCT). The participants were asked to fill in the questionnaires in educational evaluation before and immediately after intervention and the follow up (10 weeks later). The data were analyzed through Repeated Measures ANOVA, Friedman, independence t and Mann-Whitney tests. The mean age among the participants was 48.37±5.67 yr also the body mass index was 28.69±3.95. In the intervention group, light physical activity and sedentary behavior reduced from 56.1% (23 individuals) to 14.6% (6 individuals) in the following up stage. There was significant improvement across time in the mean of minute's physical activity (P=0.042). There were significant differences in the mean's constructs of the Social-cognitive theory (SCT) (Psocial cognitive theory can lead to promote physical activity among women with diabetes II through changes in the theoretical constructs.
Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya
Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454
Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya
Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested.
Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Balague, Laura; Calderon, Carlos
The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs) of the Basque Health Service--OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls). Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1) the commitment of professional and community partners who are involved; (2) their competence for
Doozan, Ashley; Bae, Mihae
The knowledge acquired in physical education classes should provide for an increase in physical activity and promote interest in healthier lifestyles. Despite the importance of physical literacy developed in physical education classes, physical education is not perceived as important, and funding for physical education has decreased. This paper…
Zhou, Zhixiong; Ren, Hong; Yin, Zenong; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Kaizhen
The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children's physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (-1.2%, p < 0.0001), fat mass (-0.55 kg, p <0.0001), and body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: -0.74 seconds, p < 0.0001; BJ: 8.09 cm, p < 0.0001; TBT: 0.52 meters, p < 0.006; SR: 0.88 cm, p < 0.03; BBW: -2
O'Reilly, Gillian A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Novel mobile assessment and intervention capabilities are changing the face of physical activity (PA) research. A comprehensive systematic review of how mobile technology has been used for measuring PA and promoting PA behavior change is needed. Article collection was conducted using six databases from February to June 2012 with search terms related to mobile technology and PA. Articles that described the use of mobile technologies for PA assessment, sedentary behavior assessment, and/or interventions for PA behavior change were included. Articles were screened for inclusion and study information was extracted. Analyses were conducted from June to September 2012. Mobile phone-based journals and questionnaires, short message service (SMS) prompts, and on-body PA sensing systems were the mobile technologies most utilized. Results indicate that mobile journals and questionnaires are effective PA self-report measurement tools. Intervention studies that reported successful promotion of PA behavior change employed SMS communication, mobile journaling, or both SMS and mobile journaling. mHealth technologies are increasingly being employed to assess and intervene on PA in clinical, epidemiologic, and intervention research. The wide variations in technologies used and outcomes measured limit comparability across studies, and hamper identification of the most promising technologies. Further, the pace of technologic advancement currently outstrips that of scientific inquiry. New adaptive, sequential research designs that take advantage of ongoing technology development are needed. At the same time, scientific norms must shift to accept "smart," adaptive, iterative, evidence-based assessment and intervention technologies that will, by nature, improve during implementation. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Full Text Available Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years. Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport.A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium. A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1. Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week and follow-up (after eight weeks. To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed.A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7 years was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001 and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030 compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within
Perry, Lin; Nicholls, Rachel; Duffield, Christine; Gallagher, Robyn
To use a Delphi panel to determine the relative importance and feasibility of workplace health promotion interventions to promote and support the health of the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. The nursing workforce experiences rates of ill health above that of other workforces, yet there is little investment in workplace health promotion. The study used a modified Delphi design conducted between September and November 2015. Eleven of 19 purposively selected expert panellists discussed, rated and provided feedback through two rounds of an electronic questionnaire about the relative importance and feasibility of 46 workplace health promotion interventions and processes for nurses and midwives. Scores for importance and feasibility were calculated and ranked and a composite score of importance multiplied by feasibility. Mental health strategies were prioritized as the most important and feasible of the intervention topics, followed closely by healthy eating and physical activity interventions; smoking cessation ranked lowest. The most highly ranked interventions targeted healthy eating, stress management and resilience training. Highest ranked processes to support development of a healthy work environment included intersectoral collaboration and employee wellness groups. Study findings prompt consideration of health promotion opportunities to support nurses' health and well-being. Findings identified key workplace health promotion priorities and provide direction for policy makers and managers to promote nursing and midwifery workforce health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth
Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.
Keller, Jan; Gellert, Paul; Knoll, Nina; Schneider, Michael; Ernsting, Anna
Fostering self-efficacy and planning in individuals can support the uptake and maintenance of regular physical activity. This study examined self-efficacy and planning as mechanisms of an online-delivered workplace health promotion intervention to enhance employees' physical activity. A special focus lay on reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning over time, as previous work predominantly accounted for only one predictive direction at a time. Data from N = 1,063 employees of a pharmaceutical company who reported an intention to increase their physical activity levels were assessed at three measurement points up to 12 weeks following the intervention. Cross-lagged panel analyses were performed to examine effects of self-efficacy and planning on physical activity as well as reciprocal interrelations between self-efficacy and planning. Findings indicated an increase in self-efficacy, planning, and physical activity following the intervention. Planning was consistently linked to subsequent physical activity, whereas self-efficacy was not associated. Also, reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning were found across both measurement lags. Planning was confirmed as a predictor of physical activity, whereas self-efficacy was not. However, cross-lagged interrelations indicated reciprocal reactivation among self-efficacy and planning over time, suggesting beneficial effects of including strategies that foster both volitional constructs in interventions. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick
Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the reviewâs inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.
Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z
Background and Purpose: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) involving physical therapy interventions have been published recently. The quality of the studies used to develop the CPRs was not previously considered, a fact that has potential implications for clinical applications and future research. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of published CPRs developed for physical therapy interventions. Methods: Relevant databases were searched up to June 2008. Studies were included in this review if the explicit purpose was to develop a CPR for conditions commonly treated by physical therapists. Validated CPRs were excluded from this review. Study quality was independently determined by 3 reviewers using standard 18-item criteria for assessing the methodological quality of prognostic studies. Percentage of agreement was calculated for each criterion, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined for overall quality scores. Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Percentage of agreement for individual criteria ranged from 90% to 100%, and the ICC for the overall quality score was .73 (95% confidence interval=.27–.92). Criteria commonly not met were adequate description of inclusion or exclusion criteria, inclusion of an inception cohort, adequate follow-up, masked assessments, sufficient sample sizes, and assessments of potential psychosocial factors. Quality scores for individual studies ranged from 48.2% to 74.0%. Discussion and Conclusion: Validation studies are rarely reported in the literature; therefore, CPRs derived from high-quality studies may have the best potential for use in clinical settings. Investigators planning future studies of physical therapy CPRs should consider including inception cohorts, using longer follow-up times, performing masked assessments, recruiting larger sample sizes, and incorporating psychological and psychosocial assessments. PMID:19095806
Full Text Available Background: Regular participation in physical activity is associated with improved physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors. However, physical activity levels are low during and after cancer treatment. Interventions to promote physical activity in this population are needed. Mobile technology has potential, but currently, there is no mobile phone application designed to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Objectives: The first aim is to assess feasibility and acceptability of an existing physical activity mobile application (‘app’ designed for the general population, in a sample of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A further aim is to understand how the application could be adapted to overcome barriers to physical activity participation in this population. Methods: A feasibility study was carried out that investigated acceptability of and participants’ opinions on the application. A total of 11 cancer survivors tested the application for 6 weeks. Physical activity (Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, wellbeing (FACT-G, fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue scale, quality of life (EQ5D, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were self-reported at baseline and at 6-week follow-up. Participants completed qualitative telephone interviews about their experiences of using the app, and these were coded using thematic analysis. Results: The application was acceptable among the participants; 73% of people who responded to the study advertisement agreed to participate, and 100% of participants who started the study completed. There was a significant increase in participants’ mean strenuous physical activity of 51.91 minutes per week from baseline to 6-week follow-up (P=0.005. There was also a significant reduction in reported sleep problems from baseline (mean=9.27, SD=6.72 to 6-week follow-up (mean=6.72, SD=5.50; P=0.01. There were no other
Lucidarme, Steffie; Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick
To define key factors of effective evidence-based policy implementation for physical activity promotion by use of a partnership approach. Using Parent and Harvey's model for sport and physical activity community-based partnerships, we defined determinants of implementation based on 13 face-to-face interviews with network organisations and 39 telephone interviews with partner organisations. Furthermore, two quantitative data-sets (n = 991 and n = 965) were used to measure implementation. In total, nine variables were found to influence implementation. Personal contact was the most powerful variable since its presence contributed to success while its absence led to a negative outcome. Four contributed directly to success: political motive, absence of a metropolis, high commitment and more qualified staff. Four others resulted in a less successful implementation: absence of positive merger effects, exposure motive and governance, and dispersed leadership. Community networks are a promising instrument for the implementation of evidence-based policies. However, determinants of both formation and management of partnerships influence the implementation success. During partnership formation, special attention should be given to partnership motives while social skills are of utmost importance for the management.
