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Sample records for intervention early cumulative

  1. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  2. Cumulative, human capital, and psychological risk in the context of early intervention: links with IQ at ages 3, 5, and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, Pamela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-12-01

    This article examines the effects of risks for a sample of low birth weight children (2,001 to 2,500 g and family income-to-needs at 250% of the poverty threshold or less; n = 228) using data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP, an experiment testing the efficacy of early intervention). Cognitive test scores (IQ) are assessed at 3, 5, and 8 years of age. Links with risks at each age point are examined using three different models-cumulative, human capital, and psychological risks. Similar decrements in IQ scores are found at all ages for the cumulative and human capital models but not for the psychological risk model. Treatment effects are found at 3 years of age (when the intervention ended) for all levels of risk and for all models. Sustained effects of the treatment were found at 5 and 8 years of age for children with moderate levels of human capital risk but were not found for any levels of psychological risk. Implications for early childhood intervention programs are discussed.

  3. Cumulative funnel plots for the early detection of interoperator variation: retrospective database analysis of observed versus predicted results of percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadian, Babu; Dunning, Joel; Roberts, Anthony P; Morley, Robert; Twomey, Darragh; Hall, James A; Sutton, Andrew G C; Wright, Robert A; Muir, Douglas F; de Belder, Mark A

    2008-04-26

    To use funnel plots and cumulative funnel plots to compare in-hospital outcome data for operators undertaking percutaneous coronary interventions with predicted results derived from a validated risk score to allow for early detection of variation in performance. Analysis of prospectively collected data. Tertiary centre NHS hospital in the north east of England. Five cardiologists carrying out percutaneous coronary interventions between January 2003 and December 2006. In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (in-hospital death, Q wave myocardial infarction, emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and cerebrovascular accident) analysed against the logistic north west quality improvement programme predicted risk, for each operator. Results are displayed as funnel plots summarising overall performance for each operator and cumulative funnel plots for an individual operator's performance on a case series basis. The funnel plots for 5198 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions showed an average observed rate for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of 1.96% overall. This was below the predicted risk of 2.06% by the logistic north west quality improvement programme risk score. Rates of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events for all operators were within the 3sigma upper control limit of 2.75% and 2sigma upper warning limit of 2.49%. The overall in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events rates were under the predicted event rate. In-hospital rates after percutaneous coronary intervention procedure can be monitored successfully using funnel and cumulative funnel plots with 3sigma control limits to display and publish each operator's outcomes. The upper warning limit (2sigma control limit) could be used for internal monitoring. The main advantage of these charts is their transparency, as they show observed and predicted events separately. By this

  4. Early intervention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family conflict.12 We also know that the effects of violence exposure are likely magnified in unstable ... and how chronic 'toxic stress' may lead to difficulties in self-regulation, poor control of emotions, and ... High levels of violence affect every family in South Africa. Exposure to violence starts early, in both the home.

  5. Parenting intervention and the caregiving environment : cumulative risk and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Mirjam Neeltje

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to study single and cumulative family risk in relation to early childhood externalizing problems and the effectiveness of a parenting intervention program. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive

  6. Guideline for Early Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-134 6 - 1 Guideline for Early Interventions Maaike de Vries Impact Foundation, Dutch Knowledge & Advice Centre for Post...assistance, also referred to as ‘ early interventions ’ or ‘debriefing’, is offered following shocking events. These may be large scale disasters or...calamities, but also military deployment and individual incidents. During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing

  7. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...

  8. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  9. Early cumulative risk predicts externalizing behavior at age 10: The mediating role of adverse parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Emily J; Ip, Ka I; Sameroff, Arnold J; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-02-01

    Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 10 years old at Time 2 (T2). Reports of contextual risk at T1 were used to develop a cumulative risk index consisting of 6 singular risk variables from 3 ecological levels: social resources (low income; social isolation), family resources (marital aggression; poor total family functioning), and maternal resources (single parent status; poor maternal mental health). At T1, parenting variables were measured (corporal punishment, warm responsiveness, maternal efficacy, and negative perceptions of child behavior). At T2, mothers, fathers, and teachers reported child externalizing problems. Johnson's relative weight analysis revealed that the cumulative risk index was a more powerful predictor of age 10 years externalizing behavior than any of the singular contextual risk variables. Adverse parenting mediated the effects of cumulative risk on later child externalizing problems. Our findings have significant implications for understanding long-term effects of multiple contextual risk factors present in early childhood and for the implementation of positive parenting interventions early on. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Early intervention for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  11. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  12. Early Intervention: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of brain development in the early years of life has led to expanded early intervention programs for very young children with or at risk for developmental disabilities. A biological basis for early intervention is explored, and brain plasticity is discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  13. Cumulative social risk and obesity in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Duarte, Cristiane S; Chambers, Earle C; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between cumulative social adversity and childhood obesity among preschool-aged children (N = 1605) in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Maternal reports of intimate partner violence, food insecurity, housing insecurity, maternal depressive symptoms, maternal substance use, and father's incarceration were obtained when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. Two cumulative social risk scores were created by summing the 6 factors assessed at ages 1 and 3 years. Child height and weight were measured at 5 years of age. Logistic regression models stratified according to gender were used to estimate the association between cumulative social risk and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Seventeen percent of children were obese at age 5 years, and 57% had at least 1 social risk factor. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, girls experiencing high cumulative social risk (≥2 factors) at age 1 year only (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.1]) or at 3 years only (OR: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.2-4.2]) were at increased odds of being obese compared with girls with no risk factors at either time point. Those experiencing high cumulative risk at age 1 and 3 years were not at statistically significant odds of being obese (OR: 1.9 [95% CI: 0.9-4.0]). No significant associations were noted among boys. There seems to be gender differences in the effects of cumulative social risk factors on the prevalence of obesity at 5 years of age. Understanding the social context of families could make for more effective preventive efforts to combat childhood obesity.

