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Sample records for intervention istaps study

  1. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  2. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in

  4. SAFE MOTHERHOOD INTERVENTION STUDIES IN AFRICA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-11-01

    Nov 1, 2000 ... M. Luck, DSc, Researcher, Centro de Malária e Outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal. SAFE MOTHERHOOD INTERVENTION STUDIES IN AFRICA: A REVIEW. M. LUCK. ABSTRACT. Objective: To review the findings of ...

  5. Good clinical practice in clinical interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Herman; Diamant, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines should always be implemented and obeyed in clinical interventional studies. In this mini-review, we will address several burning questions relating to GCP in a concise 'frequently asked questions' format. While compliance to current rules and regulations is our mission, we also wish to play devil's advocate attempting to translate the rules into sizeable chunks using a high dose of common sense.

  6. Quality assurance in non-interventional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Karlheinz; Capan, Müge; Herbold, Marlis; Schinzel, Stefan; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, drug research and surveillance after authorisation becomes more and more important for several reasons. Non-interventional studies (NIS) investigate various aspects of drug use including efficacy and safety under real life conditions. Such kind of health services research should be on a high scientific, methodological and organisational level. Therefore accompanying measures to improve or to keep the quality are highly recommended. The aim of quality management is: first to avoid bias of results by using an appropriate study design and an adequate data analysis, second to assure authenticity, completeness and validity of the data and third to identify and resolve deficiencies at an early stage. Basic principles are laid down in corresponding guidelines and recommendations of authorities, institutes and societies. Various guidelines for good epidemiological practice (GEP) were published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international and regional societies for epidemiology. In addition in Germany the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) together with the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) and the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) have published respectively recommendations dealing with quality aspects of non-interventional observational studies. Key points are the advanced publishing of information about the project, developing of a study plan/protocol containing the scientific objectives, a sample size justification and a description of the planned analyses and the publishing of a summary of the results timely after completion of the study. The quality of the data can be improved by using standardized case report forms (CRF) and the CRF should be reviewed and tested before start of study by some participants. A source data verification (SDV) should be performed in randomly selected centres – in between 2% and 5% of the centres depending on the number of participating centres. Before start

  7. Quality assurance in non-interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan, Müge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug research and surveillance after authorisation becomes more and more important for several reasons. Non-interventional studies (NIS investigate various aspects of drug use including efficacy and safety under real life conditions. Such kind of health services research should be on a high scientific, methodological and organisational level. Therefore accompanying measures to improve or to keep the quality are highly recommended. The aim of quality management is: first to avoid bias of results by using an appropriate study design and an adequate data analysis, second to assure authenticity, completeness and validity of the data and third to identify and resolve deficiencies at an early stage. Basic principles are laid down in corresponding guidelines and recommendations of authorities, institutes and societies. Various guidelines for good epidemiological practice (GEP were published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA and international and regional societies for epidemiology. In addition in Germany the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM together with the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI and the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA have published respectively recommendations dealing with quality aspects of non-interventional observational studies. Key points are the advanced publishing of information about the project, developing of a study plan/protocol containing the scientific objectives, a sample size justification and a description of the planned analyses and the publishing of a summary of the results timely after completion of the study. The quality of the data can be improved by using standardized case report forms (CRF and the CRF should be reviewed and tested before start of study by some participants. A source data verification (SDV should be performed in randomly selected centres – in between 2% and 5% of the centres depending on the number of participating centres

  8. Quality assurance in non-interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Karlheinz; Capan, Müge; Herbold, Marlis; Schinzel, Stefan; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2009-11-09

    Nowadays, drug research and surveillance after authorisation becomes more and more important for several reasons. Non-interventional studies (NIS) investigate various aspects of drug use including efficacy and safety under real life conditions. Such kind of health services research should be on a high scientific, methodological and organisational level. Therefore accompanying measures to improve or to keep the quality are highly recommended. The aim of quality management is: first to avoid bias of results by using an appropriate study design and an adequate data analysis, second to assure authenticity, completeness and validity of the data and third to identify and resolve deficiencies at an early stage. Basic principles are laid down in corresponding guidelines and recommendations of authorities, institutes and societies. Various guidelines for good epidemiological practice (GEP) were published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international and regional societies for epidemiology. In addition in Germany the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) together with the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) and the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) have published respectively recommendations dealing with quality aspects of non-interventional observational studies. Key points are the advanced publishing of information about the project, developing of a study plan/protocol containing the scientific objectives, a sample size justification and a description of the planned analyses and the publishing of a summary of the results timely after completion of the study. The quality of the data can be improved by using standardized case report forms (CRF) and the CRF should be reviewed and tested before start of study by some participants. A source data verification (SDV) should be performed in randomly selected centres - in between 2% and 5% of the centres depending on the number of participating centres. Before start of

  9. Pilot study of a multimodal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary Ellen; Hovgaard, Doris; Boesen, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Substantial physical and functional deconditioning and diminished psychological wellbeing are all potential adverse effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits (physical and functional capacity) of a 4......-6 week supervised and structured mixed-type exercise, progressive relaxation and psychoeducation programme in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Nineteen patients were randomized to an intervention or a conventional care group (CC) and were tested for physical and functional capacity before admission...... muscle strength, and minimizing loss of physical and functional capacity in patients undergoing allo-HSCT....

  10. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  11. Thymic Atrophy: Experimental Studies and Therapeutic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S; Nandi, D

    2018-01-01

    The thymus is essential for T cell development and maturation. It is extremely sensitive to atrophy, wherein loss in cellularity of the thymus and/or disruption of the thymic architecture occur. This may lead to lower naïve T cell output and limited TCR diversity. Thymic atrophy is often associated with ageing. What is less appreciated is that proper functioning of the thymus is critical for reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with various clinical conditions including infections and transplantation. Therefore, therapeutic interventions which possess thymopoietic potential and lower thymic atrophy are required. These treatments enhance thymic output, which is a vital factor in generating favourable outcomes in clinical conditions. In this review, experimental studies on thymic atrophy in rodents and clinical cases where the thymus atrophies are discussed. In addition, mechanisms leading to thymic atrophy during ageing as well as during various stress conditions are reviewed. Therapies such as zinc supplementation, IL7 administration, leptin treatment, keratinocyte growth factor administration and sex steroid ablation during thymic atrophy involving experiments in animals and various clinical scenarios are reviewed. Interventions that have been used across different scenarios to reduce the extent of thymic atrophy and enhance its output are discussed. This review aims to speculate on the roles of combination therapies, which by acting additively or synergistically may further alleviate thymic atrophy and boost its function, thereby strengthening cellular T cell responses. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  12. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    ..., and an affectively neutral cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  13. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    ..., and an effectively neutral, cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  14. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    ..., and an effectively neutral cognitive appeal. The three interventions will be structured as three 10-12 minute videotaped presentations targeting 450 African American women residing in three rural communities in Georgia (150/community...

  15. Intervention Studies in Suicide Prevention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To

  16. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  17. The Gambia hepatitis intervention study (GHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS is a collaborative undertaking by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, The Government of the Republic of The Gambia and the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. This programme was launched in 1986 with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Hepatitis B (HB vaccination in childhood in the prevention of HB infection, chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer in a population at high risk. The implementation of this trial involves three overlapping phases:

    Phase l (1986-1990: V Vaccination accination of appro approximately ximately 60,000 children. HB vaccine, which was approved by the World Health Organisation, was integrated into the Gambian Expanded Programme of Immunisation (EPI in a phased manner over a four-year period from July 1986 to February 1990. During this period, two groups of children were recruited, one comprising about 60,000 children who received all vaccines in the EPI schedule plus the HB vaccine, the other comprising a similar number of children who received all vaccines except HB. Since February 1990, HB vaccination is offered to all newborns as part of the EPI schedule in The Gambia.

    Phase ll (1991-1997: Estimate of efficacy of HB vac- vaccine cine against infection and chronic carriage. Longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys were carried out in selected groups of vaccinated (Group 1 and unvaccinated (Group 2. These two subsets have provided evidence of the short-term efficacy of HB vaccine in preventing infection and chronic carriage

  18. Goal Management Training in Adults With ADHD: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In de Braek, Dymphie M J M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Ponds, Rudolf W; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-11-01

    This article describes a controlled, neuropsychological intervention study in adult ADHD. We examined whether adults with ADHD would benefit from a structured course based on Goal Management Training (GMT). The comprehensive course also included psycho-education on the important aspects of executive functioning as well as counseling with respect to coping behaviors. The intervention group was compared with a control group of patients who received psycho-education only ( n = 12 and n = 15, respectively). The effects of the intervention were evaluated using subjective and objective test measures. In addition, a structured preassessment, an evaluation, and a group comparison were carried out by an experienced clinician, who was blinded to the intervention itself. The results of the structured clinical interview obtained in the active intervention group were significantly better in the intervention group than those of the control group. The findings suggest that the combination of GMT with psycho-education and counseling may have validity for adults with ADHD.

  19. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.

  20. Relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia : A nursing intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijel, Berno van

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If

  1. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  2. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  3. External validity of post-stroke interventional gait rehabilitation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafri, Michal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Gait rehabilitation is a major component of stroke rehabilitation, and is supported by extensive research. The objective of this review was to examine the external validity of intervention studies aimed at improving gait in individuals post-stroke. To that end, two aspects of these studies were assessed: subjects' exclusion criteria and the ecological validity of the intervention, as manifested by the intervention's technological complexity and delivery setting. Additionally, we examined whether the target population as inferred from the titles/abstracts is broader than the population actually represented by the reported samples. We systematically researched PubMed for intervention studies to improve gait post-stroke, working backwards from the beginning of 2014. Exclusion criteria, the technological complexity of the intervention (defined as either elaborate or simple), setting, and description of the target population in the titles/abstracts were recorded. Fifty-two studies were reviewed. The samples were exclusive, with recurrent stroke, co-morbidities, cognitive status, walking level, and residency being major reasons for exclusion. In one half of the studies, the intervention was elaborate. Descriptions of participants in the title/abstract in almost one half of the studies included only the diagnosis (stroke or comparable terms) and its stage (acute, subacute, and chronic). The external validity of a substantial number of intervention studies about rehabilitation of gait post-stroke appears to be limited by exclusivity of the samples as well as by deficiencies in ecological validity of the interventions. These limitations are not accurately reflected in the titles or abstracts of the studies.

  4. Characterization of Interventional Studies of the Cholera Epidemic in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica; Birnbaum, Marvin L

    2018-04-01

    In October 2010, the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP; Port au Prince, Haiti) reported a cholera epidemic caused by contamination of the Artibonite River by a United Nation Stabilization Mission camp. Interventional studies of the subsequent responses, including a descriptive Methods section and systematic approach, may be useful in facilitating comparisons and applying lessons learned to future outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to examine publicly available documents relating to the 2010 cholera outbreak to answer: (1) What information is publicly available on interventional studies conducted during the epidemic, and what was/were the impact(s)? and (2) Can the interventions be compared, and what lessons can be learned from their comparison? A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) search was conducted using the parameters "Haiti" and "cholera." Studies were categorized as "interventional research," "epidemiological research," or "other." A distinction was made between studies and narrative reports. The PubMed search yielded 171 papers, 59 (34.0%) of which were epidemiological and 12 (7.0%) were interventional studies. The remaining 100 papers (59.0%) comprised largely of narrative, anecdotal descriptions. An expanded examination of publications by the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland), the Center for Research in the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED; Brussels, Belgium), United States Agency for International Development (USAID; Washington, DC USA)-Development Experience Clearinghouse (DEC), and US National Library of Medicine's (NLM; Bethesda, Maryland USA) Disaster Literature databases yielded no additional interventional studies. The unstructured formats and differing levels of detail prohibited comparisons between interventions, even between those with a similar approach. Only two (17.0%) interventional studies included any impact data, although

  5. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  6. Evaluating health effects of transport interventions methodologic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.

  7. Being mindful of mindfulness interventions in cancer: A systematic review of intervention reporting and study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joanne M; Sekelja, Natasha; Frasca, Diana; Dhillon, Haryana M; Price, Melanie A

    2018-01-26

    While mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have demonstrated efficacy in clinical populations, the potential therapeutic benefit of mindfulness in the context of cancer is less clear. The aim of this review was to critically appraise mindfulness intervention reporting and study methodology. Studies using randomized control trial design and/or a control arm were included. PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Embase databases between January 1999 and April 2017 were searched. Studies were assessed on (1) reported theoretical framework, (2) intervention description, and (3) justification of modifications to standardized MBSR/MBCT. The overall quality of study design and research methodology were also assessed. Of 30 studies identified, none adhered to MBSR. Modified versions of MBSR were reported in 19 studies. Five studies reported variants of MBCT, 1 used a combination of MBSR/MBCT, and 5 inadequately documented the intervention/ theoretical framework. Overall, component and timeline modifications were poorly documented and justified. Mean intervention contact time was less than standardized MBSR/MBCT protocols. Target outcomes were poorly justified, and 12 studies failed to identify a primary aim, reporting multiple outcomes. Only 9 of 15 studies recruiting clinical populations included clinical cutoffs, and an active therapeutic control was included in 4 studies. Mindfulness is increasingly considered a standard therapy in psycho-oncology. While many studies proclaim benefits, considerable variability, modification to standardized protocols, and claims of benefit often reflect decreases in sub-clinical supportive care symptomology rather than therapeutic relief of clinically significant psychological disorders. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. NSAID Use after Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N

    2016-12-01

    Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID use in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, and to determine the use of PPIs in patients who use NSAIDs after bariatric surgery. A randomized controlled intervention study in patients after bariatric surgery. Patients were randomized to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consisted of sending a letter to patients and their general practitioners on the risks of use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery and the importance of avoiding NSAID use. The control group received care-as-usual. Dispensing data of NSAIDs and PPIs were collected from patients' pharmacies: from a period of 6 months before and from 3 until 9 months after the intervention. Two hundred forty-eight patients were included (intervention group: 124; control group: 124). The number of users of NSAIDs decreased from 22 to 18 % in the intervention group and increased from 20 to 21 % in the control group (NS). The use of a PPI with an NSAID rose from 52 to 55 % in the intervention group, and from 52 to 69 % in the control group (NS). Informing patients and their general practitioners by letter, in addition to care-as-usual, is not an effective intervention to reduce the use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery (trial number NTR3665).

  9. A Postpartum Sleep and Fatigue Intervention Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jennifer J; Dogan, Sirin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of a self-management intervention for postpartum fatigue and sleep in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban women. Helping U Get Sleep (HUGS) is a theory-guided intervention developed from the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory. Medicaid-enrolled participants in the United States were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Treatment and attention control interventions were delivered (15 HUGS, 12 comparison) at a week 3 postpartum home visit and 4 follow-up phone calls. Over the 9-week protocol, the HUGS group demonstrated significant improvements in subjective fatigue and subjective sleep disturbance relative to the comparison group. The HUGS intervention was feasible and acceptable, delivered on average, in 100 min and costing US$79 per participant.

  10. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  11. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  12. interventional studies of anti-malarial drugs utilization in public

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The best way to analyze drug utilization and evaluate impact of an intervention in health care institutions is to study the universal indicators, which are not dependent either on investigator or time of measurement. The aim of this study was to characterize the prescription pattern of public health institutions in ...

  13. Interventional studies of anti-malarial drugs utilization in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best way to analyze drug utilization and evaluate impact of an intervention in health care institutions is to study the universal indicators, which are not dependent either on investigator or time of measurement. The aim of this study was to characterize the prescription pattern of public health institutions in Kano, Nigeria ...

  14. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Acupuncture intervention in ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peng-Fei; Kong, Li; Ni, Li-Wei; Guo, Hai-Long; Yang, Sha; Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Long; Guo, Jia-Kui; Xiong, Jie; Zhen, Zhong; Shi, Xue-Min

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and few pharmacological therapies show benefits in ischemic stroke. In this study, 290 patients aged 40-75 years old with first onset of acute ischemic stroke (more than 24 hours but within 14 days) were treated with standard treatments, and then were randomly allocated into an intervention group (treated with resuscitating acupuncture) and a control group (treated using sham-acupoints). Primary outcome measures included Barthel Index (BI), relapse and death up to six months. For the 290 patients in both groups, one case in the intervention group died, and two cases in the control group died from the disease (p = 0.558). Six patients of the 144 cases in the intervention group had relapse, whereas 34 of 143 patients had relapse in the control group (p two groups, respectively (p two groups for the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), not at two weeks (7.03 ± 3.201 vs. 8.13 ± 3.634; p = 0.067), but at four weeks (4.15 ± 2.032 vs. 6.35 ± 3.131, p Stroke Scale (CSS) at four weeks showed more improvement in the intervention group than that in the control group (9.40 ± 4.51 vs. 13.09 ± 5.80, p Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL) at six months was higher in the intervention group (166.63 ± 45.70) than the control group (143.60 ± 50.24; p < 0.01). The results of this clinical trial showed a clinically relevant decrease of relapse in patients treated with resuscitating acupuncture intervention by the end of six months, compared with needling at the sham-acupoints. The resuscitating acupuncture intervention could also improve self-care ability and quality of life, evaluated with BI, NIHSS, CSS, Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS), and SS-QOL.

  16. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E

    2012-04-26

    The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.

  17. Risk factors for infection following cesarean delivery: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Raed; Braverman, Meirav; Teitler, Nava; Berkovic, Ilanit; Suliman, Abeer; Shalev, Eliezer

    2012-12-01

    To identify risk factors for infection following cesarean delivery (CD) and to investigate the effect of intervention on modifiable risk factors (MRF). A prospective, two-period cohort intervention study. All CD performed between September 2006 and August 2007 (era 1) and between July 2009 and June 2010 (era 2) were included. Infection control program was implemented before era 2 and included a refresher course in aseptic and scrub techniques to all surgical teams. Infectious morbidity was recognized up to 30 days from the operation. Risk factors were identified by multiple logistic regressions. A total of 1616 women included and analyzed during both eras. Logistic regression revealed that residency (rural as compared to urban), obesity and urgency of the CD were significant risk factors for infection. Prior to intervention, senior obstetricians had a lower infection rate than senior gynecologists (p = 0.02). Within both groups, the incidence in era 2 decreased and was comparable (obstetricians: 5.7 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.005; gynecologists: 12.7 vs. 1.1%; p = 0.003). Among the group of scrub nurses who took part in less than 20 CD during era 1, the intervention reduced significantly the infection rate during era 2 (p = 0.0002). Surgical team is a MRF for infection following CD. Intervention decreased this unintended clinical effect attributed to surgical teams.

  18. Early workplace intervention for employees with musculoskeletal-related absenteeism: a prospective controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Sjögren, Berit; Rydéhn, Berit; Meisel, Roland

    2003-05-01

    Sickness absenteeism caused by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is a persistent and costly occupational health challenge. In a prospective controlled trial, we compared the effects on sickness absenteeism of a more proactive role for insurance case managers as well as workplace ergonomic interventions with that of traditional case management. Patients with physician-diagnosed MSDs were randomized either to the intervention group or the reference group offered the traditional case management routines. Participants filled out a comprehensive questionnaire at the initiation of the study and after 6 months. In addition, administrative data were collected at 0.6, and 12 months after the initiation of the project. For the entire 12-month period, the total mean number of sick days for the intervention group was 144.9 (SEM 11.8) days/person as compared to 197.9 (14.0) days in the reference group (P management of MSDs should to a greater degree focus on early return to work and building on functional capacity and employee ability. Allowing the case managers a more active role as well as involving an ergonomist in workplace adaptation meetings might also be beneficial.

  19. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  20. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session...... of the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks....... Conclusions: The DCIA has a clear positive health effect in key parameters; BMI, BMI z-score, body fat-%, and clustered risk. The effect is pronounced at 6 weeks and, though reduced, still present after 52 weeks. The results of the study shows the potential of an activity camp as a basis for health change...

  1. Avoiding Procrastination through Time Management: An Experimental Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Oberst, Verena; Stock, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management intervention on procrastination. Procrastination is a serious issue for many students and associated with different negative consequences, such as anxiety or low grades. As procrastination is described as a self-regulatory failure, a training programme focussing…

  2. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  3. A metabolomics study on human dietary intervention with apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Kristensen, M.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool for searching out new biomarkers and the development of hypotheses in nutrition research. This chapter will describe the design of human dietary intervention studies where samples are collected for metabolomics analyses as well as the analytical issues and data...

  4. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  5. Feasibility Study of the Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To reduce mental health symptoms and high-risk behaviors and increase social support and service utilization among street-living youth, the authors conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the social enterprise intervention (SEI) at a homeless youth agency. Method: Convenience sampling was used to recruit 16 street-living…

  6. Case study on Integral Life Practice intervention for physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study reports on the evaluation of an integral life practice intervention for physical exercise and health promotion, with a stressed, 30-year-old unemployed client. The pre-test and post-test, process and outcome evaluative, research design included qualitative and quantitative, integrated and mixed method ...

  7. a descriptive study of outcomes of interventions to prevent mother

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Conclusion: This study indicates that the Prevention of. Mother-to- Child Transmission of HIV treatment interventions in reducing transmission of HIV in infants and young children in two Lusaka urban clinics had been effective. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, and use of triple therapy can reduce the transmission of HIV.

  8. Bilingual Text4Walking Food Service Employee Intervention Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Susan Weber; Ingram, Diana; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis; Sandi, Giselle; Moss, Angela; Ocampo, Edith V

    2016-06-01

    Half of all adults in the United States do not meet the level of recommended aerobic physical activity. Physical activity interventions are now being conducted in the workplace. Accessible technology, in the form of widespread usage of cell phones and text messaging, is available for promoting physical activity. The purposes of this study, which was conducted in the workplace, were to determine (1) the feasibility of implementing a bilingual 12-week Text4Walking intervention and (2) the effect of the Text4Walking intervention on change in physical activity and health status in a food service employee population. Before conducting the study reported here, the Text4Walking research team developed a database of motivational physical activity text messages in English. Because Hispanic or Latino adults compose one-quarter of all adults employed in the food service industry, the Text4Walking team translated the physical activity text messages into Spanish. This pilot study was guided by the Physical Activity Health Promotion Framework and used a 1-group 12-week pre- and posttest design with food service employees who self-reported as being sedentary. The aim of the study was to increase the number of daily steps over the baseline by 3000 steps. Three physical activity text messages were delivered weekly. In addition, participants received 3 motivational calls during the study. SPSS version 19.0 and R 3.0 were used to perform the data analysis. There were 33 employees who participated in the study (57.6% female), with a mean age of 43.7 years (SD 8.4). The study included 11 Hispanic or Latino participants, 8 of whom requested that the study be delivered in Spanish. There was a 100% retention rate in the study. At baseline, the participants walked 102 (SD 138) minutes/day (per self-report). This rate increased significantly (P=.008) to 182 (SD 219) minutes/day over the course of the study. The participants had a baseline mean of 10,416 (SD 5097) steps, which also increased

  9. A pilot study: mindfulness meditation intervention in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Giardino, Nicholas; Larson, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    Living well with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires people to manage disease-related symptoms in order to participate in activities of daily living. Mindfulness practice is an intervention that has been shown to reduce symptoms of chronic disease and improve accurate symptom assessment, both of which could result in improved disease management and increased wellness for people with COPD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate an 8-week mindful meditation intervention program tailored for the COPD population and explore the use of breathing timing parameters as a possible physiological measure of meditation uptake. Results demonstrated that those randomized to the mindful meditation intervention group (N=19) had a significant increase in respiratory rate over time as compared to those randomized to the wait-list group (N=22) (P=0.045). It was also found that the mindful meditation intervention group demonstrated a significant decrease in level of mindfulness over time as compared to the wait-list group (P=0.023). When examining participants from the mindful meditation intervention who had completed six or more classes, it was found that respiratory rate did not significantly increase in comparison to the wait-list group. Furthermore, those who completed six or more classes (N=12) demonstrated significant improvement in emotional function in comparison to the wait-list group (P=0.032) even though their level of mindfulness did not improve. This study identifies that there may be a complex relationship between breathing parameters, emotion, and mindfulness in the COPD population. The results describe good feasibility and acceptability for meditation interventions in the COPD population.

  10. Study of radiation exposure profiles in interventional radiology professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Alvarez, Matheus; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A.; Freitas, Carlos C.M. de; Moura, Regina; Pina, Diana R. de

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Radiology is the radiology area that provides the highest dose values to the medical staff. Recent surveys show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the radiation dose values in interventional physicians, especially in the extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the exposure levels to radiation from medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures. Therefore, thermoluminescent dosimeters type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were used positioned in the main interventional physician and an assistant in the following locations: some inches below the crystalline, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot. By comparing the values obtained with the annual reference dose levels in workers, maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. Altogether, there were 23 procedures evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 9 angioplasties and 4 stents. The maximum number of annual procedures were estimated by discounting the percentages of attenuation of radiological protection. For procedures of the type diagnosis, angioplasty and stent for the main interventionist, the maximum number of annual procedures were 641, 445 and 113 respectively, while for the interventionists assistants were 930, 1202 and 215 respectively. As each interventionist body region is subject to different levels of exposure, detailed studies of exposure in each region provide better conclusions about what actions are necessary to ensure radiological protection professionals

  11. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  12. The Fun Families Study: intervention to reduce children's TV viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Greisinger, Anthony; Murray, Nancy G; Brehm, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    Media consumption may contribute to childhood obesity. This study developed and evaluated a theory-based, parent-focused intervention to reduce television and other media consumption to prevent and reduce childhood obesity. Families (n = 202) with children ages 6-9 were recruited from a large, urban multiethnic population into a randomized controlled trial (101 families into the intervention group and 101 into the control group), and were followed for 6 months. The intervention consisted of a 2-hour workshop and six bimonthly newsletters. Behavioral objectives included: (i) reduce TV watching; (ii) turn off TV when nobody is watching; (iii) no TV with meals; (iv) no TV in the child's bedroom; and (v) engage in fun non-media related activities. Parents were 89% female, 44% white, 28% African American, 17% Latino, and 11% Asian, mean age 40 years (s.d. = 7.5); 72% were married. Children were 49% female, mean age 8 years (s.d. = 0.95). Sixty-five percent of households had three or more TVs and video game players; 37% had at least one handheld video game, and 53% had three or more computers. Average children's weekday media exposure was 6.1 hours. At 6 months follow-up, the intervention group was less likely to report the TV being on when nobody was watching (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.23, P watching TV (AOR = 0.47, P TV in the child's bedroom (AOR = 0.23, P TV viewing were identified.

  13. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; Lytle, Leslie A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M; Loria, Catherine M; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S; Belle, Steven H; Michie, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a shared framework for intervention description. Coding interventions at levels of the social ecological framework beyond the individual level, separate coding for behavior change initiation vs. maintenance, fidelity of BCT delivery, accounting for BCTs mode of delivery, and tailoring BCTs, present both challenges and opportunities. Deconstructing interventions and identifying the dose required to positively impact health-related outcomes could enable important gains in intervention science.

  14. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... of environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental...... behaviours over the six weeks, to identify instances of behavioural spillover from "green" purchase behaviour to other pro-environmental behaviours and to investigate if such spillover was affected by the nature of the intervention. The study revealed a positive spillover from "green" purchasing to other pro-environmental...

  15. Comparing interventions for selective mutism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-10-01

    To examine the outcome within 6 to 8 months of medical and nonmedical intervention for children with severe selective mutism (SM). Children with SM (n = 17) and their mothers, seen in a previous study, attended follow-up appointments with a clinician. Obtained by maternal report were: treatment received, current diagnosis (based on semi-structured interview), speech in various environments, and global improvement. An independent clinician also rated global functioning. The diagnosis of SM persisted in 16 children, but significant symptomatic improvement was evident in the sample. All children had received school consultations. Children who had been treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (n = 10) showed greater global improvement, improvement in functioning, and improvement in speech outside the family than children who were unmedicated (n = 7). No differences were evident for children receiving and not receiving additional nonmedical intervention. The findings suggest the potential benefit of SSRI treatment in severe SM, but randomized comparative treatment studies are indicated.

  16. Intervention study of needle stick injury in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Abne-Shahidi, Sayed A.; Mohammadi, Nazafarin A.; Abazari, Fereshteh

    2005-01-01

    Injury resulting from contaminated sharp devices among health care workers (HCWs) is one of the most important concerns in medical centers. This can lead to dangerous infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among such people. The documentation of needle stick injuries started in Sadi Hospital, Isfahan, Iran in 2003, and our objective was to study cases of injuries by sharp devices before and after the implementation of intervention methods. In an intervention survey of the type of before and after study, we studied injuries by needle and other sharp devices among 87 HCWs in Sadi Hospital, a private hospital in Isfahan, Iran, during the years 2003-2004. The groups under study were workers and paramedical staff; and the wards under study included surgery, internal, lab, x-ray and laundry. We entered and evaluated the data in SPSS software. In the first phase of the study in 2003, 55.2% of those injured had been injured by sharp devices. After intervention in 2004, this percentage was reduced to 19.5% (p < 0.05). At the beginning of the study, 26.4% of the injured had been injured by sharp devices more than twice, and at the end of the study this number was reduced to 2.3% (p < 0.05). Also, injuries resulting from recapping were 45.8% at the beginning of the study, which was reduced to 5.9% at the end (p < 0.05). With regard to this study and other studies carried out in other countries, a large number of injuries by contaminated sharp devices can be prevented by implementing suitable educational programs regarding disposal of sharp devices, and by using safe needle devices. (author)

  17. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: BMC Cancer. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-9 Open access Background: Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereb...

  18. Learning intervention and the approach to study of engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonides, Ian Paul

    The aim of the research was to: investigate the effect of a learning intervention on the Approach to Study of first year engineering degree students. The learning intervention was a local programme of learning to learn' workshops designed and facilitated by the author. The primary aim of these was to develop students' Approaches to Study. Fifty-three first year engineering undergraduates at The Nottingham Trent University participated in the workshops. Approaches to Study were quantified using data obtained from the Revised Approach to Study Inventory (RASI) which was also subjected to a validity and reliability study using local data. Quantitative outcomes were supplemented using a qualitative analysis of essays written by students during the workshops. These were analysed for detail regarding student Approach to Study. It was intended that any findings would inform the local system of Engineering Education, although more general findings also emerged, in particular in relation to the utility of the research instrument. It was concluded that the intervention did not promote the preferential Deep Approach and did not affect Approaches to Study generally as measured by the RASI. This concurred with previous attempts to change student Approaches to Study at the group level. It was also established that subsequent years of the Integrated Engineering degree course are associated with progressively deteriorating Approaches to Study. Students who were exposed to the intervention followed a similar pattern of deteriorating Approaches suggesting that the local course context and its demands had a greater influence over the Approach of students than the intervention did. It was found that academic outcomes were unrelated to the extent to which students took a Deep Approach to the local assessment demands. There appeared therefore to be a mis-match between the Approach students adopted to pass examinations and those that are required for high quality learning outcomes. It is

  19. Healthcare professionals and managers' participation in developing an intervention: A pre-intervention study in the elderly care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the

  20. Therapy interventions for children with neurodisabilities: a qualitative scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Susan; Maddison, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015; 5 :e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this. The objectives were to (1) describe the current practice, approaches and schools of thought in relation to physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language therapy for children with neurodisability; (2) explore clinical decision-making; (3) investigate views on outcomes and their measurement, particularly participation as an outcome, that is, the child's ability to have the opportunity to be involved in life situations and activities (e.g. communication, mobility, interpersonal interactions, self-care, learning and applying knowledge); (4) seek views on the aspects of therapy interventions that have an impact on outcomes; and (5) elicit stakeholder views on research needs and priorities. More than 70 professionals (therapists, service leads, paediatricians and education staff) and 25 parents participated in a qualitative interview (either individually or as part of a focus group). Professional thinking and models of service delivery are in a state of flux and development. There is a move towards goals-focused, family-centred approaches. Work tends to be highly individualised, with few protocols. Parents are certain of the value of therapies, although they may experience difficulties with provision and may seek (additional) private provision. Therapy interventions are conceived as three components: the therapist, the procedures/equipment, etc., and the wider

  1. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  2. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Deborah F.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M.; Loria, Catherine M.; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S.; Belle, Steven H.; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a sh...

  3. Occupational dose measurement in interventional cardiology, dosimetry comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.M.A.

    2008-05-01

    The number of cardiology interventional procedures has significantly increased recently. This is due to the reliability of the diagnostic equipment to diagnose many heart disease. In the procedures the x-ray used results in increasing radiation doses to the staff. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Therefore workers in interventional cardiology are expected to receive high doses. This study overviews the status of occupational exposure at the three cardiology centers at three different hospitals in Khartoum compared with that received by workers at other medical practices (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology) in the Institute of Nuclear and Technology (INMO) at El Gezira. The TLD Harshaw 6600 reader was used in the assessment of effective dose for Hp (10). Two TLDs were used by each worker at the three cardiology centres, one worn under a protective apron and the other worn outside and above the apron as specified by the ICRP. Each worker at the other sections was facilitated with one dosimeter to be worn on the chest. The annual doses received by 14 cardiologists, 13 nurses and 9 technologists at the three cardiology centres were in the range: (0.84-4.77), (0.15-2.08), (0.32-1.10) mSv respectively. In the INMO the annual doses received by 7 doctors, 5 nurses and 14 technologists were in the range: (0.12-0.51), (0.11-0.65), (0.03-1.39) mSv respectively. The results showed that the annual doses received by the workers do not exceed 20 mSv. The study also indicated that doses received by workers in interventional cardiology, in particular the cardiologists are high compared to that received at the other medical sections.(Author)

  4. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  5. Fusion Guidance in Endovascular Peripheral Artery Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Nelemans, Patricia J., E-mail: patty.nelemans@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Das, Marco, E-mail: m.das@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA).MethodsFusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography.ResultsAverage time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation).ConclusionsFluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety.

  6. Fusion Guidance in Endovascular Peripheral Artery Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Anna M.; Haan, Michiel W. de; Graaf, Rick de; Zwam, Willem H. van; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Nelemans, Patricia J.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA).MethodsFusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography.ResultsAverage time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation).ConclusionsFluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety

  7. Fusion guidance in endovascular peripheral artery interventions: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Anna M; de Haan, Michiel W; de Graaf, Rick; van Zwam, Willem H; Schurink, Geert Willem H; Nelemans, Patricia J; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA). Fusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography. Average time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation). Fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety.

  8. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-interventional studies (NIS have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM on the execution of non interventional (observational studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP, with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies] – Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres.This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials.

  9. Insight in modulation of inflammation in response to diclofenac intervention: a human intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in obese subjects is associated with health complications including cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes. Reducing inflammatory responses may reduce these risks. However, available markers of inflammatory status inadequately describe the complexity of metabolic responses to mild anti-inflammatory therapy. Methods To address this limitation, we used an integrative omics approach to characterize modulation of inflammation in overweight men during an intervention with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Measured parameters included 80 plasma proteins, >300 plasma metabolites (lipids, free fatty acids, oxylipids and polar compounds) and an array of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) gene expression products. These measures were submitted to multivariate and correlation analysis and were used for construction of biological response networks. Results A panel of genes, proteins and metabolites, including PGE2 and TNF-alpha, were identified that describe a diclofenac-response network (68 genes in PBMC, 1 plasma protein and 4 plasma metabolites). Novel candidate markers of inflammatory modulation included PBMC expression of annexin A1 and caspase 8, and the arachidonic acid metabolite 5,6-DHET. Conclusion In this study the integrated analysis of a wide range of parameters allowed the development of a network of markers responding to inflammatory modulation, thereby providing insight into the complex process of inflammation and ways to assess changes in inflammatory status associated with obesity. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT00221052 in clinicaltrials.gov database. PMID:20178593

  10. Utility of imaging for nutritional intervention studies in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Martijn C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H; Sijben, John W C; Scheltens, Phillip

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of dementia, wherein synapse loss is the strongest structural correlate with cognitive impairment. Basic research has shown that dietary supply of precursors and co-factors for synthesis of neuronal membranes enhances the formation of synapses. Daily intake of a medical food containing a mix of these nutrients for 12 weeks in humans improved memory, measured as immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Wechsler Memory Scale-revised, in patients with very mild AD (MMSE 24-26). An improvement of immediate verbal recall was noted following 24 weeks of intervention in an exploratory extension of the study. These data suggest that the intervention may improve synaptic formation and function in early AD. Here we review emerging technologies that help identify changes in pathological hallmarks in AD, including synaptic function and loss of connectivity in the early stages of AD, before cognitive and behavioural symptoms are observable. These techniques include the detection of specific biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as imaging procedures such as fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), amyloid PET, structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Such techniques can provide new insights into the functional and structural changes in the brain over time, and may therefore help to develop more effective AD therapies. In particular, nutritional intervention studies that target synapse formation and function may benefit from these techniques, especially FDG-PET and EEG/MEG employed in the preclinical or early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school......-community approach to influencing determinants of healthy and balanced growing up’. Qualitative case study research was carried out in a school in the Netherlands. Data sources included project documents, interviews and observations. Thematic analysis was carried out combining the different data sources. The case...... study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...