Okazaki, Kanzo; Okano, Shinji; Haga, Shinichiro; Seki, Akiho; Suzuki, Hisao; Takahashi, Kayo
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether improvement in physical activity of students following a 4-month intervention of a university course was maintained 8 months later. Data on 77 students who responded to our scheduled inquiries completely through 1 year were analyzed. Participants of the intervention group (n=49) using the internet-based physical activity program exhibited significant increases in energy expenditures measured by IPAQ compared with the no-treatment control group (n=28) through 1 year. Participants who did not engage in regular university sports activities (baseline: 450±351kcalday(-1); post: 587±320kcalday(-1); 8-month follow-up: 580±394kcalday(-1)) only exhibited significant increases in energy expenditures compared with those of the control group (baseline: 498±341kcalday(-1); post: 414±242kcalday(-1); 8-month follow-up: 347±275kcalday(-1)). These results suggested that an internet-based interactive intervention could become a helpful tool in promoting and maintaining physical activity in the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+. Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.
Tai, S S; Gould, M; Iliffe, S
The potential health benefits derived from sustained physical activity in older people are numerous; however, whether exercise promotion should take place in general practice is unsubstantiated. Exercise promotion should use existing research evidence of the advantages of exercise for various conditions, and target those inactive individuals who currently have no intention of changing their level of physical activity. Research has also raised methodological issues and questions about the feas...
Edmunds, Sarah; Stephenson, Duncan; Clow, Angela
Workplaces have potential as a setting for physical activity promotion but evidence of the effectiveness of intervention programmes in small and medium sized enterprises is limited. This paper reports the impact of an intervention which trained existing employees to promote physical activity to their colleagues. Eighty-nine previously low-active employees from 17 small and medium sized organisations participated. A mixed methods evaluation design was used. Quantitative data were collected at baseline and 6 months later using an online questionnaire. Qualitative data from a series of 6 focus groups were analysed. Repeated measures t-tests showed significant increases over time in physical activity, general health rating, satisfaction with life and positive mood states. There were significant decreases in body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, negative mood states and presenteeism. There was no change in absenteeism. Analysis of focus group data provided further insight into the impact of the intervention. Five major themes emerged: awareness of physical activity; sustaining physical activity behaviour change; improved health and well-being; enhanced social networks; and embedding physical activity in the workplace culture. This study shows it is feasible and effective to train employees in small and medium sized enterprises to support their colleagues in physical activity behaviour change.
Viester, L.; Verhagen, E.A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Purpose The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of a worksite health promotion intervention on musculoskeletal symptoms, physical functioning, work ability, work-related vitality, work performance, and sickness absence. Methods In a randomized controlled design, 314
Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R
We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.
Such, E; Salway, S; Copeland, R; Haake, S; Domone, S; Mann, S
Physical activity (PA) levels are lower among some UK Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups than the majority White British population and a variety of tailored interventions have emerged. This study documents the characteristics and logic of local adaptations, a vital first step in evaluating such innovations. An English PA data set was examined to identify and characterize PA programmes focussed on BME populations. Three case studies were conducted, employing documentary analysis and qualitative interviews. Netto et al.'s principles of adapting health promotion interventions for BME populations guided the analysis. Out of 861 PA interventions, 57 focussed on BME populations. These were typically aimed to engage the most inactive groups, improve both health and social outcomes and were largely publically/charitably funded. Tailored approaches matched Netto et al.'s five principles: using community resources for publicity, identifying and addressing barriers, developing sensitive communication strategies, working with values and accommodating cultural identification. Another common principle was identified: building community capacity for sustainability. PA interventions tailored to the needs of BME groups reflect their largely disadvantaged position in society and focus on inactivity. The six principles could be used as a framework for developing, designing and evaluating tailored interventions for BME populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Nicola D. Ridgers
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent technological advances provide an alternative yet underutilised opportunity for promoting physical activity in youth. The primary aim of the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA Study is to examine the short- and longer-term impact of a wearable activity monitor combined with digital behaviour change resources on adolescents’ daily physical activity levels. Methods/Design RAW-PA is a 12 week, multicomponent physical activity intervention that utilises a popular activity tracker (Fitbit® Flex and supporting digital materials that will be delivered online via social media. The resources target key behaviour change techniques. The intervention structure and components have been informed by participatory research principles. RAW-PA will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design with schools as the unit of randomisation. Twelve schools located in Melbourne, Australia, will allocated to either the intervention or wait-list control group. The target sample size is 300 Year 8 adolescents (aged 13–14 years. Participants’ moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity will be the primary outcome. Survey measures will be completed. Process factors (e.g. feasibility, acceptability/appeal, fidelity will also be collected. Discussion To our knowledge, this study will provide some of the first evidence concerning the effect of wearable activity trackers and digital behaviour change resources on adolescents’ physical activity levels. This study will provide insights into the use of such technologies for physical activity promotion, which may have a significant impact on health education, promotion, practice and policy. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12616000899448 . Date of registration: July 7, 2016.