  14. Family Resources and Effects on Child Behavior Problem Interventions: A Cumulative Risk Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tømmerås, Truls; Kjøbli, John

    2017-01-01

    Family resources have been associated with health care inequality in general and with social gradients in treatment outcomes for children with behavior problems. However, there is limited evidence concerning cumulative risk-the accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in a family-and whether cumulative risk moderates the outcomes of evidence-based parent training interventions. We used data from two randomized controlled trials evaluating high-intensity ( n  = 137) and low-intensity ( n  = 216) versions of Parent Management Training-Oregon (PMTO) with a 50:50 allocation between participants receiving PMTO interventions or regular care. A nine-item family cumulative risk index tapping socioeconomic resources and parental health was constructed to assess the family's exposure to risk. Autoregressive structured equation models (SEM) were run to investigate whether cumulative risk moderated child behaviors at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months). Our results showed opposite social gradients for the treatment conditions: the children exposed to cumulative risk in a pooled sample of both PMTO groups displayed lower levels of behavior problems, whereas children with identical risk exposures who received regular care experienced more problems. Furthermore, our results indicated that the social gradients differed between PMTO interventions: children exposed to cumulative risk in the low-intensity (five sessions) Brief Parent Training fared equally well as their high-resource counterparts, whereas children exposed to cumulative risk in the high-intensity PMTO (12 sessions) experienced vastly better treatment effects. Providing evidence-based parent training seem to be an effective way to counteract health care inequality, and the more intensive PMTO treatment seemed to be a particularly effective way to help families with cumulative risk.

  15. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-01-24

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.

  16. Prenatal depression: Early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A; Lieser, Carol

    2015-07-15

    Frequently undiagnosed and untreated, prenatal depression affects approximately one in four childbearing women. Screening and appropriate management is essential to prevent adverse consequences to both the woman and her unborn infant. Early conversations between the woman and her nurse practitioner are essential to making medical management decisions.

  17. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...

  18. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  19. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  20. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined in a longitudinal sample (N = 438). Of interest was (a) continuity in use of the different arrangements, (b) whether the arrangements were additively and cumulatively associated with children’s externalizing behavior problems, and (c) whether predictive relations were accounted for by social-ecological (socioeconomic status, mothers’ employment status, marital stat...

  1. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  2. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early childhood intervention is an essential contributor and catalyst for the development of a culture of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. Intervention could begin at the early years or early childhood education level. Does early intervention make a difference in the lives of children ...

  3. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J; Pettit, Gregory S; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2001-04-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined in a longitudinal sample (N = 438). Of interest was (a) continuity in use of the different arrangements, (b) whether the arrangements were additively and cumulatively associated with children's externalizing behavior problems, and (c) whether predictive relations were accounted for by social-ecological (socioeconomic status, mothers' employment status, marital status) and social-experiential (parenting quality, exposure to aggressive peers) factors. Correlations among overall amounts of care provided little evidence of cross-time continuity. Consistent with the cumulative risk perspective, Grade 1 self-care and Grade 6 unsupervised peer contact incrementally predicted Grade 6 externalizing problems. Most of the predictive associations were accounted for by family background and social relationship factors.

  4. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  5. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  6. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  7. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  8. Early adulthood body mass index, cumulative smoking, and esophageal adenocarcinoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Anna; Coate, Linda; Zhai, Rihong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Zheng-Fei; Chen, Zhuo; Patel, Devalben; Tse, Brandon; Brown, M Catherine; Heist, Rebecca S; Dodbiba, Lorin; Teichman, Jennifer; Kulke, Matthew; Su, Li; Eng, Lawson; Knox, Jennifer; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail E; Christiani, David C; Liu, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Smoking and obesity are esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk factors. However, the same risk factors may also affect biological aggressiveness and cancer outcomes. Our study evaluated the combined effects of early-adulthood obesity and cumulative smoking on the EAC survival. In two EAC cohorts, Toronto (TO; N=235) and Boston (BO; N=329), associations between early adulthood body mass index (EA-BMI), BMI at 1year prior to diagnosis (BMI-1), and smoking with overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for relevant covariates. Both cohorts were predominantly Caucasian (89%), male (88%), ever-smokers (73%) with locally advanced/metastatic EAC (78%), and good ECOG performance status (90%); median packyears was 34; median EA-BMI, 24; median BMI-1, 25. No relationships with survival were found with BMI-1. For smoking and EA-BMI, TO, BO, and combined TO-BO analyses showed similar associations: smoking conferred worse OS in the combined TO-BO cohort, with adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.15-1.43;p30, aHR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.94-3.99). Risk of death was also increased in remotely underweight patients with EA-BMIsmoking history are independently associated with increased mortality risk in two North American cohorts of EAC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Signs and Early Behavioral Intervention of Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Meer, L. van der; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Hastings, R.; Rojahn, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes research on the emergence of challenging behavior and early behavioral intervention for the treatment of challenging behavior in young children with Intellectual Disability (ID). Biological and learning theories related to the emergence of challenging behavior and risk

  10. Cumulative risk over the early life course and its relation to academic achievement in childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsdottir, Laufey Dís; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Thorisdottir, Ingibjorg Eva; Allegrante, John P; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2017-03-01