  12. Humanitarian Intervention and State Sovereignty: Case Study of Darfur

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, A. L

    2008-01-01

    .... States could conduct acts of genocide against their own population with impunity. After the intervention in Kosovo and the genocide in Rwanda, international law evolved to allow humanitarian intervention...

  13. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs. While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their ′controlled′ nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  14. Activating schoolyards: study design of a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf; Troelsen, Jens; Toftager, Mette; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-05-31

    The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design using a mixed method approach including: 1) an exploratory study aimed at providing input for the developing process; 2) an evaluation of the effect of the interventions using a combination of accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven project schools (cases) were selected by means of an open competition and the interventions were developed using a participatory bottom-up approach. The participatory approach and case selection strategy make the study design novel. The use of a mixed methods design including qualitative as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the schoolyard will lead to recommendations for schools undergoing schoolyard renovations at some point in the future.

  15. Is training in psychosocial interventions worthwhile? Report of a psychosocial intervention trainee follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charlie; Saul, Carol; Robinson, Jeannie; King, Jenny; Dudley, Mike

    2003-09-01

    A follow-up study of psychosocial intervention (PSI) trainees from the Sheffield and Maudsley training centres was undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1, 141 students, at two PSI training centres, were sent a simple postal questionnaire to elicit career trajectory following PSI training. A response rate of 82% was achieved. The sub-group, who had been trained and who still engaged in clinical practice were identified and followed-up in more detail (n=96). The effect of PSI training in a range of domains was investigated. The impact of training may not be to equip students with formal technical skills in CBT and family work. What is more likely is that trainees acquired proficiency in: working effectively using a case management model; conveying 'therapeutic optimism'; enabling users to meet their own goals and helping them to develop better coping strategies; using 'stress vulnerability' and formal outcome measures as means of structuring this approach. The secondary aim of the study was to identify and prioritise the barriers that impede the effective implementation of PSI skills in routine service settings. For the second phase of the survey the response rate was again 82%. This group's service managers were identified and surveyed for the same information and 59% responded. The aim was to gather information about implementation issues from both the clinical and service perspectives. The results of the survey indicate that PSI training has a positive impact on the development of services for people with serious mental health problems although there are serious organisational hurdles for managers, trainees and organisations to overcome if PSI skills are to be properly implemented. Key factors that impact upon faithful implementation are related to resource issues (caseload size), organisational factors (the existence of an implementation plan and training strategy), and the extent to which the trainee's team is supportive.

  16. Diet and polycystic kidney disease: A pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacob M; Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Sullivan, Debra K; Gibson, Cheryl A; Creed, Catherine; Carlson, Susan E; Wesson, Donald E; Grantham, Jared J

    2017-04-01

    Dietary sodium, protein, acid precursors, and water have been linked to cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease; yet, no studies in patients have examined the feasibility of using a dietary intervention that controls all of these factors. The aim of this study was to determine if a diet, appropriate for persons of most ages, reduces the excretion of sodium, urea, acid, and decreases mean urine osmolality while gaining acceptance by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Twelve adults with ADPKD enrolled in a pre-post pilot feasibility study and served as their own controls. Individuals consumed their usual diet for one week then for four weeks followed an isocaloric diet lower in sodium and protein and higher in fruits, vegetables, and water. Three-day diet records and two 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, week 2, and week 4 visits; blood pressure, weight, and serum were obtained at all three visits. A modified nutrition hassles questionnaire was completed on the last visit. During the dietary intervention, subjects (n = 11) consumed less sodium, protein, and dietary acid precursors 36%, 28%, and 99%, respectively, and increased fluid intake by 42%. Urinary sodium, urea, net acid excretion, osmoles, and osmolality decreased 20%, 28%, 20%, 37%, and 15%, respectively; volume increased 35%. Urine changes were in accord with the diet record. Ninety-one percent of participants reported that none of the hassles were worse than "somewhat severe", and most participants felt "somewhat confident" or "very confident" that they could manage the new diet. A majority of adult patients with ADPKD successfully prepared and followed a composite diet prescription with decreased sodium, protein, acid precursors, and increased fluid intake. This trail was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01810614). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. [Internet-based "e-training" as exercise intervention for health promotion: results from 2 intervention studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S; Hentschke, C; Pfeifer, K

    2013-06-01

    Internet-based interventions open a chance to improve the sustainability of rehabilitation in general and of exercise therapy in particular. The internet can be the sole intervention component on the one hand as well as a supportive tool for a traditional "Face-to-Face" intervention on the other hand. In this article, 2 studies in the setting of health promotion are outlined. Those studies evaluated an e-Training program in different administration forms. Study 1: 90 adults with a sedentary lifestyle were randomized into 3 treatment groups: Group fitness ("Face-to-Face"), individually supervised training ("Face-to-Face") and e-Training (internet-based). The respective intervention took place across 3 months and each continued for a maintenance phase of 4 months. Muscular fitness, sports activities and health-related quality of life were assessed at 3 points in time: right before the intervention, after the first 3 months, and finally, after the maintenance -phase. Study 2: 509 adults with a high self-rated risk of recurrent back pain participated in the intervention "Rückengesundheit ERlangen", which lasted for 6 months: a combined program with its content delivered "Face-to-Face" and via e-Training. The analysis was conducted in a pre-post design without control group. Several psychosocial outcome variables were assessed (e.g., fear-avoidance beliefs/FABQ-D) and the cardio-pulmonary endurance capacity. In study 1 and in study 2, significant improvements over time in all intervention groups were measured in nearly all of the dependent variables, with the exception of the physical component summary of health-related quality of life (HRQL) (SF-36) in study 1, as well as its mental component summary (SF-36) and the endurance capacity in study 2. In study 1, the graphical comparison (confidence interval) of e-Training with the "Face-to-Face" interventions shows a similar efficacy of both of them. A gender-specific evaluation reveals that the mental component of HRQL

  18. Studying PPTCT services, interventions, coverage and utilization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvish Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Risk of vertical transmission (largest source of HIV in children reduces from 33% to 3% with effective PPTCT interventions. NACP III has got an objective of testing all pregnant women for earliest linkage with PMTCT. Study was carried out to find out PPTCT service coverage, drop-outs, interventions efficacy with other determinants. Materials and Methods: At ICTCs, registered ANCs are counseled and tested for HIV. HIV+ve ANCs are linked to services and followed-up for institutional delivery, sdNVP, nutrition and children testing. HIV+ve ANCs since 2004 subsequently delivered till December 2009 and their exposed children in PPTCT-VSGH constituted study cohort. Results: 29281 ANCs registered, 69.7% were counseled pre-test, 100% of them tested, 94.9% were counseled post-test. 60.5% were detected in 3 rd trimester. CD4 testing was carried out in 71.6% HIV+ve ANCs. 81 ANCs were detected HIV+ve inclusive of 11 unregistered cases. 72 pregnancy outcomes reported institutionally, 77.6% were caesarian sections. Out of 59 live births, 56 sdNVP-MB-Pair were given. 88.1% children were traced till 18 months, 76.3% of live births were alive, 40.7% of live births were tested. 1 was found HIV+ve with history of adherence to all prescribed PPTCT guidelines. Conclusions: PMTCT services - counseling and testing should be provided to all ANCs. EDD-based tracking, institutional deliveries, postnatal counseling to be encouraged along with complete MB pair coverage, capacity building of concerned staff regarding delivery of HIV+ve ANCs and exposed children tracking.

  19. Educational Intervention for Nutrition Education in Patients Attending an Outpatient Wound Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.

  20. [Orion (Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection) used for evaluating interventions and investigations of nosocomial infection outbreaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Cronenberger, S; Nicolle, M-C; Voirin, N; Giard, M; Luxemburger, C; Vanhems, P

    2009-04-01

    British colleagues have developed the Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection (Orion) guidelines with the aim to promote transparency of publications in the field of health-care associated infections and particularly for reports of outbreak investigation or intervention studies. The aim of this study was to translate the Orion criteria and to promote their use in France. The Orion guidelines include a checklist of 22 commented items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of a scientific article. Specific points for each item are developed to enhance its relevance. The use of Orion guidelines by authors and editors should be encouraged and should improve the quality of standards in research, intervention studies, and publications on nosocomial infections and health-care associated infections.

  1. A pilot study of a Medication Rationalization (MERA) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Rachel; Porter, Sandra; Battu, Kiran; Bhatt, Pranjal; Koo, Ellen; Kalocsai, Csilla; Wu, Peter; Delicaet, Kendra; Bogoch, Isaac I; Wu, Robert; Downar, James

    2018-02-16

    Many seriously ill and frail inpatients receive potentially inappropriate or harmful medications and do not receive medications for symptoms of advanced illness. We developed and piloted an interprofessional Medication Rationalization (MERA) approach to deprescribing inappropriate medications and prescribing appropriate comfort medications. We conducted a single-centre pilot study of inpatients at risk of 6-month mortality from advanced age or morbidity. The MERA team reviewed the patients' medications and made recommendations on the basis of guidelines. We measured end points for feasibility, acceptability, efficiency and effectiveness. We enrolled 61 of 115 (53%) eligible patients with a mean age of 79.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.7 yr). Patients were taking an average of 11.5 (SD 5.2) medications before admission and had an average of 2.1 symptoms with greater than 6/10 severity on the revised Edmonton Symptom Assessment System. The MERA team recommended 263 medication changes, of which 223 (85%) were accepted by both the medical team and the patient. MERA team's recommendations resulted in the discontinuation of 162 medications (mean 3.1 per patient), dose changes for 48 medications (mean 0.9 per patient) and the addition of 13 medications (mean 0.2 per patient). Patients who received the MERA intervention stopped significantly more inappropriate medications than similar non-MERA comparison patients for whom data were collected retrospectively (3.1 v. 0.9 medications per patient, p < 0.01). The MERA approach was highly acceptable to patients and medical team members. The MERA intervention is feasible, acceptable, efficient and possibly effective for changing medication use among seriously ill and frail elderly inpatients. Scalability and effectiveness may be improved through automation and integration with medication reconciliation programs. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  2. Mathematics Intervention Supporting Allen, a Latino EL: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Di Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses a single case study of a first-grade Latino English Learner (EL student, Allen (pseudonym, from a larger inquiry-based intervention on inversion and mental reversibility development. The purpose of this case study was to develop a better understanding of the relationship between Allen’s English language proficiency and his ability to solve inversion and compensation mathematics tasks. The integration of multiple paradigms confronting radical constructivism and sociocultural theory of learning via culturally relevant pedagogy provided us with a multi-faceted set of perspectives in understanding the interconnection between Allen’s cultural and linguistic background and his development of algebraic reasoning. Through conceptual and retrospective analyses, we found that Allen’s language features are highly correlated with the development of his thinking strategies and his ability to solve mathematics tasks. Implications of this study include the development of teaching strategies that address critical issues in mathematics, such as the individual differences of learners, specifically ELs from Latino background. We suggest further research is needed in the field of language acquisition and access to STEM related concepts.

  3. The study of inpatient medical records on hospital deductions: An interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Akbari, Mojtaba; Baktashian, Mojtba; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Sadeghpour, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of hospital deductions is a commonly cited concern among teaching hospitals in Iran. The objective of the present study is to access the effect of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of inpatient medical records on deductions and identifying the major resources of deductions. There are currently no published interventional studies that have investigated this issue quantitatively. Materials and Methods: In an interventional study, we reviewed all the 192 patient's medical records (PMRs) for any documentation errors, to determine the rate of deductions. We conducted a pilot of 30 cases prior to the actual survey. Nonprobability-based consecutive sampling was used. The main study was conducted in three phases: 1. Primary evaluation; 2. Training, performance of intervention and corrective actions; and 3. Final assessment. Comprehensive assessments of medical records and follow-upof error correction were carried out systematically and according to the pre-set schedule. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were compared in order to evaluate the effect of the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 statistical software. Paired-sample t-test was used to compare changes in deduction scores before and after the intervention. Differences at a P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In the initial survey of 800 PMRs, nearly one quarter (24%) (Or 192 cases) had at least one type of deduction. The three top types of deductions were Laboratory (47.9%), Medical radiation (45.3%), and Physician visit (35.9%). The results showed a 2.7- to about 36-fold lower rate of hospital deductions (average: 6.4-fold; reduction from21131 to 3285 US dollars). Conclusion: All in all, the results of the present study indicated that educational interventions and quantitative and qualitative analysis of inpatient medical records are very beneficial and effective in the reduction of medical record deductions. PMID:26097852

  4. Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Rosalinda S; Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Russo, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  5. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteins cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-score), skinfolds, and inverse VO2peak. RESULTS: The HOMA-score of intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to post...... and HOMA-score in boys, but not in PA, VO2peak, fatness and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of physical education and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce mayor improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population....

  6. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological

  7. Healing words: A study of poetry interventions in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Aagje M C

    2016-11-01

    The personhood movement in dementia research has established the theoretical foundation for implementing cultural arts interventions in care practices. The underlying assumption is that professionals from the visual and the performance arts are well equipped to see the person behind the condition and to focus on possibilities for meaningful relationships in the here and now. This article focuses on poetry interventions as one example of cultural arts interventions. The use of poetry might seem counterintuitive, given that people with dementia lose their language abilities and that poetry is regarded to be the most complex literary form. I will argue that expanding on existing research on poetry interventions from a health and science perspective with a humanities approach will help illuminate how poetry works to enhance the exchange with people with dementia. Drawing on participant observations of poetry interventions by Gary Glazner (Alzheimer's Poetry Project, USA) at the New York Memory Center, I will frame poetry interventions as a specific form of oral poetry in which people with dementia are positioned as cocreators of embodied texts and directly benefit from the power of the spoken word. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Math and Science Pursuits: A Self-Efficacy Intervention Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Porter, Sarah H.; Israel, Tania; Brown, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two interventions to increase math self-efficacy among undergraduate students. Ninety-nine first-year undergraduate students participated in an intervention involving performance accomplishment or an intervention combining performance accomplishment and belief-perseverance techniques in which participants constructed a…

  9. Social Competence Intervention in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDS) - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noor A.; Oweini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of a combined intervention in remediating the social skills in a first-grader with a disorder from the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The researcher also aimed to identify the changes observed during the intervention period. The combined intervention consisted of reading…

  10. Incorporating Prototyping and Iteration into Intervention Development: A Case Study of a Dining Hall-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Arianna D.; Hekler, Eric B.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research from the fields of computer science and engineering highlight the importance of an iterative design process (IDP) to create more creative and effective solutions. Objective: This study describes IDP as a new method for developing health behavior interventions and evaluates the effectiveness of a dining hall--based…

  11. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heather ERWIN; Alicia FEDEWA; Soyeon AHN

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children’s health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n=15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics fluency, PA, grades, and standardized test scores were collected. Effects of the intervention were examined using mixed-design ANOVAs. Intervention st...

  12. Effekt of a two-stage nursing assesment and intervention - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    to the geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, primary physician or arrangements with next-of-kin. Findings: Primary endpoints will be presented as unplanned readmission to ED; admission to nursing home; and death. Secondary endpoints will be presented as physical function; depressive symptoms......Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...... % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. The objective was to examine the effect of a two-stage nursing assessment and intervention to address the patients uncompensated problems given just after discharge from ED and one and six months after. Method: We conducted a prospective...

  13. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Overview of community-based studies of depression screening interventions among the elderly population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    In most Western and Asian countries, a higher risk of suicide is found among elderly people than those in other age groups. However, the treatment needs of elderly people who are at risk of committing suicide are not well understood. We conducted an overview of studies that assessed the impact of suicide prevention interventions on suicide rates in elderly people in Japan. We interpreted the results of these studies, as well as prominent findings associated with other successful interventions, within a framework of the suicidal process and preventive strategies. We assessed six quasi-experimental studies of community-based interventions providing universal depression screening, subsequent care, and education to elderly people in Japan, and performed a combined analysis of outcome data. Screening interventions were associated with lower suicide rates. We also found a gender difference in the response to subsequent psychiatric or primary care. Two types of interventions decreased the rate of suicide among elderly people: crisis helplines and screening interventions. These interventions featured a close link between universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies, which reflect different approaches tailored to the size and risk profile of the target individuals. Successful interventions appear to hinge on systematic links between multi-level prevention interventions. Multi-level interventions for depression screening may result in lower suicide rates among elderly individuals in communities, although primary care interventions alone appear to be insufficient in men. The benefit of linked multi-level prevention interventions may highlight the importance of the multiple steps and components of the suicidal process.

  15. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: intervention model and primary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S

    2009-06-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA

  16. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  17. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J; Van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-11-13

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified.

  18. The ideal epidemiological intervention study model on chronic non-infectious diseases - the way forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    to modify the specific risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. The objective here is to present the methodological gold standard for the intervention studies and to discuss how to improve the intervention studies and programs. Material and Methods...... on 57 health intervention studies concludes that desired effects of the interventions have most often been insignificant or lacking (1). A recent review from the McKinsey Global Institute based on 74 obesity interventions finds that ”No single solution creates sufficient impact to reverse obesity: only....... Maritime health interventions programs should go together with the national and international (ILO-WHO) public health programs. References 1 Ebrahim S1, Taylor F, Ward K, Beswick A, Burke M, Davey Smith G. Multiple risk factor interventions for primary prevention of coronary heart disease. Cochrane...

  19. A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behavior intervention studies in youth with type 1 diabetes: study characteristics, intervention design, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Matthews, Lynsay; Robertson, Kenneth; Saunders, David H

    2014-05-01

    To systematically review physical activity and/or sedentary behavior intervention studies for youth with type 1 diabetes. Several databases were searched for articles reporting on randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) in youth (diabetes. Data was extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design, and efficacy of interventions on physical activity and health. Where sufficient data were available meta-analyses of health outcomes [for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] were performed. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using fixed and random effect models. The literature search identified 12/2397 full-text articles reporting on 11 studies. Two interventions were wholly unsupervised and only one was based on behavior change theory with no studies exploring changes in behavior processes. Nine interventions aimed to improve fitness or physical activity, two aimed to improve health, and none aimed at changing sedentary behavior. Eight interventions improved physical activity and/or fitness. At least one beneficial effect on health was found in each intervention group apart from two studies where no changes were found. Meta-analysis of 10 studies showed the interventions have a significant beneficial reduction of HbA1c (%), indicating an improvement in glycemic control [WMD, -0.85% (95% CI, -1.45 to -0.25%)]. There were insufficient data to pool other health outcome data. Few RCTs explored the efficacy of unsupervised theory-based physical activity and/or sedentary behavior interventions in youth with type 1 diabetes. Limited reporting made comparison of findings challenging. There was an overall significant beneficial effect of physical activity on HbA1c. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Some Cognitive Consequences of Maternal Intervention Techniques: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert D.; McDevitt, Teresa M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between mothers' intervention techniques in both teaching and disciplining and children's school-related abilities. Mothers' techniques were assessed when their children were age 4, and children's academic abilities were measured at ages 4, 5, 6, and 12. Among other results, direct control tactics were negatively…

  1. Neuropsychological intervention in dyslexia: two studies on British pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical context of this research is developmental neuropsychology--in particular, the educational implications for the classification of and intervention in specific developmental dyslexia (SDD). Controlled and validated research can help identify optimal teaching methods for groups and individuals. Within this framework, neuropsychological theory can be explored as a medium for improving intervention for pupils with SDD. Neuropsychological stimulation cannot change the macro aspects of the brain but can change its "finetuning" and its response to written text. Within the psycho-neurological approaches, Bakker (1979, 1990, 1998) developed both a diagnostic procedure and empirically investigated intervention procedures. The theory rests on the Balance Model of learning to read, in which differential hemisphere involvement is implicated in beginning and advanced reading. Intervention can take place via hemisphere-specific stimulation using visual or tactile stimulation or hemisphere-alluding stimulation using modified text. Two investigations are presented, one experimental and another clinical. The results support the validity of dyslexia subtyping and the effectiveness of the treatment methods.

  2. NSAID Use after Bariatric Surgery : a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. Aim To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID

  3. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): study design and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Mangialasche, Francesca; Nissinen, Aulikki; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-11-01

    Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland. Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score ≥6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures. Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle-related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014. The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are relatively complex but tend to be more flexible and more often manualised. SAFE ratings can contribute to tackling the current implementation challenges in mental health services, by providing a reporting guideline structure for researchers to maximise the potential for implementation and by informing prioritisation decisions by clinical guideline developers and service managers.

  5. Using the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions to Develop Clinical Decision Support: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Dawn; Lichtner, Valentina; Closs, S José

    2017-01-01

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex interventions provides useful guidance to assist with the development and evaluation of health technology interventions such as decision support. In this paper we briefly summarise a project that focused on designing a decision support intervention to assist with the recognition, assessment and management of pain in patients with dementia in an acute hospital setting. We reflect on our experience of using the MRC framework to guide our study design, and highlight the importance of considering decision support interventions as complex interventions.

  6. Evaluating clinical and public health interventions: a practical guide to study design and statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H

    2010-01-01

    .... Because the choice of research design depends on the nature of the intervention, the book covers randomized and nonrandomized designs, prospective and retrospective studies, planned clinical trials...

  7. Outcomes of a pilates-based intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lucinda M; Mikuski, Connie; Miller, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Core stability and flexibility, features of Pilates exercise, can reduce loads to the upper extremities. Reducing loads is essential to improve symptoms for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Although Pilates exercise has gained popularity in healthy populations, it has not been studied for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if adding Pilates-based intervention to standard occupational therapy intervention improved outcomes as measured by the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) more than standard intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Participants (N= 17) were randomized to the standard intervention group or Pilates-based intervention group. All participants received standard intervention. The Pilates-based intervention group additionally completed abdominal strengthening, postural correction, and flexibility. For both groups, paired t-tests showed significantly improved PRTEE scores, 38.1 for the Pilates-based intervention group, and 22.9 for the standard intervention group. Paired t-test showed significantly improved provocative grip strength and pain for both groups. Independent t-tests showed no significant difference between groups in improved scores of PRTEE, pain, and provocative grip. Although the Pilates-based intervention group showed greater improvement in PRTEE outcome, provocative grip, and pain, scores were not significantly better than those of the standard intervention group, warranting further research.

  8. Clinical study of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guangze; Xiao Yiming; Wen Zhilin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction. Method: Using urokinase, 35 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours were treated by intra-artery thrombolytic therapy. Europe stroke scale (ESS), Barthel index (BI) were used to evaluate the recovery of neurological functions. Result: ESS score increase rapidly after thrombolytisis, and there were significant difference between the two teams. Thirteen of 13 cases treated within 6 hours from onset showed complete/partial recanalization in cerebral angiography and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 0%, twenty-six of 35 cases treated within 24 hours showed complete/partial recanalization and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 5.71%. Conclusion: Interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction within 6h were safe and effective. (authors)

  9. Training managers to facilitate their meetings: An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    . To test this reconceptualisation in a live experiment intended to improve real meetings, we conducted brief training of 103 managers in meeting facilitation in two organisations in Denmark. A pre- and post-intervention survey of a thousand employees who regularly participated in these managers’ meetings......Meetings in organisations are a common object of popular frustration. They are often run by managers who picked up their meeting skills from their superiors a generation previously, thus perpetuating obsolescent practices unsuited to today’s world of work. This paper reports on a research......-based intervention effort to improve organisational meetings. It reconceptualises classical meeting management, offering instead the practice of ‘meeting facilitation’: a more active and supportive approach, in which the manager-as-facilitator guides and directs conversations in meetings towards a positive goal...

  10. A multi-modal intervention for Activating Patients at Risk for Osteoporosis (APROPOS: Rationale, design, and uptake of online study intervention material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Danila

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: We developed and implemented a novel tailored multi-modal intervention to improve initiation of osteoporosis therapy. An email address provided on the survey was the most important factor independently associated with accessing the intervention online. The design and uptake of this intervention may have implications for future studies in osteoporosis or other chronic diseases.

  11. Methodological reflections on body-mind intervention studies with cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Adriaan; Schoolmeesters, Alexandra; van den Berg, Machteld; Schell, Nicole; de Gelder, Rianne; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Methodological reflection on the content, results and limitations of three body-mind intervention studies with cancer patients (CPs) in order to improve the quality of studies on body-mind interventions and to raise the potential value for CPs. A secondary analysis of a study on haptotherapy and two studies applying relaxing face massage, using a variety of well-being effect measures. Six methodological themes are discussed: (1) drop-out; (2) characteristics of participating patients, (3) participation of patients in other complementary interventions; (4) satisfaction of participants; (5) effects of the three interventions, and (6) role of response shift. The three interventions showed limited effects after controlling for relevant confounding factors. They are mainly the small sample sizes, the low intensity of the intervention, the possible inadequate measure moments and the use of other CAM that may be responsible for the absence of effects. Body-mind interventions require more methodological reflections to develop attractive and effective interventions for CPs. Attention needs to be paid to measuring short term effects, practically fitting research designs, and response shift. Interventions should be intensive, repeated and not too short. The implementation of interventions requires attention to several organizational factors in the health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Health effect of improved meal ambience in a Dutch nursing home : a 1-year intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.; Vanneste, V.G.G.; Graaf, de C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an improved ambiance of food consumption on health and nutritional status of Dutch nursing home elderly residents (n = 38) in a 1-year intervention study. Methods. A parallel group intervention study was performed. Improvement of

  13. Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J; Friesen, Andrew P; Beedie, Christopher J; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times-practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective.

  14. Communication with young people in paediatric and adult endocrine consultations: an intervention development and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Gleeson, H; Clayton, P E; Davis, J R E; Dimitri, P; Wales, J; Young, B; Callery, P

    2017-06-15

    Communication is complex in endocrine care, particularly during transition from paediatric to adult services. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of interventions to support young people to interact with clinicians. Development and evaluation of a complex intervention in 2 phases: Pre-intervention observational study; Intervention feasibility study. Purposive sample of recordings of 62 consultations with 58 young people aged 11-25 years with long-term endocrine conditions in two paediatric and two adult endocrine clinics. Proportion of time talked during consultations, number and direction of questions asked; Paediatric Consultation Assessment Tool (PCAT); OPTION shared decision making tool; Medical Information Satisfaction Scale (MISS- 21). Young people were invited to use one or more of: a prompt sheet to help them influence consultation agendas and raise questions; a summary sheet to record key information; and the www.explain.me.uk website. Nearly two thirds of young people (63%) chose to use at least one communication intervention. Higher ratings for two PCAT items (95% CI 0.0 to 1.1 and 0.1 to 1.7) suggest interventions can support consultation skills. A higher proportion of accompanying persons (83%) than young people (64%) directed questions to clinicians. The proportion of young people asking questions was higher (84%) in the intervention phase than in the observation phase (71%). Interventions were acceptable and feasible. The Intervention phase was associated with YP asking more questions, which implies that the availability of interventions could promote interactivity.

  15. Perspectives on randomization and readiness for change in a workplace intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Persson, Roger; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    , it is important to investigate differences between study groups in readiness for change. To meet this aim, we used data from an intervention study of the effects of work-time control. The study design entailed both self-selection (i.e. non-random) and random allocation into intervention and control groups. Some...... team leaders rejected randomization because they considered it to be fairest to increase work-time control among employees in most need. Others accepted randomization arguing that it was fairer to allocate a potential benefi t by random. We found no difference in readiness for changes when comparing...... the self-selected intervention and control groups. In contrast, the randomized intervention group reported higher readiness for change when compared with both the randomized control group and the self-selected intervention group. This suggests that self-selection into intervention and control groups may...

  16. Intervention of hydrogen analysis laboratory for radioactive materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, N.; Vinces, H.; Figueroa, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the practice was the measurement of the hydrogen concentration on structural material from the Central Nuclear Atucha I (CNA-I) cooling channels using a LECO gas analyser. Original samples were previously separated into fractions at the Laboratiorio para Ensayos de Post-Irradiacion (LAPEP), Centro Atomico Ezeiza. The practice and the preliminary conditions of the laboratory and equipment to reduce the occupational dose for personnel and the work area contamination are described in this paper. In addition to the training activity for workers, the radiological control performed during the intervention and procedure followed to decontaminate LECO and the laboratory are summarized here. (authors)

  17. Web-based office ergonomics intervention on work-related complaints: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Marina; König, Mirjam; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was a proof of concept to examine the effects of a Web-based office ergonomics intervention on subjects' individual workplace adjustments. An intervention study was conducted with 24 office workers lasting 6 weeks with three consecutive phases (before, 1 and 5 weeks after the intervention). Employees used a purpose-made website for adjusting their computer workplaces without any personal support of ergonomics experts. Workplace measurements were taken directly on site and by analysing photos taken of the employee. Self-reported complaints were assessed by filling in a questionnaire. It was found that 96% of the employees changed their workplaces on their own and retained them mostly unchanged after the intervention. Furthermore, self-reported musculoskeletal complaints and headache symptoms decreased significantly after the intervention. These findings suggest an improvement of workplace conditions so that cost-effective ergonomic Web-based interventions appear promising in further research and application.

  18. Lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for cervical radiculopathy in conservative intervention studies: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Thoomes (Erik); G.G.M. Scholten-Peeters (Gwendolijne); A.J. de Boer (Alice); R.A. Olsthoorn (Remy); K. Verkerk (Karin); C.-W.C. Lin (Chung-Wei Christine); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a common diagnosis. It is unclear if intervention studies use uniform definitions and criteria for patient selection. Our objective was to assess the uniformity of diagnostic criteria and definitions used in intervention studies to select patients

  19. Lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for cervical radiculopathy in conservative intervention studies: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoomes, Erik J; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; de Boer, Alice J; Olsthoorn, Remy A; Verkerk, Karin; Lin, Christine; Verhagen, Arianne P

    PURPOSE: Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a common diagnosis. It is unclear if intervention studies use uniform definitions and criteria for patient selection. Our objective was to assess the uniformity of diagnostic criteria and definitions used in intervention studies to select patients with CR.

  20. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth gr...

  1. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjærsti Thorsteinsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n=21 recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73 were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  2. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  3. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: design and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S

    2015-12-01

    One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. Brief online training enhances competitive performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK psychological skills intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Lane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742 completed a competitive task four times--practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, and increasing arousal via pleasant emotions. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions and low effort. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills.

  5. Craving Behavior Intervention in Ameliorating College Students' Internet Game Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405.

  6. Hypnotherapy intervention for loin pain hematuria: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Koep, Lauren L; Kendrick, Cassie E

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions, including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, endpoint, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms.

  7. The effect of brief digital interventions on attitudes to intellectual disability: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. 401 adult participants were randomised to six digital brief interventions consisting of different combinations of education, indirect and imagined contact. Their attitudes, intergroup anxiety and social distance were assessed post-intervention and at four to six-week follow-up. An intervention combining film-based education about intellectual disability and indirect contact had small positive effects on all three outcomes. Social distance was further reduced with the addition of a positively toned imagined contact task. These effects were maintained at follow-up. A brief film-based digital intervention can have small positive effects on attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities. These may be enhanced by adding positive imagined contact. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    the understanding of all stages of multi-step carcinogenesis in the mouse, in particular the relationships between germ line predisposition and somatic genetic changes in tumors.” explained Dr. Mao in a news feature released by Berkeley Lab. “The identification of human homologues of these predisposition genes and the discovery of their roles in carcinogenesis will ultimately be important for the development of methods for the prediction of risk, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy for human cancers,” he further added. “Although targeted therapy has given hope to patients, drug resistance usually takes place within short time. We need to figure out a way to combine multiple  targeted therapies to treat patient s and somehow circumvent drug resistance to cure cancer.”Both scientists confessed to having a deep interest in the biology of cancer, which motivates them to focus their efforts in developing therapeutics as cancer intervention. However, they are sometimes subdued by numerous challenges in their research works, namely the heterogeneity and complexity of the tumors, which make it difficult to successfully treat patients. In addition, they highlighted a common challenge in their field, which also happens to be one of the main concerns for a majority of cancer researchers all over the world – lack of funding for research. “It remains challenging to obtain sufficient funds to do the research we believe is important,” they said.When asked for their opinion of targeted therapy, which is a growing part of many cancer treatment regimens, both scientists claimed, “Although targeted therapy has given hope to patients, drug resistance usually takes place within a short time. We need to figure out a way to combine multiple targeted therapies to treat patients and somehow circumvent drug resistance to cure cancer.” For researchers who are studying the biology of cancer, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao believe that they should ideally take into account

  9. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACCH INTERVENTION IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: A REVIEW STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sanz-Cervera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes a review of the literature to analyze the effectiveness of the TEACCH intervention, as well as the effect of this intervention on the level of parental and teachers’ stress of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Considering the inclusion criteria, a total of 14 studies were analyzed. Regardless of the context of intervention, all the studies revealed developmental abilities improvements and a reduction in autistic symptoms and maladaptative behaviors. In 11 of the 14 studies, statistically significant improvements were obtained. As for the effect of the TEACCH intervention in the level of the parents or teachers stress, out of the 7 studies that evaluated stress, 5 of them obtained a significant decrease between Pre and Post measurements. Considering these results, TEACCH intervention could be effective not only improving the child’s development, but also enhancing the adults’ level of well-being.

  10. [Effectiveness of brief intervention for substance use disorder in Japan--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuzo; Takahama, Mihoko; Ogai, Yasukazu; Yumoto, Yosuke; Umeno, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Relatively few hospitals can treat substance use disorder in Japan and the options for treatment are limited. Previous studies in the West have shown the effectiveness of brief intervention for substance use disorder. However, such treatment has not been sufficiently implemented in Japan. For this study, we developed brief intervention tools for substance use disorder, and conducted a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. Participants in this study were recruited from those admitted for substance use disorder in the addiction treatment unit of Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, and the recruitment period was from October 2013 through March 2014. The brief intervention consisted of one 30-min individual session. Four self-rating scales measuring motivation, relapse risk and self-efficacy were administered pre- and post-intervention: SOCRATES-8D, Stimulants Relapse Risk Scale, Drug Abuse Self-efficacy Scale and Visual Analogue Scale. Forty patients participated in this study. Subscale Scores at post-intervention that improved significantly compared to those at pre-intervention were Recognition (SOCRATES-8D); Total score and Anxiety and intention to use drug (Stimulants Relapse Risk Scale); Generalized self-efficacy (Drug Abuse Self-efficacy Scale); and Knowledge about drug abuse (Visual Analogue Scale). These results indicate that brief interventions may offer effective treatment for substance use disorder. A randomized controlled trial that contains an evaluation of abstinence rate in the follow-up period is needed to ascertain the efficacy of brief intervention for substance use disorder in Japan.

  11. The Role of Interventions in Reduction of Smoking in High School Adolescents: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad mehdi hazavei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Today nicotine has been known as an addictive substance and difficult to quit. Cigarette dependence also occurs quickly and high prevalence of nicotine dependence has made it the most common psychiatric disorder. This study was performed with the purpose of evaluating and comparing interventions based on training methods and training based on the use of theories and models of health education to reduce smoking in adolescents. Methods: Electronic search was performed using Persian and English keywords in Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Scientific Information Database (SID, PubMed, Science direct, Biomed Central from April 21 to June 5, 2015. Results: Nine interventional researches were investigated in this review study. The interventions were divided into two studies, which, in general, theories and models of health education were the basis for intervention in 5 studies, and 4 other interventions were carried out without the use of theories and models of health education. All studies were performed as intervention and control. Conclusion: The results showed that education based on theory and models of health education has a major impact on the reduction of smoking in adolescents. Also, time, method of interventions, and training programs using appropriate models and theories is of great importance in the effectiveness of interventions to reduce smoking in adolescents.  