Ridgers, Nicola D; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Ball, Kylie; Macfarlane, Susie; Lai, Samuel K; Richards, Kara; Ngan, Winsfred; Salmon, Jo
Recent technological advances provide an alternative yet underutilised opportunity for promoting physical activity in youth. The primary aim of the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study is to examine the short- and longer-term impact of a wearable activity monitor combined with digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' daily physical activity levels. RAW-PA is a 12 week, multicomponent physical activity intervention that utilises a popular activity tracker (Fitbit® Flex) and supporting digital materials that will be delivered online via social media. The resources target key behaviour change techniques. The intervention structure and components have been informed by participatory research principles. RAW-PA will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design with schools as the unit of randomisation. Twelve schools located in Melbourne, Australia, will allocated to either the intervention or wait-list control group. The target sample size is 300 Year 8 adolescents (aged 13-14 years). Participants' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity will be the primary outcome. Survey measures will be completed. Process factors (e.g. feasibility, acceptability/appeal, fidelity) will also be collected. To our knowledge, this study will provide some of the first evidence concerning the effect of wearable activity trackers and digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' physical activity levels. This study will provide insights into the use of such technologies for physical activity promotion, which may have a significant impact on health education, promotion, practice and policy. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12616000899448 . Date of registration: July 7, 2016.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental
Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin; Alptekin, Köksal; Berti, Loretta; Burti, Lorenzo; Burton, Alexandra; Dernovsek, Mojca; Dragomirecka, Eva; Freidl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian; Genova, Aneta; Germanavicius, Arunas; Halis, Ulaş; Henderson, John; Hjorth, Peter; Lai, Taavi; Larsen, Jens Ivar; Lech, Katarzyna; Lucas, Ramona; Marginean, Roxana; McDaid, David; Mladenova, Maya; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Paziuc, Alexandru; Paziuc, Petronela; Priebe, Stefan; Prot-Klinger, Katarzyna; Wancata, Johannes; Kilian, Reinhold
Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii) at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental disorders must take into
Cristina M. Caperchione
Conclusion: The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of multiple strategies to obtain a diverse sample of adults eligible to take part in a web-based physical activity promotion intervention. The use of dual screening processes ensured safe participation in the intervention. This approach to recruitment and physical activity screening can be used as a model for further trials in this area.
Gabriel Omar Tarducci; Guillermo Morea; María Florencia Castiglione; Ariel Bardach; Marcelo Tavella
Introduction. The rise of the obesity and lack of physical activity in children is a serious social problem. Adopting an active lifestyle contributes to the prevention of those disorders. Objective. To weigh up the effect of the promotion of a physical activity programme in schoolchildren. Material and method. Non-randomized controlled study of intervention. 123 children, both male and female participated, 32 of them in the group Intervention (I) and 92 in the group Control (C). The high freq...
Cofiño, Rafael; Aviñó, Dory; Benedé, Carmen Belén; Botello, Blanca; Cubillo, Jara; Morgan, Antony; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan Josep; Hernán, Mariano
An asset-based approach could be useful to revitalise health promotion or community health interventions combining work with multiple partnerships, positive health, community engagement, equity and orientation of health determinants. We set some recommendations about how to incorporate the assets model in programmes, projects and interventions in health promotion. Some techniques are described for assets mapping and some experiences with this methodology being developed in different regions are systematised. We propose the term "Asset-based Health Promotion/Community Health" as an operational definition to work at the local level with a community engagement and participatory approach, building alliances between different institutions at the state-regional level and trying to create a framework for action with the generation of evaluations and evidence to work on population interventions from the perspective of positive health. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. All rights reserved.
Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.
Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904
Emma J. Adams
Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity remain low, particularly in deprived areas. Improving the street environment to promote walking for transport using a community engagement approach is a potential strategy to increase physical activity. An understanding of the implementation of this intervention approach is needed to facilitate further research, replication and scale-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Fitter for Walking (FFW intervention in deprived neighbourhoods. Methods FFW was delivered in five regions of England between August 2008 and March 2012 and aimed to use a community engagement approach to improve the street environment to promote walking for transport. Implementation was assessed in relation to reach; dosage; implementation processes and adaptation; and factors influencing implementation. Three data sources were used: focus groups and face-to-face interviews with coordinators; implementation logs; and participation records. Results Reach: 155 community groups participated in FFW engaging 30,230 local residents. Dosage: A wide variety of environmental improvements were implemented by local authorities (LAs (42 projects and by communities (46 projects. Examples of LA-led improvements included removal of encroaching vegetation, new/improved pedestrian signage, new dropped kerbs/kerb improvements and new, repaired or improved footpaths. Examples of community-led improvements included planting bulbs, shrubs or bedding plants, clean-up days and litter pick-ups. In 32 projects, no environmental improvements were implemented. Promotional and awareness-raising activities were undertaken in 81 projects. Examples included led walks, themed walks, development of maps/resources to promote improved routes and community events. Processes and adaptation: The need for a planning phase, a preparatory phase, and a delivery phase with a four step process were identified. Adaptability to local context was
Adams, Emma J; Cavill, Nick; Sherar, Lauren B
Levels of physical activity remain low, particularly in deprived areas. Improving the street environment to promote walking for transport using a community engagement approach is a potential strategy to increase physical activity. An understanding of the implementation of this intervention approach is needed to facilitate further research, replication and scale-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Fitter for Walking (FFW) intervention in deprived neighbourhoods. FFW was delivered in five regions of England between August 2008 and March 2012 and aimed to use a community engagement approach to improve the street environment to promote walking for transport. Implementation was assessed in relation to reach; dosage; implementation processes and adaptation; and factors influencing implementation. Three data sources were used: focus groups and face-to-face interviews with coordinators; implementation logs; and participation records. Reach: 155 community groups participated in FFW engaging 30,230 local residents. Dosage: A wide variety of environmental improvements were implemented by local authorities (LAs) (42 projects) and by communities (46 projects). Examples of LA-led improvements included removal of encroaching vegetation, new/improved pedestrian signage, new dropped kerbs/kerb improvements and new, repaired or improved footpaths. Examples of community-led improvements included planting bulbs, shrubs or bedding plants, clean-up days and litter pick-ups. In 32 projects, no environmental improvements were implemented. Promotional and awareness-raising activities were undertaken in 81 projects. Examples included led walks, themed walks, development of maps/resources to promote improved routes and community events. Processes and adaptation: The need for a planning phase, a preparatory phase, and a delivery phase with a four step process were identified. Adaptability to local context was important. Factors influencing implementation: Five
Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin
Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested
Spoelstra, Sandra L; Schueller, Monica; Hilton, Melissa; Ridenour, Kimberly
This article presents an integrative review of the evidence for combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions that promote medication adherence. We undertook this review to establish a scientific foundation for development of interventions to promote medication adherence and to guide clinical practice. The World Health Organization has designated medication adherence as a global problem. Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour interventions have been found to individually promote medication adherence. However, there is a gap in the literature on the effect of combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural approaches to promote medication adherence. Integrative review. COCHRANE, PubMed and CINAHL were searched to access relevant studies between 2004-2014. Inclusion criteria were interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy with medication adherence as the outcome. Articles were assessed for measures of adherence and methodological rigour. Analysis was performed using an integrative review process. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. A randomised controlled trial reported pretreatment missed doses of 5·58 and post-treatment of 0·92 and trended towards significance. Four cohort studies had effect sizes of 0·19-0·35 (p motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions, five out of six were effective at improving medication adherence. Future studies with large rigorous randomised trials are needed. This review provides clinicians with the state of the science in relation to combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy interventions that promote medication adherence. A summary of intervention components and talking points are provided to aid nurses in informing decision-making and translating evidence into practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
N. (Nicky H.D. Terblanche
Full Text Available Orientation: Coaching is sometimes used in organisations to assist and support people when they are promoted into senior leadership positions. These coaching interventions are not optimally designed. Research purpose: The objective of this research was to investigate how a transition coaching intervention should be designed to cater specifically for people promoted into senior leadership positions. Motivation for the study: Leaders face daunting challenges when promoted into a senior position. Coaching could offer powerful support, but very little research exists on how to design a transition coaching intervention specifically aimed at supporting recently promoted senior leaders. Research design, approach and method: A constructivist, grounded theory approach using purposeful, theoretical sampling was used to identify 16 participants (recently promoted senior leaders, coaches, Human Resource [HR] partners and a line manager from various organisations with whom open-ended interviews were conducted on their experiences of coaching during a transition. Main findings: Transition coaching is used reactively, started too late and was not continued for long enough. Transition coaching design should take cognisance of coach–coachee matching; goal setting that includes the organisation’s goals; location of coaching session (away from the office; should include reflection and active experimentation; and use assessments and involving the line manager, mentors and the new leader’s team in the process. Practical and managerial implications: The findings of this research provide practical recommendations for applying coaching during transitions into senior leadership positions and may be useful to human resource practitioners when designing leadership support and succession planning interventions. Contribution and value added: To address the serious and real possibility of failure once leaders are promoted, and to optimise the time and money spent on
Hellström, Amanda; Willman, Ania
Sleep disturbances are common problems among individuals in hospitals and institutions. Although several studies have explored this phenomenon, there is still a lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of sleep-promoting nursing interventions. This systematic review aims to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of sleep-promoting nursing interventions in health care settings. A systematic review was performed. In June 2009, a literature search was carried out in the following databases: Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and MedLine/PubMed. Fifty-two references were identified and after critical appraisal, nine studies were selected. A compilation of the results and the outcomes of the interventions were carried out. Furthermore, the evidence strength of the interventions was assessed. Little evidence for the nursing interventions, sleep hygiene, music, natural sound and vision, stimulation of acupoints, relaxation, massage and aromatherapy is found. However, large effect size of interventions were found when using massage, acupuncture and music, natural sounds or music videos. The use of sleep hygiene and relaxation, on the other hand, produced only small effects. The lack of high evidence strength for the nursing interventions together with the uncertainty about their effects calls for more research before implementing these interventions into clinical practice. Copyright ©2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T
This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.