    Early-life risk factors, such as family disruption, maltreatment, and poverty, can negatively impact children's scholastic abilities; however, most previous studies have relied on cross-sectional designs and retrospective measurement. This study investigated the relation between cumulative risk factors during the early life course and subsequent academic achievement in a cohort of children and adolescents. Data for this study were based on registry-data material from the LIFECOURSE study of 1151 children from the 2000 birth cohort in Reykjavik, Iceland, assembled in 2014-2016. Multiple lifetime risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy, parent's disability status, being born to a young mother, number of children in the household, family income, number of visits to school nurses, and reports of maltreatment, were assessed. Latent class analysis and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to predict academic achievement in the 4th and 7th grades. Individuals with no risk factors reported the highest average academic achievement in the 4th (M=66 points, SD=17) and 7th grades (M=67 points, SD=15). There was a significant main effect for 4th-grade risk factors and academic achievement (F [7, 1146]=12.06, pachievement scores in 7th grade (F [7, 1146]=15.08, pacademic achievement at both grade levels. We conclude that academic achievement declines in proportion to the number of risk factors in early life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  12. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  13. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  14. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  15. Twenty-years of lung transplantation in Taiwan: Effects of cumulative institutional experience on early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Although the results were undesirable in the first decade of the transplant program, the cumulative institutional experience led to significantly improved outcomes in the second decade of the transplant program.

  16. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers' feed...... as a starting point. We find an urgent need to develop and research projects on early intervention in Nordic school culture, preferably in critical dialogue with international research in this field. , while critically discussing ideas and experiences from other countries....

  17. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  18. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  19. Mothers' Stress, Resilience and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…

  20. Early Childhood Intervention: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…

  1. American Sign Language and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddon, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…

  2. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

  3. Protocols for early audiology intervention services: Views from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the protocols and practices for audiology early intervention (EI) in Gauteng government hospitals, and determine whether these protocols comply with the principles for effective EI in audiology. Methods and materials. Self-administered questionnaires were hand-delivered and distributed to ...

  4. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  5. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  6. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  7. Early Extracorporeal Detoxification after Cardiosurgical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Plotnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate a need for early use of extracorporeal homeostatic correction techniques during cardiosurgical intensive care. Subjects and methods: A non-randomized study was conducted in 63 cardiosurgical patients with postoperatively evolving multiple organ dysfunction. The clinical efficiency and economic expediency of the early initiation of homeostatic correction were estimated by continuous low-flow venovenous hemofiltration on a Prisma apparatus. Results. The study has demonstrated the advantages of early (within the 36-hour postoperative period initiation of a procedure by the time of organ dysfunction recovery, the length of stay on a resuscitation bed, and pharmacoeconomic indices. Conclusion. The early (at the stage of dysfunction, until hemostasis becomes stable and in the absence of drainage volume losses initiation of hemofiltration in the development of multiple organ dysfunction after surgical interventions has been clinically and economically warranted. Key words: extracorporeal homeostatic correction, multiple organ dysfunction, cardiac surgery.

  8. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  9. Vasopressor Cumulative Dose Requirement and Risk of Early Death During Septic Shock: An Analysis from the Episs Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, Auguste; Nguyen, Maxime; Fournel, Isabelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-16

    Septic shock is the primary cause of death in intensive care units, with about 20% of patients dying in the first 3 days. To design future trials focused on early mortality, we require knowledge of early indicators that can detect patients at high risk of early death from refractory septic shock.The aim of this study was to assess whether the cumulative dose of vasopressors (CDV), calculated as the cumulative dose of epinephrine + norepinephrine, is a predictor of early death (within 72 hours) attributable to refractory septic shock (EDASS). This substudy of the EPISS trial was based on 370 patients admitted to a French ICU for septic shock between 2009 and 2011. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated for the CDV at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after vasopressor initiation, and a strategy to predict the risk of EDASS was built based on selected times and thresholds.Among the 370 patients included, 51 (14%) died within the first 72 hours with 40 (11%) EDASS. A strategy in two steps (CDV ≥ 800 μg/kg at 6 hours and/or CDV ≥ 2600 μg/kg at 24 hours) was able to predict EDASS with sensitivity of 45%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 78% and negative predictive value 94%. Overall, our results confirm that early death directly attributable to septic shock could be effectively predicted by the CDV in the first hours of treatment. These results will help to select patients eligible for innovative therapies aimed at improving early mortality in septic shock.

  10. Effective interventions for cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremity in computer users: practice models based on systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Glenn; Kovach, Laura; Fisher, April; Elsesser, Elizabeth; Bobinski, Daniel; Hansen, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of over 4600 abstracts was performed to address the effectiveness of the current cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) interventions focused on the upper extremities of computer users. The researchers were the study participants. They included one Professor of Occupational Therapy and five Masters of Occupational Therapy Students from a Midwestern University. The Professor of Occupational Therapy has been practicing for 29 years. The researchers employed stringent inclusion criteria for this review based on similar systematic review papers. Criteria for high quality qualitative research were incorporated to include studies other than randomized-controlled trials. This approach considered knowledge gained from specific interventions that were studied in greater detail with fewer clients. The results of this study identified 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Further review ranked the selected articles into high, medium, or low quality based on criteria adapted from other studies. The highest levels of evidence were found for education and training in ergonomics, forearm supports, ergonomic keyboards, ergonomic mice, and exercise/rest breaks. Two models of practice were created from this review to assist occupational therapists or other professionals with intervention strategies for computer users with CTDs.

  11. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...