  12. Male and Female Pathways to Psychopathology: Findings from a Preventive Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vuijk, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extent the knowledge on the pathways to male and female psychopathology from childhood into early adolescence. In Chapter 1, the background of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) study was presented. The GBG study is a randomized controlled intervention study that started in 1998 when 666 children from 13 elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam and Amsterdam were enrolled in the study at age 6. The GBG intervention is a universal...

  13. The effectiveness of intervention studies to decrease alcohol use in college undergraduate students: an integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Fager, Judith; Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    This analysis was performed to critique intervention studies targeted at decreasing alcohol use in college students for the purpose of (1) synthesizing the various types of interventions and outcomes used, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions, and (3) identifying the strengths and limitations of prior studies to make recommendations for evidence-based clinical practice and future research. An exhaustive literature search was performed for experimental studies conducted in the past 10 years. Analysis using 15 identified studies indicated the following strengths: (1) use of random assignment in many of the studies, (2) use of theoretical frameworks to guide the interventions, (3) replication of previous studies, and (4) inclusion of outcome measures of alcohol use, quantity, and frequency. Limitations included: (1) small convenience samples; (2) use of multiple tools to elicit outcomes, making it difficult to compare results across studies; (3) lack of long-term follow-up to assess sustainability of the interventions; (4) use of only self-report outcome measures, which rely on subject's recall memory; (5) lack of manipulation checks to assure that subjects actually processed the interventions; and (6) a paucity of stress and coping interventions. Extensive research to address the problem of college alcohol use indicates that while education is an integral part of the approach for this problem, it is ineffective when used alone as an intervention strategy. However, some empirical support exists for the use of brief motivational interventions to reduce alcohol use and harm. A personalized approach addressing expectancies and normative use employing a motivational interviewing style may produce desired outcomes. In addition, theory-based manualized approaches using stress and coping intervention strategies need to be developed and tested. In the design of future studies, careful attention also should be given to methodological issues such as sampling

  14. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  15. Student radiographers' attitudes toward the older patient – An intervention study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.; Kada, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To design, implement and evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on Norwegian student (diagnostic) radiographers' attitudes towards older people. Design: This study is part of a wider longitudinal study that will evaluate student radiographer attitudes towards the older patient as they progress through their training. In this phase an educational intervention, aimed at improving student radiographer attitudes towards the older person, was designed and implemented. What is reported here are the findings of a pre-test, post-test design that used the Kogan's attitudes towards older people scale to determine whether this intervention had any effect of student radiographer attitudes towards older people. Results: Overall students reported significantly more positive attitudes towards older people after intervention (p = 0.01). However, analysis of responses to individual questions reveals that this difference was not significant in all cases. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an educational intervention can have a significant impact on student radiographer's attitudes towards older people. Whether this positive attitude remains throughout training, forms part of the wider basis for this study. - Highlights: • We designed an education intervention to improve Norwegian student radiographer attitudes towards older people. • Pre-intervention we found that these student radiographers generally had positive attitudes towards older people. • Post intervention the student radiographer's attitudes towards older people were significantly improved

  16. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  17. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  18. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study physical education intervention component

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. Middle schools at seven centers across the United States participated in the 3-year study. Half of them were randomized to receive a multi-component intervention. The intervention ...

  19. The Effect of Brief Digital Interventions on Attitudes to Intellectual Disability: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. Materials and Methods: 401 adult participants were…

  20. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  1. Primary Care Interventions for Dementia Caregivers: 2-Year Outcomes from the REACH Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J.; Lummus, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed and tested two 24-month primary care interventions to alleviate the psychological distress suffered by the caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease. The interventions, using targeted educational materials, were patient behavior management only, and patient behavior management plus caregiver stress-coping…

  2. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  3. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  4. The Effect of Teacher Beliefs on Student Competence in Mathematical Modeling--An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Maaß, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and…

  5. Development of the Psychiatric Nursing Intervention Providing Structure: An International Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, L.A.; Nugter, A.; Achterberg, T. van; Goossens, P.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric nurses commonly refer to "providing structure" (PS) as a key intervention. But no consensus exists about what PS entails. PS can be understood as a complex intervention. In four previous studies, a definition, activities, and context variables were described that were

  6. Effectiveness of Community Participation in Earthquake Preparedness: A Community-Based Participatory Intervention Study of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Saberi Namin, Maryam; Ardalan, Ali; Majdzadeh, Behdad; Seydali, Elham

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based participatory intervention on earthquake preparedness in Tehran. This community-engaged research was conducted during 2011 to 2013. An intervention and a control neighborhood were chosen through systematic cluster sampling. In the intervention group 305 households and in the control group 314 households were sampled for pre- and post-assessment surveys. A participatory intervention was designed on the basis of consultation with the community advisory board and was implemented by trained volunteers. Changes in outcome variables in the intervention and control groups were detected in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Pearson chi-square tests and covariance regression were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The results showed that the frequency of earthquake experience in the intervention and control groups was 69.2% and 79.0%, respectively. Moreover, the mean difference scores in knowledge, attitude, and practice in the intervention and control groups before and after the intervention were significant (Ppreparedness at a community level. To ensure sustainability, the participatory approach should be integrated into public health disaster planning.

  7. Survival after a psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: a replication study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Boesen, Sidsel H; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The results of a randomized, intervention study done in 1993 of psychoeducation for patients with early-stage malignant melanoma showed a beneficial effect on recurrence and survival 6 years after the intervention. In the present study, we replicated the study with 258 Danish patients with malign...... with malignant melanoma. We also compared recurrence and survival among the participants in the randomized study with 137 patients who refused to participate....

  8. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  9. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  10. The clinical study of interventional therapy in thrombo angitis obliterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qi; Jiang Zhongpu; Ren Lijun; Wang Haiting; Mao Dongrang; Huang Liguang; Wang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility and validity of interventional therapy in thrombo angitis obliterans. Methods: 13 patients with thrombo angitis obliterans were treated with percutaneous left subclavian artery port-catheter system implantation. The catheter external iliac artery with perfusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) 100 μg, urokinase (UK) 200, 000U and mailuoning 20 ml every day. Each treatment lasted for 7-10 days. Results: 13 patients with angiographic demonstration showed occlusions of 1 case in the middle segment of superficial femoral artery, 9 cases of complete occlusion in popliteal artery and same for 3 cases in anterior tibial artery, the end of the peroneal artery and posterior tibial artery. After treatment, 3 patients had to undergo amputation due to gangrene in foot and 10 patients with no gangrene showed skin temperature rising up in the lower limb. Intermittent claudication and rest pain were relieved obviously accompanied by increasing step distance over 500 m with the Fontain grade improvement of twice at least. Follow up angiography one year later showed large quantity of vasculogenesis in the lower limb. Conclusion: The treatment of trans-port-catheter system is excellent and practical for improving the clinical status of patients with thrombo angitis obliterans. (authors)

  11. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas; Domroese, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  12. Defining childhood severe falciparum malaria for intervention studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bejon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of interventions designed to prevent severe falciparum malaria in children require a clear endpoint. The internationally accepted definition of severe malaria is sensitive, and appropriate for clinical purposes. However, this definition includes individuals with severe nonmalarial disease and coincident parasitaemia, so may lack specificity in vaccine trials. Although there is no "gold standard" individual test for severe malaria, malaria-attributable fractions (MAFs can be estimated among groups of children using a logistic model, which we use to test the suitability of various case definitions as trial endpoints.A total of 4,583 blood samples were taken from well children in cross-sectional surveys and from 1,361 children admitted to a Kenyan District hospital with severe disease. Among children under 2 y old with severe disease and over 2,500 parasites per microliter of blood, the MAFs were above 85% in moderate- and low-transmission areas, but only 61% in a high-transmission area. HIV and malnutrition were not associated with reduced MAFs, but gastroenteritis with severe dehydration (defined by reduced skin turgor, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's final diagnosis, meningitis (on cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] examination, and bacteraemia were associated with reduced MAFs. The overall MAF was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.8%-86.1% without excluding these conditions, 89% (95% CI 88.4%-90.2% after exclusions, and 95% (95% CI 94.0%-95.5% when a threshold of 2,500 parasites/mul was also applied. Applying a threshold and exclusion criteria reduced sensitivity to 80% (95% CI 77%-83%.The specificity of a case definition for severe malaria is improved by applying a parasite density threshold and by excluding children with meningitis, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's diagnosis, bacteraemia, and gastroenteritis with severe dehydration, but not by excluding children with HIV or malnutrition.

  13. Reducing indoor air pollution with a randomised intervention design - a presentation of the Stove Intervention Study in the Guatemalan Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Smith-Sivertsen m.fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution from the burning of solid fuels (like wood and coal in simple stoves is a global problem especially affecting people living in poor rural areas of the world. When typically burnt on open fires, the resulting indoor pollution levels may be orders of magnitude higher than levels recommended by international guidelines. The most important health effects seem to be acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women. So far, health risks from solid fuel use have only been studied with observational designs, often with poor assessment of exposures. Hence there is good reason to conduct a well-designed randomised intervention study.                                          In this randomised study, conducted in a poor rural community in Guatemala, indoor exposure burden in the intervention group is reduced by replacing open fires with new chimney stoves burning the same wood fuels. Participating households (n=534 all started the project with a child less than four months or a pregnant woman, and are being followed until the child reaches 18 months. At the end of follow-up, the control households receive their new stove. The main health outcome investigated is the incidence of ALRI in infants. Also, respiratory and cardiovascular health in women is studied. Preparations are also being made to study asthma/atopy in the children as they grow older. This study will define the relationship between exposure and disease more completely, quantify the impacts of reducing indoor air pollution and document the potential for prevention of ill-health that new stoves give. It is the first randomised controlled trial ever performed on health effects from combustion pollutants in normal populations.

  14. Effectiveness of a one-year multi-component day-camp intervention for overweight children: study protocol of the Odense overweight intervention study (OOIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-04-05

    Childhood overweight has noticeable psychological and social consequences for the child and leads to an increased risk of mortality and morbidity later in life. With the high prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents, it is important to identify effective approaches for the prevention and treatment of overweight in children and young individuals. The primary aim of the study is to assess the effect of an intensive day-camp intervention on body mass index (BMI) in overweight children. The Odense Overweight Intervention Study is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial. Overweight children from the Municipality of Odense, Denmark, were invited to participate in the trial. Based on power calculations 98 participants were found to be sufficient to randomize in order to find an effect of minimum 1.5 BMI points. Gender-stratified concealed block randomization with a ratio of 1:1 and random block sizes of two, four, and six ensured balance between study arms. The intervention consisted of a six-week multi-component day camp including increased physical activity, healthy diet and health education followed by 46 weeks of family-based habitual intervention. The standard care arm was offered two weekly hours of physical activity training for six weeks. The outcomes were measured at baseline and at six-week and 52-week follow-ups. Furthermore, BMI will be assessed again at 48-month follow-up. Test personnel were kept blinded. The intervention effect will be evaluated using mixed model analyses. During 2012 and 2013, 115 children were enrolled in the study. Fifty-nine children were randomized to the day-camp intervention arm and 56 to the standard intervention arm. This study will provide novel information about the long-term health effects of an intense day-camp intervention program on overweight children, due to the design and the follow-up period. Moreover, it will add to the knowledge on designing and implementing feasible camp settings for preventing

  15. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, Merel; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Smit, Filip; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-02-08

    The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems. We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, PsychInfo, the Cochrane register, and manual searches. Forty articles, describing 39 studies, totaling 6,139 participants, met the criteria for inclusion. The outcome measures used were subjective well-being, psychological well-being and depression. Positive psychology interventions included self-help interventions, group training and individual therapy. The standardized mean difference was 0.34 for subjective well-being, 0.20 for psychological well-being and 0.23 for depression indicating small effects for positive psychology interventions. At follow-up from three to six months, effect sizes are small, but still significant for subjective well-being and psychological well-being, indicating that effects are fairly sustainable. Heterogeneity was rather high, due to the wide diversity of the studies included. Several variables moderated the impact on depression: Interventions were more effective if they were of longer duration, if recruitment was conducted via referral or hospital, if interventions were delivered to people with certain psychosocial problems and on an individual basis, and if the study design was of low quality. Moreover, indications for publication bias were found, and the quality of the studies varied considerably. The results of this meta-analysis show that positive psychology interventions can be effective in the enhancement of subjective well-being and psychological well-being, as well as in helping to reduce depressive symptoms. Additional high-quality peer-reviewed studies in diverse (clinical) populations are needed to strengthen the evidence-base for positive

  16. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather ERWIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is beneficial to children’s health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n=15 received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics fluency, PA, grades, and standardized test scores were collected. Effects of the intervention were examined using mixed-design ANOVAs. Intervention students had significantly higher reading fluency and mathematics scores post-intervention and higher means for standardized reading and mathematics scores as well as grades. Short bouts of PA are important for improving CBM math and reading fluency scores. Classroom teachers should be encouraged to devote time during academic learning to incorporate PA

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Nurcan; Ulusoylu, Özge; Bal, Ayça; Özgür, Hazal

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of nature sounds and relaxation exercises for reducing preoperative anxiety. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was used. We divided 159 preoperative patients into three groups: nature sounds (n = 53), relaxation exercises (n = 53), and control groups (n = 53). We evaluated anxiety using the visual analog scale and state anxiety inventory scores immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after interventions in nature sounds and relaxation exercises groups, and silent rest in the control. We found no differences between the measurement values in the intervention groups, but we did observe a difference between the intervention and control groups. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. These simple and low-cost interventions can be used to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Preventing childhood obesity in early care and education settings: lessons from two intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  20. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, LL; Schneider, M; Ford, EG; Hernandez, AE; Showell, B; Drews, KL; Moe, EL; Gillis, B; Jessup, AN; Stadler, DD; White, M

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  1. Evaluation of active transition, a website-delivered physical activity intervention for university students: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew; Faulkner, Guy; Bray, Steven

    2013-04-29

    While physical activity in individuals tends to decline steadily with age, there are certain periods where this decline occurs more rapidly, such as during early adulthood. Interventions aimed at attenuating the declines in physical activity during this transition period appear warranted. The purpose of the study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of a theoretically informed, website-delivered physical activity intervention aimed at students entering university. Using a quasi-experimental design, 65 participants (44 females; mean age 18.51, SD 0.91) were assigned to either an intervention (receiving website access plus weekly prompts) or comparison condition (receiving unprompted website access only), completing questionnaires at baseline and follow-up 8 weeks later. The intervention website, "Active Transition", was specifically designed to target students' physical activity cognitions and self-regulatory skills. Intervention usage was low, with only 47% (18/38) of participants assigned to the intervention condition logging into the website 2 or more times. Among the broader student sample, there were significant declines in students' physical activity behaviors (F1,63=18.10, Pusers (29/65, individuals logging in 2 or more times) and non-users (36/65, individuals logging in once or not at all), there was a significant interaction effect for intervention usage and time on perceived behavioral control (F1,62=5.13, P=.03). Poor intervention usage suggests that future efforts need to incorporate innovative strategies to increase intervention uptake and better engage the student population. The findings, however, suggest that a website-delivered intervention aimed at this critical life stage may have positive impact on students' physical activity cognitions. Future studies with more rigorous sampling designs are required.

  2. Adapting a couple-based intimacy enhancement intervention to breast cancer: A developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Porter, Laura S; Casale, Kristen E; Bantug, Elissa T; Bober, Sharon L; Schwartz, Sharon C; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2016-10-01

    Sexual concerns continue to be poorly addressed for women treated for breast cancer and evidence-based interventions that adequately address these concerns are scarce. The objective of this study was to adapt a telephone-based intimacy enhancement intervention, previously tested in couples facing colorectal cancer, to the needs of women with breast cancer through qualitative focus groups, cognitive interviews, and expert review. Three semistructured qualitative focus groups in partnered posttreatment breast cancer survivors (n = 15) reporting sexual concerns were conducted to investigate experiences of breast cancer-related sexual concerns and intervention preferences. Focus group data were coded using the framework approach to qualitative analysis; 8 key themes were identified and used to develop the content and format of the intervention. Feedback from cognitive interviews with study-naïve breast cancer survivors (n = 4) and expert review of materials were also incorporated in finalizing the intervention materials. Qualitative findings centered on the impact of breast cancer and its treatment on women's sexuality and on the intimate relationship, experiences of helpful and unhelpful coping methods, and explicit intervention preferences. Focus group data were particularly helpful in identifying the scope of educational topics and in determining how to structure intervention skills practice (e.g., intimacy-related communication) to be optimally relevant and helpful for both women and their partners. Cognitive interview feedback helped refine intervention materials. An intimacy enhancement intervention was adapted for women with breast cancer and their partners. This intervention offers a promising, potentially disseminable approach to addressing breast cancer-related sexual concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Adapting a Couple-based Intimacy Enhancement Intervention to Breast Cancer: A Developmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Porter, Laura S.; Casale, Kristen E.; Bantug, Elissa T.; Bober, Sharon L.; Schwartz, Sharon C.; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sexual concerns continue to be poorly addressed for women treated for breast cancer and evidence-based interventions that adequately address these concerns are scarce. The objective of this study was to adapt a telephone-based Intimacy Enhancement intervention, previously tested in couples facing colorectal cancer, to the needs of women with breast cancer through qualitative focus groups, cognitive interviews, and expert review. Methods Three semi-structured qualitative focus groups in partnered post-treatment breast cancer survivors (n=15) reporting sexual concerns were conducted to investigate experiences of breast cancer-related sexual concerns and intervention preferences. Focus group data were coded using the framework approach to qualitative analysis; 8 key themes were identified and used to develop the content and format of the intervention. Feedback from cognitive interviews with study-naïve breast cancer survivors (n=4) and expert review of materials were also incorporated in finalizing the intervention materials. Results Qualitative findings centered on the impact of breast cancer and its treatment on women’s sexuality and on the intimate relationship, experiences of helpful and unhelpful coping methods, and explicit intervention preferences. Focus group data were particularly helpful in identifying the scope of educational topics and in determining how to structure intervention skills practice (e.g., intimacy-related communication) to be optimally relevant and helpful for both women and their partners. Cognitive interview feedback helped refine intervention materials. Conclusions An Intimacy Enhancement intervention was adapted for women with breast cancer and their partners. This intervention offers a promising, potentially disseminable approach to addressing breast cancer-related sexual concerns. PMID:27657981

  4. Evaluating clinical and public health interventions: a practical guide to study design and statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H

    2010-01-01

    ... and observational studies. In addition to reviewing standard statistical analysis, the book has easy-to-follow explanations of cutting edge techniques for evaluating interventions, including propensity score analysis...

  5. Peer acceptance and the development of emotional and behavioural problems: Results from a preventive intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, B.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in

  6. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  7. A pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Gaspardy, G.; Temesi, A.; Ballay, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the past 25 years, considerable number of new therapeutic procedures have been worked out and adopted in radiology. These interventional procedures are mainly based on angiographic methods. During these procedures the exposure of patients and staff are usually greater than of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy as a consequence of longer fluoroscopy times and great number of cine-radiography. In the latest years radiation-induced skin injuries occurred in some patients. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. In our days interventional procedures are widely used and more sophisticated procedures are worked out and adopted. Consequently, there is a need for the protection of the patient and the staff on a higher level. Radiation protection of intervention radiology deserves a distinguish attention. In Hungary interventional radiology were performed in 36 laboratories in 2003. According to statistical data the gross number of interventional radiological procedures were 19442. The most frequently performed procedures were the P.T.C.A., the coronary and ilio-femoral stent implantation and chemo-embolization. In 2004, the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radio-hygiene and the National Patient Dose Evaluation Program started a pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures. During the study the patient exposure were measured by D.A.P.-meters. The patient skin dose and the staff dose were performed by thermoluminescent chips. In their presentation the authors present the most important results of the study. (authors)

  8. Design, Implementation, and Study Protocol of a Kindergarten-Based Health Promotion Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity and an unhealthy diet amongst others have led to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity even in young children. Since most health behaviours develop during childhood health promotion has to start early. The setting kindergarten has been shown as ideal for such interventions. “Join the Healthy Boat” is a kindergarten-based health promotion programme with a cluster-randomised study focussing on increased physical activity, reduced screen media use, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as a higher fruit and vegetable intake. Intervention and materials were developed using Bartholomew’s Intervention Mapping approach considering Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development. The programme is distributed using a train-the-trainer approach and currently implemented in 618 kindergartens. The effectiveness of this one-year intervention with an intervention and a control group will be examined in 62 kindergartens using standardised protocols, materials, and tools for outcome and process evaluation. A sample of 1021 children and their parents provided consent and participated in the intervention. Results of this study are awaited to give a better understanding of health behaviours in early childhood and to identify strategies for effective health promotion. The current paper describes development and design of the intervention and its implementation and planned evaluation. Trial Registration. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, ID: DRKS00010089.

  9. Implications of Error Analysis Studies for Academic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed 13 studies that focused on analyzing student errors on achievement tests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third edition (KTEA-3). The intent was to determine what instructional implications could be derived from in-depth error analysis. As we reviewed these studies, several themes emerged. We explain how a careful…

  10. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  11. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    OpenAIRE

    DeBar, LL; Schneider, M; Ford, EG; Hernandez, AE; Showell, B; Drews, KL; Moe, EL; Gillis, B; Jessup, AN; Stadler, DD; White, M

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-bas...

  12. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice): Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTINE, DANIEL T.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4) was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue) w...

  13. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    -centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p index increased....... CONCLUSION: Christmas atmosphere tended to increase DGH at the morning conferences. JN tended to have an additive effect. JN exposure may be beneficial. FUNDING: The study did not receive any funding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was not registered and was kept secret for the participants in accordance...

  14. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  15. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  16. Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2012-06-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature for studies examining physical activity or nutrition interventions in the workplace, published between 1999 and March 2009, was conducted. This search identified 29 relevant studies. Interventions were grouped according to the theoretical framework on which the interventions were based (e.g. education, cognitive-behavioural, motivation enhancement, social influence, exercise). Weighted Cohen's d effect sizes, percentage overlap statistics, confidence intervals and fail safe Ns were calculated. Most theoretical approaches were associated with small effects. However, large effects were found for some measures of interventions using motivation enhancement. Effect sizes were larger for studies focusing on one health behaviour and for randomized controlled trials. The workplace is a suitable environment for making modest changes in the physical activity, nutrition and health of employees. Further research is necessary to determine whether these changes can be maintained in the long term.

  17. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  19. Developing a community-based intervention to improve quality of life in people with colorectal cancer: a complex intervention development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, N.M.; Allan, J.L.; Murchie, P.; Browne, S.; Hall, S.; Hubbard, G.; Johnston, M.; Lee, A.J.; McKinley, A.; Macleod, U.; Presseau, J.; Samuel, L.; Wyke, S.; Campbell, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and pilot a theory and evidence-based intervention to improve quality of life (QoL) in people with colorectal cancer. DESIGN: A complex intervention development study. SETTING: North East Scotland and Glasgow. PARTICIPANTS: Semistructured interviews with people with colorectal

  20. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  1. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  2. Pasos Saludables: A Pilot Randomized Intervention Study to Reduce Obesity in an Immigrant Farmworker Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane C; Andrews, Teresa; Schenker, Marc B

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a workplace-based diet and physical activity intervention to reduce obesity in a Latino farmworker population. 254 Latino farmworkers were allocated in a 1:2 control:intervention ratio to parallel groups in this randomized controlled study, [Clinical Trial ID# NCT01855282]. Intervention participants attended 10 weekly educational sessions led by promotoras. All participants had anthropometry and lifestyle habits recorded before randomization and at follow-up after 12-14 weeks. Seventy percent (n = 112 intervention and 66 control) completed the study. Intervention females (not controls) decreased the primary outcome measures of weight, BMI, and waist circumference (mean [95% CI]) of -0.7 [-1.3 to -0.1] kg, -0.3 [-0.4 to -0.2] and -0.9 [-1.7 to -0.1] cm, respectively. Intervention participants increased water consumption, fruit and vegetable servings, and moderate physical activity in a dose-dependent fashion. The successful pilot workplace intervention offers a model to reach otherwise difficult-to-access Latino farmworkers.

  3. Alcohol and substance screening and brief intervention for detainees kept in police custody. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariot, Patrick; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril; Barthès, Agnès; Tedlaouti, Menouar

    2014-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention programs related to addictive disorders have proven effective in a variety of environments. Both the feasibility and outcome of brief interventions performed in police custody by forensic physicians are unknown. Our objectives were to characterize addictive behaviors in detainees and to evaluate the feasibility of a brief intervention at the time of the medical examination in police custody. This prospective study included 1000 detainees in police custody who were examined by a physician for the assessment of fitness for detention. We used a standardized questionnaire and collected data concerning individual characteristics, addictive disorders, and reported assaults or observed injuries. 944 men and 56 women (94-6%) were studied. We found an addictive disorder in 708 of 1000 cases (71%), with the use of tobacco (62%), alcohol (36%), cannabis (35%), opiates (5%), and cocaine (4%) being the most common. A brief intervention was performed in 544 of these 708 cases (77%). A total of 139 of the 708 individuals (20%) expressed a willingness to change and 14 of 708 (2%) requested some information on treatment options. The main reasons why brief interventions were not performed were aggressive behaviors, drowsiness, or fanciful statements by the detainee. Brief interventions and screening for addictive behaviors in police custody are feasible in the majority of cases. The frequent link between addictive behaviors and the suspected crimes highlights the value of such interventions, which could be incorporated into the public health mission of the physician in police custody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of pharmaceutical counselling on antimicrobial use in surgical wards: intervention study with historical control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Weber, Alexandra; Lohmann, Stefanie; Vetter-Kerkhoff, Cornelia; Strobl, Ralf; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of pharmaceutical consulting on the quality of antimicrobial use in a surgical hospital department in a prospective controlled intervention study. Patients receiving pharmaceutical intervention (intervention group, IG, n = 317) were compared with a historical control group (control group, CG, n = 321). During the control period, antimicrobial use was monitored without intervention. During the subsequent intervention period, a clinical pharmacist reviewed the prescriptions and gave advice on medication. Intervention reduced the length of antimicrobial courses (IG = 10 days, CG = 11 days, incidence rate ratio for i.v. versus o.p. = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.93) and shortened i.v. administration (IG = 8 days, CG = 10 days, hazard rate = 1.76 in favour of switch from i.v. to p.o., 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.52). Intervention also helped to avoid useless combination therapy and reduced total costs for antimicrobials. A clinical pharmacist who reviews prescriptions can promote an increase in efficiency, for example, by shortening the course of treatment. Counselling by ward-based clinical pharmacists was shown to be effective to streamline antimicrobial therapy in surgical units and to increase drug safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study: a randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention in 360 obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte M; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes.......To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes....

  6. Supporting well-being in retirement through meaningful social roles: systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the quality of intervention and assessment and

  7. Supporting Well-Being in Retirement through Meaningful Social Roles: Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the

  8. [Transparency and replicability of nursing intervention studies in long-term care: A selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspörer, Irene; Schrems, Berta M

    2017-12-18

    The development and evaluation of interventions in long-term care is time-consuming and expensive due to their complexity. To ensure reproducibility and successful implementation, these interventions must be described and published in a comprehensible and qualitative manner. The aim of this study is to analyze intervention studies from the inpatient long-term care setting with regard to their completeness, reporting quality, transparency and thus reproducibility. The completeness and the reporting quality of the interventions described in the publications were examined in the context of a selective literature review by means of intervention studies from the long-term care setting (n=22). To this end, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Healthcare 2 (CReDECI2-DE) list were used. Transparency criteria included study registration and access to study protocols. The TIDieR checklist examination revealed that only three studies contained all the information necessary; the CReDECI2 test provided a complete description for only one study. Frequent shortcomings were observed concerning the information on modifications and titrations for the study participants and the location. Protocols were available for eight studies, 14 studies were registered. In terms of science, this means that the reproducibility of scientific findings is limited, which is why they cannot provide secure knowledge. As a result, the practical benefit to be derived from published studies that are accessible to decision-makers is limited as well. As far as publishers are concerned they should pay more attention to the completeness, registration and availability of materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    ) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal.......443, respectively). CONCLUSION: The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System...

  10. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours......), and low intensity intervention (meetings and discussions) and reference. Sleep quality was assessed by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) at baseline and follow-up (12 months). To elucidate the process of the intervention interviews were conducted. Influence on one's own working hours increased only...

  11. Neuropsychological Intervention in Dyslexia: Two Studies on British Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether an appropriate versus an inappropriate hemisphere alluding stimulation treatment of children with L-type dyslexia produces differential reading effects, and effects of hemisphere specific stimulation on children with L-, P-, and M-type dyslexia. Results support the validity of dyslexia subtyping and the…

  12. Developing a Hypnotic Relaxation Intervention to Improve Body Image: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Alison; Elkins, Gary; Banerjee, Tanima; Marsack, Jessica; Hickman, Kimberly; Johnson, Alisa; Henry, Norah; Barton, Debra

    2016-11-01

    To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor. 
. Adult women with a history of breast and gynecologic cancer and no major psychiatric history were eligible. The intervention included four face-to-face sessions with a research therapist lasting 40-60 minutes, logged home practice, one telephone check-in call at week 5, and one intervention feedback telephone call to complete the study. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used to test feasibility and content validity.
. Stress from body changes as measured by the Impact of Treatment Scale, sexual function as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index, and sexual self-image as measured by the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for women were the variables of interest.
. The intervention content was confirmed. Changes in scores from the baseline to week 5 suggested that stress from body changes decreased and sexual self-schema and function improved during the intervention. Nine of the 11 women were satisfied with the intervention, and all 11 indicated that their body image improved. 
. Hypnotic relaxation therapy shows promise for improving body image and, in doing so, improving sexual health in this population. Additional testing of this intervention is warranted.
. Hypnotic relaxation therapy is feasible to improve body image and sexual health in women diagnosed with cancer and may be an important intervention that could be offered by nurses and other behavioral therapists.

  13. Community-directed interventions for priority health problems in Africa: results of a multicountry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    To determine the extent to which the community-directed approach used in onchocerciasis control in Africa could effectively and efficiently provide integrated delivery of other health interventions. A three-year experimental study was undertaken in 35 health districts from 2005 to 2007 in seven research sites in Cameroon, Nigeria and Uganda. Four trial districts and one comparison district were randomly selected in each site. All districts had established ivermectin treatment programmes, and in the trial districts four other established interventions - vitamin A supplementation, use of insecticide-treated nets, home management of malaria and short-course, directly-observed treatment for tuberculosis patients - were progressively incorporated into a community-directed intervention (CDI) process. At the end of each of the three study years, we performed quantitative evaluations of intervention coverage and provider costs, as well as qualitative assessments of the CDI process. With the CDI strategy, significantly higher coverage was achieved than with other delivery approaches for all interventions except for short-course, directly-observed treatment. The coverage of malaria interventions more than doubled. The district-level costs of delivering all five interventions were lower in the CDI districts, but no cost difference was found at the first-line health facility level. Process evaluation showed that: (i) participatory processes were important; (ii) recurrent problems with the supply of intervention materials were a major constraint to implementation; (iii) the communities and community implementers were deeply committed to the CDI process; (iv) community implementers were more motivated by intangible incentives than by external financial incentives. The CDI strategy, which builds upon the core principles of primary health care, is an effective and efficient model for integrated delivery of appropriate health interventions at the community level in Africa.

  14. A listening skill educational intervention for pediatric rehabilitation clinicians: A mixed-methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Servais, Michelle; Shepherd, Tracy A; Willoughby, Colleen; Bolack, Linda; Moodie, Sheila; Baldwin, Patricia; Strachan, Deborah; Knickle, Kerry; Pinto, Madhu; Parker, Kathryn; McNaughton, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for an RCT by examining the effects of an educational intervention on the listening skills of pediatric rehabilitation clinicians, piloting study procedures, and investigating participants' learning experiences. Six experienced clinicians received the intervention, consisting of video simulations and solution-focused coaching regarding personal listening goals. Self- and observer-rated measures of listening skill were completed and qualitative information was gathered in interviews and a member checking session. Significant change on self-reported listening skills was found from pre- to post-test and/or follow-up. The pilot provided useful information to improve the study protocol, including the addition of an initial orientation to listening skills. Participants found the intervention to be a highly valuable and intense learning experience, and reported immediate changes to their clinical and interprofessional practice. The educational intervention has the potential to be an effective means to enhance the listening skills of practicing pediatric rehabilitation clinicians.

  15. Interventions for prevention of childhood obesity in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess

    2016-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.

  16. Delphi Survey for Designing a Intervention Research Study on Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. The two-round Delphi technique was used with a panel of 10 childhood obesity experts. The panelists were asked to rate "priority populations," "methods of intervention," "measurement of outcomes," "future intervention settings," and "duration of intervention" by using a structured questionnaire. Finally, a portfolio analysis was performed with the adequacy and feasibility indexes as the two axes. For priority populations, the panel favored "elementary," "preschool," and "middle and high school" students in this order. Regarding intervention settings, the panelists assigned high adequacy and feasibility to "childcare centers" and "home" for preschool children, "school" and "home" for elementary school children, and "school" for adolescents in middle and high school. As the age of the target population increased, the panelists scored increasing numbers of anthropometric, clinical, and intermediate outcomes as highly adequate and feasible for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention. According to the results of the Delphi survey, the highest-priority population for the research on childhood obesity prevention was that of elementary school students. Various settings, methods, outcome measures, and durations for the different age groups were also suggested.

  17. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Shamala Ayadurai; H. Laetitia Hattingh; Lisa B. G. Tee; Siti Norlina Md Said

    2016-01-01

    Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT) on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, na...

  18. A Pilot Study of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Incarcerated Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Mandy D; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-09-01

    Almost half of convicted jail inmates have an alcohol use disorder and many are released to environments that put them in contact with network members and cues that make them more likely to relapse on alcohol or drugs. Given the high-risk period immediately following release, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a brief motivational intervention administered just prior to release to increase substance use treatment entry and attendance, decrease alcohol and drug use, and change social networks for inmates with alcohol use disorders. Forty adult male inmates with AUDs were consented into the study and randomized to a motivational intervention or the control condition (an educational intervention), and then were contacted to do a 1-month follow-up interview (62.5% completed this interview). Results indicated that conducting these interventions was feasible and considered extremely helpful by participants. Although there were no significant group differences, medium to large effect sizes suggest possible benefits from the motivational intervention in decreasing days of alcohol and drug use and increasing abstinence, and reducing the proportion of heavy drug users or users of any kind in the social network. Future studies should replicate these findings in larger sample sizes and over longer follow-up time periods. Results may have implications for the use of brief intervention strategies at jails for inmates with AUDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Nutrition Education Intervention Trial for Adolescent Girls in Isfahan: Study Design and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Ghasab Shirazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNutrition behaviors of adolescent girls is of serious health concerns. Although nutrition education interventions in Iran have met with some success, most of them could not promote nutrition behavioral changes. The aim of our study is to determine a school-based nutrition education intervention to improve adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and behavioral mediators based on the social cognitive theory (SCT.Materials and MethodsThis study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be all student girls in grade 6 and 7, their parents and teachers in Isfahan governmental schools. This multi com­ponent school-based intervention include adolescents’ nutrition education package, parents’ nutrition massages, participatory homework, parents and teachers nutrition education package, supportive group, and collaboration with decision makers. Changing in nutrition behaviors including breakfast, fruit and vegetable, snack and fast food consumption will be examined, as primary outcome. Secondary outcome will be behavioral mediators such as knowledge, self-efficacy, intention, situation, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations and expectancies, in adolescent girls. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6-month follow-up.DiscussionThis study evaluates a school-based, guided SCT intervention, designed to improve healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge of adolescent girls. Few behavioral interventions have targeted this high-risk population in Iran. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the limited program outcomes of nutrition education in Iranian adolescents.