Kassegne, Sethson; Kays, Megan B; Nzohabonayo, Jerome
Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication ...
Arneson, Hanna; Ekberg, Kerstin
The aim of this study was to evaluate a theory-based method for workplace health promotion (WHP) with regard to possible facilitation of empowerment processes. The intervention tool was the pedagogic method known as problem-based learning (PBL). The aim of the intervention was to promote empowerment and health among the employees. The intervention was implemented in three organizations within the public sector in Sweden, in a bottom-up approach. All employees, including management, in each organization, were offered the opportunity to participate (n = 113) and 87% (n = 97) participated. The intervention was implemented in 13 groups of six to eight participants who met once a week over a period of 4 months. The predetermined overall goal of the intervention was to promote employee health within the organizational setting. A facilitator in each group and a group-specific mutual agreement guided the intervention, as did the problem solving process. The participants set goals and developed strategies to reach their goals between the meetings. Thirty informants were interviewed in seven focus groups after the intervention about the intervention method and the process, following a semi-structured theme guide. The phenomenographic analysis resulted in six descriptive categories: reflection, awareness and insight, self-direction and self-management, group coherence, social support and actions. The results correspond to established theories of components of empowerment processes. The method initiated processes of change at organizational, workplace and individual levels as the participants examined their work situation, determined problems and initiated solutions. Social support and group coherence were expressed as essential in order to transform challenging strategies into action and goal realization. The findings indicate that systematic improvements of social support and group coherence among employees ought to be facilitated by the organization as a health-promoting
O'Donnell, L; San Doval, A; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C R
This study examined the effectiveness of video-based patient education interventions on promoting condom use among men and women seeking services at a large public STD clinic in New York City. Culturally sensitive video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors were evaluated in a randomized study of black and Hispanic male and female STD clinic patients. Subjects (n = 1,653) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) control, 2) video viewing, and 3) video viewing followed by participation in an interactive group session led by a trained facilitator. The authors examined 1) the effectiveness of interventions in increasing STD and condom-related knowledge, positive attitudes about condoms, human immunodeficiency virus/STD risk perceptions, and self-efficacy and 2) the relationships among these variables, level of intervention, and condom acquisition, a behavioral measure of condom use. Compared with a control group, subjects assigned to video viewing demonstrated greater knowledge about condoms and STDs, more positive attitudes about condom use, increased human immunodeficiency virus/STD risk perceptions, greater self-efficacy, and higher rates of condom acquisition. Subjects assigned to video viewing followed by interactive sessions demonstrated still further increases in risk perceptions, self-efficacy, and condom acquisition, but not in knowledge or condom attitudes. A significant proportion of the association between the behavioral outcome of condom acquisition and level of intervention is attributable to the impact of interventions on risk perception and self-efficacy. Based on extensive formative research that identified barriers to safer sex behaviors, video-based interventions were developed to promote condom use among black and Hispanic men and women attending STD clinics. Designed to be integrated into clinic services, these interventions help improve knowledge, promote positive attitudes about condoms, and increase condom
de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R
BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...
Kamdar, Biren B; Yang, Jessica; King, Lauren M; Neufeld, Karin J; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Rowden, Annette M; Brower, Roy G; Collop, Nancy A; Needham, Dale M
Critically ill patients commonly experience poor sleep quality in the intensive care unit (ICU) because of various modifiable factors. To address this issue, an ICU-wide, multifaceted quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to promote sleep in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU (MICU). To supplement previously published results of this QI intervention, the present article describes the specific QI framework used to develop and implement this intervention, which consists of 4 steps: (a) summarizing the evidence to create a list of sleep-promoting interventions, (b) identifying and addressing local barriers to implementation, (c) selecting performance measures to assess intervention adherence and patient outcomes, and (d) ensuring that all patients receive the interventions through staff engagement and education and regular project evaluation. Measures of performance included daily completion rates of daytime and nighttime sleep improvement checklists and completion rates of individual interventions. Although long-term adherence and sustainability pose ongoing challenges, this model provides a foundation for future ICU sleep promotion initiatives. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.
Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Schulte, Laura; Roberts, Sara M; Stevens, Beth; Ransdell, Lynda
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention (a women's book club; Women Bound to be Active) in promoting long-term physical activity. Thirty-five women (26-70 years; mean age 50.6 years) completed the 8-month intervention and participated in the one-year follow-up. At follow-up, physical activity returned to baseline levels; however, self-worth and body mass index significantly improved. Women were more knowledgeable about physical activity at follow-up; however, they failed to maintain physical activity after the intervention. Components of the intervention were effective in improving self-worth and lowering BMI at one-year follow-up. To enhance long-term physical activity adherence, continued research and intervention modifications are needed.
Reis, Rodrigo S; Kelly, Cheryl M; Parra, Diana C; Barros, Mauro; Gomes, Grace; Malta, Deborah; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C
To identify the highest priorities for research on environmental and policy changes for promoting physical activity (PA) in Brazil; to uncover any gaps between researchers' and practitioners' priorities; and to consider which tools, methods, collaborative strategies, and actions could be useful to moving a research agenda forward. This was a mixed-methods study (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) in February 2010-January 2011. A total of 240 individuals in the PA field (186 practitioners and 54 researchers) were asked to generate research ideas; 82 participants provided 266 original statements from which 52 topics emerged. Participants rated topics by "importance" and "feasibility;" a separate convenience sample of 21 individuals categorized them. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to create concept maps and pattern matches. Five distinct clusters emerged from the concept mapping, of which "effectiveness and innovation in PA interventions" was rated most important by both practitioners and researchers. Pattern matching showed a divergence between the groups, especially regarding feasibility, where there was no consensus. The study results provided the basis for a research agenda to advance the understanding of environmental and policy influences on PA promotion in Brazil and Latin America. These results should stimulate future research and, ultimately, contribute to the evidence-base of successful PA strategies in Latin America.