  12. Early parenting intervention: Family risk and first-time parenting related to intervention effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, M.N.; Mesman, J.; van Zeijl, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of cumulative risk and parity on the effectiveness of a home based parenting intervention were tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing behavior. The intervention was aimed at enhancing positive

  13. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined. Correlations among overall amounts of care provided little evidence of cross-time continuity; grade 1 self-care and grade 6 unsupervised peer contact incrementally predicted grade 6 problems; and most predictive…

  14. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  15. Weighted cumulative exposure models helped identify an association between early knee-pain consultations and future knee OA diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Peat, George; Bedson, John; Edwards, John J; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2016-08-01

    To establish the association between prior knee-pain consultations and early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) by weighted cumulative exposure (WCE) models. Data were from an electronic health care record (EHR) database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive). WCE functions for modeling the cumulative effect of time-varying knee-pain consultations weighted by recency were derived as a predictive tool in a population-based case-control sample and validated in a prospective cohort sample. Two WCE functions ([i] weighting of the importance of past consultations determined a priori; [ii] flexible spline-based estimation) were comprehensively compared with two simpler models ([iii] time since most recent consultation; total number of past consultations) on model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration both in derivation and validation phases. People with the most recent and most frequent knee-pain consultations were more likely to have high WCE scores that were associated with increased risk of knee OA diagnosis both in derivation and validation phases. Better model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration were observed for flexible spline-based WCE models. WCE functions can be used to model prediagnostic symptoms within routine EHR data and provide novel low-cost predictive tools contributing to early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......-economic and family factors. The AL index was based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Results. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. Conclusions...

  17. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  18. From Early Intervention to Early Childhood Programs: Timeline for Early Successful Transitions (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of…

  19. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  20. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  1. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...

  2. VIA Family - Family Based Early Intervention Versus Treatment as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations

  3. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream.

  4. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  5. Early mantle heterogeneities in the Réunion hotspot source inferred from highly siderophile elements in cumulate xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bradley J.; Day, James M. D.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-08-01

    Ultramafic cumulate rocks form during intrusive crystallization of high-MgO magmas, incorporating relatively high abundances of compatible elements, including Cr and Ni, and high abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re). Here, we utilize a suite of cumulate xenoliths from Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion (Indian Ocean), to examine the mantle source composition of the Réunion hotspot using HSE abundances and Os isotopes. Dunite and wherlite xenoliths and associated lavas from the Piton de la Fournaise volcanic complex span a range of MgO contents (46 to 7 wt.%), yet exhibit remarkably homogeneous 187Os/188Os (0.1324 ± 0.0014, 2σ), representing the Os-isotopic composition of Réunion hotspot primary melts. A significant fraction of the xenoliths also have primitive upper-mantle (PUM) normalized HSE patterns with elevated Ru and Pd (PUM-normalized Ru/Ir and Pd/Ir of 0.8-6.3 and 0.2-7.2, respectively). These patterns are not artifacts of alteration, fractional crystallization, or partial melting processes, but rather require a primary magma with similar relative enrichments. Some highly olivine-phyric (>40 modal percent olivine) Piton de la Fournaise lavas also preserve these relative Ru and Pd enrichments, while others preserve a pattern that is likely related to sulfur saturation in evolved melts. The estimate of HSE abundances in PUM indicates high Ru/Ir and Pd/Pt values relative to carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrite meteorite groups. Thus, the existence of cumulate rocks with even more fractionated HSE patterns relative to PUM suggests that the Réunion hotspot samples a yet unrecognized mantle source. The origin of fractionated HSE patterns in Réunion melts may arise from sampling of a mantle source that experienced limited late accretion (isotopic signatures of Réunion, which plot near the convergence point of isotopic data for many hotspots, such a conclusion provides evidence for an early differentiated and

  6. Early Intervention Practices in China: Present Situation and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…

  7. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  8. Seven Elements Important to Successful Implementation of Early Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…

  9. Early intervention regime under the bank resolution framework in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal frameworks in most jurisdictions make provision for early intervention in bank resolution as an exception to the general corporate formal insolvency regime. The exercise of the early intervention powers however contravenes well established shareholder rights and gives rise to legal acrimony as seen in the deluge ...

  10. Early Intervention for Families and Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…

  11. Using Routines-Based Interventions in Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Danielle; Hanline, Mary Frances; Woods, Juliann

    2012-01-01

    Embedding early intervention activities into routines and activities of early care and education programs can result in increased skill development for young children with special needs or developmental delays. Routines-based interventions must be implemented through ongoing collaboration and communication among teachers, families, intervention…

  12. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  13. Assessing Early Intervention Provider Needs: Insights from One State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Christine M.; Connor, Susan M.; Burke, Ted; Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2018-01-01

    A statewide needs assessment was conducted with early interventionists to gather information on perceived professional development (PD) needs. Across 3 years, 4,455 early interventionists responded to an online survey. Data were analyzed for reported needs on PD topics in seven broad areas related to early intervention processes and content.…

  14. Telerehabilitation: An Adjunct Service Delivery Model for Early Intervention Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Cason

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early Intervention (EI services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation.  This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabilitation and early intervention services; discusses the feasibility of telerehabilitation within traditional EI service delivery models; examines telecommunications technology associated with telerehabilitation; and provides hypothetical case examples designed to illustrate potential applications of telerehabilitation in early intervention.

  15. Telerehabilitation: an adjunct service delivery model for early intervention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Early Intervention (EI) services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation. This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabilitation and early intervention services; discusses the feasibility of telerehabilitation within traditional EI service delivery models; examines telecommunications technology associated with telerehabilitation; and provides hypothetical case examples designed to illustrate potential applications of telerehabilitation in early intervention.

  16. Social marketing approaches to nutrition and physical activity interventions in early care and education centres: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S

    2017-12-01

    Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. government Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and... Intervention Steven Hearne, P.E., Senior Fellow Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) Jeremey Alcorn, Research Fellow Logistics Management Institute (LMI

  18. Cost Analysis of Early Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...

  19. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  20. Early Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers Who Need Tier 3 Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…

  1. A methodology to split the total cumulative Hp(10) dose into the Hp(10)idoses received during various procedures performed by interventional cardiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domienik, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    The methodology describing how to split the cumulative Hp(10) dose of interventional cardiologists into Hp(10) i doses received during procedures of various types based on procedure-specific ELDO coefficients and Hp(3) doses per procedure is presented. The appropriate equations for Hp(10) i (Hp(10) for procedure type i), depending on the number of various procedure types (i  =  1 … 4) performed by a particular physician, are derived. The methodology can be applied to whole-body doses measured on the lead apron and therefore can be used for optimisation of work practices in those catheterisation labs where routine dosimeter is worn above the apron.