  20. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    lasting 1 – 2 hours for six weeks. The primary outcome is BMI. Secondary outcomes are BMI z-scores, fat percentage by DXA scanner and a composite metabolic risk z-score. Results: At 6 and 52 weeks follow up the DCIA has 2.2 and 1.2 lower BMI than the SIA, respectively. The same pattern is seen in favor...... of the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks....... Conclusions: The DCIA has a clear positive health effect in key parameters; BMI, BMI z-score, body fat-%, and clustered risk. The effect is pronounced at 6 weeks and, though reduced, still present after 52 weeks. The results of the study shows the potential of an activity camp as a basis for health change...

  1. The challenges of interventions to promote healthier food in independent takeaways in England: qualitative study of intervention deliverers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffe, Louis; Penn, Linda; Adams, Jean; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Abraham, Charles; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley; Lake, Amelia A

    2018-01-27

    Much of the food available from takeaways, pubs and restaurants particularly that sold by independent outlets, is unhealthy and its consumption is increasing. These food outlets are therefore important potential targets for interventions to improve diet and thus prevent diet related chronic diseases. Local authorities in England have been charged with delivering interventions to increase the provision of healthy food choices in independent outlets, but prior research shows that few such interventions have been rigorously developed or evaluated. We aimed to learn from the experiences of professionals delivering interventions in independent food outlets in England to identify the operational challenges and their suggestions for best practice. We used one-to-one semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore the views and experiences of professionals who were either employees of, or contracted by, a local authority to deliver interventions to increase the provision of healthier food choices in independent food outlets. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a sample which included men and women, from a range of professional roles, across different areas of England. Interviews were informed by a topic guide, and proceeded until no new themes emerged. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method. We conducted 11 individual interviews. Participants focussed on independent takeaways and their unhealthy food offerings, and highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of intervention delivery methods, their evaluation and impact. The main barriers to implementation of interventions in independent takeaways were identified as limited funding and the difficulties of engaging the food outlet owner/manager. Engagement was thought to be facilitated by delivering intensive, interactive and tailored interventions, clear and specific information, and incentives, whilst accounting for practical, primarily financial, constraints of food

  2. Dropout From an eHealth Intervention for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Silje Stangeland; Karlsen, Bjørg; Oord, Ellen Renate; Graue, Marit; Oftedal, Bjørg

    2017-05-30

    Adequate self-management is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment, as people make the majority of daily treatment measures and health decisions. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the complexity of diabetes self-management demonstrate the need for innovative and effective ways to deliver self-management support. eHealth interventions are promoted worldwide and hold a great potential in future health care for people with chronic diseases such as T2DM. However, many eHealth interventions face high dropout rates. This led to our interest in the experiences of participants who dropped out of an eHealth intervention for adults with T2DM, based on the Guided Self-Determination (GSD) counseling method. In this study, we aimed to explore experiences with an eHealth intervention based on GSD in general practice from the perspective of those who dropped out and to understand their reasons for dropping out. To the best of our knowledge, no previous qualitative study has focused on participants who withdrew from an eHealth self-management support intervention for adults with T2DM. A qualitative design based on telephone interviews was used to collect data. The sample comprised 12 adults with type 2 diabetes who dropped out of an eHealth intervention. Data were collected in 2016 and subjected to qualitative content analysis. We identified one overall theme: "Losing motivation for intervention participation." This theme was illustrated by four categories related to the participants' experiences of the eHealth intervention: (1) frustrating technology, (2) perceiving the content as irrelevant and incomprehensible, (3) choosing other activities and perspectives, and (4) lacking face-to-face encounters. Our findings indicate that the eHealth intervention based on GSD without face-to-face encounters with nurses reduced participants' motivation for engagement in the intervention. To maintain motivation, our study points to the importance of

  3. An audit and feedback intervention study increased adherence to antibiotic prescribing guidelines at a Norwegian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgli, June Utnes; Garcia, Beate Hennie; Skjold, Frode; Skogen, Vegard; Småbrekke, Lars

    2016-02-27

    Appropriate antibiotic prescribing is associated with favourable levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and clinical outcomes. Most intervention studies on antibiotic prescribing originate from settings with high level of AMR. In a Norwegian hospital setting with low level of AMR, the literature on interventions for promoting guideline-recommended antibiotic prescribing in hospital is scarce and requested. Preliminary studies have shown improvement potentials regarding antibiotic prescribing according to guidelines. We aimed to promote appropriate antibiotic prescribing in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) at a respiratory medicine department in a Norwegian University hospital. Our specific objectives were to increase prescribing of appropriate empirical antibiotics, reduce high-dose benzylpenicillin and reduce total treatment duration. We performed an audit and feedback intervention study, combined with distribution of a recently published pocket version of the national clinical practice guideline. We included patients discharged with CAP or AECOPD and prescribed antibiotics during hospital stay, and excluded those presenting with aspiration, nosocomial infection and co-infections. The pre- and post-intervention period was 9 and 6 months, respectively. Feedback was provided orally to the department physicians at an internal-educational meeting. To explore the effect of the intervention on appropriate empirical antibiotics and mean total treatment duration we applied before-after analysis (Student's t-test) and interrupted time series (ITS). We used Pearson's χ2 to compare dose changes. In the pre-and post-intervention period we included 253 and 155 patients, respectively. Following the intervention, overall mean prescribing of appropriate empirical antibiotics increased from 61.7 to 83.8 % (P antibiotic prescribing had increased and sustained, while the effect on treatment

  4. Can relaxation interventions reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiotherapy? outcomes and study validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elith, C.A.; Perkins, B.A.; Johnson, L.S.; Skelly, M.H.; Dempsey, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study piloted the use of three relaxation interventions in an attempt to reduce levels of anxiety in patients who are immobilised for radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers, as well as trying to validate the study methodology. In addition to receiving normal radiation therapy treatment, 14 patients were assigned to either a control group not receiving the relaxation intervention or one of three validated relaxation intervention techniques; music therapy, aromatherapy or guided imagery. Patients in the intervention groups underwent the relaxation technique daily for the first seven days of treatment. On days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of treatment patients were required to complete the State Anxiety Inventory survey. While caution should be taken in accepting the results due to the small numbers of patients involved in the study and the non-randomised assignment of patients within the study, the results of the study demonstrate a clinically significant reduction in anxiety levels in each of the three relaxation interventions compared to the control group. The study demonstrated good study validity due to the ease of implementation, the unambiguous results generated, and the use of already validated anxiety intersections and measurement tools. Copyright (2001) Australian Institute of Radiography

  5. Intervention Effects on Adolescent Physical Activity in the Multicomponent SPACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Christiansen, Lars B; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multicomponent school-based interventions have the potential to reduce the age-related decline in adolescents' physical activity (PA), yet there is not consistent evidence to guide non-curricular and school environment interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness...... of a multicomponent environmental school-based intervention, designed to reduce the age-related decline in PA among adolescents. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 7 intervention and 7 control schools. Baseline measurements were carried out in spring 2010 with 2 years of follow......: A total of 797 students completed the trial and had valid accelerometer data. No significant difference was found for overall PA with an adjusted difference of -19.1 cpm (95% CI: -93, 53) or for school time activity with an adjusted difference of 6 cpm (95% CI: -73, 85). A sensitivity analysis revealed...

  6. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... were asked to increase the bedroom temperature by at least 3 degrees C compared to the self-assessed temperature of the previous winter. Dust samples were repeatedly collected from mattress and floor, and bedroom temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly throughout one year. Dust...... was analysed for allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 + Der m 1 = Der 1) by ELISA and HDMs were counted. Changes in mite and in mite allergen concentration were the same in the control and intervention groups, and measured temperatures did not differ during intervention period in the groups (18 degrees C and 19 degrees...

  7. Contingency management interventions for treating the substance abuse of adolescents: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, E A; Roll, J M; Ledgerwood, D M; Schuster, C R

    2000-08-01

    This article reports on the feasibility of using a contingency management intervention with adolescent smokers that has proven efficacious in adult substance abuse treatment. The study used 8 adolescent participants in an A (1 week)-B (1 week)-A (1 week) reversal design. During the 2 baseline phases, no contingencies were placed on cigarette smoking, and adolescents received money noncontingently. During the experimental intervention week, adolescents received payment contingent on not smoking. The magnitude of reimbursement available during the baseline and intervention phases was equated. Results indicated that the contingency management intervention was effective in reducing smoking, both in terms of increasing the total number of abstinences and consecutive abstinences. In addition, changes in adolescents' affective states during smoking cessation were found. Anxiety, depression, anger, and fatigue were reported, and these negative states ceased once smoking resumed.

  8. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather ERWIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Physical activity is beneficial to children’s health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities forstudents throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aclassroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants(n=15 received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics fluency, PA, grades, and standardized testscores were collected. Effects of the intervention were examined using mixed-design ANOVAs.Intervention students had significantly higher reading fluency and mathematics scores postinterventionand higher means for standardized reading and mathematics scores as well as grades.Short bouts of PA are important for improving CBM math and reading fluency scores. Classroomteachers should be encouraged to devote time during academic learning to incorporate PA.

  9. An experimental study of an educational intervention to promote maternal self-efficacy in breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cláudia Melo Dodt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to build, validate and assess an educational intervention using the flip chart titled "I Can Breastfeed My Child."Method: an experimental study using a pretest, intervention and posttest, as well as a control group. A total of 201 women, who had been hospitalized immediately, for at least 6 hours, postpartum. The mothers were allocated to the intervention (100 women or control groups (101 women according to the length of their hospital stay. The effectiveness of the flip chart was assessed by applying the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short-Form at admission, discharge and by telephone in the second month postpartum. The intervention and control groups were similar in their socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological variables.Results: the intervention was beneficial because mothers in the intervention group had higher self-efficacy scores, more mothers continued breastfeeding and mothers had a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding, both at the time of hospital discharge and at the second month postpartum, with statistically significant associations.Conclusions: this experimental study assessed the educational strategy mediated via the flip chart titled "I Can Breastfeed My Child" as being effective both in increasing self-efficacy and increasing the duration of breastfeeding.

  10. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic medical record interventions and recurrent perioperative antibiotic administration: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincker, Alexander; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Avidan, Michael; Candelario, Penka; Helsten, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative antibiotics decrease rates of surgical-site infections. Numerous interventions have improved administration of the first antibiotic dose; however, failures in the administration of subsequent doses frequently occur. We hypothesized that modifications to the electronic medical record (EMR) would improve the administration of the second antibiotic dose and that such improvements would be sustained over time. This historical cohort before-and-after study of multipronged alerts in the EMR analyzed 1,348 operations on adult patients. The operations lasted ≥ 240 min, utilized cefazolin as the perioperative antibiotic-constituting 1,348 second and 182 third intraoperative antibiotic doses-and did not involve cardiopulmonary bypass. A decision support intervention provided dosing recommendations when clinicians documented antibiotics. The reminder intervention displayed a continuous bar in the EMR, starting at the time the antibiotics were dosed and ending 15 min before subsequent doses were indicated. The primary endpoints of the study were the change in the proportion of correctly administered second dose of cefazolin, given in accordance with hospital guidelines in the month after implementing the intervention, and whether any improvements declined by three to seven months after implementation. Pre-intervention, 51.4% of second doses of cefazolin were correctly administered. In the immediate post-intervention period, 68.5% were correctly administered, representing a significant absolute improvement of 17.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.1 to 26.1; P pre-intervention). These inexpensive nonintrusive interventions to the EMR provided modest lasting improvements in proper administration of repeated doses of cefazolin. The fact that only approximately 70% compliance was reached highlights the difficulty in addressing this deficiency.

  12. Data analysis methods for assessing palliative care interventions in one-group pre–post studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ioroi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of palliative care are often performed using single-arm pre–post study designs that lack causal inference. Thus, in this study, we propose a novel data analysis approach that incorporates risk factors from single-arm studies instead of using paired t-tests to assess intervention effects. Methods: Physical, psychological and social evaluations of eligible cancer inpatients were conducted by a hospital-based palliative care team. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C15-PAL. Among 35 patients, 9 were discharged within 1 week and 26 were included in analyses. Structural equation models with observed measurements were applied to estimate direct and indirect intervention effects and simultaneously consider risk factors. Results: Parameters were estimated using full models that included associations among covariates and reduced models that excluded covariates with small effects. The total effect was calculated as the sum of intervention and covariate effects and was equal to the mean of the difference (0.513 between pre- and post-intervention quality of life (reduced model intervention effect, 14.749; 95% confidence intervals, −4.407 and 33.905; p = 0.131; covariate effect, −14.236; 95% confidence interval, −33.708 and 5.236; p = 0.152. Conclusion: Using the present analytical method for single-arm pre–post study designs, factors that modulate effects of interventions were modelled, and intervention and covariate effects were distinguished based on structural equation model.

  13. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and

  14. HIT, hallucination focused integrative treatment as early intervention in psychotic adolescents with auditory hallucinations : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; van de Willige, G

    Objective: Early intervention in psychosis is considered important in relapse prevention. Limited results of monotherapies prompt to development of multimodular programmes. The present study tests feasibility and effectiveness of HIT, an integrative early intervention treatment for auditory

  15. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  16. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  17. Group-as-a-whole as a context for studying individual behaviour: A group diagnostic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Traditionalists view group interventions from three perspectives: singletons, dyads and whole groups. The focus of this research was on interventions from the third perspective, that of the whole group, using a systems psychodynamic stance. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to use group-as-a-whole to study individual behaviour in organisations.Motivation for the study: Team research and practice is not on a par with the complexities that teams actually experience. Traditional group interventions use humanistic and functionalistic paradigms that do not consider the unconscious functioning of groups. Interventions that use the system psychodynamic paradigm could address these dynamics because they study behaviour of individual group members in the context of the group-as-a-whole. Research design, approach and method: The researcher conducted action research in a publishing company. He used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis.Main findings: The researcher found that the group-as-a-whole partly explains the behaviour of team members and that intervening from this perspective could improve negative relationships.Practical/managerial implications: Managers can use interventions that use the groupas- a-whole concept as a diagnostic intervention to study and possibly change the complex behavioural issues that team members experience.Contribution/value-add: The findings give one an understanding of the behaviour of individual group members when one views it from a systems psychodynamic stance. Furthermore, the researcher proposes a group diagnostic intervention that will allow some of the root causes of poor interpersonal behaviour to surface and group members to diagnose and take ownership of their own behaviour.

  18. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  19. Accuracy and speed of robotic assisted needle interventions using a modern cone beam computed tomography intervention suite: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Boris [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Eichler, Katrin; Siebenhandl, Petra; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Vogl, Thomas Josef; Zangos, Stephan [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Czerny, Christoph [Goethe University Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To analyse the feasibility and accuracy of robotic aided interventions on a phantom when using a modern C-arm-mounted cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) device in combination with needle guidance software. A small robotic device capable of holding and guiding needles was attached to the intervention table. After acquiring a 3D data set the access path was planned on the CBCT workstation and shown on the intervention monitor. Then the robot was aligned to the live fluoroscopic image. A total of 40 punctures were randomly conducted on a phantom armed with several targets (diameter 2 mm) in single and double oblique trajectory (n = 20 each). Target distance, needle deviation and time for the procedures were analysed. All phantom interventions (n = 40) could be performed successfully. Mean target access path within the phantom was 8.5 cm (min 4.2 cm, max 13.5 cm). Average needle tip deviation was 1.1 mm (min 0 mm, max 4.5 mm), time duration was 3:59 min (min 2:07 min, max 10:37 min). When using the proposed robot device in a CBCT intervention suite, highly accurate needle-based interventional punctures are possible in a reasonable timely manner in single as well as in double oblique trajectories. (orig.)

  20. Accuracy and speed of robotic assisted needle interventions using a modern cone beam computed tomography intervention suite: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Boris; Eichler, Katrin; Siebenhandl, Petra; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Vogl, Thomas Josef; Zangos, Stephan; Czerny, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the feasibility and accuracy of robotic aided interventions on a phantom when using a modern C-arm-mounted cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) device in combination with needle guidance software. A small robotic device capable of holding and guiding needles was attached to the intervention table. After acquiring a 3D data set the access path was planned on the CBCT workstation and shown on the intervention monitor. Then the robot was aligned to the live fluoroscopic image. A total of 40 punctures were randomly conducted on a phantom armed with several targets (diameter 2 mm) in single and double oblique trajectory (n = 20 each). Target distance, needle deviation and time for the procedures were analysed. All phantom interventions (n = 40) could be performed successfully. Mean target access path within the phantom was 8.5 cm (min 4.2 cm, max 13.5 cm). Average needle tip deviation was 1.1 mm (min 0 mm, max 4.5 mm), time duration was 3:59 min (min 2:07 min, max 10:37 min). When using the proposed robot device in a CBCT intervention suite, highly accurate needle-based interventional punctures are possible in a reasonable timely manner in single as well as in double oblique trajectories. (orig.)

  1. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schene Aart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews, quantitative (survey, and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.

  2. Variation in effect of intervention studies in research on sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegaard H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hans Joergen SoegaardResearch Unit West, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, RisskovBackground: Intervention studies in sickness absence research demonstrate a low effect and ambiguous results in reducing sickness absence and improving work status. The aim of this study was to determine if the effect of interventions is related to type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria used, and impact of the scientific quality of the studies.Methods: Based on a structured review of 57 studies, short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects were analyzed with regard to the type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria, and scientific quality of the studies.Results: The overall result was that the effect rate was low, ie, about 20% for short-term effect (up to 6 months and medium-term effect (6–12 months, and 40% for long-term effect (≥12 months. Interventions using stress reduction were most effective with regard to short-term and medium-term effects, whereas collaborative care was most effective for long-term effects. The effects were related to the inclusion criteria and, to a minor degree, to the scientific quality of the studies.Conclusion: In the field of sickness absence research, more attention should be paid to the interrelationship between the types of interventions, target populations, and inclusion criteria for the studies. Larger studies of high methodological quality are needed. Steps should be taken to standardize outcome measures.Keywords: nonparticipation, sickness absence, return to work, controlled trial, review

  3. Effects of a new sports companion on received social support and physical exercise: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    The role of social support in physical exercise is well documented. However, the majority of studies that investigate the associations between social support and physical exercise target perceived instead of received social support. Moreover, most studies investigate the effects of received social support using a descriptive correlational design. Thus, our study aimed at investigating the effects of received social support by conducting an intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 118) or control group (n = 102). The intervention comprised regularly exercising with a new sports companion for eight weeks. To investigate the time course of physical exercise and received social support, growth curve modelling was employed. Generally, both groups were able to improve their physical exercise. However, the control group tended to decrease again during the final point of measurement. Received social support, however, decreased slightly in the control group, but remained stable in the intervention group. The intervention was suitable to sustain received social support for physical exercise across a two-month interval. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of further investigating social support for physical exercise applying an experimental approach. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Enhancing teamwork using a creativity-focussed learning intervention for undergraduate nursing students - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, O M; Laird, E A; Reid, B B; Deeny, P G; McGarvey, H E

    2018-02-22

    A cohort of year two students (n = 181) was exposed to a transformational and experiential learning intervention in the form of team-led poster development workshops to enhance competence and interpersonal skills for working in teams. The aims of this study were to test the suitability of an amended TeamSTEPPS teamwork perceptions questionnaire (T-TPQ) for measuring the impact of the intervention on students' perceptions of team working, and to ascertain students' views about the experience. This was a two phase pilot study. Phase 1 was a repeated measures design to test the T-TPQ for evaluating the impact of the experiential intervention, and Phase 2 was a survey of students' views and opinions. Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data were performed. Our findings suggest that age and part-time employment mediate towards more positive teamwork perceptions. Teamwork perceptions increased from week 3 to week 9 of the experiential intervention, and students viewed the experience positively. This was the first time that the T-TPQ was tested for suitability for measuring the impact of an experiential learning intervention among nursing students. Despite limitations, our study indicates that the amended T-TPQ is sensitive to changes in teamwork perceptions in repeated measures design studies among nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Pilot Study of Expressive Writing Intervention among Chinese Speaking Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zheng, Dianhan; Young, Lucy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Loh, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little attention has been focused on Asian American breast cancer survivor's psychological needs. No outcome based psychosocial interventions have been reported to target at this population. Expressive writing interventions have been previously shown to improve health outcomes among non-Hispanic white breast cancer populations. This pilot study aimed to test the cultural sensitivity, feasibility, and potential health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants (N=19) were asked to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings, their coping efforts, and positive thoughts and feelings regarding their experience with breast cancer each week for three weeks. Health outcomes were assessed at baseline, three, and six months after the intervention. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach (CBPR) is used. Results Expressive writing was associated with medium and large effect sizes (ηp2= 0.066~0.208) in improving multiple health outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, posttraumatic stress, intrusive thoughts, and positive affect) at follow-ups. Participants perceived the study to be valuable. The study yielded high compliance and completion rates. Conclusion Expressive writing is associated with long-term improvement of health outcomes among Chinese breast cancer survivors and has the potential to be utilized as a support strategy for minority cancer survivors. In addition, CBPR is valuable in improving feasibility and cultural sensitivity of the intervention in understudied populations. Future studies employing randomized controlled trial designs are warranted. PMID:22229930

  6. Development of a behaviour change intervention: a case study on the practical application of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Mark; Main, Chris; Croft, Peter; McKinley, Robert; Hassell, Andrew; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2014-04-03

    Use of theory in implementation of complex interventions is widely recommended. A complex trial intervention, to enhance self-management support for people with osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care, needed to be implemented in the Managing Osteoarthritis in Consultations (MOSAICS) trial. One component of the trial intervention was delivery by general practitioners (GPs) of an enhanced consultation for patients with OA. The aim of our case study is to describe the systematic selection and use of theory to develop a behaviour change intervention to implement GP delivery of the enhanced consultation. The development of the behaviour change intervention was guided by four theoretical models/frameworks: i) an implementation of change model to guide overall approach, ii) the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify relevant determinants of change, iii) a model for the selection of behaviour change techniques to address identified determinants of behaviour change, and iv) the principles of adult learning. Methods and measures to evaluate impact of the behaviour change intervention were identified. The behaviour change intervention presented the GPs with a well-defined proposal for change; addressed seven of the TDF domains (e.g., knowledge, skills, motivation and goals); incorporated ten behaviour change techniques (e.g., information provision, skills rehearsal, persuasive communication); and was delivered in workshops that valued the expertise and professional values of GPs. The workshops used a mixture of interactive and didactic sessions, were facilitated by opinion leaders, and utilised 'context-bound communication skills training.' Methods and measures selected to evaluate the behaviour change intervention included: appraisal of satisfaction with workshops, GP report of intention to practise and an assessment of video-recorded consultations of GPs with patients with OA. A stepped approach to the development of a behaviour change intervention, with the

  7. Development of a behaviour change intervention: a case study on the practical application of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory in implementation of complex interventions is widely recommended. A complex trial intervention, to enhance self-management support for people with osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care, needed to be implemented in the Managing Osteoarthritis in Consultations (MOSAICS) trial. One component of the trial intervention was delivery by general practitioners (GPs) of an enhanced consultation for patients with OA. The aim of our case study is to describe the systematic selection and use of theory to develop a behaviour change intervention to implement GP delivery of the enhanced consultation. Methods The development of the behaviour change intervention was guided by four theoretical models/frameworks: i) an implementation of change model to guide overall approach, ii) the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify relevant determinants of change, iii) a model for the selection of behaviour change techniques to address identified determinants of behaviour change, and iv) the principles of adult learning. Methods and measures to evaluate impact of the behaviour change intervention were identified. Results The behaviour change intervention presented the GPs with a well-defined proposal for change; addressed seven of the TDF domains (e.g., knowledge, skills, motivation and goals); incorporated ten behaviour change techniques (e.g., information provision, skills rehearsal, persuasive communication); and was delivered in workshops that valued the expertise and professional values of GPs. The workshops used a mixture of interactive and didactic sessions, were facilitated by opinion leaders, and utilised ‘context-bound communication skills training.’ Methods and measures selected to evaluate the behaviour change intervention included: appraisal of satisfaction with workshops, GP report of intention to practise and an assessment of video-recorded consultations of GPs with patients with OA. Conclusions A stepped approach to the development of a

  8. Effect of nurse-led medication reviews in psychiatric patients - an interventional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    and conducting systematic medication reviews using computer based screening. The effect is evaluated in a controlled interventional study. METHODS: An interventional study including 2 acute psychiatric wards. In one ward nurses’ will receive pharmacological training and the other ward will function as a control...... of the interratervariability between the two professions. RESULTS: The hypothesis is that nurse-led medication reviews will reduce potential inappropriate prescribing and that training will increase nurses’ ability to identify and report potential inappropriate prescribing. It is assumed that this intervention, in addition...... will contribute with information regarding the effect of pharmacological training of nurses and possibly improve medication safety for psychiatric patients. Results from this study could serve as evidence, when hospital management makes decisions on how to accede the need for medication reviews as part...

  9. Social interaction associated with visual art discussions: a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, B-M

    2002-02-01

    The investigation was aimed to assess the link between visual art discussions and social interaction. The study was designed as a controlled intervention study. Participants were older women living in a block of specially designed older persons' flats in Sweden. Reproductions of well-known artists' works of art were used as an intervention instrument. Measurements were older women's self-reported social interaction. The results show significant improvement in the visual art group compared to the matched control group. The differences in ratings between the groups indicated increased social interaction in the visual art group, which continued to exist four months after the intervention. Visual art discussions encouraged reminiscence and stimulated the older women to be more socially active. The study is an example of how visual art could be used in order to stimulate older women to interact in a social network in order to remain in contact with the world instead of retreating from it.

  10. An observation study of radiation exposure to nurses during interventional radiology procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Aoki, Atsuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively measure the level of radiation exposure among nursing staff during interventional radiology procedures. All interventional radiology procedures performed at our institution between April 20 and June 19, 2009 were included in this study. Radiation exposure was measured as the equivalent dose penetrating tissue to a depth of 10 mm using electronic personal dosimeters attached outside (Ha) and inside (Hb) lead aprons. Effective dose (HE) was estimated by calculating from Ha and Hb. In total, data from 68 procedures were included in this study. Four nurses performed 71 nursing cares. The mean Ha was 0.70±1.0 μSv, while the mean Hb was 0.06±0.2 μSv. The mean HE was 0.14±0.3 μSv. The present findings indicate that during interventional radiology procedures, nurses were exposed to very low levels of radiation. (author)

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF STRUCTURED TEXT TALKS FOR STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AN INTERVENTION STUDY IN SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica REICHENBERG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present intervention study reveals that students diagnosed with an intellectual disability (ID are able to construct meaning from written expository text through guided social interaction. There were 31 students recruited from four special schools participating in this intervention study.The study involves a pre-test phase and a post-test phase. The students were divided into two intervention conditions: (a reciprocal teaching (RT, which involved practice in four reading strategies—prediction, question generating, clarification, and summarisation—and (b inference training (IT, which involved practice in answering inference questions, i.e., where you have to read between the lines to find the answer. The training included 16 sessions over 8 weeks. Pre- testing and post-testing included seven tests. Improvement of test results was obtained in both conditions to about the same extent, indicating that both conditions were beneficial.

  12. Cultural interventions to treat addictions in Indigenous populations: findings from a scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cultural interventions offer the hope and promise of healing from addictions for Indigenous people.a However, there are few published studies specifically examining the type and impact of these interventions. Positioned within the Honouring Our Strengths: Culture as Intervention project, a scoping study was conducted to describe what is known about the characteristics of culture-based programs and to examine the outcomes collected and effects of these interventions on wellness. Methods This review followed established methods for scoping studies, including a final stage of consultation with stakeholders. The data search and extraction were also guided by the “PICO” (Patient/population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome) method, for which we defined each element, but did not require direct comparisons between treatment and control groups. Twelve databases from the scientific literature and 13 databases from the grey literature were searched up to October 26, 2012. Results The search strategy yielded 4,518 articles. Nineteen studies were included from the United States (58%) and Canada (42%), that involved residential programs (58%), and all (100%) integrated Western and culture-based treatment services. Seventeen types of cultural interventions were found, with sweat lodge ceremonies the most commonly (68%) enacted. Study samples ranged from 11 to 2,685 clients. Just over half of studies involved quasi-experimental designs (53%). Most articles (90%) measured physical wellness, with fewer (37%) examining spiritual health. Results show benefits in all areas of wellness, particularly by reducing or eliminating substance use problems in 74% of studies. Conclusions Evidence from this scoping study suggests that the culture-based interventions used in addictions treatment for Indigenous people are beneficial to help improve client functioning in all areas of wellness. There is a need for well-designed studies to address the question of best relational

  13. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...... at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0...

  14. Intensive dietary intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet in people with high cardiometabolic risk: a non-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, M; Ciano, O; Manzo, M; Rispoli, M; Guglielmi, M; Limardi, A; Calatola, P; Lucibello, M; Pardo, S; Capaldo, B; Riccardi, G

    2017-12-07

    Mediterranean diet (MD) is acknowledged to exert a number of beneficial health effects. We assessed the efficacy and the durability of a 3-month intensive dietary intervention aimed at implementing the MD on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects at high risk. One hundred and sixteen subjects participated in the study (71 assigned to the intensive intervention and 45 to the conventional intervention). The intensive intervention consisted of 12 weekly group educational meetings and a free-of-charge supply of meals prepared according to the MD model. The conventional intervention consisted of an individual education session along with monthly reinforcements of nutritional messages by the general practitioner. All participants were followed up for 9 months. The two groups had similar pre-intervention characteristics. After the intervention, mean body weight decreased significantly in both groups (p intervention group lost more weight (6.8 ± 4.0 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p intervention. At follow-up, weight loss still persisted in the intervention group (p interventions significantly reduced blood pressure in the long term (p intervention than in the control group (p intervention inspired to the traditional MD produced greater and more durable weight loss and improvement in cardiometabolic risk profile than the conventional intervention.

  15. Group-as-a-whole as a context for studying individual behaviour: A group diagnostic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-06-01

    Motivation for the study: Team research and practice is not on a par with the complexities that teams actually experience. Traditional group interventions use humanistic and functionalistic paradigms that do not consider the unconscious functioning of groups. Interventions that use the system psychodynamic paradigm could address these dynamics because they study behaviour of individual group members in the context of the group-as-a-whole. Research design, approach and method: The researcher conducted action research in a publishing company. He used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis. Main findings: The researcher found that the group-as-a-whole partly explains the behaviour of team members and that intervening from this perspective could improve negative relationships. Practical/managerial implications: Managers can use interventions that use the groupas- a-whole concept as a diagnostic intervention to study and possibly change the complex behavioural issues that team members experience. Contribution/value-add: The findings give one an understanding of the behaviour of individual group members when one views it from a systems psychodynamic stance. Furthermore, the researcher proposes a group diagnostic intervention that will allow some of the root causes of poor interpersonal behaviour to surface and group members to diagnose and take ownership of their own behaviour.

  16. The POWERPLAY workplace physical activity and nutrition intervention for men: Study protocol and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sharp, Paul; Bottorff, Joan L; Stolp, Sean; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Errey, Sally; Christian, Holly; Healy, Theresa; Medhurst, Kerensa; Lamont, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Many health promotion programs hold little "manly" appeal and as a consequence fail to influence men's self-health practices. That said, the workplace can provide an important delivery point for targeted health promotion programs by supporting positive aspects of masculinity. The purpose of this article is to, a) describe the intervention design and study protocol examining the feasibility of a gender-sensitive workplace health promotion intervention focusing on physical activity and healthy eating in male-dominated rural and remote worksites, and b) report baseline findings. This study is a non-randomized quasi-experimental intervention trial examining feasibility and acceptability, and estimated intervention effectiveness. The POWERPLAY program was developed through consultations with men and key workplace personnel, and by drawing on a growing body of men's health promotion research. The program includes masculine print-based messaging, face-to-face education sessions, friendly competition, and self-monitoring concerning physical activity and healthy eating. Male participants (N=139) were recruited from four worksites in northern British Columbia, Canada. Baseline data were collected via computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey which assessed physical activity, dietary behavior and workplace environment. This protocol will also be used to collect follow-up data at 6months. A process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, will be undertaken to assess feasibility and acceptability among participants and worksites. Study outcomes will guide intervention refinement and further testing in a sufficiently powered randomized control trial. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpe Stella L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups. Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016. The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008. There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029

  18. Khan Academy as Supplemental Instruction: A Controlled Study of a Computer-Based Mathematics Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.; Rutherford, Teomara

    2017-01-01

    Khan Academy is a large and popular open educational resource (OER) with little empirical study into its impact on student achievement in mathematics when used in schools. In this study, we examined the use of Khan Academy as a mathematics intervention among seventh grade students over a 4-week period versus a control group. We also compared…

  19. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  20. Healthy lifestyle intervention for African American uterine cancer survivors: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lynn Stewart

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: From this pilot study, we will learn more about the feasibility and integration of healthy lifestyle interventions in this patient population, and the results can provide an opportunity for a larger-scale, multi-center study with a randomized controlled design.

  1. Effects of perioperative briefing and debriefing on patient safety: a prospective intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, K.B.M.S.L.; Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Wal, R.A. van der; Wolff, AP

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to improve patient safety in the operating theatre by the introduction of perioperative briefing and debriefing, which focused on an optimal collaboration between surgical team members. DESIGN: A prospective intervention study with one pretest and two post-test

  2. A Study of Early Fine Motor Intervention in Down's Syndrome Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2009-01-01

    The marked delay in acquisition of fine motor skills in trisomic-21/Down's syndrome children is undeniable. In this study, we began with an affirmation that the cause of this deficit could be found in a different environment for which early intervention is essential. A sample of 30 Down's syndrome children was used to study at different ages: six…

  3. Trends in birth asphyxia, obstetric interventions and perinatal mortality among term singletons: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate trends in birth asphyxia and perinatal mortality in the Netherlands over the last decade. A nationwide cohort study among women with a term singleton pregnancy. We assessed trends in birth asphyxia in relation to obstetric interventions for fetal

  4. Quantitative assessment of unobserved confounding is mandatory in nonrandomized intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R H H; Hak, E; Hoes, A W

    OBJECTIVE: In nonrandomized intervention studies unequal distribution of patient characteristics in the groups under study may hinder comparability of prognosis and therefore lead to confounding bias. Our objective was to review methods to control for observed confounding, as well as unobserved

  5. Working Together with Children and Families: Case Studies in Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, P. J., Ed.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.

    This book presents 21 case studies of young children with disabilities in a variety of family situations and settings, for early interventionists to study in planning and applying recommended practices. Section I, "Defining and Delivering Quality Services in Early Intervention," provides two introductory chapters: "The Search for Quality…

  6. Implementation of a Text-Based Content Intervention in Secondary Social Studies Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We describe teacher fidelity (adherence to the components of the treatment as specified by the research team) based on a series of studies of a multicomponent intervention, Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT), with middle and high school social studies teachers and their students. Findings reveal that even with…

  7. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Mathersul, Danielle C; MacMillan, Freya; Camfield, David A; Klupp, Nerida L; Seto, Sai W; Huang, Yong; Hohenberg, Mark I; Chang, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer's disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG), 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2 functional MRI (fMRI), 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF), 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 1 positron emission tomography (PET). Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  8. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG, 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 2 functional MRI (fMRI, 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF, 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT, and 1 positron emission tomography (PET. Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  9. Work-life balance among shift workers: results from an intervention study about self-rostering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen; Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Ase Marie; Lund, Henrik; Hvid, Helge

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the effects of the implementation of IT-based tools for planning of rosters among shift workers on work-family-related outcomes and to interpret the results in light of the different implementation processes. A quasi-experimental intervention study was conducted with 12-month follow-up at 14 intervention and 14 reference worksites in Denmark. Workplaces planning to introduce IT-supported self-rostering were recruited, and three different kinds of interventions were implemented. Intervention A and B aimed at increasing workers satisfaction and well-being, while intervention C was designed to optimize the personnel resources. Questionnaire data were collected from 840 employees at baseline and 784 at follow-up. Process evaluation encompassed interviews with about 25 employees and 15 managers at baseline and follow-up. Work-family-related outcomes were work-life conflicts, work-life facilitation, marital conflicts and time with children. An overall decline in work-family conflicts and increase in work-family facilitation were found in the total intervention group. More specifically, in group B, work-family conflicts and marital conflicts decreased while work-family facilitation increased. In group C, work-family conflicts increased while work-family facilitation and time spend with children decreased, and no significant changes were observed in the reference group and in group A. An overall positive effect of the implementation of self-rostering was found on the balance between work and private life. However, results from the process evaluation suggested that the organizational aim with the intervention was crucial for the effect.