Emilio J. Martínez-López
Full Text Available Physical education is a favourable educational framework for the development of programmes aimed at increasing physical activity in children and thus reducing sedentarism. The progressive increase of overweight students demands global control and follow-up measurement of these behaviours in both in and out of school. The pedometer can be a useful tool in this field. It is easy to use and allow Physical Education (PE departments to quantify their students' number of steps/day. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a pedometer intervention on body fat and BMI levels in overweight teenagers. Besides, the effects of the programme are analysed according to two other variables: pedometer ownership and gender, distinguishing between out-of-school and school hours, weekdays and weekends. The sample comprises 112 overweight students (49 boys and 63 girls from 5 secondary schools. Participants were asked to follow a physical activity programme consisting on a minimum of 12000 and 10000 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. It also allowed them to get up to 2 extra points in their PE marks. Results were measured after 6 weeks of programme application as well as after 6 weeks of retention. Results revealed significantly reduced BMI in the teenagers with their own pedometer (p < 0.05. The difference observed in the number of steps/day between boys (12050 and girls (9566 was significant in all measured time periods (p < 0.05. Besides, both overweight boys and girls were observed to take 1000 steps/day less at weekends than in weekdays. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposal of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight boys and girls, respectively, accompanied by a reinforcement programme in their final PE marks, seems sufficient to obtain significant BMI reductions. Besides, PE is shown a favourable framework for the proposal of pedometer-impelled weight loss programmes in overweight youth
Full Text Available Individuals with Rett syndrome (RS present a vast array of orthopedic and neurological difficulties. Typical problems, which may need to be addressed, when treating this population are functional limitations, low cardiovascular capacity, hypotonia, ataxia, apraxia, loss of transitional movements, spasticity, scoliosis and/or kyphosis, loss of ambulation, loss of hand function, foot deformities, and spatial disorientation. Coping with such difficulties and overcoming the associated limitations carry a wearisome task for the individual with Rett as well as for her family. An informed and intensely applied physical therapy regime can help the child and the family cope and even overcome the above-mentioned limitations. The present article presents some insights regarding the intervention with individuals with RS, an overview of typical neuromuscular problems associated with RS, and appropriate suggestions pertaining to clinical intervention that have been found to contribute to this populations well-being. The information presented is mainly based on the clinical knowledge of the authors.
Bamidis, P D; Vivas, A B; Styliadis, C; Frantzidis, C; Klados, M; Schlee, W; Siountas, A; Papageorgiou, S G
Maintaining a healthy brain is a critical factor for the quality of life of elderly individuals and the preservation of their independence. Challenging aging brains through cognitive training and physical exercises has shown to be effective against age-related cognitive decline and disease. But how effective are such training interventions? What is the optimal combination/strategy? Is there enough evidence from neuropsychological observations, animal studies, as well as, structural and functional neuroimaging investigations to interpret the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the observed neuroplasticity of the aging brain? This piece of work summarizes recent findings toward these questions, but also highlights the role of functional brain connectivity work, an emerging discipline for future research in healthy aging and the study of the underlying mechanisms across the life span. The ultimate aim is to conclude on recommended multimodal training, in light of contemporary trends in the design of exergaming interventions. The latter issue is discussed in conjunction with building up neuroscientific knowledge and envisaged future research challenges in mapping, understanding and training the aging brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slining, Meghan M; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Duffey, Kiyah J
The purpose of this study was to review state regulations promoting increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviors in infants in child care and to assess consistency with recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We compared existing state and territory licensing and administrative regulations to recent IOM recommendations to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time in very young children attending out-of-home child care (both child care centers and family child care homes). Three independent reviewers searched two sources (a publicly available website and WestlawNext™) and compared regulations with five IOM recommendations: 1) providing daily opportunities for infants to move, 2) engaging with infants on the ground, 3) providing daily tummy time for infants less than six months of age, 4) using cribs, car seats and high chairs for their primary purpose, and 5) limiting the use of restrictive equipment for holding infants while they are awake. We used Pearson chi-square tests to assess associations between geographic region, year of last update, and number of state regulations consistent with the IOM recommendations. The mean (SD) number of regulations for states was 1.9 (1.3) for centers and 1.6 (1.2) for homes out of a possible 5.0. Two states had regulations for all five recommendations, Arizona for centers and Virginia for homes. Six states and territories had zero regulations for child care centers and seven states and territories had zero regulations for family child care homes. There were no significant associations between geographic region and number of regulations consistent with IOM recommendations. Out-of-home child care settings are important targets for optimal early child health interventions. While most states had some regulations related to the promotion of physical activity among infants, few states had regulations for more than three of the five IOM recommendations. Enhancing state regulations in child care
Macias, Cathaleene; Panch, Trishan; Hicks, Yale M; Scolnick, Jason S; Weene, David Lyle; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M
This pilot study tested the acceptability and usability of a prototype app designed to promote the physical well-being of adults with psychiatric disorders. The application under evaluation, WellWave, promoted walking as a physical exercise, and offered a variety of supportive non-physical activities, including confidential text-messaging with peer staff, and a digital library of readings and videos on recovery from psychiatric illness. Study participants engaged strongly in the app throughout the 4-week study, showing a 94 % mean daily usage rate, and a 73 % mean response rate across all electronic messages and prompts, which approximates the gold standard of 75 % for momentary ecological assessment studies. Seven of the ten study participants averaged two or more walks per week, beginning with 5-min walks and ending with walks lasting 20 min or longer. This responsiveness to the walking prompts, and the overall high rate of engagement in other app features, suggest that adults with psychiatric conditions would welcome and benefit from similar smartphone interventions that promote healthy behaviours in life domains other than exercise. Pilot study results also suggest that smartphone applications can be useful as research tools in the development and testing of theories and practical strategies for encouraging healthy lifestyles. Participants were prompted periodically to rate their own health quality, perceived control over their health, and stage-of-change in adopting a walking routine, and these electronic self-ratings showed acceptable concurrent and discriminant validity, with all participants reporting moderate to high motivation to exercise by the end of the study.
Ricciardelli Lina A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in
Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy
Evaluations of physical activity and health media campaigns have been limited and ignore the complex process of communication and the socially constructed nature of news messages. A systematic search strategy was conducted of the literature which was then assessed from two perspectives. First, studies since 1998 were reviewed for their success in impacting message recall and behavior change. Second, employing a critical media studies perspective the papers were assessed for the presence of a more sophisticated understanding of the media processes of inception, transmission and reception. Overall, recent studies support mass media interventions in influencing short-term physical activity message recall and to a lesser extent associated changes in physical activity knowledge. However, the majority of the papers were found to follow a social marketing or media advocacy theory of media promotion with little in-depth consideration of the comprehensive media processes involved in creating media messages and meaning. Simplistic understandings of media transmission dominate in assessing physical activity and health media campaigns. Fuller understandings of the success of media campaigns, the recall of media messages or associated behaviour change can only truly be understood through the application of a more sophisticated form of media analysis.