  2. [Basics of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  4. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300...

  5. Early use of coronary angiography and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, P A; O'Neill, W W

    1999-05-01

    In this article we have outlined the current rationale and role of invasive management in ACS. For the majority of patients with ACS, who are either at high risk or unstable, invasive management is a critical element in breaking the sequence of recurrent ischemia leading to early cardiac events (Fig. 11). Secular trends in the care of cardiovascular patients predict even more sophisticated, invasive methods of treating coronary occlusion in the future. A futurist's view on this subject may envision the following type of scenario. A patient with prior CAD experiences persistent chest pain and notifies the emergency medical system. The paramedics arrive, and perform a rapid fingerstick cardiac biomarker panel and ECG. The results are interpreted by an emergency physician via a telecommunication system, and the patient is determined to be at high risk. He or she is triaged to a center capable of angioplasty and bypass surgery. On the way to the hospital, the patient is treated with aspirin, IV heparin, and an IV glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. The patient undergoes triage angiography within 1 hour of hospital arrival, culprit lesion(s) are identified, and a revascularization plan is made--setting a critical pathway that is definitive. This vision is not far off on the horizon. We anticipate additional clinical trial results will help form the decision points in this optimal treatment scenario, which for a large proportion of patients will involve invasive management.

  6. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  7. [Clinical staging and early intervention for borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, J; Hessels, C J

    Within the accumulating evidence for a life span perspective on borderline personality disorder (BPD), the key factor is a developmental perspective. AIM: To demonstrate that the lessons learnt from early intervention in somatic medicine and psychosis should be used to improve the diagnosis and treatment of BPD. METHOD: We describe the rationale for early detection and intervention and present a staging model which can serve as a guideline for the development and selection of interventions for BPD. RESULTS: There is increasing evidence that BPD first manifests itself in adolescence and that BPD symptoms can already be distinguished from normative adolescent development. BPD tends to develop gradually and to have a progressive, social and professional impact. Inadequate treatment can lead to iatrogenic damage, whereas adequate treatment shows promising results in adolescents with emerging BPD. These findings may underpin an early intervention paradigm for BPD. CONCLUSION: Early intervention and clinical staging can improve the assessment and treatment of severe forms of psychopathology, such as BPD. This has implications for research, mental health care policy and society.

  8. Comparing three-year extension of early intervention service to regular care following two years of early intervention service in first-episode psychosis: a randomized single blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha; Iyer, Srividya; Norman, Ross; Schmitz, Norbert; Brown, Thomas; Lutgens, Danyael; Jarvis, Eric; Margolese, Howard C; Casacalenda, Nicola; Abdel-Baki, Amal; Latimer, Eric; Mustafa, Sally; Abadi, Sherezad

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to determine if, following two years of early intervention service for first-episode psychosis, three-year extension of that service was superior to three years of regular care. We conducted a randomized single blind clinical trial using an urn randomization balanced for gender and substance abuse. Participants were recruited from early intervention service clinics in Montreal. Patients (N=220), 18-35 years old, were randomized to an extension of early intervention service (EEIS; N=110) or to regular care (N=110). EEIS included case management, family intervention, cognitive behaviour therapy and crisis intervention, while regular care involved transfer to primary (community health and social services and family physicians) or secondary care (psychiatric outpatient clinics). Cumulative length of positive and negative symptom remission was the primary outcome measure. EEIS patients had a significantly longer mean length of remission of positive symptoms (92.5 vs. 63.6 weeks, t=4.47, pyears has a positive impact on length of remission of positive and negative symptoms compared to regular care. This may have policy implications for extending early intervention services beyond the current two years. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  9. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  10. THE EARLY VIOLENCE PREVENTION: REVISION OF PROGRAMS AND INTERVENTION MODALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Effects of delayed psychosocial interventions versus early psychosocial interventions for women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of

  12. The Underutilization of Occupational Therapy in Transdisciplinary Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, Carey

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…

  13. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  14. Early Intervention for Children with Autism: Methodologies Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The topic of early intervention for autism is widely researched and discussed within the literature. The application of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) continues to be an important topic. Due to the extensive amount of research on behavioral treatments for autism, and its widespread practice, the focus of this paper will be based upon treatment…

  15. Nuffield Early Language Intervention: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…

  16. Early Childhood Intervention in China from the Families' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…

  17. Direct Early Intervention with Stuttering: Some Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four stutterers, aged 3-5, received treatment based on parent-administered, operant verbal stimulation. Data show that the intervention, coupled with a programed maintenance schedule, reduced stuttering and accompanied increases in syllable output. Findings suggest that cases of early stuttering might be managed effectively by parents, with…

  18. 75 FR 68613 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of non-competitive transfer of Part C funds from North General Hospital to the Institute for Family...

  19. A Description of the Hawthorn Center Early Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie

    An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…

  20. Early Intervention Provider Use of Child Caregiver-Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…

  1. Measuring prerequisites and effects of preventive intervention in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a

  2. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  3. Early childhood intervention: web-based training for transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature is available on Web-based learning, but the understanding of the impact of Web-based learning and the efficiency with which it addresses set goals for teaching is in its infancy. This article describes the evaluation of the first module of the Masters course in early childhood intervention (M ECI) as part of a formative ...

  4. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  5. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  6. Early Intervention and Administration: Bridging the Gap for Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Elissa A.; Shore, Harvey H.