  10. Use of a mobile social networking intervention for weight management: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices ( Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help

  11. [Determination of arm circumference for correct measurement of blood pressure. Results of an intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras Puig, A; Dalfó-Pibernat, A; Jdid Rosàs, N; Mayor Isaac, E; Pérez-Romero, L; Gibert Llorach, E; Dalfó-Baqué, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to promote standardized arm circumference measurement as way to choose appropriate cuff size to measure blood pressure. A before-after intervention study was performed in a basic health care area in Barcelona. Doctors, nurses and pharmacy staff participated by filling out an anonymous self-administered questionnaire pre- and post-intervention (3m). Variables included: demographics, type of professional, years since they finished their studies, availability of different cuff sizes, if arm circumference measurement were obtained or not, knowledge about the cutoff values for each cuff size and type of blood pressure monitor. The written results were given to the participants and presented in sessions. Pre- and post-intervention: 74.3 and 67.3% answered the questionnaires (P=ns), respectively. Determination of arm circumference varied from 1.3 to 19.1% (P=.009). A total of 37.3% and 44.1% declared that they had 2 or more available cuff sizes (P=ns). Knowledge about the correct measurement of the cuffs was 2.7 to 33.8% regarding the standard cuff size (P=.0198) and 0 to 23.5% for obese subjects (P<.05). When more than one cuff was available, reasons for the choice went from: «making a rough guess» or «when velcro stops sticking» before and after the intervention. All blood pressure devices in our primary health care center were electronic and automatic as were those of the 9 pharmacies. The intervention increased the determination of arm circumference prior to the reading of the blood pressure and the knowledge about the cutoff interval for standard and obese cuff size after intervention. There was greater availability of different sized cuffs. Despite this, the choice of the appropriate cuff size was not made based on arm circumference. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavila-Belio, Miren I; García-Vivar, Cristina; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Canga-Armayor, Ana; Pueyo-Garrigues, Sara; Canga-Armayor, Navidad

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse intervention aimed at helping college student smokers quit smoking. Single-blind, pragmatic randomized controlled trial which compares a multi-component intervention, tailored specifically to college students, with a brief advice session with a 6-month follow-up. This study was conducted at the University of Navarra, Spain. A total of 255 college student smokers (age range = 18-24 years) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 133) or to a control group (n = 122). A multi-component intervention based on the Theory of Triadic Influence of Flay was developed. The intervention consisted of a 50-minute motivational interview conducted by a nurse and online self-help material. The follow-up included a reinforcing e-mail and group therapy. The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence, with biochemical verification at 6 months. The secondary outcomes consisted of the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day, self-reported attempts to quit smoking and stage of change at 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, the smoking cessation incidence was 21.1% in the intervention group compared with 6.6% in the control group (difference = 14.5 confidence interval = 6.1-22.8; relative risk = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.62-7.20). The difference in the mean number of cigarettes at 6 months was significantly different (difference = -2.2, confidence interval = -3.6 to -0.9). A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in increasing smoking cessation among college students. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes-experiences from a Danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...

  14. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  15. A critical appraisal of nutritional intervention studies in malnourished, community dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de van der Schueren, M A E; Wijnhoven, H A H; Kruizenga, H M; Visser, M

    2016-10-01

    With the rapidly increasing number of malnourished older persons in the community, this review aims to summarize the effects of nutritional intervention studies for this target group. Based on 2 previous reviews (2009, 2011) an update of the literature was performed. Selected were higher quality studies which included malnourished community dwelling older adults who received dietetic counselling and/or oral nutritional supplements. Ten studies were included. Six studies showed (trends towards) weight gain. Meta-analysis showed a modest effect of the intervention on weight gain, standardized mean difference 0.210 kg (95% CI 0.03-0.40). Effects on other relevant functional and clinical outcomes were inconsistent. Studies were hampered by low sample sizes, low adherence to the interventions, and participants not meeting nutritional requirements. Currently, nutritional intervention studies for malnourished community dwelling older adults show limited effects, which may be caused by methodological shortcomings and participants not meeting treatment goals. High quality studies are eagerly awaited to be able to identify (sub)groups of older persons who are most likely to benefit from nutritional support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alouki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.

  17. Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN

  18. Internet-based recruitment to a depression prevention intervention: lessons from the Mood Memos study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-02-12

    Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of a Mindful Eating Intervention to a Diabetes Self-Management Intervention among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carla K.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady; Miser, W. Fred

    2012-01-01

    Mindful eating offers promise as an effective approach for weight management and glycemic control in people with diabetes. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is an essential component of effective self-care. Yet, little research has compared the effect of mindful eating to DSME-based treatment. This study compared the impact of these two interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A prospective randomized controlled trial with two parallel interventions was employed. ...

  20. Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes-experiences from a Danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-01-01

    focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...

  1. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. Valentine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4 was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue were obtained in each of the 10-week intervention periods. In addition, the Communication Attitudes Test-Revised was used to assess the children’s attitudes toward speaking. Following the telepractice period, parents and children completed a questionnaire concerning the therapy experience via telepractice. Both children continued to improve fluency as measured by the weekly fluency samples. SSI-4 severity ratings improved for one child and remained consistent for the other. These outcomes appear to demonstrate that telepractice is viable for improving and maintaining fluency.

  2. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise......INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done...

  3. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Yumna; Lovell, Karina; Lunat, Farah; Atif, Najia; Waheed, Waquas; Rahman, Atif; Mossabir, Rahena; Chaudhry, Nasim; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-11-25

    Postnatal depression affects 10-15 % of all mothers in Western societies and remains a major public health concern for women from diverse cultures. British Pakistani and Indian women have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their white counterparts. Research has shown that culturally adapted interventions using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be acceptable and may help to address the needs of this population. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and overall experience of the Positive Health Programme by British South Asian mothers. This was a nested qualitative study, part of an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally-adapted intervention (Positive Health Programme or PHP) for postnatal depression in British South Asian women. In-depth interviews (N = 17) were conducted to determine the views of the participants on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The participants found the intervention acceptable and experienced an overall positive change in their attitudes, behaviour, and increased self-confidence. The findings suggest that the culturally adapted Positive Health Programme is acceptable to British South Asian women. These results support that culturally sensitive interventions may lead to better health outcomes and overall satisfaction. Protocol registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01838889.

  5. [Contribution of interventional studies of family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmin, Joël

    2003-07-12

    COPING WITH CHRONIC STRESS: Family members are the first-line caregivers for elderly patients with dementia living at home. Giving care to a demented patient has an important impact on the mood, quality-of-life, physical and psychological health of family aids: frequent episodes of depression, immunity disorders, altered capacity for wound healing, increased consumption of psychotropic drugs and increased mortality. INTERVENTIONS FOR FAMILY AIDS: Helping family caregivers is an integral part of modern care for Alzheimer's disease: social and financial support, medical assistance. Several specific interventional programs have been proposed, either alone or as part of a multiple-component program: educational sessions, group support, psychotherapy, respite care. NECESSARY DEVELOPMENTS: The results of studies assessing the effects of different types of interventions have shown that they reduce the cure giver's burden and depression, and patient's symptoms while improving the caregiver's feeling of well-being and his/her knowledge, and competence. Multiple-component interventions are the most effective. Research in this area should be developed in France, including an examination of the feasibility of such studies which are highly dependent on the cultural and social context of care as well as on the efficacy and the cost of the interventions.

  6. Job design, employment practices and well-being: a systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Gedikli, Cigdem; Watson, David; Semkina, Antonina; Vaughn, Oluwafunmilayo

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that deliberate attempts to improve job design realise improvements in well-being. We investigated the role of other employment practices, either as instruments for job redesign or as instruments that augment job redesign. Our primary outcome was well-being. Where studies also assessed performance, we considered performance as an outcome. We reviewed 33 intervention studies. We found that well-being and performance may be improved by: training workers to improve their own jobs; training coupled with job redesign; and system wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design and a range of other employment practices. We found insufficient evidence to make any firm conclusions concerning the effects of training managers in job redesign and that participatory approaches to improving job design have mixed effects. Successful implementation of interventions was associated with worker involvement and engagement with interventions, managerial commitment to interventions and integration of interventions with other organisational systems. Practitioner Summary: Improvements in well-being and performance may be associated with system-wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design, introduce a range of other employment practices and focus on worker welfare. Training may have a role in initiating job redesign or augmenting the effects of job design on well-being.

  7. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  8. Preventing children's posttraumatic stress after disaster with teacher-based intervention: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel

    2011-04-01

    The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead, compared with a nonintervention but exposed control group. The study sample consisted of 1,488 students studying in fourth and fifth grades in a city in southern Israel who were exposed to continuous rocket attacks during Operation Cast Lead. The intervention group included about half (53.5%) of the children who studied in six schools where the teacher-led intervention was implemented 3 months before the traumatic exposure. The control group (46.5% of the sample) included six schools matched by exposure in which the preventive intervention was not implemented. Children filled out the UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index and the Stress/Mood Scale 3 months after the end of the rocket attacks. The intervention group displayed significantly lower symptoms of posttrauma and stress/mood than the control group (p stress disorder (PTSD) than participant children. This difference was significantly more pronounced among boys (10.2% versus 4.4%) and less among girls (12.5% versus 10.1%). The teacher-based, resilience-focused intervention is a universal, cost-effective approach to enhance the preparedness of communities of children to mass trauma and to prevent the development of PTSD after exposure. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An app-based blended intervention to reduce body dissatisfaction: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollei, Ines; Lukas, Christian Aljoscha; Loeber, Sabine; Berking, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    As a common experience in the general population, dissatisfaction with one's body is associated with a variety of psychological problems and unhealthy behaviors, including the development of eating disorders. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate an app-based intervention to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants reporting elevated levels of body dissatisfaction were randomly allocated to an app-based intervention (n = 26) or to a wait list group (n = 27). The app-based intervention included a brief counseling session and 14 days of training with the Mindtastic Body Dissatisfaction app (MT-BD). The MT-BD app uses gamification strategies to systematically foster approach of functional and avoidance of dysfunctional stimuli. The primary outcome was body dissatisfaction as assessed with the Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991). Secondary outcome measures included severity of eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Participants in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in body dissatisfaction compared to the wait list group (d = -0.62). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms compared to the wait list group (d = -0.46). Reductions in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were sustained at a 1-month follow-up. We found preliminary evidence that an app-based intervention may significantly reduce body dissatisfaction. Further research using larger samples and targeting clinical populations is necessary to evaluate the potential of interventions such as MT-BD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Consequences from use of reminiscence - a randomised intervention study in ten Danish nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods In this randomised study, ten nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters and exhibitions. At baseline and again 6 and 12 months after the intervention start, data were collected on residents' cognitive level, agitated behaviour, general functioning and proxy-assessed quality of life, as well as on staff well-being and job satisfaction. Mixed linear modelling was used to analyse differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend to other nursing homes. There were no significant differences between residents in the Intervention and the Control Group in cognitive level, agitated behaviour or general functioning. Residents in the Intervention Group showed significant higher score at 6 months in quality of life subscale 'Response to surroundings', but there was no significant difference at 12 months. Positive effects of reminiscence were observed for all staff outcome measures, the only exception being SF-12 self-rated physical health. At 6 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, 'Attitude towards individual

  11. Web-Based Alcohol Intervention: Study of Systematic Attrition of Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Theda; Ostergaard, Mathias; Cooke, Richard; Scholz, Urte

    2017-06-28

    Web-based alcohol interventions are a promising way to reduce alcohol consumption because of their anonymity and the possibility of reaching a high numbers of individuals including heavy drinkers. However, Web-based interventions are often characterized by high rates of attrition. To date, very few studies have investigated whether individuals with higher alcohol consumption show higher attrition rates in Web-based alcohol interventions as compared with individuals with lower alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the attrition rate and predictors of attrition in a Web-based intervention study on alcohol consumption. The analysis of the predictors of attrition rate was performed on data collected in a Web-based randomized control trial. Data collection took place at the University of Konstanz, Germany. A total of 898 people, which consisted of 46.8% males (420/898) and 53.2% females (478/898) with a mean age of 23.57 years (SD 5.19), initially volunteered to participate in a Web-based intervention study to reduce alcohol consumption. Out of the sample, 86.9% (781/898) were students. Participants were classified as non-completers (439/898, 48.9%) if they did not complete the Web-based intervention. Potential predictors of attrition were self-reported: alcohol consumption in the last seven days, per week, from Monday to Thursday, on weekends, excessive drinking behavior measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and drinking motives measured by the Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R SF). Significant differences between completers and non-completers emerged regarding alcohol consumption in the last seven days (B=-.02, P=.05, 95% CI [0.97-1.00]), on weekends (B=-.05, P=.003, 95% CI [0.92-0.98]), the AUDIT (B=-.06, P=.007, 95% CI [0.90-0.98], and the status as a student (B=.72, P=.001, 95% CI [1.35-3.11]). Most importantly, non-completers had a significantly higher alcohol consumption compared with completers. Hazardous

  12. Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

    2011-09-01

    AIM This paper focuses on stakeholders' active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. BACKGROUND In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. METHODS Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13-17 lay stakeholders and 10-11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. RESULTS  Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. CONCLUSION Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Development and pilot study of a marketing strategy for primary care/internet-based depression prevention intervention for adolescents (the CATCH-IT intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F P; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. The marketing plan focused on "resiliency building" rather than "depression intervention" and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1-10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care.

  14. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults' views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+) participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults. PMID:24455260

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  16. The importance of context in early autism intervention: A qualitative South African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Jessy; de Vries, Petrus J; Seris, Noleen; Shabalala, Nokuthula; Franz, Lauren

    2017-09-01

    The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting. We conducted four focus groups and four in-depth interviews with 28 caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorder and used thematic analysis to identify key themes. Eight contextual factors including culture, language, location of treatment, cost of treatment, type of service provider, support, parenting practices, and stigma emerged as important. Caregivers reported a preference for an affordable, in-home, individualized early autism spectrum disorder intervention, where they have an active voice in shaping treatment goals. Distrust of community-based health workers and challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder-related stigma were identified. Recommendations that integrate caregiver preferences with the development of a low-cost and scalable caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention are included.

  17. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children’s diets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Meaghan S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528

  18. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children’s diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528 PMID:22537179

  19. The perceived quality of interprofessional teamwork in an intensive care unit: A single centre intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.

  20. Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani N. Tsesmeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention (N = 29 children and a control group (N = 31 children. Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families (N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.

  1. Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Nielsen, Karina M; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2017-08-01

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions.

  2. Tolerability and suitability of brief group mindfulness-oriented interventions in psychiatric inpatients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolitch, Katerina; Laliberté, Vincent; Yu, Ching; Strychowsky, Natalie; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-oriented therapies have a positive impact on patients' overall well-being and alleviate many psychiatric conditions. However, little is known about their use in people with severe mental illness. We aimed to identify which clinical and sociodemographic factors are associated with suitability/tolerability of a brief group mindfulness-oriented therapy. This retrospective study examines pre-/post-data from 40 psychiatric inpatients who underwent one session of a 10-min mindfulness-oriented group intervention between January and March 2014. The main outcome was 'suitability for and tolerating the brief mindfulness-oriented group intervention'. We assessed potential correlates of the main outcome, including female gender, shorter hospitalisation, the absence of psychosis and good pre-morbid functioning. The intervention was well tolerated (92.5%) and 50% of patients met both of our relatively stringent suitability and tolerability criteria. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were not associated with suitability/tolerability. Tai chi was the most suitable/tolerable compared to body scan and mindful eating (76.5% vs. 35.7% vs. 22.2%, Fisher's exact p = 0.01, Bonferroni p mindfulness therapy interventions are very well tolerated and often suitable for acutely hospitalised psychiatric inpatients, including those with acute psychosis. Mindfulness-oriented intervention with an active component (e.g., tai chi, mindful walking) may potentially be best suited for this population.

  3. Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Nielsen, Karina M; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2016-01-01

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions. PMID:28736455

  4. Evaluation of a psychological health and resilience intervention for military spouses: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, Michelle; Rosenblum, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    The decade long conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have placed considerable strain on military families. Given robust data showing high rates of deployment-related psychological health problems in spouses and children, and the near absence of evidence-based psychological health programs for military families in the community, interventions are urgently needed to support and strengthen spouses as they adjust to deployment transitions and military life experiences. This Phase 1 pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a resiliency intervention for military spouses in civilian communities (HomeFront Strong; HFS), and generated preliminary efficacy data regarding impacts on psychological health and adjustment. Through two group cohorts, 14 women completed the intervention, with 10 women providing pre- and postgroup assessment data. Findings support feasibility of the intervention and high rates of program satisfaction. Participants reported learning new strategies and feeling more knowledgeable in their ability to use effective coping skills for managing deployment and military-related stressors. Participation in HFS was also associated with reduction in levels of anxiety and perceived stress, and improvements in life satisfaction and life engagement. HFS is a promising community-based intervention for military spouses designed to enhance resiliency, reduce negative psychological health symptoms, and improve coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Ballette, Francesca; Nosè, Michela; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. In this population, up-to-date information on the rate and characteristics of mental health conditions, and on interventions that can be implemented once mental disorders have been identified, are needed. This umbrella review aims at systematically reviewing existing evidence on the prevalence of common mental disorders and on the efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions in adult and children asylum seekers and refugees resettled in low, middle and high income countries. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews summarizing data on the prevalence of common mental disorders and on the efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions in asylum seekers and/or refugees. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the AMSTAR checklist. Thirteen reviews reported data on the prevalence of common mental disorders while fourteen reviews reported data on the efficacy of psychological or pharmacological interventions. Although there was substantial variability in prevalence rates, we found that depression and anxiety were at least as frequent as post-traumatic stress disorder, accounting for up to 40% of asylum seekers and refugees. In terms of psychosocial interventions, cognitive behavioral interventions, in particular narrative exposure therapy, were the most studied interventions with positive outcomes against inactive but not active comparators. Current epidemiological data needs to be expanded with more rigorous studies focusing not only on post-traumatic stress disorder but also on depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions. In addition, new studies are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions when compared not only with no treatment but also each other

  6. Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes-experiences from a Danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible...... education and calls for new projects where ethnic minorities are active participants in the development of appropriate educational programs and material....

  7. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients – a randomized controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arving Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Method Patients (≥ 18 years with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be

  8. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group...

  9. Effects of an exercise program during three years in obese boys: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a long-term exercise program (3 years on kinanthopometric and metabolic in obese children. The sample consisted of eight boys between 8 and 11 years, who conducted a aerobic multi-sport exercise program (three sessions, 90 minutes per week. Carried out an assessment kinanthropometric assessing the following parameters: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, zBMI, fat mass and fat free mass, and a metabolic assessing: total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, insuline, glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR, ratio LDL/HDL and TC/HDL. Following the intervention, changes were observed on zBMI (ceasing to be obese after the intervention, total cholesterol, LDL, and ratio total cholesterol/HDL and glucose levels at the long term, showing that longitudinal interventions generate positive benefits on obese children mainly in the lipid profile.

  10. Alcohol consumption patterns among parents of hospitalized children: findings from a brief intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Lydersen; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Høst, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to explore parents’ perception and experience of a brief intervention (BI), focusing on their alcohol consumption habits to assess the impact on parents of staff members using motivational interviewing (MI) and to gain knowledge of how to reinforce initiatives regarding...... behavioural changes of lifestyle problems in a clinical setting. Background: Substantial parental alcohol consumption influences children’s development negatively. Nursing staff lacks knowledge and training in communicating with parents about alcohol issues. Little is known about parents’ attitudes towards...... their lifestyle habits discussed in connection with having their child admitted to hospital. The method MI proved effective in getting the parents to talk about and reflect on alcohol consumption habits. The effects of the intervention seemed to last beyond the first months after the intervention took place....

  11. Adding evidence-based interventions to assertive community treatment : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Sjoerd; Jörg, Frederike; Nieboer, Roeline; Wunderink, Lex

    OBJECTIVE: This 24-month study, conducted in The Netherlands, examined the feasibility of enhancing the effectiveness of assertive community treatment (ACT) by adding evidence-based interventions. METHODS: A total of 159 patients were randomly assigned to two ACT teams, one providing standard ACT

  12. A Comprehensive HIV Stigma-reduction and Wellness-enhancement Community Intervention: A Case Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.; Greeff, M.; Watson, M.J.; Doak, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a comprehensive HIV stigma-reduction and wellness-enhancement community intervention that focused on people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as people living close to them (PLC) from six designated groups. A holistic multiple case study design was used in urban and

  13. Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System : The TISS-28 items - Results from a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; deRijk, A; Schaufeli, W

    Objectives: To validate a simplified version of the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, the TISS-28, and to determine the association of TISS-28 with the time spent on scored and nonscored nursing activities. Design: Prospective, multicenter study. Setting: Twenty-two adult medical, surgical,

  14. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  15. Self-Regulation, Motivation and Teaching Styles in Physical Education Classes: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Digelidis, Nikolaos; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students' self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group.…

  16. Wood Dust in Joineries and Furniture Manufacturing : An Exposure Determinant and Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Jeroen; Cheung, Kerry; Prezant, Bradley; Sharp, Mark; Corbin, Marine; McLean, Dave; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Schlunssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kromhout, Hans; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pearce, Neil; McGlothlin, James D

    Objectives: To assess wood dust exposures and determinants in joineries and furniture manufacturing and to evaluate the efficacy of specific interventions on dust emissions under laboratory conditions. Also, in a subsequent follow-up study in a small sample of joinery workshops, we aimed to develop,

  17. Perceptual training in soccer: An imagery intervention study with elite players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, G.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ecological imagery intervention program would affect perception (i.e., exploratory activity and prospective control of future actions) in three elite soccer players. The imagery was adjusted to the unique action opportunities typically

  18. A Social-Cognitive Intervention Program for Adolescents with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Pui Pui Phoebe; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Brown, Ted; Yu, Mong-lin

    2018-01-01

    This pilot study explored the efficacy of a social-cognitive intervention program for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Seven adolescents with ASD (mean age = 12.57 years) attended a school-based 10-week program. Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), and Theory of Mind Inventory were…

  19. A Controlled Study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Intervention with Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith ...

  20. Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) and postpartum hemorrhage: A prospective intervention study in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training on staff performance and the incidences of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at a regional hospital in Tanzania. Design. Prospective intervention study. Setting. A regional, referral hospital. Population. A total...

  1. mHealth intervention to support asthma self-management in adolescents: the ADAPT study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, R.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; Vries, T.W. de; Kaptein, A.A.; Geers, H.C.J.; Dijk, L. van; Koster, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT) study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving

  2. Revisiting Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training: An Intervention Study on Teachers' Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvio, Markus; Lonka, Kirsti; Komulainen, Erkki; Kuusela, Marjo; Lintunen, Taru

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the development of teachers' social and emotional learning (SEL) skills by using "Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET)" (Gordon Training International) as an intervention with two groups of teachers. Further Gordon's model was approached from the perspective of modern educational psychology. The effects…

  3. Case Study of a Healthy Eating Intervention for Swedish Lorry Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Peter E.; Wijk, Katarina

    2004-01-01

    Professional drivers, i.e. lorry, truck, bus and taxi drivers, have been identified as a particular health risk group. An intervention to study the efficacy of a series of educational programmes, involving improved nutritional balance in meals served, food preparation routines and carrying out personal health profiles on staff, was implemented at…

  4. A Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating a Brief, Bystander Bullying Intervention with Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Aida; Doumas, Diana; Trull, Rhiannon; Johnston, April D.

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled study evaluated a brief, bystander bullying intervention for junior high school students. Students in both groups reported an increase in knowledge and confidence to act as defenders and to utilize strategies to intervene on behalf of victims of bullying. Findings suggest possible carry-over effects from the intervention…

  5. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  6. Improved quality of nursing documentation: results of a nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes implementation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Odenbreit, M.; Lavin, M.A.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of the quality of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes in an acute care hospital following the implementation of an educational program. METHOD: In a pretest-posttest experimental design study, nurses from 12 wards of a Swiss hospital received an educational

  7. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  8. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss: six-year results from the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, Michael R; Wasnich, Richard D; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    We report the effect of continuous treatment with alendronate for 6 yr vs. placebo in the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort study. A total of 1609 healthy, early postmenopausal women were recruited; we describe results for the 585 women who received continuous placebo or alendronate (2...

  9. A Study of Male Veterans' Beliefs toward Domestic Violence in a Batterers Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Mary E.; Robyak, James; Torosian, Elaine J.; Hummer, John

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence in intimate relationships is a ubiquitous social problem. This study addresses a gap in the research literature on batterers intervention programs with heterosexual male batterers by evaluating whether or not self-reported attitudes about partner abuse and sexist beliefs could be modified over time as a result of participation in…

  10. Problems with trials and intervention studies on barrier creams and emollients at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, TL

    The potential effect of barrier creams or emollients in the prevention of work-related hand eczema has mostly been documented in a laboratory setting on experimentally damaged skin. Publications on real intervention studies of barrier creams or emollients in a workplace setting are scarce: only four

  11. Teaching Story Grammar Components to Increase Oral Narrative Ability: A Group Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Laura B.; Klecan-Aker, Joni S.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of an oral narrative intervention program implemented with 24 children who attended a College of Education on campus laboratory school for children with specific language learning difficulties. Oral narratives were elicited before and after treatment and underwent T-unit and story grammar component…

  12. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...

  13. A comparative study of a happiness intervention in medical-surgical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Linda; Labhart, Lana; Balczo, Pam; McCleary, Nancy; Raley, Mary; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2013-01-01

    An intervention study evaluating the impact of journaling on nurse happiness was conducted with 91 medical-surgical nurses. No differences in general happiness, percentage of time happy, and gratitude were detected among groups although journaling was qualitatively described as meaningful.

  14. Recourse seeking and intervention in the context of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.

  15. Middle School Mathematics PD Study: Description of the PD Intervention. Paper #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Garet, Michael; Leinwand, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the PD program that was delivered during the first year of the study. The main goal of the intervention was to increase teachers' capability to teach positive rational number topics effectively. The program included a 3-day summer institute (18 hours per teacher), five 1-day seminars held during the school year (30 hours per…

  16. A critical appraisal of nutritional intervention studies in malnourished, community dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schueren, M.A.E.; Wijnhoven, H A H; Kruizenga, H M; Visser, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rapidly increasing number of malnourished older persons in the community, this review aims to summarize the effects of nutritional intervention studies for this target group. METHODS: Based on 2 previous reviews (2009, 2011) an update of the literature was performed.

  17. Preventing Children's Posttraumatic Stress after Disaster with Teacher-Based Intervention: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead,…

  18. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2012-03-22

    With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a

  19. Can a workplace leadership intervention reduce job insecurity and improve health? Results from a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrech, Amira; Seubert, Christian; Glaser, Jürgen; Gündel, Harald

    2018-03-22

    To examine the effectiveness of an intervention in the workplace designed to reduce job insecurity among employees affected by organizational change. Supervisors were randomly allocated to an intervention (IG) or waiting-list-control group (CG) and the intervention was administered over a period of 3 months, comprising six group sessions. N = 103 supervisors and their team members (mean age 41.80 ± 9.60 years, 60.19% male) provided data prior to (t0) and 3 months post-intervention (t1) by means of questionnaires and hair samples. Job insecurity (COPSOQ), mental health (HADS) and somatic health (GBB, hair cortisol concentration) were measured. Job insecurity was reduced to a marginally significant degree in the IG compared to the CG at t1 (B = - 5.78, p = .06, CI [- 11.73, 0.17]). Differential effects for supervisors and team members were not found. No effects on health could be observed overall in the IG, but supervisors in the IG reported a significant decrease in exhaustion tendency (B = - 0.92, p = 0.01, CI [- 1.64, - 0.20]) and a non-significant trend towards higher levels of anxiety (B = 2.98, p = 0.10, CI [- 0.57, 6.54]) compared to team members. This is the first study to provide some evidence for the effectiveness of an intervention that aimed at reducing job insecurity during organizational change. Health-related effects were observed in supervisors but not in team members. Further intervention studies are needed to add to the current knowledge base.

  20. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydsjö Gunilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the χ2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the

  1. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  2. Educational intervention for parents of adolescents with chronic illness: a pre-post test pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Berchtold, André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2015-08-01

    This pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and intended effect of an educational intervention for parents to help them assist their adolescent child with chronic illness (CI) in becoming autonomous. A two-phase pre-post pilot intervention study targeting parents of adolescents with CI was conducted. Parents were allocated to group 1 and 2 and received the four-module intervention consecutively. Intended effect was measured through online questionnaires for parents and adolescents before, at 2 months after, and at 4-6 months after the intervention. Feasibility was assessed through an evaluation questionnaire for parents. The most useful considered modules concerned the future of the adolescent and parents and social life. The most valued aspect was to exchange with other parents going through similar problems and receiving a new outlook on their relationship with their child. For parents, improvement trends appeared for shared management, parent protection, and self-efficacy, and worsening trends appeared for coping skills, parental perception of child vulnerability, and parental stress. For adolescents, improvement trends appeared for self-efficacy and parental bonding and worsening trends appeared for shared management and coping skills. Parents could benefit from peer-to-peer support and education as they support the needed autonomy development of their child. Future studies should test an online platform for parents to find peer support at all times and places.

  3. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

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    Shamala Ayadurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, namely, glycaemic, cholesterol and blood pressure control, medication, lifestyle, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Most studies do not provide evidence that the intervention methods used included all seven factors with exception of three RCT which indicated HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin reduction range of 0.5% to 1.8%. The varied HbA1C reduction suggests a lack of standardised and consistent approach to diabetes care. Furthermore, the duration of most studies was from one month to two years; therefore long term outcomes could not be established. Conclusion. Although pharmacists’ contribution towards improving clinical outcomes of diabetes patients was well documented, the methods used to deliver structured, consistent evidence-based care were not clearly stipulated. Therefore, approaches to achieving long term continuity of care are uncertain. An intervention strategy that encompass all seven evidence-based factors will be useful.

  4. Effects of Medical Interventions on Gender Dysphoria and Body Image: A Follow-Up Study

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    van de Grift, Tim C.; Elaut, Els; Cerwenka, Susanne C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 to 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre)treatment factors on posttreatment outcomes. Methods Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for transsexuals). In total, 201 people participated in the study (37% of the original cohort). Results At follow-up, 29 participants (14%) did not receive medical interventions, 36 hormones only (18%), and 136 hormones and surgery (68%). Most transwomen had undergone genital surgery, and most transmen chest surgery. Overall, the levels of gender dysphoria and body dissatisfaction were significantly lower at follow-up compared with clinical entry. Satisfaction with therapy responsive and unresponsive body characteristics both improved. High dissatisfaction at admission and lower psychological functioning at follow-up were associated with persistent body dissatisfaction. Conclusions Hormone-based interventions and surgery were followed by improvements in body satisfaction. The level of psychological symptoms and the degree of body satisfaction at baseline were significantly associated with body satisfaction at follow-up. PMID:28319558

  5. Study on generic intervention levels for protecting the public in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2003-01-01

    After a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, several social and economical factors shall be considered for the actions to protect the public and to recover the environment. The application of the radiological protection principles on practices in intervention situations may lead to adoption of protective measures disproportional to the involved risk, compromising the resources available to more effective actions. This causes a negative impact on the population and may conduct to discredit about the protective measures and the lost of confidence on the authorities. In this context, the principles of radiological protection for interventions should be studied and analyzed for being adequately applied in accident situations or radiological emergencies that involves the country. These principles are constantly improved and the concept of generic intervention level plays an important role in the decision-making to protect the public. The costs involved to the protective measures for the public in Brazil were studied and cost benefit analysis techniques were applied to estimate the generic intervention levels for public protection applicable in the country. These results were compared to those values internationally recommended, as well to values obtained in a similar study accomplished for Japan. It was also performed a sensibility analysis of the results regarding a value and a simple analysis of the results considering the costs of the several protective measures. (author)

  6. To evaluate or not: Evaluability study of 40 interventions of Belgian development cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Van Esbroeck, Dirk; Inberg, Liesbeth; Popelier, Lisa; Peeters, Bob; Verhofstadt, Ellen

    2018-04-01

    Due to an increasing importance of evaluations within development cooperation, it has become all the more important to analyse if initial conditions for quality and relevant evaluations are met. This article presents the findings from an evaluability study of 40 interventions of Belgian development cooperation. A study framework was developed focusing on three key dimensions (i.e. theoretical evaluability, practical evaluability and the evaluation context) and subdivided over the different OECD/DAC criteria. Drawing upon a combination of desk and field research, the study framework was subsequently applied on a set of 40 interventions in Benin, DRC, Rwanda and Belgium. Findings highlight that the context dimension scores remarkably better than the theoretical and practical evaluability in particular. The large majority of the interventions have the conditions in place to satisfactorily evaluate effectiveness and efficiency while the opposite holds for sustainability and impact in particular. These findings caution against commissioning of evaluations that ritually focus on all OECD/DAC criteria regardless of their readiness. It underscores the usefulness of a flexible 'portfolio' approach towards evaluations, in which a more systematic use of evaluability assessment from the start of interventions could play a role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of effective interventions supporting quality pain management in Australian emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Holzhauser, Kerri; Gillespie, Kerri; Huckson, Sue; Bennetts, Scott

    2012-02-01

    It is well established that pain is the most common presenting complaint in Emergency Departments. Despite great improvements in available pain management strategies, patients are left waiting for longer than 60min for pain relief on arrival to the emergency department. The aim of this study was to describe interventions that lead to successful implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council approved guidelines Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence (2nd Edition) that include specific recommendations for best practice pain management. A two-phased, mixed-method, exploratory study of all 52 Australian hospital emergency departments participating in the National Emergency Care Pain Management Initiative incorporating interview and document analysis was undertaken. Interventions used by clinicians to improve pain management included nurse initiated analgesia, intranasal fentanyl for paediatric patients and lignocaine, and facio illiaca block. Education formed a major part of the intervention and the development of a working group of key stakeholders was critical in the successful implementation of change. Staff perceptions of patients' pain level and attitudes toward pain assessment and pain management were identified as barriers. This study highlighted how an effective framework to plan and implement practice change and tailored interventions, including education and training systems and products using the best available evidence, best equipped clinicians to manage pain in the ED. Copyright © 2011 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TechCare: mobile assessment and therapy for psychosis - an intervention for clients in the Early Intervention Service: A feasibility study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Gire, Nadeem; Kelly, James; Duxbury, Joy; McKeown, Mick; Riley, Miv; Taylor, Christopher Dj; Taylor, Peter J; Emsley, Richard; Farooq, Saeed; Caton, Neil; Naeem, Farooq; Kingdon, David; Chaudhry, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in healthcare have shown promise when delivering interventions for mental health problems such as psychosis. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone intervention for people with psychosis and to conduct a feasibility study of the TechCare App. The TechCare App will assess participant's symptoms and respond with a personalised guided self-help-based psychological intervention with the aim of exploring feasibility and acceptability. The project will recruit 16 service users and 8-10 health professionals from the Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust Early Intervention Service. In strand 1 of the study, we will invite people to discuss their experience of psychosis and give their opinions on the existing evidence-based treatment (cognitive behavioural therapy) and how the mobile app can be developed. In strand 2, we will complete a test run with a small number of participants (n = 4) to refine the mobile intervention (TechCare). Finally, in strand 3 of the study, the TechCare App will be examined in a feasibility study with 12 participants. It has been suggested that there is a need for a rapid increase in the efforts to develop the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of digital technologies, considering mHealth research can potentially be helpful in addressing the demand on mental health services globally.