Cecília Helena de Siqueira Sigaud
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the number of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing before and after a playful learning intervention with preschool children. Method: A quasi-experimental, quantitative, before and after study design was conducted in an early childhood educational institution, with children between three and five years of age. The intervention consisted of three meetings with educational activities about tooth brushing, whose outcome was evaluated by means of observation of ten behaviors suitable for tooth brushing. Results: Forty-four children participated in the study. The mean of adequate behaviors was 4.4 before the intervention, and 8.5 after the intervention. A significant increase in the adoption of appropriate behaviors for tooth brushing (p <0.01 was identified. Conclusion: Nurses can enhance oral health promotion actions with preschoolers in preschool institution using playful learning interventions
Matsudo, Victor; Matsudo, Sandra; Andrade, Douglas; Araujo, Timoteo; Andrade, Erinaldo; de Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Braggion, Glaucia
The purpose of this paper is to present key points of an intervention programme (Agita São Paulo Program) to promote physical activity in a developing country. Agita is a multi-level, community-wide intervention designed to increase knowledge about the benefits and the level of physical activity in a mega-population of 34 million inhabitants of São Paulo State, Brazil. The main message was taken from the Centers for Disease Control/American College of Sports Medicine (CDC/ACSM) recommendation that: 'everyone should accumulate at least 30 minutes of physical activity, on most days of the weeks, of moderate intensity, in one single or in multiple sessions'. Activities were encouraged in three settings: home, transport and leisure time. Focus groups were students from elementary schools through to college, white and blue collar workers, and elderly people. Innovative aspects included: (1) a research centre leading the process, (2) scientific and institutional partnerships (over 160 groups), (3) a feasible approach--the 'one-step-ahead' model, (4) empowerment, (5) inclusion, (6) non-paid media, (7) social marketing, and (8) culture-linked. Data were obtained from 645 random, home-based questionnaires over four years--stratified by sex, age, education and socio-economic level. These data show that the Agita message reached 55.7% of the population, and among these, 23.1% knew the main message. Recall of Agita and knowledge of its purpose were well distributed among different socioeconomic levels, being known by 67% of the most educated. The prevalence of people reaching the recommendation was 54.8% (men 48.7%, women 61%); and risk of being sedentary was quite smaller among those who knew the Agita message (7.1%) compared with those who did not know (13.1%). In conclusion, based upon the Agita São Paulo experience, it appears that a multi-level, community-wide intervention to promote physical activity may obtain good results if the model contains the items listed above.
Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H
Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.
Van Hulst, Andraea; Barnett, Tracie A; Déry, Véronique; Côté, Geneviève; Colin, Christine
Taking advantage of a natural experiment made possible by the placement of health-promoting vending machines (HPVMs), we evaluated the impact of the intervention on consumers' attitudes toward and practices with vending machines in a pediatric hospital. Vending machines offering healthy snacks, meals, and beverages were developed to replace four vending machines offering the usual high-energy, low-nutrition fare. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation design was used; data were collected through exit surveys and six-week follow-up telephone surveys among potential vending machine users before (n=293) and after (n=226) placement of HPVMs. Chi-2 statistics were used to compare pre- and post-intervention participants' responses. More than 90% of pre- and post-intervention participants were satisfied with their purchase. Post-intervention participants were more likely to state that nutritional content and appropriateness of portion size were elements that influenced their purchase. Overall, post-intervention participants were more likely than pre-intervention participants to perceive as healthy the options offered by the hospital vending machines. Thirty-three percent of post-intervention participants recalled two or more sources of information integrated in the HPVM concept. No differences were found between pre- and post-intervention participants' readiness to adopt healthy diets. While the HPVM project had challenges as well as strengths, vending machines offering healthy snacks are feasible in hospital settings.
Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C
This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.
Hawkins, Jemma L.; Bravo, Paulina; Gobat, Nina; Rollnick, Stephen; Jerzembek, Gabrielle; Whitehead, Sarah; Chanon, Sue; Kelson, Mark; Adams, Orla; Murphy, Simon
Objective: In the light of the shortcomings of curriculum-based health promotion in secondary schools, group motivational interviewing provides a potential alternative approach. This two-phase study set out to establish the key components, feasibility and acceptability of a group motivational interviewing intervention, focused on alcohol…
Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie
Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.
Myers, Nicholas D; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Prilleltensky, Ora; McMahon, Adam; Dietz, Samantha; Rubenstein, Carolyn L
Subjective well-being refers to people's level of satisfaction with life as a whole and with multiple dimensions within it. Interventions that promote subjective well-being are important because there is evidence that physical health, mental health, substance use, and health care costs may be related to subjective well-being. Fun For Wellness (FFW) is a new online universal intervention designed to promote growth in multiple dimensions of subjective well-being. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial evaluation of the efficacy of FFW to increase subjective well-being in multiple dimensions in a universal sample. The study design was a prospective, double-blind, parallel group randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at baseline and 30 and 60 days-post baseline. A total of 479 adult employees at a major university in the southeast of the USA were enrolled. Recruitment, eligibility verification, and data collection were conducted online. Measures of interpersonal, community, occupational, physical, psychological, economic (i.e., I COPPE), and overall subjective well-being were constructed based on responses to the I COPPE Scale. A two-class linear regression model with complier average causal effect estimation was imposed for each dimension of subjective well-being. Participants who complied with the FFW intervention had significantly higher subjective well-being, as compared to potential compliers in the Usual Care group, in the following dimensions: interpersonal at 60 days, community at 30 and 60 days, psychological at 60 days, and economic at 30 and 60 days. Results from this study provide some initial evidence for both the efficacy of, and possible revisions to, the FFW intervention.
Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F
Objectives To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13–14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Methods Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3±0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. Conclusions We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group
Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F
To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13-14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3 ± 0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group. Future work will examine the feasibility
Schulzke, Sven M; Kaempfen, Siree; Trachsel, Daniel; Patole, Sanjay K
-center studies that evaluated daily physical activity for three and one-half to eight weeks during initial hospitalization. Methodological quality and reporting of included trials were variable.Four trials demonstrated moderate short-term benefits of physical activity for bone mineralization at completion of the physical activity program. The only trial assessing long-term effects on bone mineralization showed no effect of physical activity administered during initial hospitalization on bone mineralization at 12 months corrected age. Meta-analysis from four trials demonstrated a positive effect of physical activity on daily weight gain (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.21 g/kg/d, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 3.19). Data from four trials showed a positive effect on linear growth (WMD 0.12 cm/wk, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24) but not on head growth (WMD -0.03 cm/wk, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.08) during the study period. Only one trial reported on fractures (this outcome did not occur in intervention and control groups) and complications of preterm birth (no significant differences between intervention and control groups). None of the trials assessed other outcomes relevant to this review. Some evidence suggests that physical activity programs might promote short-term weight gain and bone mineralization in preterm infants. Data are inadequate to allow assessment of harm or long-term effects. Current evidence does not support the routine use of physical activity programs in preterm infants. Further trials incorporating infants with a high baseline risk of osteopenia are required. These trials should address adverse events, long-term outcomes, and the effects of nutritional intake (calories, protein, calcium, phosphorus).
Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H
Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a social-learning and attachment-based intervention using video feedback to support sensitive parenting and at the same time setting firm limits. Empirical studies and meta-analyses have shown that sensitive parenting is the key determinant to promote secure child-parent attachment relationships and that adequate parental discipline contributes to fewer behavior problems in children. Building on this evidence, VIPP-SD has been tested in various populations of at-risk parents and vulnerable children (in the age range of zero to six years), as well as in the context of child care. In twelve randomized controlled trials including 1116 parents and caregivers, VIPP-SD proved to be effective in promoting sensitive caregiving, while positive social-emotional child outcomes were also found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
Conclusion: Available evidence for the cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions is scattered, but points towards the cost-effectiveness of certain interventions. Until this moment, cost-effectiveness has more often been studied for individual-level interventions. This is potentially due to some methodological challenges in assessing the cost-effectiveness of population-based interventions.