    1999-01-01

    Encourages early-intervention practitioners to recognize the benefits of applying management concepts to the field of social work. A five-function model of management is presented that includes the concepts of planning, organizing, staffing, leadership, and control. Case studies illustrate relevance of the five-function model for improving…

  7. Identifying missed opportunities for early intervention among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and design. HIV is a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. We describe HIV prevalence, disease profile, outcome and missed opportunities for early intervention in a cohort of HIV-infected children admitted to Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital's general paediatric wards between ...

  8. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  9. Service Delivery Complexities: Early Intervention for Children with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) for children with physical disabilities is advocated as a means of enhancing child outcomes and family functioning. The issues confronted by service providers in delivering this support have received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of frontline EI staff…

  10. Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education. NCSER 2013-3001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…

  11. Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magán-Maganto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1 analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2 provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes.

  12. Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán-Maganto, María; Bejarano-Martín, Álvaro; Fernández-Alvarez, Clara; Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal; Posada, Manuel; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes.

  13. Integrating Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.

  14. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the ......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...... and the initiation of treatment. The average duration of untreated psychosis is around 1–2 years. During this period, brain function may continue to deteriorate and social networks can be irreversibly damaged. Studies have consistently linked longer duration of untreated psychosis with poorer outcomes...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...

  16. Equitable service provision for inclusive education and effective early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, K M

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.

  17. Preventive intervention for early childhood behavioral problems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Stephanie A; Dickstein, Susan

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. The authors briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs, focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years (IY) Series. Next, the authors discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice such as IY in community contexts and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need.

  18. The 2004 tsunami in Penang, Malaysia: early mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.

  19. Early intervention to remove mesiodens and avoid orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwan, S M; Turner, D; Khalid, A

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of dental anomalies is essential in determining appropriate treatment for each patient. Diagnosis and assessment of mesiodens are critical in avoiding complications such as blocking the eruption of the maxillary central incisors, cyst formation, and dilaceration of the permanent incisors. Collecting data for diagnostic criteria, utilizing diagnostic radiographs, and determining when to refer to a specialist are important steps in the treatment of mesiodens. Early diagnosis and timely intervention could reduce or eliminate the need for orthodontic treatment and prevent serious complications.

  20. Telerehabilitation: An Adjunct Service Delivery Model for Early Intervention Services

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Cason

    2011-01-01

    Early Intervention (EI) services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation.  This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabili...

  1. Early intervention for infants with autistic spectrum disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R; Takenoshita, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kamijo, A; Funaba, K; Takarabe, M

    2001-04-01

    To date, many researchers in Japan have assumed that the cause of autistic spectrum disorders is attributable to some disorder in the ability of the child. However, we have been working on the premise that autistic spectrum disorders are brought about by relationship disturbances in early infancy and have been attempting to validate this hypothesis through early intervention. We have examined the developmental process of affective communication in infants with autistic spectrum disorders. We have postulated that approach-avoidance motivational conflict (Richer) is the primary factor impeding the development of affective communication and have focused therapeutic intervention on this perspective. As a result, attachment behavior was markedly improved in children, but affective communication with their mothers was not. Examing the mothers' images of themselves in infancy in mother-infant psychotherapy, problems that the mothers had themselves in infacy with attachment behavior to their own mothers affected the mothers' internal representation of their children, leading to active evolution of mother-child interaction and development of affective communication between the mother and child. In this context, the basis and significance of the internal representation of both parties being determinants in the quality of mother-child communication are discussed. Our goal in early intervention is not the elevation of a child's linguistic-cognitive abilities, but the creation of a comforting relationship in which both parent and child can live securely, without strain.

  2. Cost analysis of early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B; Eckermann, Ane; Buss, Dorthe V; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163) or control (n = 167) and followed for 3 years. Health care use was extracted from national registers, and the Resource Utilisation in Dementia questionnaire was used to measure informal care and productivity loss. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing data, and non-parametric bootstrapping was used to estimate standard errors. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences because of large variation in the observations. The average additional cost of psychosocial intervention provision was estimated at EUR 3,401 per patient. This cost masked a reduced use of formal health care and an increased use of informal care. Early psychosocial intervention in AD could be cost-saving from a health care perspective, whereas the opposite seems to be true from a broader societal perspective.

  3. Early intervention to improve hand function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Purna Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle: however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified constraint-induced movement therapy and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.

  4. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  5. [Dilemma of early drug intervention in prepsychotic illnesses of adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branik, Emil; Meng, Heiner

    2003-12-01

    It will be largely supposed that early intervention in schizophrenia improves the outcome of the illness. The paper summarizes the up today significant knowledge about the early recognition and treatment of schizophrenic psychosis in the adolescence. It will be pointed at the diagnostic difficulties and peculiarities in this age group. A comprehensive repeated assessment is necessary if prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia respectively psychotic states have to be taken in account. It will be pleaded for a early low dosis therapy with atypical neuroleptics to prevent the "psychotic catastrophe", that means the full outbreak of the disease. The pharmacotherapy should be a part of an intensive multimodal treatment program. The longstanding continuity of the relations to one and the same treatment setting and therapist responsible for it seems to influence the outcome positively.