  9. Multidisciplinary intervention reducing readmissions in medical inpatients: a prospective, non-randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisson G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Torisson,1 Lennart Minthon,1 Lars Stavenow,2 Elisabet Londos1 1Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a multidisciplinary intervention targeting drug-related problems, cognitive impairment, and discharge miscommunication could reduce readmissions in a general hospital population. Methods: This prospective, non-randomized intervention study was carried out at the department of general internal medicine at a tertiary university hospital. Two hundred medical inpatients living in the community and aged over 60 years were included. Ninety-nine patients received interventions and 101 received standard care. Control/intervention allocation was determined by geographic selection. Interventions consisted of a comprehensive medication review, improved discharge planning, post-discharge telephone follow-up, and liaison with the patient's general practitioner. The main outcome measures recorded were readmissions and hospital nights 12 months after discharge. Separate analyses were made for 12-month survivors and from an intention-to-treat perspective. Comparative analyses were made between groups as well as within groups over time. Results: After 12 months, survivors in the control group had 125 readmissions in total, compared with 58 in the intervention group (Mann–Whitney U test, P = 0.02. For hospital nights, the numbers were 1,228 and 492, respectively (P = 0.009. Yearly admissions had increased from the previous year in the control group from 77 to 125 (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.002 and decreased from 75 to 58 in the intervention group (P = 0.25. From the intention-to-treat perspective, the same general pattern was observed but was not significant (1,827 versus 1,008 hospital nights, Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.054. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach

  10. Can donepezil facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation in difficult to wean patients? An interventional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Saeed; Farsaei, Shadi; Fazel, Kamran; Golzari, Samad Ej; Mahmoodpoor, Ata

    2015-03-01

    Management of difficult to wean patients is a dilemma for health care system. Recently published studies demonstrated efficacy of donepezil to counteract respiratory depression in sleep apnea. However, to the best of our knowledge, pharmaceutical interventions with donepezil to facilitate weaning have not been tested so far. Therefore in the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of using donepezil on weaning course in difficult to wean patients. In this non-randomized interventional clinical study, difficult to wean patients with prior inappropriately depressed respiratory responses were included from two referral intensive care units (ICU) in Iran. Patients with another potentially reasons of weaning failure were excluded from the study. Donepezil was started for eligible patients at dose of 10 mg daily for 2-4 weeks. For the primary outcomes, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters were also measured before and after intervention to evaluate the possible effects of donepezil on them. In addition, weaning outcomes of patients were reported as final outcome in response to this intervention. Twelve out of 16 studied patients experienced successful results to facilitate weaning with donepezil intervention. The mean duration of donepezil treatment until outcome measurement was 12 days. There were not any significant differences in ABG parameters among patients with successful and failed weaning trial on day of donepezil initiation. However after donepezil intervention, mean of PCO2 and HCO3 decreased in patients with successful weaning trial and mean of PCO2 increased in those with weaning failure. Reduced central respiratory drive was infrequently reason of failed weaning attempts but it must be considered especially in patients with hypercapnia secondary to inefficient gas exchange and slow breathing. Our results in the clinical setting suggest that, the use of donepezil can expedite weaning presumably by stimulation of respiratory center and obviate the need to re

  11. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Godfrey, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; Barron, Evelyn; Rochester, Lynn; Meyer, Thomas D; Mathers, John C

    2013-10-01

    Given the biological complexity of the ageing process, there is no single, simple and reliable measure of how healthily someone is ageing. Intervention studies need a panel of measures which capture key features of healthy ageing. To help guide our research in this area, we have adopted the concept of the "Healthy Ageing Phenotype" (HAP) and this study aimed to (i) identify the most important features of the HAP and (ii) identify/develop tools for measurement of those features. After a comprehensive assessment of the literature we selected the following domains: physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we hoped would provide a reasonably holistic characterisation of the HAP. We reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of cohort studies, and clinical guidelines on outcome measures of these domains relevant to the HAP. Selection criteria for these measures included: frequent use in longitudinal studies of ageing; expected to change with age; evidence for strong association with/prediction of ageing-related phenotypes such as morbidity, mortality and lifespan; whenever possible, focus on studies measuring these outcomes in populations rather than on individuals selected on the basis of a particular disease; (bio)markers that respond to (lifestyle-based) intervention. Proposed markers were exposed to critique in a Workshop held in Newcastle, UK in October 2012. We have selected a tentative panel of (bio)markers of physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we propose may be useful in characterising the HAP and which may have utility as outcome measures in intervention studies. In addition, we have identified a number of tools which could be applied in community-based intervention studies designed to enhance healthy ageing. We have proposed, tentatively, a panel

  12. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as

  13. A brief intervention for preparing ICU families to be proxies: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Alison E; Chessare, Caroline M; Coffin, Rachel K; Needham, Dale M

    2017-01-01

    Family members of critically ill patients report high levels of conflict with clinicians, have poor understanding of prognosis, struggle to make decisions, and experience substantial symptoms of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress regardless of patient survival status. Efficient interventions are needed to prepare these families to act as patient proxies. To assess a brief "patient activation" intervention designed to set expectations and prepare families of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients to communicate effectively with the clinical team. Phase I study of acceptability and immediate side effects. 122 healthcare proxies of 111 consecutive patients with a stay of ≥24 hours in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU (MICU), in Baltimore, Maryland. Reading aloud to proxies from a booklet (Flesch-Kincard reading grade level 3.8) designed with multidisciplinary input including from former MICU proxies. Enrolled proxies had a median age of 51 years old with 83 (68%) female, and 55 (45%) African-American. MICU mortality was 18%, and 37 patients (33%) died in hospital or were discharged to hospice. Among proxies 98% (95% CI: 94% - 100%) agreed or strongly agreed that the intervention was appropriate, 98% (95% CI: 92% - 99%) agreed or strongly agreed that it is important for families to know the information in the booklet, and 54 (44%, 95% CI 35%- 54%) agreed or strongly agreed that parts of the booklet are upsetting. Upset vs. non-upset proxies were not statistically or substantially different in terms of age, sex, education level, race, relation to the patient, or perceived decision-making authority. This patient activation intervention was acceptable and important to nearly all proxies. Frequently, the intervention was simultaneously rated as both acceptable/important and upsetting. Proxies who rated the intervention as upsetting were not identifiable based on readily available proxy or patient characteristics.

  14. A Pilot Study of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lauren E; Forman, Evan M; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Sarwer, David B

    2016-10-01

    Tens of thousands of bariatric surgery patients each year experience sub-optimal weight loss, significant regain, or both. Weight regain can contribute to a worsening of weight-related co-morbidities, and for some, leads to secondary surgical procedures. Poor weight outcomes have been associated with decreased compliance to the recommended postoperative diet. Decreased compliance may be partially due to a lack of psychological skills necessary to engage in healthy eating behaviors over the long term, especially as the effects of surgery (on appetite, hunger, and desire for food) decrease. Many behavioral interventions do not sufficiently address these challenges and often have limited effectiveness. The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a novel 10-week acceptance-based behavioral intervention to stop postoperative weight regain. A sample of bariatric surgery patients (n = 11) who regained at least 10 % of their maximum lost postoperative weight was recruited. All participants received the intervention, which emphasized psychological skills thought to be integral to successful weight control post-surgery. The intervention was shown to be feasible and acceptable, with 72 % retention and high mean rating (4.25 out of 5.00) of program satisfaction among completers. Weight regain was stopped, and even reversed, with a mean total body weight loss of 3.58 ± 3.02 % throughout the 10-week intervention. There were also significant improvements in eating-related and acceptance-related variables. These findings provide initial support for the use of a psychological acceptance-based intervention for weight regain in bariatric surgery patients.

  15. Women smokers' experiences of an age-appearance anti-smoking intervention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Flett, Keira; Clark-Carter, David; Gough, Brendan; Davey, Rachel; Richardson, Deborah; Rajaratnam, Giri

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate women's experiences of engaging in an age-appearance anti-smoking intervention. Ten 18- to 34-year-old women gave accounts of their experiences after engaging in an age-appearance facial morphing anti-smoking intervention in interviews (n= 7) and a focus group (n= 3), and 37 women gave their accounts while they were engaged in the intervention. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis broadly informed by the procedures of Grounded Theory. Women were very concerned about the impact of ageing on their faces in general, and in particular the additional impact of smoking on their skin. Women were concerned about other people's reactions to them as older smokers with wrinkled skin, and many experienced a physical shock reaction (including reports of nausea) to seeing how they would age if they continued to smoke. They reported that seeing their own face aged on the computer screen increased their perceived risk of skin wrinkling. Women reported being highly motivated to quit smoking as a result of the intervention, and many reported that they would take active steps to quit having seen how they would look if they continued to smoke. This was linked with increased perceived personal responsibility for quitting. Results are discussed in relation to suggestions for anti-smoking interventions aimed at women in the 18- to 34-year-old age group. It is concluded that interventions incorporating age-appearance morphing techniques are likely to be effective in helping women to take active steps to quit smoking. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of the 'DASH for Asthma' intervention in a randomized controlled trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonstein, Andrea C; Lv, Nan; Camargo, Carlos A; Wilson, Sandra R; Buist, A Sonia; Rosas, Lisa G; Strub, Peg; Ma, Jun

    2016-08-01

    'DASH for Asthma' (n 90) was a 6-month randomized controlled trial that demonstrated potential benefits of a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) behavioural intervention for improving diet quality and asthma control by comparing intervention to usual care in adults with uncontrolled asthma. The present study examined acceptability and feasibility of the intervention from the perspective of intervention participants and lifestyle coaches. Grounded in Social Cognitive Theory, the 3-month intensive stage, including three individual and eight group sessions, focused on diet modifications and behavioural self-regulation. The 3-month maintenance stage contained telephone consultations. Participants and lifestyle coaches completed surveys including 5-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. We analysed data using descriptive and inductive content analyses. Forty-six intervention participants (survey response rate was 65-72 %) and two lifestyle coaches. Participants and lifestyle coaches were highly satisfied (all mean ratings >4) with individual and group sessions. Participants identified mastery of knowledge and skills (awareness, goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving), social learning (class members sharing experiences and ideas) and good coaching skills (reflective listening, empathy, motivational counselling) as important contributors to self-efficacy and programme satisfaction. Participants also valued personalized feedback received in individual sessions. Lifestyle coaches viewed participant engagement as a facilitator to effective sessions. Finally, participants and lifestyle coaches identified food tasting as beneficial for observational learning and facilitation of participant engagement. High class attendance and self-monitoring rate also reflected the high engagement among participants. The DASH behavioural intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to participants with uncontrolled asthma and lifestyle coaches.

  17. Simulation improves resident performance in catheter-based intervention: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaer, Rabih A; Derubertis, Brian G; Lin, Stephanie C; Bush, Harry L; Karwowski, John K; Birk, Daniel; Morrissey, Nicholas J; Faries, Peter L; McKinsey, James F; Kent, K Craig

    2006-09-01

    Surgical simulation has been shown to enhance the training of general surgery residents. Since catheter-based techniques have become an important part of the vascular surgeon's armamentarium, we explored whether simulation might impact the acquisition of catheter skills by surgical residents. Twenty general surgery residents received didactic training in the techniques of catheter intervention. Residents were then randomized with 10 receiving additional training with the Procedicus, computer-based, haptic simulator. All 20 residents then participated in 2 consecutive mentored catheter-based interventions for lower extremity occlusive disease in an OR/angiography suite. Resident performance was graded by attending surgeons blinded to the resident's training status, using 18 procedural steps as well as a global rating scale. There were no differences between the 2 resident groups with regard to demographics or scores on a visuospatial test administered at study outset. Overall, residents exposed to simulation scored higher than controls during the first angio/OR intervention: procedural steps (simulation/control) (50 +/- 6 vs. 33 +/- 9, P = 0.0015); global rating scale (30 +/- 7 vs. 19 +/- 5, P = 0.0052). The advantage provided by simulator training persisted with the second intervention (53 +/- 6 vs. 36 +/- 7, P = 0.0006); global rating scale (33 +/- 6 vs. 21 +/- 6, P = 0.0015). Moreover, simulation training, particularly for the second intervention, led to enhancement in almost all of the individual measures of performance. Simulation is a valid tool for instructing surgical residents and fellows in basic endovascular techniques and should be incorporated into surgical training programs. Moreover, simulators may also benefit the large number of vascular surgeons who seek retraining in catheter-based intervention.

  18. Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn

    2006-09-01

    Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.

  19. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Williams, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Beiler, Jessica S; Makova, Kateryna D; Marini, Michele E; Hess, Lindsey B; Rzucidlo, Susan E; Verdiglione, Nicole; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2014-07-18

    Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This "parenting" intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT's central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent-child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the "parenting" or "safety" groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3-4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic predictors of weight status. Finally, second

  20. Interactive Multimedia Training in Osteoporosis Prevention of Female High School Students: An Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Ladan; Keshavarz, Tala; Momennasab, Marzieh; Zarifsanaiey, Nahid

    2017-08-01

    Given the limitations of traditional teaching methods in the learning process of adolescents, this study was designed to investigate the effects of osteoporosis prevention training through interactive multimedia method on the degree of knowledge and self-efficacy of female high school students. In this interventional study which was conducted in 2016 in Fars province, Iran, 120 high school students were selected through proportional stratified sampling from schools and different classes at first, second, third, and pre-university grades. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, each containing 60 students. Educational interventions for the test group included an interactive multimedia CD, and for the control group was an educational booklet. Before and one month after the intervention the students' level of knowledge and self-efficacy was measured. The spss 19 statistical software was used, and descriptive and analytical tests were performed to analyze the data. Results showed a significant difference in self-efficacy scores after the intervention (P=0.012) with the test group obtained a higher self-efficacy score than the control group. Also, a significant increase was observed in the knowledge score of both groups after the training (Pmultimedia CD for public education, particular adolescents about health and hygiene is recommended.

  1. A Sleep Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Schoen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD commonly report sleep problems, which typically exacerbate daytime behavior problems. This pilot study sought to identify the short-term effects on sleep, behavior challenges, attention, and quality of life of children with ASD following use of the iLs Dreampad ™ pillow, which delivers bone conducted music and environmental sounds. Aims were to demonstrate acceptability and feasibility, identify measures sensitive to change, and describe individual characteristics responsive to change. Method: Parent report questionnaires assessed sleep behavior, attention, autism-related behaviors, and quality of life from 15 participants before and during intervention. A Sleep Diary documented average sleep duration and average time to fall asleep during the preintervention phase and the last 2 weeks of the treatment phase. Results: Procedures were acceptable and feasible for families. All measures were sensitive to change. Children with ASD demonstrated significant change in sleep duration and time needed to fall asleep from pretest to intervention. Improvements were noted in autism-related behaviors, attention, and quality of life. Parent satisfaction was high. Conclusions: The iLs Dreampad™ pillow may be one alternative intervention to pharmacological interventions for children with ASD who have sleep problems. Further study is warranted.

  2. Stakeholders' perceptions of transferability criteria for health promotion interventions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, Justine; Kivits, Joëlle; Minary, Laetitia; Cambon, Linda; Alla, François

    2014-11-04

    The effects of health promotion interventions are the result not only of the interventions themselves, but also of the contexts in which they unfold. The objective of this study was to analyze, through stakeholders' discourse, the characteristics of an intervention that can influence its outcomes. This case study was based on semi-structured interviews with health promotion stakeholders involved in a regional program (PRALIMAP). General hypotheses on transferability and on how the intervention is presumed to produce its effects were used to construct an interview guide. Interviews were analyzed using thematic coding. Twenty-three stakeholders were interviewed. Results showed stakeholders made few references to population and environment characteristics. Three themes emerged as significant for the stakeholders: implementation modalities and methodology, modalities used to mobilize actors; and transferability-promoting factors and barriers. Our work contributes to a better understanding not only of transferability factors, but also of stakeholders' perceptions of them, which are just as important, because those perceptions themselves are a factor in mobilization of actors, implementation, and transferability.

  3. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.

  4. Effect of nurse-led medication reviews in psychiatric patients - an interventional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing demand for medication reviews to improve the quality of prescribing for patients with chronic illness such as psychiatric patients. Traditionally, this has been undertaken by physicians. Pharmacists have also proven to be a resource in this field but registered...... nurses are the health professionals spending most time directly with the patient and very few studies investigate nurses’ role and potential in improving the appropriateness of medication. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of educating nurses in general pharmacology...... and conducting systematic medication reviews using computer based screening. The effect is evaluated in a controlled interventional study. METHODS: An interventional study including 2 acute psychiatric wards. In one ward nurses’ will receive pharmacological training and the other ward will function as a control...

  5. Interventions to reduce sexual prejudice: a study-space analysis and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoş, Sebastian E; Berger, Israel; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.

  6. Quality of intervention delivery in a cluster randomised controlled trial: a qualitative observational study with lessons for fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karen; Quirk, Alan; Patterson, Sue; Brennan, Geoff; Stewart, Duncan

    2017-11-17

    Understanding intervention fidelity is an essential part of the evaluation of complex interventions because fidelity not only affects the validity of trial findings, but also because studies of fidelity can be used to identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation, and so provide important information about factors likely to impact the uptake of the intervention into clinical practice. Participant observation methods have been identified as being particularly valuable in studies of fidelity, yet are rarely used. This study aimed to use these methods to explore the quality of implementation of a complex intervention (Safewards) on mental health wards during a cluster randomised controlled trial. Specific aims were firstly to describe the different ways in which the intervention was implemented, and secondly to explore the contextual factors moderating the quality of intervention delivery, in order to inform 'real world' implementation of the intervention. Safewards was implemented on 16 mental health wards in England. We used Research Assistants (RAs) trained in participant observation to record qualitative observational data on the quality of intervention delivery (n = 565 observations). At the end of the trial, two focus groups were conducted with RAs, which were used to develop the coding framework. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. There was substantial variation in intervention delivery between wards. We observed modifications to the intervention which were both fidelity consistent and inconsistent, and could enhance or dilute the intervention effects. We used these data to develop a typology which describes the different ways in which the intervention was delivered. This typology could be used as a tool to collect qualitative observational data about fidelity during trials. Moderators of Safewards implementation included systemic, interpersonal, and individual factors and patient responses to the intervention. Our study

  7. Mindfulness-based interventions with youth: A comprehensive meta-analysis of group-design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, David A; Renshaw, Tyler L; Willenbrink, Jessica B; Copek, Rebecca A; Chan, Kai Tai; Haddock, Aaron; Yassine, Jordan; Clifton, Jesse

    2017-08-01

    The treatment effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) with youth were synthesized from 76 studies involving 6121 participants. A total of 885 effect sizes were aggregated using meta-regression with robust variance estimation. Overall, MBIs were associated with small treatment effects in studies using pre-post (g=0.305, SE=0.039) and controlled designs (g=0.322, SE=0.040). Treatment effects were measured after a follow-up period in 24 studies (n=1963). Results demonstrated that treatment effects were larger at follow-up than post-treatment in pre-post (g=0.462, SE=0.118) and controlled designs (g=0.402, SE=0.081). Moderator analyses indicated that intervention setting and intervention dosage were not meaningfully related to outcomes after controlling for study design quality. With that said, the between-study heterogeneity in the intercept-only models was consistently small, thus limiting the amount of variance for the moderators to explain. A series of exploratory analyses were used to investigate the differential effectiveness of MBIs across four therapeutic process domains and seven therapeutic outcome domains. Small, positive results were generally observed across the process and outcome domains. Notably, MBIs were associated with moderate effects on the process variable of mindfulness in controlled studies (n=1108, g=0.510). Limitations and directions for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGilton Katherine S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1 examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2 examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1 development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2 a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3 a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to

  9. A livelihood intervention to reduce the stigma of HIV in rural Kenya: longitudinal qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Weke, Elly; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Dworkin, Shari L.; Kodish, Stephen; Cohen, Craig R.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2017-01-01

    The scale-up of effective treatment has partially reduced the stigma attached to HIV, but HIV still remains highly stigmatized throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies of anti-HIV stigma interventions have employed psycho-educational strategies such as information provision, counseling, and testimonials, but these have had varying degrees of success. Theory suggests that livelihood interventions could potentially reduce stigma by weakening the instrumental and symbolic associations between HIV and premature morbidity, economic incapacity, and death, but this hypothesis has not been directly examined. We conducted a longitudinal qualitative study among 54 persons with HIV participating in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a livelihood intervention in rural Kenya. Our study design permitted assessment of changes over time in the perspectives of treatment-arm participants (N=45), as well as an understanding of the experiences of control arm participants (N=9, interviewed only at follow-up). Initially, participants felt ashamed of their seropositivity and were socially isolated (internalized stigma). They also described how others in the community discriminated against them, labeled them as being “already dead,” and deemed them useless and unworthy of social investment (perceived and enacted stigma). At follow-up, participants in the treatment arm described less stigma and voiced positive changes in confidence and self-esteem. Concurrently, they observed that other community members perceived them as active, economically productive, and contributing citizens. Participants in the control arm described continued stigma with none of these changes. In summary, our findings suggest a theory of stigma reduction: livelihood interventions may reduce internalized stigma among persons with HIV and also, by targeting core drivers of negative attitudes toward persons with HIV, positively change attitudes toward persons with HIV held by others. Further research is

  10. UNMET NEED OF SEX EDUCATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN SLUM AREA: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  11. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot study evaluating a brief mindfulness intervention for those with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Ana; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Smith, Jared G; Subramaniam, Jeevakan; Copland, Claire; Hurley, Mike; Beith, Iain; Riaz, Muhammad; Ussher, Michael

    2016-06-02

    The burden of chronic pain is a major challenge, impacting the quality of life of patients. Intensive programmes of mindfulness-based therapy can help patients to cope with chronic pain but can be time consuming and require a trained specialist to implement. The self-management model of care is now integral to the care of patients with chronic pain; home-based interventions can be very acceptable, making a compelling argument for investigating brief, self-management interventions. The aim of this study is two-fold: to assess the immediate effects of a brief self-help mindfulness intervention for coping with chronic pain and to assess the feasibility of conducting a definitive randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of such an intervention. A randomized controlled pilot study will be conducted to evaluate a brief mindfulness intervention for those with chronic pain. Ninety chronic pain patients who attend hospital outpatient clinics will be recruited and allocated randomly to either the control or treatment group on a 1:1 basis using the computer-generated list of random numbers. The treatment group receives mindfulness audios and the control group receives audios of readings from a non-fiction book, all of which are 15 minutes in length. Immediate effects of the intervention are assessed with brief psychological measures immediately before and after audio use. Mindfulness, mood, health-related quality of life, pain catastrophizing and experience of the intervention are assessed with standardized measures, brief ratings and brief telephone follow-ups, at baseline and after one week and one month. Feasibility is assessed by estimation of effect sizes for outcomes, patient adherence and experience, and appraisal of resource allocation in provision of the intervention. This trial will assess whether a brief mindfulness-based intervention is effective for immediately reducing perceived distress and pain with the side effect of increasing relaxation

  13. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on alcohol intake: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of screening and five years of multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in alcohol intake in a general population. METHODS: The study was a pre-randomized intervention study on lifestyle, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants in the int...... in women on total alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Multi-factorial lifestyle intervention, including low intensity alcohol intervention, improved long-term alcohol habits in a general population.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of screening and five years of multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in alcohol intake in a general population. METHODS: The study was a pre-randomized intervention study on lifestyle, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants...

  14. Abused women's experiences of a primary care identification and referral intervention: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tier 2 Language Intervention for Diverse Preschoolers: An Early-Stage Randomized Control Group Study Following an Analysis of Response to Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Trina D; Petersen, Douglas B; Adams, John L

    2015-11-01

    The first purpose of this study was to explore the use of a whole class, test-teach-test, dynamic assessment of narratives for identifying participants. The second purpose was to examine the efficacy of a Tier 2 narrative language intervention for culturally and linguistically diverse preschoolers. A dynamic assessment was conducted with students from 3 Head Start classrooms. On the basis of the results of the dynamic assessment, 22 children were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 12) and control (n = 10) groups for intervention. Participants received a small-group (4:1), differentiated, narrative intervention for 15-20 min, twice a week, for 9 weeks. Interventionists used weekly progress monitoring data to explicitly focus on individualized narrative and linguistic targets. The treatment group showed significant improvement over the control group on proximal and distal measures of narrative retells, with large effect sizes. Group differences on a measure of children's language in the context of personal stories were not statistically significant. This early-stage study provides evidence that narrative language intervention is an effective approach to improving the language skills of preschoolers with diverse language needs. Furthermore, the evidence supports the use of dynamic assessment for reducing overidentification and identifying candidates for small-group language intervention.

  16. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-05-11

    Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into use experienced many benefits such as

  17. [Culinary as an object of study and intervention in the field of Food and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Culinary is approached here as an object of food and nutritional studies and interventions aimed at dietary changes. In order to explore the culinary potential, two studies are presented: one qualitative, focusing on dietary intake, with subjects from two socioeconomic sectors submitted to salt restrictions; the other uses cooking as structural axis of an educational method for promoting healthy eating. In both studies one can observe the potential of culinary: in the first, as a medium which allows access to information about food procedures that can improve the quality of information about food intake and food practices and, in the second, as an effective space for interventions aimed at food habit changes by addressing their sensorial, cognitive, symbolic and procedural dimensions.

  18. Biomarkers of unstable angina pectoris and yangxin decoction intervention: An exploratory metabonomics study of blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ya-Bin

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the related metabolic biomarkers and to observe the effects of Yangxin Decoction (YXD) on plasma metabolism of patients with unstable angina (UA). In total, 10 patients with UA (intervention group) and 10 healthy participants (control group) were recruited for this study from January 2009 to December 2010. Plasma samples from both groups were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to explore the correlations between metabolic markers in patients with UA. The LC-MS results indicated that the serum levels of 5 potential metabolic markers, namely, ceramide, glycocholic acid, allocholic acid, lithocholic acid, and leukotriene (LT) B4, were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated potential metabolic markers that can be used to distinguish and diagnose patients with UA.

  19. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C.; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. Methods A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Results Both the training only intervention (p ergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. PMID:22030069

  20. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Dawson, Deirdre R; Whyte, Ellen M; Butters, Meryl A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S; Becker, James T; Holm, Margo B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study. Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health centre. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than five days were excluded. Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30-40 minutes daily, five days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. We assessed feasibility through participants' recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants' comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants' satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at six months (M (SE) = 117 (3)) than attention control participants (M(SE) = 96 (14); t 8 = 7.87, P = 0.02). It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability.

  1. Study protocol for reducing childbirth fear: a midwife-led psycho-education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Sneddon, Anne; Scuffham, Paul A; Ryding, Elsa L; Jarrett, Vivian; Toohill, Jocelyn

    2013-10-20

    Childbirth fear has received considerable attention in Scandinavian countries, and the United Kingdom, but not in Australia. For first-time mothers, fear is often linked to a perceived lack of control and disbelief in the body's ability to give birth safely, whereas multiparous women may be fearful as a result of previous negative and/or traumatic birth experiences. There have been few well-designed intervention studies that test interventions to address women's childbirth fear, support normal birth, and diminish the possibility of a negative birth experience. Pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited and screened from antenatal clinics in Queensland, Australia. Women reporting high childbirth fear will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The psycho-educational intervention is offered by midwives over the telephone at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The intervention aims to review birth expectations, work through distressing elements of childbirth, discuss strategies to develop support networks, affirm that negative childbirth events can be managed and develop a birth plan. Women in the control group will receive standard care offered by the public funded maternity services in Australia. All women will receive an information booklet on childbirth choices. Data will be collected at recruitment during the second trimester, 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 4-6 weeks after birth. This study aims to test the efficacy of a brief, midwife-led psycho-education counselling (known as BELIEF: Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear) to reduce women's childbirth fear. 1) Relative to controls, women receiving BELIEF will report lower levels of childbirth fear at term; 2) less decisional conflict; 3) less depressive symptoms; 4) better childbirth self-efficacy; and 5) improved health and obstetric outcomes. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875.

  2. An economic evaluation of a multicomponent self-management intervention for adults with epilepsy (ZMILE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Ben F M; Leenen, Loes A M; de Kinderen, Reina J A; van Heugten, Caroline M; Majoie, Marian H J M; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this (trial-based) economic evaluation was, from a societal perspective, to compare the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent self-management intervention (MCI) with care as usual (CAU) in adult patients with epilepsy over a 12-month period. In a randomized-controlled trial, participants were randomized into intervention or CAU group. Adherence, self-efficacy (Epilepsy Self-Efficacy Scale [ESES]), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), healthcare costs, production losses, and patient and family costs were assessed at baseline and during the 12-month study period. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) (i.e., cost per increased adherence, self-efficacy, or QALY), and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were calculated. In total, 102 patients were included in the study, of whom 52 were in the intervention group. Adherence rates over 6 months were 63.7% for the CAU group and 75.9% for the intervention group. Adherence, ESES, and quality of life did not differ significantly between groups. An ICER of €54 per point increase in ESES score at 6 months and €1,105 per point increase at 12-month follow-up was found. The intervention resulted in an ICER of €88 per percentage of adherence increase at 6 months. ICERs of €8,272 and €15,144 per QALY gained were found at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. Although no statistically significant difference was found after baseline adjustments, cost-effectiveness estimates for MCI appear promising. As rules of inference are arbitrary, it has been argued that decisions should be based only on the net benefits, irrespective of whether differences are statistically significant. Hence, the MCI may be a cost-effective addition to the current standard care for adults with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Tackling tuberculosis patients' internalized social stigma through patient centred care: An intervention study in rural Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Guillermo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report a patient-centered intervention study in 9 municipalities of rural Nicaragua aiming at a reduction of internalized social stigma in new AFB positive tuberculosis (TB patients diagnosed between March 2004 and July 2005. Methods Five out of 9 municipal teams were coached to tailor and introduce patient-centered package. New TB patients were assigned to the intervention group when diagnosed in municipalities implementing effectively at least TB clubs and home visits. We compared the changes in internalized stigma and TB treatment outcome in intervention and control groups. The internalized stigma was measured through score computed at 15 days and at 2 months of treatment. The treatment results were evaluated through classical TB program indicators. In all municipalities, we emphasized process monitoring to capture contextual factors that could influence package implementation, including stakeholders. Results TB clubs and home visits were effectively implemented in 2 municipalities after June 2004 and in 3 municipalities after January 2005. Therefore, 122 patients were included in the intervention group and 146 in the control group. After 15 days, internalized stigma scores were equivalent in both groups. After 2 months, difference between scores was statistically significant, revealing a decreased internalized stigma in the intervention group and not in the control group. Conclusion This study provides initial evidences that it is possible to act on TB patients' internalized stigma, in contexts where at least patient centered home visits and TB clubs are successfully implemented. This is important as, indeed, TB care should also focus on the TB patient's wellbeing and not solely on TB epidemics control.

  4. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: the multicentre, rater blinded, randomised Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A; Rasmussen, M L H; Keiding, N; Rishøj, S; Siersma, V; Sørensen, J; Sørensen, L V; Vogel, A; Waldemar, G

    2012-07-17

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi-tailored counselling, education, and support). Primary outcomes at 12 months for patients were change from baseline in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, Cornell depression scale score, and proxy rated European quality of life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score. For care givers, outcomes were change from baseline in geriatric depression scale (GDS 30 items) score and EQ-VAS score. Because of multiple testing, statistical significance was set at an adjusted P limit of patient outcomes (Cornell depression scale score) in patients in favour of the DAISY intervention group before and after adjusting for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12 months after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The small positive effect found in the unadjusted primary outcome addressing depressive symptoms in patients may call for further research focusing on patients with Alzheimer's disease and comorbid depression. ISRCTN74848736.

  5. A RCT COMPARING SPECIFIC INTENSIVE COGNITIVE TRAINING TO ASPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN RRMSThe SMICT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia eMattioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific cognitive rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis resulted to be effective compared to no treatment, although the possible role of an aspecific psychological intervention and the persistence over time of its effects have not been clearly investigated till now. Objective: The aim of the SMICT RCT was to compare the efficacy of a specific cognitive training with an aspecific psychological intervention in relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods: From a sample of 150 patients, with the same disability and immunomodulatory therapy, submitted to neuropsychological examination, 45 impaired in at least one test were included and 41 randomized to have either a specific cognitive training for the impaired function (22 or to an aspecific psychological intervention (19 for 4 months, starting after baseline examination. Neuropsycological tests and functional scales were administered at baseline and one year later. Results: After one year, the mean number of pathological tests was significantly lower in the specific treatment group, compared to the aspecific group. Memory and attention/speeded information processing functions were mostly improved. Depression and quality of life were not different between groups at follow up. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that an intensive and domain specific cognitive approach results to be more effective than aspecific psychological intervention in patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

  6. A Microarray Study of Middle Cerebral Occlusion Rat Brain with Acupuncture Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray analysis was used to investigate the changes of gene expression of ischemic stroke and acupuncture intervention in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo rat brain. Results showed that acupuncture intervention had a remarkable improvement in neural deficit score, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction volume of MCAo rats. Microarray analysis showed that a total of 627 different expression genes were regulated in ischemic stroke. 417 genes were upregulated and 210 genes were downregulated. A total of 361 different expression genes were regulated after acupuncture intervention. Three genes were upregulated and 358 genes were downregulated. The expression of novel genes after acupuncture intervention, including Tph1 and Olr883, was further analyzed by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Upregulation of Tph1 and downregulation of Olr883 indicated that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture for ischemic stroke may be closely related to the suppression of poststroke depression and regulation of olfactory transduction. In conclusion, the present study may enrich our understanding of the multiple pathological process of ischemic brain injury and indicate possible mechanisms of acupuncture on ischemic stroke.

  7. It's Time to Start Changing the Game: A 12-Week Workplace Team Sport Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-08-23

    A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups. The team sport sessions were underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory and consisted of weekly 1-h team sport sessions for 12 weeks. Measures of aerobic fitness, physical activity behaviour, group cohesion, interaction and communication, psychological wellbeing, health, anthropometrics and workplace experiences were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a series of mixed ANOVAs. After 12 weeks significant improvements were observed in VO 2 max (+ 4.5 ± 5.8 ml/min kg, P intervention group. A significant (P intervention group. Participation in team sport may be an effective method to improve the aerobic fitness and physical activity behaviour of employees, and promote interpersonal communication between colleagues. Individual health outcomes and social interactions have the capacity to influence the health of the organisation. The extent of which these findings are replicable across a scope of organisations should be examined objectively over the long term.

  8. Assessing cold chain status in a metro city of India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S; Mandal, P K; Chatterjee, C; Ghosh, P; Manna, N; Chakrabarty, D; Bagchi, S N; Dasgupta, S

    2011-03-01

    Cold chain maintenance is an essential activity to maintain the potency of vaccines and to prevent adverse events following immunization. One baseline study highlighted the unsatisfactory cold chain status in city of Kolkata in India. To assess the changes which occurred in the cold chain status after the intervention undertaken to improve the status and also to assess the awareness of the cold chain handlers regarding cold chain maintenance. Intervention consisted of reorganization of cold chain points and training of health manpower in Kolkata Municipal area regarding immunization and cold chain following the guidelines as laid by Govt of India. Reevaluation of cold chain status was done at 20 institutions selected by stratified systematic random sampling after the intervention. The results were compared with baseline survey. Significant improvement had been observed in correct placing of cold chain equipment, maintenance of stock security, orderly placing of ice packs, diluents and vaccines inside the equipment, temperature recording and maintenance. But awareness and skill of cold chain handlers regarding basics of cold chain maintenance was not satisfactory. The success of intervention included significant improvement of cold chain status including creation of a designated cold chain handler. The gaps lay in non-availability of non-electrical cold chain equipment and separate cold chain room, policy makers should stress. Cold chain handlers need reorientation training regarding heat & cold sensitive vaccines, preventive maintenance and correct contingency plan.