Hooker, Steven P; Seavey, William; Weidmer, Curtiss E; Harvey, Danielle J; Stewart, Anita L; Gillis, Dawn E; Nicholl, Katrina Lennea; King, Abby C
Attempts to study the translation of evidence-based physical activity interventions in community settings are scarce. This project was an investigation of whether 13 diverse local lead agencies could effectively implement a choice-based, telephone-assisted physical activity promotion program for older adults based on intervention models proven efficacious in research settings. At baseline, participants developed their own physical activity programs through an individualized planning session based on preference, health status, readiness to change, and available community resources. Thereafter, participants received regular telephone calls over a 1-year period from a trained staff member or volunteer support buddy. Additional program components consisted of health education workshops, newsletters, and group-based physical activities. Self-report data on caloric expenditure due to all and moderate or greater intensity physical activities were collected from 447 participants (M age = 68 +/- 8.6 years). A significant increase (p activity duration and frequency. These changes were observed in participants across all sites. The increases in weekly caloric expenditure were commensurate with findings from several previous randomized clinical trials. The utilization of community agency staff and volunteers receiving basic training to implement essential program components proved feasible. Very favorable levels of program satisfaction expressed by community staff, volunteer support buddies, and participants, combined with the significant increases in physical activity, warrant further dissemination of the intervention model.
Babar, Z U D; Kan, S W; Scahill, S
The objective of this paper was to undertake a narrative review of the literature regarding strategies and interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines. A literature search was performed between November 2011 and January 2012 to identify published full text original research articles documenting interventions to promote the use of generic medicines. Keywords used were: "generic medicine", "generic drug", "intervention", "promotion", "acceptance", "uptake", "generic/therapeutic substitution" and their related root words. The electronic databases comprised of Embase (1980 - present), Google, Google Scholar, Medline (1948 - present), PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link and The Cochrane Library. An interpretative narrative synthesis was undertaken and emergent themes analysed and reported. Eighteen studies were included in the final analysis. There were seven main themes which including; education, financial incentives, advertising to promote generic medicines, free generic medicine trials, administrative forms and medicines use review (MUR). These themes were further classified into subthemes. Education was subdivided into consumer and physician education. Financial incentives included the influence of financial incentives on both consumers and physicians. The subthemes in the financial incentives category included the changes in co-payment for consumers, reward payment for physicians and fund-holding schemes. Advertising included the sub-themes of print media and the use of anthropomorphic images, while free generic medicines trial was made up of free vouchers for generic medicines and generic medicines sampling system. The studies have mixed results; some interventions in some settings were useful, while others were not. Not all interventions consistently improved the uptake of generic medicines. There was limited literature available and further work is required to develop a range of interventions to support the uptake of generic
Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Best, Keren; Hesketh, Kylie D
Physical activity is associated with many physical and mental health benefits, however many children do not meet the national physical activity guidelines. While schools provide an ideal setting to promote children's physical activity, adding physical activity to the school day can be difficult given time constraints often imposed by competing key learning areas. Classroom-based physical activity may provide an opportunity to increase school-based physical activity while concurrently improving academic-related outcomes. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of classroom-based physical activity interventions on academic-related outcomes. A secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of these lessons on physical activity levels over the study duration. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO) was performed in January 2016 and updated in January 2017. Studies that investigated the association between classroom-based physical activity interventions and academic-related outcomes in primary (elementary) school-aged children were included. Meta-analyses were conducted in Review Manager, with effect sizes calculated separately for each outcome assessed. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria for the review, and 16 provided sufficient data and appropriate design for inclusion in the meta-analyses. Studies investigated a range of academic-related outcomes including classroom behaviour (e.g. on-task behaviour), cognitive functions (e.g. executive function), and academic achievement (e.g. standardised test scores). Results of the meta-analyses showed classroom-based physical activity had a positive effect on improving on-task and reducing off-task classroom behaviour (standardised mean difference = 0.60 (95% CI: 0.20,1.00)), and led to improvements in academic achievement when a progress monitoring tool was used (standardised mean difference = 1.03 (95% CI: 0.22,1.84)). However
Full Text Available Background: Sexual health is a critical component of health and well-being that remains a public health challenge, with many sexual health interventions having mixed success at preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS (1. One strategy in ensuring greater success of sexual health interventions is to use behavior change theory as a guide for the development and implementation of interventions. Behaviour change theory allows for greater understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence an individual’s motivations for change (2. Some studies have shown that interventions are more likely to succeed when theory is used in the development and implementation process (3–7. However, many researchers continue to use theory as a loose framework without explicitly applying or testing it (8. Currently, it is unknown how behaviour change theory is used in computer-based sexual health interventions. Aim: To investigate a systematic review on computer-based sexual health promotion interventions to determine the extent that behaviour change theory is used to inform, develop, and test the interventions. Methods: We conducted an in-depth secondary analysis of a Cochrane review on computer-based interventions for sexual health promotion (1 to determine the extent that behaviour change theory was used to inform, develop, and test the interventions. The extent and type of theory use was assessed using the Theory Coding Scheme (TCS − a reliable method for assessing the extent to which behavioural interventions are theory-based (8. Two independent coders conducted the analysis. Data were extracted and grouped according to the six categories outlined by the Theory Coding Scheme. Results: The findings suggest that over half of the primary studies (n=9 mention theory in the background to the study. Fewer studies (n=6 used the theory or predictors of behaviour to design the intervention or to select intervention recipients. While
Duhoux, Arnaud; Menear, Matthew; Charron, Maude; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Alderson, Marie
To synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions aiming to promote or improve the mental health of primary care nurses. Primary care nurses have been found to have high levels of emotional exhaustion and to be at increased risk of suffering from burnout, anxiety and depression. Given the increasingly critical role of nurses in high-performing primary care, there is a need to identify interventions that can effectively reduce these professionals' mental health problems and promote their well-being. We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of interventions at the individual, group, work environment or organizational level. Eight articles reporting on seven unique studies met all eligibility criteria. They were non-randomized pre-post intervention studies and reported positive impacts of interventions on at least some outcomes, though caution is warranted in interpreting these results given the moderate-weak methodological quality of studies. This systematic review found moderate-weak evidence that primary, secondary and combined interventions can reduce burnout and stress in nurses practising in community-based health care settings. The results highlight a need for the implementation and evaluation of new strategies tailored for community-based nurses practising in primary care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.