  9. The study of clinical pathology of preoperative interventional treatment on neophroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Li Guisheng; Li Zhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the changes of tumor histology induced by preoperative interventional treatment (chemoembolisation) in nephroblastoma for deeply illustrating its pathological mechanism. Methods: A comparative analysis of the pathological findings was made in 39 children with Wilms' tumor, and the apoptosis of two groups was studied by adopting terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase medical dUTP-X nick end labelling (TUNEL). Results: The average area of necrotic field (ANF) of tumor in interventional group and simple excision group was 60% and 15%, respectively (U c =2.84); X 3 and X 4 degeneration of tumor tissue occurred in 10 cases (10/17) in interventional group and 1 case in simple excision group (1/22), respectively (Χ c 3 = 11.4); and moderate and severe interstitial fibrous hyperplasia in 11 cases (11/17) and 4 cases (4/22), respectively (U c =2.72); and lymphocyte infiltration in 12(12/17) and 4 cases (4/22), respectively (Χ c 2 =10.89). The percentage of those parameters in the former group were significantly higher than that in the latter (P c =54.50, P c =117.00, P<0.05). Conclusion: The preoperative interventional treatment realizes its therapeutic effects in the following aspects: inducing the tumor cell necrosis and degeneration, boosting interstitial fibrous tissue hyperplasia in tumor and lymphocyte infiltration, inhibiting tumor cell growth, and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells

  10. Modifiers of Neighbors' Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sara; Todd, Mary-Justine; Oshiro, Michael; Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Encouraging bystander intervention in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is potentially an important method of reducing the prevalence of such violence in urban communities. Most existing research has been conducted on campuses and in relation to sexual violence among teens or young adults. Our understanding of which bystander behaviors are feasible is nascent, and our knowledge of which situational factors influence neighbors' self-reported willingness to intervene is underdeveloped. We conducted a concept mapping study to identify potential bystander intervention behaviors in IPV among neighbors in urban settings; we also assessed whether perceived feasibility and effectiveness of those behaviors varied by situational characteristics. Using data collected from 41 residents of a low-income New York City neighborhood in late 2011, concept mapping was used to create a conceptual map of the 74 behaviors identified by participants. We examined participant differences in mean feasibility (i.e., that the participants "could" or "would" enact a behavior), feasibility given two situational characteristics (if the couple was perceived to have a history of IPV, and if children were believed to be involved or present), and perceived effectiveness of bystander behaviors. Differences across select sociodemographic factors of participants were also analyzed. A 13-cluster solution emerged, with clusters of bystander behaviors grouped into four larger cluster areas: victim focused, parenting/education focused, perpetrator focused, and community involvement focused. Bivariate analyses revealed that participants rated the four cluster areas as more feasible when a child was believed to be involved. Male participants rated intervention as less feasible when the couple was believed to have a history of IPV. Participants who reported a history of IPV victimization rated all four cluster areas as less effective on average, as compared with participants without a history of

  11. Modifiers of Neighbors' Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sara; Todd, Mary-Justine; Oshiro, Michael; Greene, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Encouraging bystander intervention in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is potentially an important method of reducing the prevalence of such violence in urban communities. Most existing research has been conducted on campuses and in relation to sexual violence among teens or young adults. Our understanding of which bystander behaviors are feasible is nascent, and our knowledge of which situational factors influence neighbors' self-reported willingness to intervene is underdeveloped. We conducted a concept mapping study to identify potential bystander intervention behaviors in IPV among neighbors in urban settings; we also assessed whether perceived feasibility and effectiveness of those behaviors varied by situational characteristics. Using data collected from 41 residents of a low-income New York City neighborhood in late 2011, concept mapping was used to create a conceptual map of the 74 behaviors identified by participants. We examined participant differences in mean feasibility (i.e., that the participants “could” or “would” enact a behavior), feasibility given two situational characteristics (if the couple was perceived to have a history of IPV, and if children were believed to be involved or present), and perceived effectiveness of bystander behaviors. Differences across select sociodemographic factors of participants were also analyzed. A 13-cluster solution emerged, with clusters of bystander behaviors grouped into four larger cluster areas: victim focused, parenting/education focused, perpetrator focused, and community involvement focused. Bivariate analyses revealed that participants rated the four cluster areas as more feasible when a child was believed to be involved. Male participants rated intervention as less feasible when the couple was believed to have a history of IPV. Participants who reported a history of IPV victimization rated all four cluster areas as less effective on average, as compared with participants

  12. A Study to Assess the Role of Educational Intervention in Improving the Delivery of Routine Immunization Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia M; Mishra A; Rajpot M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Immunization has been regarded as the most cost-effective intervention for child health promotion. Even after improvements, the developing countries are still struggling with low coverage rates, immunization failure, high rates of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) etc. The present study was conducted to assess the role of educational intervention in improving immunization delivery services. Methodology: It was a pre-post intervention observational study carried out in i...

  13. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  14. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS and rabies health information sessions (IS. Methods The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice. A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Results Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. Conclusion This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool

  15. Short and long term effects of the Copenhagen school child intervention study (CoSCIS) on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten

    SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF THE COPENHAGEN SCHOOL CHILD INTERVENTION STUDY (CoSCIS) ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS Anna Bugge, Bianca El-Naaman, Karsten Froberg and Lars B. Andersen. Centre for Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense, DK This study assessed...... the short and long term effect of a 3-year school-based intervention focused on increasing physical activity (PA) to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. CoSCIS is a controlled intervention study involving 18 schools (10 intervention and 8 controls). The intervention was conducted...... from 1st- 3rd grade and consisted of an increase in number of weekly PE lessons, training of PE-teachers, and upgrading of PE and playing facilities. Participants: 695 at Kindergarten class (mean age 6.7 yr), 606 post intervention (mean age 9. 5 yr in 3rd grade) and 510 at 4-years follow-up (mean age...

  16. Alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral in the emergency department: an implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désy, Pierre M; Perhats, Cydne

    2008-02-01

    Alcohol is the single greatest contributor to injury in the United States. Numerous studies have reported that a standardized screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) intervention can effectively minimize future alcohol consumption, reduce injury recurrence, and decrease the number of repeat ED visits. To date, SBIRT studies have been conducted in settings in which physicians or research assistants carried out SBIRT. Little is known about ED nurses carrying out SBIRT. The purpose of this study was to examine ED nurse training needs and identify both barriers to, and enablers of, SBIRT implementation in the emergency department. Two coordinators from each of the 5 ED sites selected for the study attended a 1-day SBIRT educational session. Site coordinators then trained their staff nurses to conduct SBIRT. Site coordinators were surveyed at the midpoint and end of the 6-month implementation study period. Patient data from each facility was collected. Ten site coordinators were trained and held subsequent training sessions with nursing staff in their respective emergency departments. All sites encountered barriers to implementation, but 2 of 5 sites were able to implement the SBIRT process fully by the end of the evaluation period. A total of 3265 patients were screened for alcohol use problems. Of those screened, 678 (21%) were classified as hazardous drinkers. Overall, 56% of the positive-screened patients received 3 to 5 minutes of a brief intervention. After the brief intervention, between 9% and 82% of patients were referred for further care. The SBIRT process can be conducted successfully by emergency nurses. However, substantial operational barriers to widespread routine implementation exist. These barriers need to be addressed before emergency nurses incorporate SBIRT as routine part of ED care.

  17. A peer learning intervention for nursing students in clinical practice education: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Ylva; Mårtensson, Gunilla; Swenne, Christine Leo; Ädel, Eva; Engström, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Studies of peer learning indicate that the model enables students to practice skills useful in their future profession, such as communication, cooperation, reflection and independence. However, so far most studies have used a qualitative approach and none have used a quasi-experimental design to study effects of nursing students' peer learning in clinical practice. To investigate the effects of peer learning in clinical practice education on nursing students' self-rated performance. Quasi-experimental. The study was conducted during nursing students' clinical practice. All undergraduate nursing students (n=87) attending their first clinical practice were approached. Seventy students out of 87 answered the questionnaires at both baseline and follow-up (42 of 46 in the intervention group and 28 of 39 in the comparison group). During the first two weeks of the clinical practice period, all students were supervised traditionally. Thereafter, the intervention group received peer learning the last two weeks, and the comparison group received traditional supervision. Questionnaire data were collected on nursing students' self-rated performance during the second (baseline) and last (follow-up) week of their clinical practice. Self-efficacy was improved in the intervention group and a significant interaction effect was found for changes over time between the two groups. For the other self-rated variables/tests, there were no differences in changes over time between the groups. Studying each group separately, the intervention group significantly improved on thirteen of the twenty variables/tests over time and the comparison group improved on four. The results indicate that peer learning is a useful method which improves nursing students' self-efficacy to a greater degree than traditional supervision does. Regarding the other self-rated performance variables, no interaction effects were found. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  19. mHealth intervention to support asthma self-management in adolescents: the ADAPT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosse RC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Richelle C Kosse,1 Marcel L Bouvy,1 Tjalling W de Vries,2 Ad A Kaptein,3 Harm CJ Geers,1 Liset van Dijk,4 Ellen S Koster1 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Department of Paediatrics, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, 3Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 4NIVEL, the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving medication adherence and asthma control. Intervention: The ADAPT intervention consists of an interactive smartphone application (app connected to a desktop application for health care providers, in this study, the community pharmacist. The app contains several functions to improve adherence as follows: 1 a questionnaire function to rate asthma symptoms and monitor these over time; 2 short movie clips with medication and disease information; 3 a medication reminder; 4 a chat function with peers; and 5 a chat function with the pharmacist. The pharmacist receives data from the patient’s app through the desktop application, which enables the pharmacist to send information and feedback to the patient. Study design: The ADAPT intervention is tested in a community pharmacy-based cluster randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, aiming to include 352 adolescents with asthma. The main outcome is adherence, measured by patient’s self-report and refill adherence calculated from pharmacy dispensing records. In addition, asthma control, illness perceptions, medication beliefs, and asthma-related quality of life are measured. Conclusion: This study will provide in

  20. The approach-avoidance task as an online intervention in cigarette smoking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Charlotte E; Feist, Ansgar; Schneider, Brooke C; Moritz, Steffen; Fritzsche, Anja

    2015-03-01

    Dual-process models posit that addictive behaviors are characterized by strong automatic processes that can be assessed with implicit measures. The present study investigated the potential of a cognitive bias modification paradigm, the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), for retraining automatic behavioral tendencies in cigarette smoking. The study was set up as an online intervention. After completing an online survey, 257 smokers were randomly allocated either to one of two experimental conditions (AAT) or a waitlist control group. Participants responded to different pictures by pushing or pulling the computer mouse, depending on the format of the picture. Pictures in portrait format depicted smoking-related items and were associated with pushing, pictures in landscape format depicted neutral items and were associated with pulling. One version of the AAT provided individual feedback after each trial whereas the standard version did not. After four weeks, participants were re-assessed in an online survey. Analyses revealed that the standard AAT, in particular, led to a significant reduction in cigarette consumption, cigarette dependence, and compulsive drive; no effect was found in the control group. Interpretability of the study is constrained by the fact that no active control condition was applied. Notwithstanding the limitations, our findings indicate that the AAT might be a feasible instrument to reduce tobacco dependence and can be applied as an online intervention. Future studies should investigate whether the effects of behavior therapy can be augmented when combined with retraining interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivational Interviewing Tailored Interventions for Heart Failure (MITI-HF): study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson Creber, Ruth; Patey, Megan; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; DeCesaris, Marissa; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Lack of engagement in self-care is common among patients needing to follow a complex treatment regimen, especially patients with heart failure who are affected by comorbidity, disability and side effects of poly-pharmacy. The purpose of Motivational Interviewing Tailored Interventions for Heart Failure (MITI-HF) is to test the feasibility and comparative efficacy of an MI intervention on self-care, acute heart failure physical symptoms and quality of life. We are conducting a brief, nurse-led motivational interviewing randomized controlled trial to address behavioral and motivational issues related to heart failure self-care. Participants in the intervention group receive home and phone-based motivational interviewing sessions over 90-days and those in the control group receive care as usual. Participants in both groups receive patient education materials. The primary study outcome is change in self-care maintenance from baseline to 90-days. This article presents the study design, methods, plans for statistical analysis and descriptive characteristics of the study sample for MITI-HF. Study findings will contribute to the literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing to promote heart failure self-care. We anticipate that using an MI approach can help patients with heart failure focus on their internal motivation to change in a non-confrontational, patient-centered and collaborative way. It also affirms their ability to practice competent self-care relevant to their personal health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using multiple types of studies in systematic reviews of health care interventions--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Peinemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant

  3. Intervention to improve social and family support for caregivers of dependent patients: ICIAS study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Murphy, Magdalena; Bonet-Simó, Josep M; Baena, Esther; Prieto, Gemma; Bellerino, Eva; Solé, Francesc; Rubio, Montserrat; Krier, Ilona; Torres, Pascuala; Mimoso, Sonia

    2014-03-25

    Despite the existence of formal professional support services, informal support (mainly family members) continues to be the main source of eldercare, especially for those who are dependent or disabled. Professionals on the primary health care are the ideal choice to educate, provide psychological support, and help to mobilize social resources available to the informal caregiver.Controversy remains concerning the efficiency of multiple interventions, taking a holistic approach to both the patient and caregiver, and optimum utilization of the available community resources. .For this reason our goal is to assess whether an intervention designed to improve the social support for caregivers effectively decreases caregivers burden and improves their quality of life. CONTROLled, multicentre, community intervention trial, with patients and their caregivers randomized to the intervention or control group according to their assigned Primary Health Care Team (PHCT). Primary Health Care network (9 PHCTs). Primary informal caregivers of patients receiving home health care from participating PHCTs. Required sample size is 282 caregivers (141 from PHCTs randomized to the intervention group and 141 from PHCTs randomized to the control group. a) PHCT professionals: standardized training to implement caregivers intervention. b) Caregivers: 1 individualized counselling session, 1 family session, and 4 educational group sessions conducted by participating PHCT professionals; in addition to usual home health care visits, periodic telephone follow-up contact and unlimited telephone support. Caregivers and dependent patients: usual home health care, consisting of bimonthly scheduled visits, follow-up as needed, and additional attention upon request.Data analysisDependent variables: Caregiver burden (short-form Zarit test), caregivers' social support (Medical Outcomes Study), and caregivers' reported quality of life (SF-12)INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: a) Caregiver: sociodemographic data

  4. Do ergonomics improvements increase computer workers' productivity?: an intervention study in a call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani

    2003-01-15

    This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.

  5. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A brief mindfulness intervention for college student binge drinkers: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Liza C; Garske, John P

    2015-06-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a brief mindfulness intervention aimed to reduce rates and consequences of binge drinking among college students. Participants were 76 undergraduate students assigned to a mindfulness/cue exposure group (MG) or a control/cue exposure only group (CG). Assessments were administered at the beginning of the initial session (i.e., baseline), the end of the initial session (i.e., posttreatment) and weekly for the subsequent 4 weeks. During the initial session, participants engaged in a cue exposure protocol that differed by group. The MG participated in a 60-min individual mindfulness intervention composed of didactic and experiential activities during the initial session. They participated in a mindfulness practice during the Week 2 follow-up assessment and were asked to engage in 1 hr of out-of-session mindfulness meditation each week during the 4-week assessment period. Treatment outcome examined changes in frequency of binge episodes, consequences of alcohol use, readiness to change alcohol use, alcohol refusal self-efficacy, and dispositional mindfulness between groups over time. Group differences in readiness to change, self-efficacy, and dispositional mindfulness were not found from baseline to posttreatment. Four weeks after the initial intervention, the MG reported significantly less binge episodes, fewer consequences of alcohol use, higherself-efficacy and higher dispositional mindfulness than the CG. Feasibility and participant acceptability of the intervention was demonstrated by consistent attendance, low attrition and high satisfaction ratings by the MG. Results provide initial support for the efficacy of a brief, mindfulness-based intervention among college students who report binge drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Developing Targeted Health Service Interventions Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model: Two Australian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. This paper provides an overview of the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted nursing led chronic illness interventions. Background. Changing health care practice is a complex and dynamic process that requires consideration of social, political, economic, and organisational factors. An understanding of the characteristics of the target population, health professionals, and organizations plus identification of the determinants for change are also required. Synthesizing this data to guide the development of an effective intervention is a challenging process. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model has been used in global health care settings to guide the identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation of various health improvement initiatives. Design. Using a reflective case study approach, this paper examines the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted chronic care improvement interventions for two distinct Australian populations: a rapidly expanding and aging rural population with unmet palliative care needs and a disadvantaged urban community at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Results. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model approach demonstrated utility across diverse health settings in a systematic planning process. In environments characterized by increasing health care needs, limited resources, and growing community expectations, adopting planning tools such as PRECEDE-PROCEED Model at a local level can facilitate the development of the most effective interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model is a strong theoretical model that guides the development of realistic nursing led interventions with the best chance of being successful in existing health care environments.

  8. A Mobile Phone HIV Medication Adherence Intervention: Acceptability and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C Andrew; Upvall, Michele J

    We present the findings of a qualitative pilot study designed to describe the experience of HIV medication adherence using a mobile phone application. Nine semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted over a 3-month period at an AIDS Services Organization in Central Texas. The data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. During analysis, four themes were identified, and relations between these themes were delineated to reflect the experiences of the 23 participants. The mobile phone application, Care4Today™ Mobile Health Manager, was the intervention tool. Collection of focus group discussion outcomes over a 3-month period with baseline versus end-of-study data determined the feasibility and acceptability of this medication adherence intervention. The findings suggest that when individuals are offered the necessary resources, such as a mobile phone medication reminder application, they may have greater success in performing the behavior. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Phenomenological Study of Nurse Manager Interventions Related to Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbek, Anita J; Johnson, Sandra; Dawson, Christina M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire nurse managers' perspectives as to the scope of workplace bullying, which interventions were deemed as effective and ineffective, and what environmental characteristics cultivated a healthy, caring work environment. Research has linked workplace bullying among RNs to medical errors, unsafe hospital environments, and negative patient outcomes. Limited research had been conducted with nurse managers to discern their perspectives. Six nurse managers from hospital settings participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. Ray's theory of bureaucratic caring guided the study. These themes emerged: (a) awareness, (b) scope of the problem, (c) quality of performance, and (d) healthy, caring environment. Findings indicated mandated antibullying programs were not as effective as individual manager interventions. Systems must be in place to hold individuals accountable for their behavior. Communication, collective support, and teamwork are essential to create environments that lead to the delivery of safe, optimum patient care.

  10. Characterizing the nature of home care work and occupational hazards: a developmental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia; Quinn, Margaret; Galligan, Catherine; Sama, Susan; Brouillette, Natalie; Okyere, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Home care (HC) aide is the fastest growing occupation, yet job hazards are under-studied. This study documents the context of HC aide work, characterizes occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards, and identifies preventive interventions using qualitative methods. We conducted 12 focus groups among aides and 26 in-depth interviews comprising 15 HC agency, union, and insurance company representatives as well as 11 HC recipients in Massachusetts. All focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded with NVIVO software. Major OSH concerns were musculoskeletal disorders from client care tasks and verbal abuse. Performing tasks beyond specified job duties may be an OSH risk factor. HC aides' safety and clients' safety are closely linked. Client handling devices, client evaluation, care plan development, and training are key interventions for both aides' and clients' safety. Promoting OSH in HC is essential for maintaining a viable workforce. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline......L/kg/min more than the children from the control school. This VO(2peak) value was adjusted for both sex and baseline VO(2peak). Boys and girls demonstrated similar VO(2peak) responses. The intervention, primarily carried out at a moderate intensity, had the biggest impact in children with low initial CRF levels...

  12. A dietary intervention for chronic diabetic neuropathy pain: a randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Bunner, A E; Wells, C L; Gonzales, J; Agarwal, U; Bayat, E; Barnard, N D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic neuropathy is a common and often debilitating condition for which available treatments are limited. Because a low-fat plant-based diet has been shown to improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, we hypothesized that such a diet would reduce painful symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Methods: In this 20-week pilot study, individuals with type 2 diabetes and painful diabetic neuropathy were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group was asked ...

  13. The SBAR model for communication between health care professionals : a clinical intervention pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Lisbeth; Petersson, Pia; Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background: SBAR has been suggested as a means to avoid unclear communication between health care professionals and in turn enhance patient safety in the healthcare sector.   Aim: to evaluate hospital-based health care professionals experiences from using the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) communication model.   Methodology: A quantitative, descriptive, comparative pre- and post-intervention questionnaire-based pilot study before and after the implementation of SB...

  14. Should diabetic women with breast cancer have their own intervention studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, David A; Yee, Douglas; Guo, Zhijun; Rodriguez, Mariangellys

    2012-01-01

    This commentary on ‘Calorie restriction and rapamycin inhibit MMTV-Wnt-1 mammary tumor growth in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity’ by Nogueira et al., published in this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, addresses the challenges of translating diet, exercise, and pharmacologic trials in diabetic mouse mammary tumor models to human studies. We propose that trials specifically designed to test such interventions in diabetic women with breast cancer would be valuable and informative.

  15. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness. PMID:28154546

  16. It's Time to Start Changing the Game: A 12-Week Workplace Team Sport Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-01-01

    Background A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. Methods A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n?=?28 participants) or control (n?=?20 participants) grou...

  17. Healthy lifestyle intervention for African American uterine cancer survivors: Study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jessica Lynn; Besenyi, Gina B.; Williams, Lovoria B.; Burt, Victoria; Anglin, Judith C.; Ghamande, Sharad A.; Coughlin, Steven Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer of the uterine corpus is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common cancer in U.S. women. There is a racial disparity in the survival from endometrial cancer and this may be addressed by culturally-tailored lifestyle interventions to help African American (AA) endometrial cancer survivors lose weight or maintain a healthy weight. Objective: The overall purpose of this pilot study is to develop and evaluate a culturally-tailored lifestyle interventi...

  18. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff ( N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group ( n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness.

  19. Implementation of a Complex Intervention to Support Leadership Development in Nursing Homes: A Multimethod Participatory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, J.D.; Barrie, K.; Sharp, C.; Meyer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Leadership is key to quality improvement in nursing homes. This article reports on the initial analysis of the transformational My Home Life Leadership Support program for nursing home managers being implemented in Scotland. It analyses learning from a multimethod participatory descriptive study. Contribution analysis theory informed the evaluation. Evidence-Based Practice, Relationship-Centered Care, Appreciative Inquiry, and Caring Conversations informed the intervention to develop transfor...

  20. STUDY ON EARLY PHYSICAL THERAPY IN POSTOPERATIVE INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN WITH MYELOMENINGOCELE

    OpenAIRE

    Necula Dana; Marcu Vasile; Pădure Liliana; Hodorcă Raluca Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives targeted in early intervention thru physical therapy postoperative, to recover the functional for the neuro-musculo-arthropod kinetic system and prevent bone deformities and dysfunctions of micturition and defecation sequlae. Materials and methods The study included 12 children aged 0-5 years, 7 boys and 5 girls that followed at least 12 months of recovery. The group included children with hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele and equinus foot lime, lime myelomeningocele ...

  1. Feasibility of a Facebook Intervention for Exercise Motivation and Cardiac Rehabilitation Adherence: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee Anne; Ahmed, Haitham M; Crawford, Michael Todd; Bena, James Frank

    2017-08-18

    While cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be effective at improving coronary heart disease (CHD), participation is generally poor. Attempts to increase uptake and adherence often fail. Use of a Facebook intervention for this population may be a unique opportunity to support self-determined motivation and affect adherence. To evaluate the impact of a Facebook intervention on motivation for exercise and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD during a 12-week, Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. A prospective, randomized controlled pilot study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory, will be conducted. Participants will be recruited from inpatient, or the intake visit to outpatient, cardiac rehabilitation, and then randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison group. Participants in the intervention group will take part in a private Facebook group. Weekly posts will be designed to support self-determined motivation, measured at baseline and postcardiac rehabilitation by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-3 (BREQ-3). The Psychological Need Satisfaction for Exercise (PNSE) scale will measure fulfillment of needs that affect motivation. Participants in the comparison group will be given the same materials, but these will be supplied via handouts and email. The number of sessions attended will be tallied and analyzed using t tests. Overall motivation will be evaluated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. Multivariate analysis of variance models will be used to evaluate differences in the change across motivation subtypes. If significant, ANCOVA models for each subtype will be fit. ANCOVA models will be used to compare changes in needs satisfaction, overall and separately among the three subscales, between groups. Engagement in the Facebook group will be measured by number of "likes" and self-report of weekly visits to the group. This project was funded in July 2017 and recruitment is currently underway. The

  2. A multi-modal intervention for Activating Patients at Risk for Osteoporosis (APROPOS): Rationale, design, and uptake of online study intervention material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danila, Maria I.; Outman, Ryan C.; Rahn, Elizabeth J.; Mudano, Amy S.; Thomas, Tammi F.; Redden, David T.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Anderson, Fred A.; Anderson, Julia P.; Cram, Peter M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Fraenkel, Liana; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Miller, Michael J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Safford, Monika M.; Silverman, Stuart L.; Siris, Ethel S.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Warriner, Amy H.; Watts, Nelson B.; Yood, Robert A.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    did not. Conclusion We developed and implemented a novel tailored multi-modal intervention to improve initiation of osteoporosis therapy. An email address provided on the survey was the most important factor independently associated with accessing the intervention online. The design and uptake of this intervention may have implications for future studies in osteoporosis or other chronic diseases. PMID:27453960

  3. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  4. Nutrition and physical activity educational intervention on CHD risk factors: a systematic review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghaffarpasand, Eiman; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah

    2015-01-01

    Fast growing epidemic of chronic diseases causes many health challenges over the world. Regarding reported pros and cons, the aim of the current study is to review the effect of nutrition and physical educational intervention in decreasing cardiovascular risk factors. In this review study, searching has done through the English and Persian databases. Articles with other languages, lack of important information, and score 3 or less in the JADAD standard checklist were exluded from the study. In the primary search, 194 articles have been found.Through four stages of secondary search and further evaluation, 43 articles were selected. These articles were published between 1989 to 2013. According to these findings, the majority of articles showed a positive effect of nutrition and physical activity educational interventions on cardiovascular risk factors- blood cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as smoking cigarette in high risk patients. These results, suggest the necessity of continiuting nutrition and physical educational intervention for individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Narrative-based intervention for word-finding difficulties: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F

    2010-01-01

    Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and word-finding characteristics in narrative in a case study. A case study, quasi-experimental design was employed. The participant was tested on picture naming and spoken word to picture matching on control and treatment words at pre-, mid-, and post-therapy and an 8-month maintenance point. Narrative samples at pre- and post-therapy were analysed for word-finding characteristics and language production. A narrative-based language intervention for word-finding difficulties (NBLI-WF) was carried out for eight sessions, over 3 weeks. The data were subjected to a repeated-measures trend analysis for dichotomous data. Significant improvement occurred for naming accuracy of treatment, but not for control words. The pattern of word-finding characteristics in narrative changed, but the frequency did not reduce. NBLI-WF was effective in improving naming accuracy in this single case, but there were limitations to the research. Further research is required to assess the changes that may occur in language production and word-finding characteristics in narrative. Community clinicians are encouraged to refine clinical practice to ensure clinical research meets quality indicators.

  6. The nutrition-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China (NISCOC: a randomised cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guifa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device, physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Discussion Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the

  7. 'Relieved Working' study: systematic development and design of an intervention to decrease occupational quartz exposure at construction worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2014-07-28

    Occupational quartz exposure continues to be a serious hazard in the construction industry. Until now, evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing quartz exposure are scarce. The aim of this study was to systematically develop an intervention and to describe the study to evaluate its effectiveness. The intervention was developed according to the principles of the Intervention Mapping protocol, meaning that evidence from the literature was combined with information collected from stakeholders (e.g., construction workers, managers and researchers). The intervention aimed to integrate technical, behavioural and organizational factors. The intervention consists of two plenary meetings for all employers within the company, and individual visits at construction worksites, including specific intervention materials. Additionally, a demonstration session regarding control measures was organized for all managers. The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomized controlled trial among eight construction companies, with measurements at baseline and follow-up. Outcome measures are personal respirable dust and quartz exposure by means of exposure assessment, and behavioural and organizational determinants which will be assessed by means of questionnaires. Additionally, a process evaluation will shed light on whether the intervention (does not) works, and, if so, the reasons for this. Applying Intervention Mapping in the development of an intervention to reduce occupational quartz exposure was useful, as different stakeholders provided input for the intervention as well as the implementation strategy. Therefore, the feasibility of the intervention has been enhanced, as it appeals to construction workers and managers and will not unduly interfere with the ongoing construction work. NTR4586 (May 7th 2014).

  8. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf, Günter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps.Methods: The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology. A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback, followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention.Results: In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test. Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after. Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68

  9. Using Sleep Interventions to Engage and Treat Heavy-Drinking College Students: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Hanrahan, Tess H; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Heffern, Christina; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-04-01

    Continued high alcohol consumption levels by college students highlight the need for more effective alcohol interventions and novel treatment engagement strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate a behavioral sleep intervention as a means to engage heavy-drinking college students in treatment and reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Heavy-drinking college students (N = 42) were assigned to 1 of 2 web-based interventions comprised of 4 modules delivered over 4 weeks. The experimental intervention focused primarily on sleep and included evidence-based sleep content (i.e., stimulus control instructions, sleep scheduling [consistent bed/rise times; ideal sleep duration for adolescents/young adults], sleep hygiene advice, relaxation training, cognitive strategies to target sleep-disruptive beliefs), and alcohol content (i.e., normative and blood alcohol level feedback, moderate drinking guidelines, controlled drinking strategies, effects of alcohol on sleep and the body, advice to moderate drinking for improved sleep) in young adults. The control condition Healthy Behaviors provided basic advice about nutrition, exercise, sleep (i.e., good sleep hygiene only), and drinking (i.e., effects of alcohol on the body, moderate drinking guidelines, advice to moderate drinking for sleep). Participants in both conditions monitored their sleep using daily web-based diaries and a wrist-worn sleep tracker. Recruitment ads targeting college students with sleep concerns effectively identified heavy-drinking students. The program generated a high number of inquiries and treatment completion rates were high. Both interventions significantly reduced typical week drinking and alcohol-related consequences and improved sleep quality and sleep-related impairment ratings. The control condition yielded greater reductions in total drinks in a heaviest drinking week. The effects on drinking were larger than those observed in typical brief alcohol intervention

  10. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irrigation service, in the mid-1990s. Despite a flurry of interventions and agrarian policies directed at the intensification of agricultural production and promotion of commercial agriculture in communa...

  11. Establishing key components of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety, and improving well-being: a Delphi method study

    OpenAIRE

    de Manincor, Michael; Bensoussan, Alan; Smith, Caroline; Fahey, Paul; Bourchier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests benefits of yoga in reducing depression and anxiety. However, common concerns in reviews of the research include lack of detail, rationale and consistency of approach of interventions used. Issues related to heterogeneity include amount, types and delivery of yoga interventions. This study aims to document consensus-based recommendations for consistency of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety. Methods The Delphi method was used to establ...

  12. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus noninterve...

  13. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  14. Perceptions of a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth; Cline, Krista; O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown that there are multiple benefits of animal assisted interventions for patients. However, the impact of interaction with these animals in staff is understudied, particularly in the acute care setting, and is thus a novel contribution to the literature on human-animal interaction. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding the experiences and perceptions of hospital staff who have participated in a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program. Nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted (4 staff nurses, 3 support staff members, and 2 hospital volunteers). Five themes emerged from the respondent interviews: (1) descriptions of the therapy dogs; (2) contacts with the dogs at work; (3) connection with the dogs outside of work; (4) benefits; (5) drawbacks. Our findings reflect abundantly positive hospital staff experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recommendations for reporting whole-grain intake in observational and intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Seal, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    The finding that people who eat the most whole grains have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, compared with those who eat the least, is one of the most consistent findings in nutritional epidemiology. However, criteria for reporting whole-grain intake have varied widely, making...... it difficult to precisely explore the relation between whole grains and grain components with health outcomes. To enable better understanding of the health benefits of whole grain-rich diets, we propose that both observational and intervention studies should as far as possible be required to report...... milled) in foods, and describe the main types of products used and processes used to make them. Added bran and germ should be reported distinct from whole grains. In addition, we strongly recommend the incorporation of biomarkers of whole-grain intake to check compliance to intervention diets and help...

  16. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention for Malaysian families: Four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Carbon Monoxide: A Case Study in England for Detection and Interventions to Reduce Population Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. McCann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potential exposure to carbon monoxide (CO in private homes is largely unquantified. Aim. To estimate prevalence of potential exposure to CO in residential dwellings and describe associated interventions in an inner-city community. Methods. A housing association in London, Hackney Homes, began fitting CO alarms in the 22,831 local authority homes it is responsible for in January 2010. A gas engineer investigated each alarm activation and recorded the information on a standard form. We undertook a cross-sectional study of all 22,831 homes, using data from these forms. Descriptive analysis was performed, including incidence, monthly variation, cause of alarm activation, and actions taken. Results. Between November 2011 and April 2012, 106 incidents were reported. Of these, 34.6% identified an issue with a gas appliance, and 10.6% identified misuse of cooking methods as the cause of activation. Relevant interventions were put in place, including disconnection of the gas appliance and education around cooking methods. Discussion. Little is known about the burden of CO poisoning in residential dwellings. This study provides important information on the path to quantifying population exposure to CO as well as establishing a possible approach to access this key information and realistic interventions to reduce potential exposure.

  19. Rehabilitative interventions and brain plasticity in autism spectrum disorders: focus on MRI-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eCalderoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and research evidence supports the efficacy of rehabilitative intervention for improving targeted skills or global outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, putative mechanisms of structural and functional brain changes are poorly understood. This review aims to investigate the research literature on the neural circuit modifications after non-pharmacological intervention. For this purpose, longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based techniques at the start and at the end of the trial to evaluate the neural effects of rehabilitative treatment in subjects with ASD were identified. The six included studies involved a limited number of patients in the active group (from 2 to 16, and differed by acquisition method (task-related and resting-state functional MRI as well as by functional MRI tasks. Overall, the results produced by the selected investigations demonstrated brain plasticity during the treatment interval that results in an activation/functional connectivity more similar to those of subjects with typical development. Repeated MRI evaluation may represent a promising tool for the detection of neural changes in response to treatment in patients with ASD. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials after standardized rehabilitative intervention are required before translating these preliminary results into clinical use.

  20. [How to care for homeless mentally ill men in the community - a randomised intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, Gerhard; Egerter, Birgit; Petrasch, Monika; Albrecht-Dürr, Friederike

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify whether the mediation of homeless persons identified as mentally ill into the sociopsychiatric or the help-seeking system can be facilitated by a short-term intervention. Probands with at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to ICD-10 (73 % of the sample) were randomized to the intervention group (manualized procedure with five brief contacts) or to the control group (no intervention). The course of the contacts and the further help-seeking behavior after 4 and 8 months were registered. The very sporadic participation of the patients in the therapeutic discussion permitted a manualized procedure in individual cases only. The establishment of contact was very successful, but the problem-centered procedure only within limits. The intergroup comparison revealed no fundamental differences in the utilization of offers of support during the course of the study. Overall, however, the number of users tended to increase, with an increased contact frequency being recorded especially among those participating in therapeutic discussions. Only a relatively small proportion of the clientele can be reached through short-term behavior therapy. Fundamentally a low-profile, primarily outreach-based offer founded on longer-term contact appears to be more promising.

  1. Classroom intervention to change peers’ attitudes towards children who stutter: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Kathard

    2014-12-01

    Method: The study used a cluster randomised control trial design. The study included 211 Grade 7 participants from schools in the Cape Town Metropole. The CCR intervention was administered to 97 participants in the experimental group, whilst 114 participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. The Stuttering Resource Outcome Measure(SROM used as the outcome measure during pre- and post-test period. STATISTICA was used for in-depth data analysis. Results: An overall positive direction of change in scores was observed for the experimental group compared with the control group. However, the magnitude of change in the experimental group was not statistically significant (p = 0.2683. Male and female participants did not differ significantly in their scores on the SROM across pre-test and post-test periods. Participants who had exposure to individuals who stutter had significantly more positive scores on the SROM in the pre-test and post-test periods compared to those who had no direct exposure to stuttering. Conclusion: This result indicated the beginning of positive attitude change which may be attributed to the intervention. Further investigation is warranted.

  2. Intervention studies for improving global health and health care: An important arena for epidemiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kvåle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marginalised populations in many low- and middle-income countries experience an increasing burden of disease, in sub-Saharan Africa to a large extent due to faltering health systems and serious HIV epidemics. Also other poverty related diseases (PRDs are prevalent, especially respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases in children, malnutrition, maternal and perinatal health problems, tuberculosis and malaria. Daily, nearly 30,000 children under the age of 5 die, most from preventable causes, and 8,000 people die from HIV infections. In spite of the availability of powerful preventive and therapeutic tools for combating these PRDs, their implementation, especially in terms of equitable delivery, leaves much to be desired. The research community must address this tragic gap between knowledge and implementation. Epidemiologists have a very important role to play in conducting studies on diseases that account for the largest share of the global disease burden. A shift of focus of epidemiologic research towards intervention studies addressing health problems of major public health importance for disadvantaged population groups is needed. There is a need to generate an evidence-base for interventions that can be implemented on a large scale; this can result in increased funding of health promotion programs as well as enable rational prioritization and integration between different health interventions. This will require close and synergetic teamwork between epidemiologists and other professions across disciplines and sectors. In this way epidemiologists can contribute significantly to improve health and optimise health care delivery for marginalized populations.

  3. Reducing smoking reduces suicidality among individuals with psychosis: Complementary outcomes from a Healthy Lifestyles intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Clark, Vanessa; Baker, Amanda; Palazzi, Kerrin; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M

    2016-09-30

    This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression. At 12 months, smoking reduction was found to be significantly associated with suicidality change; an association was also seen between smoking reduction and depression and depression and suicidality. After adjusting for depression, the association between smoking reduction and suicidality was attenuated but remained statistically significant; the proportion of the total effect that was mediated through depression was 30%. There was no significant association between suicidality and treatment group (vs. controls) over time. Our study suggests that smoking interventions may have benefits over and above those for improved physical health, by reducing suicidal ideation in people with psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Sedentary Behaviour and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

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    Travis J. Saunders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available North Americans spend half their waking hours engaging in sedentary behaviour. Although several recent interventions suggest that short bouts of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour may result in acute increases in cardiometabolic risk, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. This study performed a systematic review of the impact of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour lasting ≤7 days on markers of cardiometabolic risk (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, glucose, and lipid levels in humans. Interventions were identified through systematic searches of Medline and Embase and screened by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 25 interventions were identified that examined the impact of imposed sedentary behaviour on biomarkers of interest. The majority of these studies focused on healthy young men, with very little identified research on females or other age groups. We found consistent, moderate quality evidence that uninterrupted sedentary behaviour ≤7 days results in moderate and deleterious changes in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and plasma triglyceride levels. In contrast, there is inconsistent, very low-quality evidence linking uninterrupted sedentary behaviour with changes in insulin, glucose, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. These findings suggest that uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behaviour should be avoided in order to prevent or attenuate transient increases in metabolic risk.

  5. Acute Sedentary Behaviour and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J.; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    North Americans spend half their waking hours engaging in sedentary behaviour. Although several recent interventions suggest that short bouts of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour may result in acute increases in cardiometabolic risk, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. This study performed a systematic review of the impact of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour lasting ≤7 days on markers of cardiometabolic risk (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, glucose, and lipid levels) in humans. Interventions were identified through systematic searches of Medline and Embase and screened by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 25 interventions were identified that examined the impact of imposed sedentary behaviour on biomarkers of interest. The majority of these studies focused on healthy young men, with very little identified research on females or other age groups. We found consistent, moderate quality evidence that uninterrupted sedentary behaviour ≤7 days results in moderate and deleterious changes in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and plasma triglyceride levels. In contrast, there is inconsistent, very low-quality evidence linking uninterrupted sedentary behaviour with changes in insulin, glucose, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. These findings suggest that uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behaviour should be avoided in order to prevent or attenuate transient increases in metabolic risk. PMID:22754695

  6. Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a

  7. Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Evensen, Katinka; Weydahl, Andi; Andersson, Kim; Patil, Grete; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUC(G) and CAR AUC(I)) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p Affect (p Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUC(G) and cortisol levels measured in serum. Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the generalizability of the results.

  8. Patients' communication with doctors: a randomized control study of a brief patient communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talen, Mary R; Muller-Held, Christine F; Eshleman, Kate Grampp; Stephens, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    In research on doctor-patient communication, the patient role in the communication process has received little attention. The dynamic interactions of shared decision making and partnership styles which involve active patient communication are becoming a growing area of focus in doctor-patient communication. However, patients rarely know what makes "good communication" with medical providers and even fewer have received coaching in this type of communication. In this study, 180 patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group using a written communication tool to facilitate doctor-patient communication or to standard care. The goal of this intervention was to assist patients in becoming more effective communicators with their physicians. The physicians and patients both rated the quality of the communication after the office visit based on the patients' knowledge of their health concerns, organizational skills and questions, and attitudes of ownership and partnership. The results supported that patients in the intervention group had significantly better communication with their doctors than patients in the standard care condition. Physicians also rated patients who were in the intervention group as having better overall communication and organizational skills, and a more positive attitude during the office visit. This study supports that helping patients structure their communication using a written format can facilitate doctor-patient communication. Patients can become more adept at describing their health concerns, organizing their needs and questions, and being proactive, which can have a positive effect on the quality of the doctor-patient communication during outpatient office visits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees’ well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37 in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market’s departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers’ well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288, we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities.

  10. A Novel Foam Contrast Agent Suitable for Fluoroscopic Interventional Procedure: Comparative Study of Physical Properties and Experimental Intervention in Animal Model

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    Jin Ho Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In fluoroscopic contrast study for interventional procedure, liquid contrast agent may be diluted in body fluid, losing its contrast effect. We developed a novel contrast agent of “foam state” to maintain contrast effect for enough time and performed a comparative study of physical properties and its usefulness in experimental intervention in animal model. The mean size of microbubble of foam contrast was 13.8±3.6 µm. The viscosity was 201.0±0.624 cP (centipoise and the specific gravity was 0.616. The foam decayed slowly and it had 97.5 minutes of half-life. In terms of the sustainability in a slow flow environment, foam contrast washed out much more slowly than a conventional contrast. In experimental colonic stent placement, foam contrast revealed significantly better results than conventional contrast in procedure time, total amount of contrast usage, and the number of injections (p<0.05. Our foam contrast has high viscosity and low specific gravity and maintains foam state for a sufficient time. Foam contrast with these properties was useful in experimental intervention in animal model. We anticipate that foam contrast may be applied to various kinds of interventional procedures.

  11. Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Graeme B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK. This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742 attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n = 31 in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C. Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120. Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention. As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention

  12. Access to weight reduction interventions for overweight and obese patients in UK primary care: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Helen P; Prevost, A Toby; Gulliford, Martin C

    2015-01-13

    To investigate access to weight management interventions for overweight and obese patients in primary care. UK primary care electronic health records. A cohort of 91 413 overweight and obese patients aged 30-100 years was sampled from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with body mass index (BMI) values ≥25 kg/m(2) recorded between 2005 and 2012 were included. BMI values were categorised using WHO criteria. Interventions for body weight management, including advice, referrals and prescription of antiobesity drugs, were evaluated. The rate of body weight management interventions and time to intervention were the main outcomes. Data were analysed for 91 413 patients, mean age 56 years, including 55 094 (60%) overweight and 36 319 (40%) obese, including 4099 (5%) with morbid obesity. During the study period, 90% of overweight patients had no weight management intervention recorded. Intervention was more frequent among obese patients, but 59% of patients with morbid obesity had no intervention recorded. Rates of intervention increased with BMI category. In morbid obesity, rates of intervention per 1000 patient years were: advice, 60.2 (95% CI 51.8 to 70.4); referral, 75.7 (95% CI 69.5 to 82.6) and antiobesity drugs 89.9 (95% CI 85.0 to 95.2). Weight management interventions were more often accessed by women, older patients, those with comorbidity and those in deprivation. Follow-up of body weight subsequent to interventions was infrequent. Limited evidence of weight management interventions in primary care electronic health records may result from poor recording of advice given, but may indicate a lack of patient access to appropriate body weight management interventions in primary care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

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    Carl J. Dunst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.

  14. Effect of Positive Psychological Intervention on Posttraumatic Growth among Primary Healthcare Workers in China: A Preliminary Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hu, Mu-Li; Song, Yu; Lu, Zhang-Xiu; Chen, You-Qiao; Wu, Da-Xing; Xiao, Tao

    2016-12-20

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is defined as positive psychological change in the wake of highly challenging circumstances. Healthcare workers in particular are more vulnerable to stressors and trauma than the general population. The current study examined the use and effectiveness of a novel positive psychological intervention based on Chinese traditional culture to improve PTG in hospital healthcare workers. The intervention was provided to 579 healthcare workers at hospitals in Guilin, Shenzhen and Xiangtan. Scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and its subscales were significantly higher after intervention than before (p < 0.001). Of the five aspects of PTG, the aspect of "new possibilities" benefited the most from intervention (Cohen's d = 0.45). PTG in women, nurses and college graduates increased to a greater extent than other participants after intervention. It was concluded that our novel intervention is effective at improving PTG in medical staff.

  15. Effect of critical care pharmacist's intervention on medication errors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansheng; Benedict, Neal; Olsen, Keith M; Luan, Rong; Zhu, Xi; Zhou, Ningning; Tang, Huilin; Yan, Yingying; Peng, Yao; Shi, Luwen

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacists are integral members of the multidisciplinary team for critically ill patients. Multiple nonrandomized controlled studies have evaluated the outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review focuses on controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of pharmacist intervention on medication errors (MEs) in ICU settings. Two independent reviewers searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were nonrandomized controlled studies that evaluated the effect of pharmacist services vs no intervention on ME rates in ICU settings. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggest that pharmacist intervention has no significant contribution to reducing general MEs, although pharmacist intervention may significantly reduce preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors. This meta-analysis highlights the need for high-quality studies to examine the effect of the critical care pharmacist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Making the most of natural experiments: What can studies of the withdrawal of public health interventions offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter; Gibson, Marcia; Campbell, Mhairi; Popham, Frank; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2018-03-01

    Many interventions that may have large impacts on health and health inequalities, such as social and public health policies and health system reforms, are not amenable to evaluation using randomised controlled trials. The United Kingdom Medical Research Council's guidance on the evaluation of natural experiments draws attention to the need for ingenuity to identify interventions which can be robustly studied as they occur, and without experimental manipulation. Studies of intervention withdrawal may usefully widen the range of interventions that can be evaluated, allowing some interventions and policies, such as those that have developed piecemeal over a long period, to be evaluated for the first time. In particular, sudden removal may allow a more robust assessment of an intervention's long-term impact by minimising 'learning effects'. Interpreting changes that follow withdrawal as evidence of the impact of an intervention assumes that the effect is reversible and this assumption must be carefully justified. Otherwise, withdrawal-based studies suffer similar threats to validity as intervention studies. These threats should be addressed using recognised approaches, including appropriate choice of comparators, detailed understanding of the change processes at work, careful specification of research questions, and the use of falsification tests and other methods for strengthening causal attribution. Evaluating intervention withdrawal provides opportunities to answer important questions about effectiveness of population health interventions, and to study the social determinants of health. Researchers, policymakers and practitioners should be alert to the opportunities provided by the withdrawal of interventions, but also aware of the pitfalls. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Walk Well: a randomised controlled trial of a walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fiona; Melville, Craig; Stalker, Kirsten; Matthews, Lynsay; McConnachie, Alex; Murray, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2013-07-01

    Walking interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on physical activity (PA) levels, health and wellbeing for adult and older adult populations. There has been very little work carried out to explore the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper will provide details of the Walk Well intervention, designed for adults with intellectual disabilities, and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. This study will adopt a RCT design, with participants allocated to the walking intervention group or a waiting list control group. The intervention consists of three PA consultations (baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks) and an individualised 12 week walking programme.A range of measures will be completed by participants at baseline, post intervention (three months from baseline) and at follow up (three months post intervention and six months from baseline). All outcome measures will be collected by a researcher who will be blinded to the study groups. The primary outcome will be steps walked per day, measured using accelerometers. Secondary outcome measures will include time spent in PA per day (across various intensity levels), time spent in sedentary behaviour per day, quality of life, self-efficacy and anthropometric measures to monitor weight change. Since there are currently no published RCTs of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities, this RCT will examine if a walking intervention can successfully increase PA, health and wellbeing of adults with intellectual disabilities. ISRCTN50494254.

  18. The Importance of Risk and Subgroup Analysis of Nonparticipants in a Geriatric Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    () or die (). The largest subgroup of refusers described as “too ill” had the highest risk of readmission (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.61–5.47, ) and of mortality within six months (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.64–7.49, ). However, this seems not to have affected the results of our randomized study.  Conclusion: We...... recommend that intervention studies among older people or other fragile patient groups include analysis of relevant risk and subgroup analyses of refusers....

  19. The Look AHEAD Study: A Description of the Lifestyle Intervention and the Evidence Supporting It

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, designed to determine whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. The study began in 2001 and is scheduled to conclude in 2012. A total of 5,145 participants, with a mean age of 60 years and body mass index of 36.0 kg/m2, have been randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention or to enhanced usual care condition...

  20. Meta-analysis of non-randomized studies in interventional cardiology: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliano Pio Navarese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of meta-analysis is becoming more and more common in interventional cardiology. The aim of this statistical approach is to collect a large number of patients from randomized clinical studies and nonrandomized registries in order to obtain a pooled estimate of the results. Nevertheless, simply pooling these results without a correct methodological approach can easily lead to biased conclusions. In this report we analyse the possible methodological drawbacks of such an approach and we suggest a simplified check-list of items to be considered in the effort of building-up a meta-analysis from non-randomized studies.

  1. System of Childhood Protection in Portugal – a Field of Intervention and Study of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manoel L. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to systematize elements of analysis and reflection about the childhood protection system in Portugal, as a field of intervention and study of Social Work. It analyzes the problem of children who are in unfavorable social, family and cultural contexts that limit the realization of their rights and their well-being. It questions some dimensions of the problem that constitute the object of study of Social Work in the framework of the European social model, as well as the model for an open coordination of social policies for protection of childhood and the family.

  2. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: a two-group controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Antimicrobial stewardship programme in critical care medicine: A prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Ramirez, P; Gordon, M; Villarreal, E; Frasquet, J; Poveda-Andres, J L; Salavert-Lletí, M; Catellanos, A

    2017-09-04

    Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes have achieved savings and a more rational use of antimicrobial treatments in general wards. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the experience of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in an intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective interventional, before-and-after study. 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary hospital. Prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship programme. Antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial related costs, multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRM) prevalence, nosocomial infections incidence, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality rates were compared before and after one-year intervention. A total of 218 antimicrobial episodes of 182 patients were evaluated in 61 team meetings. Antimicrobial stewardship suggestions were accepted in 91.5% of the cases. Total antimicrobial DDD/100 patient-days consumption was reduced from 380.6 to 295.2 (-22.4%; p=0.037). Antimicrobial stewardship programme was associated with a significant decrease in the prescription of penicillins plus b-lactamase inhibitors, linezolid, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. Overall antimicrobial spending was reduced by €119,636. MDRM isolation and nosocomial infections per 100 patient-days did not change after the intervention period. No changes in length of stay or mortality rate were observed. An ICU antimicrobial stewardship programme significantly reduced antimicrobial use without affecting inpatient mortality and length of stay. Our results further support the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in critical care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient dose in interventional radiology: a multicentre study of the most frequent procedures in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Bigand, Emeline; Salvat, Cecile; Vidal, Vincent; Beregi, Jean Paul; Hornbeck, Amaury; Greffier, Joel

    2017-01-01

    A national retrospective survey on patient doses was performed by the French Society of Medical physicists to assess reference levels (RLs) in interventional radiology as required by the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Fifteen interventional procedures in neuroradiology, vascular radiology and osteoarticular procedures were analysed. Kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), reference air kerma and number of images were recorded for 10 to 30 patients per procedure. RLs were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distributions. Results on 4600 procedures from 36 departments confirmed the large variability in patient dose for the same procedure. RLs were proposed for the four dosimetric estimators and the 15 procedures. RLs in terms of KAP and FT were 90 Gm.cm 2 and 11 mins for cerebral angiography, 35 Gy.cm 2 and 16 mins for biliary drainage, 75 Gy.cm 2 and 6 mins for lower limbs arteriography and 70 Gy.cm 2 and 11 mins for vertebroplasty. For these four procedures, RLs were defined according to the complexity of the procedure. For all the procedures, the results were lower than most of those already published. This study reports RLs in interventional radiology based on a national survey. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs. (orig.)

  5. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A descriptive study of juvenile family violence: data from intervention order applications in a Childrens Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Baksheev, Gennady N; Mullen, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that family violence may be perpetrated by juveniles against their parents and siblings, however empirical research regarding the nature and causes of such violence is relatively limited. This study examines juvenile family violence in the context of an Intervention Order (IO) being sought against a relative aged 18years or less. All cases over a 3-year period involving an IO application in a major metropolitan Children's Court in Australia were analysed (n=438). The majority of applicants/victims were parents (78%) and to a lesser extent siblings (11%) and other relatives (9%). Most parents who sought applications were mothers (63%) and one-parent households were over-represented (66%). The majority of defendants/perpetrators were male (69%), though juvenile females constituted a significant minority (31%). Intervention orders were sought to prohibit property damage (61%), physical assaults (59%) and/or threats (53%). According to the victim reports, these behaviours emerged in the context of prolonged behavioural problems (49%), a desire to intimidate the victim (12%) or retaliation (8%). While 44% of IO applications were granted, the majority were not (56%) due to the victim discontinuing the application prior to a formal hearing. Of the orders that were granted, a third (32%) were subsequently reported as having been breached. Juvenile family violence is a serious social problem that requires more systematic research to identify the correlates of this behaviour and effective interventions to prevent or reduce its occurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Intervention to reduce PCBs: learnings from a controlled study of Anniston residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2016-02-01

    Nonabsorbable dietary lipid reduces the absorption of dietary PCBs and increases the excretion of previously absorbed stored PCBs. Absorption of all PCB congeners will presumably be interrupted by nonabsorbable lipid; however excretion will be enhanced only for PCBs that have not been metabolized and also for their lipophilic metabolites. Our study with the nonabsorbable lipid, olestra, in a controlled trial in Anniston residents with elevated PCB levels demonstrated that it is possible to enhance removal of PCBs from the body in the clinically meaningful time frame of 1 year. The rate of disappearance of PCBs in participants who ate 15 g/day of olestra was significantly faster than the rate determined during the 5 years prior to intervention. The rate of disappearance was not changed from the pretrial rate in participants who ingested vegetable oil. Consideration of the role of body weight and fat is an important factor in the design of intervention trials of this kind, and the results of this trial suggest that the level of body fat in individuals will influence the rate of removal from the body. Previously reported data from animals and from a case report indicate that weight loss combined with nonabsorbable dietary lipid will maximize removal of PCBs and presumably other stored organochlorine compounds. The design of future intervention trials should include a focus on body fat levels and changes. Future trials should also include the testing of dietary compounds other than olestra that have affinity for PCBs, such as plant-derived polyphenols.

  8. Patient dose in interventional radiology: a multicentre study of the most frequent procedures in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Bigand, Emeline [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); Salvat, Cecile [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Lariboisiere Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Paris (France); Vidal, Vincent [La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Beregi, Jean Paul [French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France); Hornbeck, Amaury [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Trousseau University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Greffier, Joel [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France)

    2017-10-15

    A national retrospective survey on patient doses was performed by the French Society of Medical physicists to assess reference levels (RLs) in interventional radiology as required by the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Fifteen interventional procedures in neuroradiology, vascular radiology and osteoarticular procedures were analysed. Kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), reference air kerma and number of images were recorded for 10 to 30 patients per procedure. RLs were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distributions. Results on 4600 procedures from 36 departments confirmed the large variability in patient dose for the same procedure. RLs were proposed for the four dosimetric estimators and the 15 procedures. RLs in terms of KAP and FT were 90 Gm.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for cerebral angiography, 35 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 16 mins for biliary drainage, 75 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 6 mins for lower limbs arteriography and 70 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for vertebroplasty. For these four procedures, RLs were defined according to the complexity of the procedure. For all the procedures, the results were lower than most of those already published. This study reports RLs in interventional radiology based on a national survey. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs. (orig.)

  9. Alcohol increases homocysteine and reduces B vitamin concentration in healthy male volunteers--a randomized, crossover intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A; Woodside, J V; Young, I S; Sharpe, P C; Mercer, C; Patterson, C C; McKinley, M C; Kluijtmans, L A J; Whitehead, A S; Evans, A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of alcohol consumption on total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. To assess the effect of an 8-week intervention with vodka or red wine on plasma tHcy and B vitamin concentrations in healthy male volunteers. To assess the effect on tHcy according to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype. A randomized controlled crossover intervention study measuring tHcy and serum folate and vitamin B(12) concentrations was conducted in 78 male subjects (21-70 years). Following a 2-week washout period during which no alcohol was consumed, all subjects consumed 24 g alcohol (either 240 ml red wine or 80 ml vodka)/day for a 2-week period. Following a further 2-week washout, participants consumed the alternate intervention for 2 weeks. A significant increase in plasma tHcy was observed after the 2-week red wine intervention (5%, P = 0.03), and a non-significant increase in tHcy with vodka intervention (3%, P = 0.09). When the two interventions were compared, the change in tHcy did not differ between the vodka and red wine interventions (P = 0.57). There were significant decreases in serum vitamin B(12) and folate concentrations, and this decrease did not differ between interventions. The increase in tHcy observed in both interventions did not vary by MTHFR 677C>T genotype. A 2-week alcohol intervention resulted in a decrease in folate and vitamin B(12) status and an increase in plasma tHcy. The effect of alcohol intervention on tHcy, folate and vitamin B(12) concentrations did not differ between the red wine and vodka intervention groups.

  10. Does physical education influence eye-hand coordination? The Lifestyles of our Kids intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, L J; Telford, R M; Cunningham, R B; Semple, S J; Telford, R D

    2017-12-01

    In Australian government-funded primary schools, the responsibility for physical education (PE) falls mainly on general classroom teachers, many of whom possess limited PE training. This study sought to examine the impact of specialist-taught PE on eye-hand coordination (EHC) development. In this 4-year cluster-randomized intervention, participants were 187 boys and 172 girls initially in grade 2 in 29 primary schools, where no school employed university-trained specialist PE teachers. In 13 (intervention) schools, specialist PE teachers conducted 268 PE classes (two 45-minute sessions/wk) from grade 2 to grade 6. The intervention was based on traditional PE educational objectives, including fundamental motor skills, but did not specifically focus on EHC. The remaining 16 (control) schools continued with common-practice PE taught by general classroom teachers (30-60 min/wk). EHC was measured by a ball throw and wall-rebound catch test and recorded at ages 8, 10, and 12 (SD 0.3) at ends of grades 2, 4, and 6, respectively. There was steady yearly improvement of EHC in both groups, but no evidence of any intervention effect in boys (P=.88) or girls (P=.20). The introduction of specialist-taught PE during 4 years of primary school did not influence EHC development. Considering evidence that classroom teachers make little contribution to PE in this jurisdiction, together with the steady progression of EHC over the 4 years, other influences such as organized sport, after-school activities, natural development, and parental instruction are conceivably more influential factors in EHC development during primary school years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Jane; Strivens, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination). Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group) was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training. PMID:26051556

  12. Social anxiety and self-concept in children with epilepsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of interventional cardiology in two European countries: a nationwide Internet based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, T; Gudnadottir, G S; Lagerqvist, B; Eyjolfsson, K; Nilsson, T; Thorgeirsson, G; Thorgeirsson, G; Andersen, K; James, S

    2013-09-30

    The practice of interventional cardiology differs between countries and regions. In this study we report the results of the first nation-wide long-term comparison of interventional cardiology in two countries using a common web-based registry. The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) was used to prospectively and continuously collect background-, quality-, and outcome parameters for all coronary angiographies (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in Iceland and Sweden during one year. The rate of CA per million inhabitants was higher in Iceland than in Sweden. A higher proportion of patients had CA for stable angina in Iceland than in Sweden, while the opposite was true for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Left main stem stenosis was more commonly found in Iceland than in Sweden. The PCI rate was similar in the two countries as was the general success rate of PCI, achievement of complete revascularisation and the overall stent use. Drug eluting stents were more commonly used in Iceland (23% vs. 19%). The use of fractional flow reserve (0.2% vs. 10%) and the radial approach (0.6% vs. 33%) was more frequent in Sweden than in Iceland. Serious complications and death were very rare in both countries. By prospectively comparing interventional cardiology in two countries, using a common web based registry online, we have discovered important differences in technique and indications. A discovery such as this can lead to a change in clinical practice and inspire prospective multinational randomised registry trials in unselected, real world populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recruitment and retention of homeless individuals with mental illness in a housing first intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Strehlau, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeless individuals with mental illness are challenging to recruit and retain in longitudinal research studies. The present study uses information from the Vancouver site of a Canadian multi-city longitudinal randomized controlled trial on housing first interventions for homeless individuals. We were able to recruit 500 participants and retain large number of homeless individuals with mental illness; 92% of the participants completed the 6-month follow up interview, 84% the 24-month follow up, while 80% completed all follow-up visits of the study. Purpose: In this article, we describe the strategies and practices that we considered as critical for successful recruitment and retention or participants in the study. Methods: We discuss issues pertaining to research staff hiring and training, involvement of peers, relationship building with research participants, and the use of technology and social media, and managing challenging situations in the context of recruitment and retention of marginalized individuals. Conclusions: Recruitment and retention of homeless participant with mental illness in longitudinal studies is feasible. It requires flexible, unconventional and culturally competent strategies. Longitudinal research projects with vulnerable and hidden populations may benefit from extensive outreach work and collaborative approaches that are based on attitudes of mutual respect, contextual knowledge and trust. Keywords: Housing first intervention, Homelessness, Mental illness, Recruitment, Retention, Longitudinal study

  15. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  16. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  17. The effectiveness of a nurse-initiated intervention to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections in an urban acute hospital: an intervention study with before and after comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Toshie; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Toki, Masayo; Sakai, Keiko; Onaka, Emiko; Otani, Yoshiko

    2007-11-01

    Catheter care is considered to be important for prevention of catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) although epidemiological evidence is sparse. To identify problems associated with catheter care and evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-initiated interventions to reduce CABSIs. An intervention study with before and after comparison. CABSI surveillance was conducted in a 560-bed acute hospital located in a major urban area in Japan. Patients were enrolled in this study from April 2000 to December 2002 based on the following criteria: (1) adult inpatients; and (2) those in whom central venous lines or Swan-Ganz catheters were inserted for 2 days or longer. In the first year, risk factors for CABSI and problems associated with catheter care were identified by inspection of the infection control nurse (ICN) or four trained link nurses, and the laboratory results. In the subsequent 2 years, the following interventions based on the surveillance results were implemented: (1) enhanced skin preparation by scrubbing with regular bathing soap and tap water; (2) a new method for stabilisation of the catheter inserted into the internal jugular vein, where additional dressing was placed over the sterilised dressing; (3) educating the staff on maximal sterile precautions by teaching staff members at their section meetings and displaying posters; (4) use of a check list and observation of catheter insertion by link nurses to monitor compliance; and (5) selection of a disinfectant that requires shorter contact time and has longer residual effect. After these interventions were implemented, the overall bloodstream infection (BSI) rate declined from 4.0/1000 device-days to 1.1/1000 device-days (p<0.005). We identified four problems-those related to skin preparation, dressing, sterile precautions and disinfectant. We implemented a series of interventions to reduce CABSIs; the overall CABSI rate decreased significantly.

  18. Development and Pilot Study of a Marketing Strategy for Primary Care/Internet–Based Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents (The CATCH-IT Intervention)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776

  19. Choosing between responsive-design websites versus mobile apps for your mobile behavioral intervention: presenting four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Schoffman, Danielle E; Valafar, Homay; Brazendale, Keith; Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Mandes, Trisha; Hébert, James R; Wilcox, Sara; Hester, Andrew; McGrievy, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Both mobile apps and responsive-design websites (web apps) can be used to deliver mobile health (mHealth) interventions, but it can be difficult to discern which to use in research. The goal of this paper is to present four case studies from behavioral interventions that developed either a mobile app or a web app for research and present an information table to help researchers determine which mobile option would work best for them. Four behavioral intervention case studies (two developed a mobile app, and two developed a web app) presented include time, cost, and expertise. Considerations for adopting a mobile app or a web app-such as time, cost, access to programmers, data collection, security needs, and intervention components- are presented. Future studies will likely integrate both mobile app and web app modalities. The considerations presented here can help guide researchers on which platforms to choose prior to starting an mHealth intervention.

  20. "It Takes a Village": A Case Study of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation in an Exemplary Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Hays, Danica G.; Cholewa, Blaire E.

    2018-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a widely implemented, culturally responsive framework using prevention and intervention activities to promote a safe school climate and positive academic and behavioral student outcomes. Using a qualitative single-case study design, authors provide a rich description of PBIS implementation…

  1. Socio-Dramatic Affective-Relational Intervention for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called "socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention" (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill…

  2. Can a Self-Efficacy-Based Intervention Decrease Burnout, Increase Engagement, and Enhance Performance? A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breso, Edgar; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Salanova, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Using the Social Cognitive Theory as a theoretical framework, this study evaluated a 4-month, individual cognitive-behavioral intervention program to decrease burnout and increase self-efficacy, engagement, and performance among university students. The main objective of the intervention was to decrease the anxiety the students coped with before…

  3. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, L.; Egger, M.; Gluud, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association of inadequate or unclear allocation concealment and lack of blinding with biased estimates of intervention effects varies with the nature of the intervention or outcome. DESIGN: Combined analysis of data from three meta-epidemiological studies based o...

  4. Interventions to Support Social Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Single Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Jennifer; Mavridis, Alexis; Hott, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction is a core deficit in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, parents and teachers need effective interventions to support students with ASD. This synthesis provides a quantitative analysis of single-subject studies that examine interventions to support social interactions in children with ASD. Results suggest…

  5. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3-9 mo...

  6. Wordless intervention for epilepsy in learning disabilities (WIELD): study protocol for a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Gates, Bob; Parkes, Georgina; Zia, Asif; Friedli, Karin; Barton, Garry; Ring, Howard; Oostendorp, Linda; Wellsted, David

    2014-11-20

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological problem that affects people with learning disabilities. The high seizure frequency, resistance to treatments, associated skills deficit and co-morbidities make the management of epilepsy particularly challenging for people with learning disabilities. The Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy uses images to help people with learning disabilities manage their condition and improve quality of life. Our aim is to conduct a randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring key methodological, design and acceptability issues, in order to subsequently undertake a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy. We will use a two-arm, single-centre randomized controlled feasibility design, over a 20-month period, across five epilepsy clinics in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. We will recruit 40 eligible adults with learning disabilities and a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy and will randomize them to use either the Books Beyond Words booklet plus usual care (intervention group) or to receive routine information and services (control group). We will collect quantitative data about the number of eligible participants, number of recruited participants, demographic data, discontinuation rates, variability of the primary outcome measure (quality of life: Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale), seizure severity, seizure control, intervention's patterns of use, use of other epilepsy-related information, resource use and the EQ-5D-5L health questionnaire. We will also gather qualitative data about the feasibility and acceptability of the study procedures and the Books Beyond Words booklet. Ethical approval for this study was granted on 28 April 2014, by the Wales Research Ethics Committee 5. Recruitment began on 1 July 2014. The outcomes of this feasibility study will be used to inform the design and methodology of a definitive study, adequately powered to determine the impact of

  7. A small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with Alzheimer disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Julie D; Drake, Jamie Michelle; Marino, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) have a higher risk of falls than their cognitively intact peers. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a small-group balance exercise program for individuals with AD in a day center environment. Seven participants met the inclusion criteria: diagnosis of AD or probable AD, medical stability, and ability to walk (with or without assistive device). We used an exploratory pre- and post-test study design. Participants engaged in a functional balance exercise program in two 45-minute sessions each week for eight weeks. Balance activities were functional and concrete, and the intervention was organized into constant, blocked, massed practice. Outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and gait speed (GS; self-selected and fast assessed by an instrumented walkway). Data were analyzed by comparing individual change scores with previously identified minimal detectable change scores at the 90% confidence level (MDC90). Pre- and post-test data were acquired for five participants (two participants withdrew). The BBS improved in all five participants, and improved > or = 6.4 points (the MDC90 for the BBS in three participants. Four participants improved their performance on the TUG, and three participants improved > or = 4.09 seconds (the MDC90 for the TUG). Self-selected GS increased > or = 9.44 cm/sec (the MDC90 for gait speed) in three participants. Two participants demonstrated post-test self-selected GS comparable with their pretest fast GS. This pilot study suggests that a small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with AD is feasible and effective. Although participants had no explicit memory of the program, four of five improved in at least two outcome measures. Larger scale functional balance intervention studies with individuals with AD are warranted.

  8. Development of the Psychiatric Nursing Intervention Providing Structure: An International Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, L Amar; Nugter, Annet; van Achterberg, Theo; Goossens, Peter J J

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses commonly refer to "providing structure" (PS) as a key intervention. But no consensus exists about what PS entails. PS can be understood as a complex intervention. In four previous studies, a definition, activities, and context variables were described that were presented to experts in a Delphi study. To reach consensus about the definition of PS, its activities, and context variables. In a qualitative study, a Delphi study is used to gather the opinions of experts. The Delphi study consisted of three rounds with statements to score in each round. Experts reached consensus about a definition of PS, its activities, and context variables. Eleven statements related to the definition were accepted. Fourteen statements of a total of 17 statements related to the specific activities reached sufficient agreement, and 4 statements related to context variables were accepted. A definition could be given of PS with 4 general PS activities, 15 specific activities, and 3 context variables. Psychiatric nurses can use the information about PS to reflect on the use of PS activities within their own working environment, and these insights can help nurses develop their professional growth. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Changing job-related burnout after intervention--a quasi-experimental study in six human service organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal study design to analyze the development of burnout at worksites and to study the effect of interventions intended to reduce the level of burnout at individual level. METHODS: At baseline the study, sample consisted of 1024 individuals divided at six organizations and 18...... worksites in the human service sector. Four different types of interventions were identified: external and internal reorganizations, educational days, and consultancy. Burnout defined as work related, client related, and personal burnout was measured by means of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory at baseline...... of interventions did not reduce the level of burnout in our study....

  10. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, S; Du, L; Mentz, G; Mukherjee, B; Parker, E; Godwin, C; Chin, J-Y; O'Toole, A; Robins, T; Rowe, Z; Lewis, T

    2012-06-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84±27%, but dropped to 63±33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34±30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased particulate matter (PM) levels by about 14 μg/m3 and was often detected using ETS-specific tracers despite restrictions on smoking in the house as reported on questionnaires administered to caregivers. PM concentrations depended on season, filter usage, relative humidity, air exchange ratios, number of children, outdoor PM levels, sweeping/dusting, and presence of a central air conditioner (AC). Free-standing air filters can be an effective intervention that provides substantial reductions in PM concentrations if the filters are used. However, filter use was variable across the study population and declined over the study duration, and

  11. Pilot study of the dose in crystalline lens in the interventional radiology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.; Martinez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Molina, D.; Sanchez, L.; Diaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    The interventional radiology involves considerable exposure levels for the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP). The doses can encompass a wide range of values in dependence of the function that develops the personnel and the complexity of each procedure. In organs like the crystalline lens and skin values can be reached that imply the appearance of deterministic effects if is not fulfilled the appropriate measures of radiological protection. This has been demonstrated through multiple studies, among those that the retrospective study of damages in the crystalline lens and dose has been one of those most commented, known as RELID. The objective of that study was to examine the opacity prevalence in the crystalline lens in workers linked to the interventional cardiology and to correlate it with the occupational exposition. The obtained results contributed to that the ICRP recommend a new limit value of equivalent dose for crystalline lens of 20 mSv in one year. With the objective of analyzing the operational implications, in the radiological surveillance programs that they could originate with the new recommendations was developed a pilot study to evaluate the dose in crystalline lens in the OEP linked to the interventional radiology in a Cuban hospital. For this, an anthropomorphic mannequin RANDO-ALDERSON was used on which thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed below and above of the leaded apr