Lin, Qian; Yang, Lina; Li, Fang; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Deng, Jing; Hu, Xiangying
Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village-based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple-stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS). Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Self-reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%–29.2% at baseline to 41.7%–59.2% one year post-intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35). Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. Conclusions: The results indicated that an integrated village-based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women. PMID:28230798
Maselli, Marco; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
Physical activity (PA) promotion among university students is important to contribute to a lifelong healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, research in the field is still limited in quantity, quality and generalizability. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of two individual-based strategies for promoting PA among university students in such university contexts where course-based interventions are difficult to implement. Thirty-three university students were recruited by means of face-to-face interviews and randomly assigned to three groups. The first group attended individual counselling sessions (based on the Social-Cognitive theory and the Transtheoretical model of behaviour change) via videoconferencing calls, the second used wearable PA monitors designed to motivate to PA, and the third served as control. Interventions lasted 12 weeks. Measures of weekly PA (self-reported by questionnaires and recorded by ActiGraph-GT3X+ monitors) and the stage of change of participants were collected at baseline (t0), immediately after the 12-week intervention (t1), and after a 3-month follow-up (t2). Students in the individual counselling group increased self-reported energy expenditure between t0 and t1 and maintained this improvement at t2; on the contrary, there was no increase in ActiGraph measures of PA. Progression through stages of changes was observed in the same group at t1, followed by some relapses at t2. No significant differences were found neither in the group of students who used the PA monitors nor in the control group. Although measures of self-reported PA and stage of change suggest the effectiveness of the counselling intervention, the results obtained with accelerometers are contrasting, probably due to the fact that some types of PA participants engaged in could not be recorder by accelerometers. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of individual counselling to promote PA in university students. The autonomous use of PA monitors had
Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Taro; Saito, Kyoko; Yasunaga, Masashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Kim, Mi-Ji; Tanaka, Chiaki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Uchida, Hayato; Shinkai, Shoji; Watanabe, Shuichiro
exercise fulfillment demonstrated better mental and psychological health, regardless of their physical activity levels. Older adults with low-exercise fulfillment could potentially improve their physical abilities; however, their mental and psychological health significantly differed from that of older adults with medium- or high-exercise fulfillment after exercise intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence, which indicates that exercise can provide sufficient fulfillment and contribute to the promotion and improvement of health in older adults. Moreover, performing adequate tests on exercise fulfillment may aid in assessing the effects of intervention programs in regional healthcare systems.
Jackson, Caree J; Mullis, Rebecca M; Hughes, Marilyn
Childhood overweight is disproportionately worse in minority and low-income populations. Theater is a promising and effective tool for delivering health education to these underserved populations, but no known studies have examined the use of theater to promote both nutrition and physical activity to minority youth. To develop an interactive, theater-based intervention that conveys health messages to low-income, urban, African Americans and engages them in learning ways to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Community partners worked to develop a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. A focus group provided urban adolescents' thoughts about their desires for the intervention. Based on input from all community partners, the group created a theater-based intervention. Researchers used a quasi-experimental (pre-/posttest) design with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. Participants learned health messages through theater, dance, and music and gave feedback on the program sessions and materials. The program ended with a dinner theater performance showcasing information that students learned during the intervention. Participants received six theater-based health lessons. Learning objectives for each health education session were achieved. Each participant contributed to and performed in the final performance. All program participants were highly satisfied with the theater-based method of learning health messages. A community-academic partnership succeeded in developing a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention that satisfied participating adolescents.
Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael
Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.
Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period.
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva
Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.
Middelweerd, A.; te Velde, S.J.; Klein, M.C.A.; Van Halteren, A.T.; Brug, J.
Background: Because 67.5 % of Dutch adults is not sufficiently physically active, effective innovative and smart physical activity (PA) promotion is warranted. The ubiquitous nature of smartphones offer new possibilities in PA promotion. Because of their built-in sensors and their ability to connect
Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R
To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.
Folta, Sara C; Kuder, Julia F; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva; Naumova, Elena N; Nelson, Miriam E; Economos, Christina D
The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child's day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322.
Physical activity’s benefits for well-being are widely known, but the prevalence of physical inactivity is high. The information concerning the antecedents of lifelong physical activity is lacking. The association between lifelong physical activity and psychological well-being also needs further studying. Moreover, there exists no evidence whether long-term lifestyle interventions containing physical activity counseling have psychologically beneficial effects. This thesis examined the childho...
Smith, Nicole J.; Lounsbery, Monica
Quality physical education is recognized for its health-related benefits and should be supported as an integral component of every school's curriculum. Unfortunately, quality physical education is not easily established or maintained. Many physical education programs face challenges such as reduced staff, large class sizes, inadequate facilities…
Lamanna, Denise; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Durbin, Janet; O'Campo, Patricia; Poremski, Daniel; Tepper, Joshua
Promoting timely and continuous care for people experiencing homelessness has been a challenge in many jurisdictions, plagued by access barriers and service fragmentation. As part of a larger programme evaluation, this study used qualitative methods to examine the role of a brief interdisciplinary intervention in supporting continuity of care for this population in a large Canadian urban centre. The intervention provides time-limited case management, primary and psychiatric care, and peer accompaniment to homeless adults with unmet health needs discharged from hospital. Data were collected from 52 study participants between July 2013 and December 2014. Three focus groups were conducted with service providers and people with lived experience of homelessness, and 29 individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with service users and other key informants. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis was informed by existing frameworks for continuity of care, while remaining open to additional or unexpected findings. Findings suggest that brief interdisciplinary interventions can promote continuity of care by offering low-barrier access, timely and responsive service provision, including timely connection to long-term services and supports, appropriate individualised services and effective co-ordination of services. Although brief interdisciplinary interventions were perceived to promote access, timeliness and co-ordination of care for this population with complex health and social needs, gaps in the local service delivery context can present persisting barriers to care comprehensiveness and continuity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Trompette, Justine; Kivits, Joëlle; Minary, Laetitia; Cambon, Linda; Alla, François
The effects of health promotion interventions are the result not only of the interventions themselves, but also of the contexts in which they unfold. The objective of this study was to analyze, through stakeholders' discourse, the characteristics of an intervention that can influence its outcomes. This case study was based on semi-structured interviews with health promotion stakeholders involved in a regional program (PRALIMAP). General hypotheses on transferability and on how the intervention is presumed to produce its effects were used to construct an interview guide. Interviews were analyzed using thematic coding. Twenty-three stakeholders were interviewed. Results showed stakeholders made few references to population and environment characteristics. Three themes emerged as significant for the stakeholders: implementation modalities and methodology, modalities used to mobilize actors; and transferability-promoting factors and barriers. Our work contributes to a better understanding not only of transferability factors, but also of stakeholders' perceptions of them, which are just as important, because those perceptions themselves are a factor in mobilization of actors, implementation, and transferability.
Full Text Available Introduction: The study was carried out in Cruz del Eje Department, Cordoba Province, Argentina. It was based on diagnosis of conceptions of health, concentration of fluoride in drinking water and accessibility to dental coverage in 71 rural schools. Additionally, parents and teachers’ conceptions of general and oral health, dental clinical status and sialochemistry of students from eight schools were considered. Objective: To evaluate a community intervention strategy for promoting oral health in rural contexts. Through the participation of the teacher as a mediator of healthy pattern, this strategy was developed. Methods: In order to elaborate oral health promoting strategies, educational workshops, epistolary communication and on site tutorials meetings were implemented. Specific health projects to be added to the Educational Institutional Programs, as a contextualized mediating strategy for promoting oral health were designed by teachers. The strategy was evaluated comparing dental caries increase (CI detected the previous year and the one following the implementation of the educational plans. Mac Nemar's test was applied, and p<0.05 was set to indicate statistical differences between both periods. Results: A 30.43% CI (p<0.0001 was observed the year before implementing the educational programs as well as a CI reduction to 17.39% (p=0.0002 a year after their application. Conclusion: The drop off in 57.14% of the CI in rural areas, confirms the intervention strategy of designed for this particular context.Keywords: community intervention, oral health promotion, rural communities.
Burgess, Caroline; Teasdale, Emma; Omar, Lynne; Tucker, Lorraine; Ramirez, Amanda-Jane
Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer to all older women attending for their final routine mammogram within the NHS Breast Screening Programme. If the Promoting Early Presentation (PEP) intervention is demonstrated to be cost-effective, it may be implemented across the NHS requiring at least four radiographers per screening service to deliver the