  6. Interventions in Early Mathematics: Avoiding Pollution and Dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    Although specific interventions in early mathematics have been successful, few have been brought to scale successfully, especially across the challenging diversity of populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the United States. In this chapter, we analyze a theoretically based scale-up model for early mathematics that was designed to avoid the pollution and dilution that often plagues efforts to achieve broad success. We elaborate the theoretical framework by noting the junctures that are susceptible to dilution or pollution. Then we expatiate the model's guidelines to describe specifically how they were designed and implemented to mitigate pollution and dilution. Finally, we provide evidence regarding the success of these efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender comparisons in children with ASD entering early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David

    2017-09-01

    Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  9. Does Early Psychological Intervention Promote Recovery From Posttraumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Bryant, Richard A; Ehlers, Anke

    2003-11-01

    In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they hoped that their interventions would mitigate psychological distress and prevent the emergence of this syndrome. Typically developing in response to horrific, life-threatening events, such as combat, rape, and earthquakes, PTSD is characterized by reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., intrusive recollections of the trauma, nightmares), emotional numbing and avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and hyperarousal (e.g., exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping). People vary widely in their vulnerability for developing PTSD in the wake of trauma. For example, higher cognitive ability and strong social support buffer people against PTSD, whereas a family or personal history of emotional disorder heightens risk, as does negative appraisal of one's stress reactions (e.g., as a sign of personal weakness) and dissociation during the trauma (e.g., feeling unreal or experiencing time slowing down). However, the vast majority of trauma survivors recover from initial posttrauma reactions without professional help. Accordingly, the efficacy of interventions designed to mitigate acute distress and prevent long-term psychopathology, such as PTSD, needs to be evaluated against the effects of natural recovery. The need for controlled evaluations of early interventions has only recently been widely acknowledged. Psychological debriefing-the most widely used method-has undergone increasing empirical scrutiny, and the results have been disappointing. Although the majority of debriefed survivors describe the experience as helpful, there is no convincing evidence that debriefing reduces the incidence of PTSD, and some controlled studies

  10. Early and delayed cardioprotective intervention with dexrazoxane each show different potential for prevention of chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirkovský, Eduard; Lenčová-Popelová, Olga; Hroch, Miloš; Adamcová, Michaela; Mazurová, Yvona; Vávrová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Despite incomplete understanding to its mechanism of action, dexrazoxane (DEX) is still the only clearly effective cardioprotectant against chronic anthracycline (ANT) cardiotoxicity. However, its clinical use is currently restricted to patients exceeding significant ANT cumulative dose (300 mg/m 2 ), although each ANT cycle may induce certain potentially irreversible myocardial damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare early and delayed DEX intervention against chronic ANT cardiotoxicity and study the molecular events involved. The cardiotoxicity was induced in rabbits with daunorubicin (DAU; 3 mg/kg/week for 10 weeks); DEX (60 mg/kg) was administered either before the 1st or 7th DAU dose (i.e. after ≈300 mg/m 2 cumulative dose). While both DEX administration schedules prevented DAU-induced premature deaths and severe congestive heart failure, only the early intervention completely prevented the left ventricular dysfunction, myocardial morphological changes and mitochondrial damage. Further molecular analyses did not support the assumption that DEX cardioprotection is based and directly proportional to protection from DAU-induced oxidative damage and/or deletions in mtDNA. Nevertheless, DAU induced significant up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 pathway while heme synthesis was inversely regulated and both changes were schedule-of-administration preventable by DEX. Early and delayed DEX interventions also differed in ability to prevent DAU-induced down-regulation of expression of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Hence, the present functional, morphological as well as the molecular data highlights the enormous cardioprotective effects of DEX and provides novel insights into the molecular events involved. Furthermore, the data suggests that currently recommended delayed intervention may not be able to take advantage of the full cardioprotective potential of the drug

  11. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  12. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention ...therapeutically intervene to successfully inhibit or even reverse tumor progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, Premalignant lesions, early intervention ...INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in managing treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has led to the goal for detection and intervention of early -stage disease

  13. Cognitive intervention for early stage dementia: Research and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBoer, John W

    2017-09-07

    Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.

  14. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  15. Cerebral Palsy: A Lifelong Challenge Asks for Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093

  16. Early Childhood Interventions and Outcomes (summarised in CASEreport 5, "Persistent Poverty and Lifetime Inequality")

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in brain research have provided new evidence that early experience matters and have greatly increased interest in the effects of early childhood interventions on outcomes for children. This paper reviews what is now known about the potential benefits and potential ill effects of early childhood interventions, with particular attention to evidence from the Rand study of early interventions, recent studies of the Head Start programme, and the NICHD study of early child care. The...

  17. Using Digital Media Advertising in Early Psychosis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M

    2017-11-01

    Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.

  18. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  19. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  20. The DREME Network: Research and Interventions in Early Childhood Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early endovascular aneurysm repair after percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Felice; Wilhelm, Markus; Kaufmann, Angela R; Bettex, Dominique; Maier, Willibald; Mayer, Dieter; Veith, Frank J; Lachat, Mario

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to report long-term results of early endovascular aortic aneurysm repair after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This was a retrospective analysis of all patients presenting with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coronary artery disease treated during the same hospitalization by endovascular aortic aneurysm repair performed soon after PCI. Primary outcomes were perioperative mortality, perioperative complications, survival after treatment, and freedom from reintervention. A total of 20 patients were included, and all completed both procedures. No deaths or abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures occurred between the PCI and the aortic intervention. Perioperative mortality was 5% as one patient died of mesenteric ischemia after endovascular aneurysm repair. Major cardiovascular vascular complications occurred in four patients (20%) and included non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (one) and access vessel complication (three). Mean follow-up was 94 (range, 1-164; standard deviation, 47) months. Estimated survival at 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 90%, 90%, 90%, and 60%, respectively. A reoperation was required in six patients. Estimated freedom from reintervention at 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 83%, 83%, 78%, and 72%, respectively. Our study indicates that early endovascular aneurysm repair performed within a week after PCI may be a reasonable approach in patients with large or symptomatic aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early interventions to prevent retinal vasculopathy in diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease

  3. Born in Bradford’s Better Start: an experimental birth cohort study to evaluate the impact of early life interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Dickerson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early interventions are recognised as key to improving life chances for children and reducing inequalities in health and well-being, however there is a paucity of high quality research into the effectiveness of interventions to address childhood health and development outcomes. Planning and implementing standalone RCTs for multiple, individual interventions would be slow, cumbersome and expensive. This paper describes the protocol for an innovative experimental birth cohort: Born in Bradford’s Better Start (BiBBS that will simultaneously evaluate the impact of multiple early life interventions using efficient study designs. Better Start Bradford (BSB has been allocated £49 million from the Big Lottery Fund to implement 22 interventions to improve outcomes for children aged 0–3 in three key areas: social and emotional development; communication and language development; and nutrition and obesity. The interventions will be implemented in three deprived and ethnically diverse inner city areas of Bradford. Method The BiBBS study aims to recruit 5000 babies, their mothers and their mothers’ partners over 5 years from January 2016-December 2020. Demographic and socioeconomic information, physical and mental health, lifestyle factors and biological samples will be collected during pregnancy. Parents and children will be linked to their routine health and local authority (including education data throughout the children’s lives. Their participation in BSB interventions will also be tracked. BiBBS will test interventions using the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs approach and other quasi-experimental designs where TwiCs are neither feasible nor ethical, to evaluate these early life interventions. The effects of single interventions, and the cumulative effects of stacked (multiple interventions on health and social outcomes during the critical early years will be measured. Discussion The focus of the BiBBS cohort is on

  4. The Cumulative Disadvantages of Socially Toxic Family Environments: A Comparison of Early Life Experiences of Incarcerated Men and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michalski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS... Families A. Requirements For A System of Early Intervention Services 1. A system of coordinated, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and intercomponent programs providing appropriate early intervention services...

  6. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  7. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  8. Children's health and development: approaches to early identification and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberklaid, Frank; Baird, Gillian; Blair, Mitch; Melhuish, Edward; Hall, David

    2013-12-01

    Many children arrive at school with problems of development and behaviour which affect their educational achievement and social interaction and can have lifelong consequences. There is a strong association between developmental vulnerability at school entry and a well-documented series of parent and family risk factors, often linked to social disadvantage. Strategies which are likely to make a difference to these children and improve outcomes include family support, high-quality early education and care programmes in the preschool years, and early detection of emerging problems and risk factors. The evidence suggests that these services and programmes are best delivered within a framework of progressive universalism--a universal basket of services for all children and families, with additional support commensurate with additional needs. This provides the best opportunity for early identification and appropriate intervention for emerging developmental problems and family issues that impact on children's development. While there are a number of challenges that need to be addressed and overcome, such an approach is an important investment that will yield measurable educational, social and economic benefits over the long term.

  9. Congenital heart disease in the newborn requiring early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Weon Yun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although antenatal diagnostic technique has considerably improved, precise detection and proper management of the neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD is always a great concern to pediatricians. Congenital cardiac malformations vary from benign to serious conditions such as complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA, critical pulmonary and aortic valvular stenosis/atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR, which the baby needs immediate diagnosis and management for survival. Unfortunately, these life threatening heart diseases may not have obvious evidence early after birth, most of the clinical and physical findings are nonspecific and vague, which makes the diagnosis difficult. High index of suspicion and astute acumen are essential to decision making. When patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is opened widely, many serious malformations may not be noticed easily in the early life, but would progress as severe acidosis/shock/cyanosis or even death as PDA constricts after few hours to days. Ductus dependent congenital cardiac lesions can be divided into the ductus dependent systemic or pulmonary disease, but physiologically quite different from each other and treatment strategy has to be tailored to the clinical status and cardiac malformations. Inevitably early presentation is often regarded as a medical emergency. Differential diagnosis with inborn error metabolic disorders, neonatal sepsis, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN and other pulmonary conditions are necessary. Urgent identification of the newborn at such high risk requires timely referral to a pediatric cardiologist, and timely intervention is the key in reducing mortality and morbidity. This following review deals with the clinical presentations, investigative modalities and approach to management of congenital cardiac malformations presenting in the early life.

  10. Theoretical constructs for early intervention programs in mathematics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Kirsted, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    “There is nothing so practical as a good theory”. The statement from Kurt Lewin is frequently cited, also in mathematics education. The statement invites for and requires close cooperation between different agents, whatever their own specific relation to practice and theory is...... theory?” and “What makes a good theory good for whom?” This paper explores this variation of how theory is perceived by mathematics teachers and by mathematics researchers involved in a developmental project on early intervention in mathematics education in Denmark. The paper exemplifies how agents....... It is not a straightforward endeavour. One reason is that the term theory as well as the term practice may very well be given different meanings by different agents. This variation is in our view to be considered in “implementation research” and Lewin’s statement ought to be qualified by two questions “Who cares for a good...

  11. Early interventions and lessons from Harvard Business Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siow-Ann

    2007-11-01

    To describe the establishment and development of an Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore that is based on a business model and with concepts drawn from the corporate world. The author who directed this programme describes the circumstances that led to this initiative, the ideas borrowed and adapted from the corporate world, and the lessons learnt in setting up this intervention programme. The modus operandi of the programme is based on the Balanced Scorecard - a model which stresses four equally important components: customers, internal processes, financial health and learning and innovation. Other complementary actions like creating a sense of urgency, forging a vision with a core ideology, empowerment of team members, creating short-term wins, anchoring the changes and finding meaning in the work are vital for the programme to thrive. This model also emphasizes the importance of accountability through the measurability of indicators. These indicators included a significant reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis, a positive change in the referral patterns with better engagement of the primary health-care sector and an improvement in the quality of care for the patients. Much can be learnt from the business world in building and maintaining a public mental health programme. Effective change also requires effective leadership, and the successful implementation of certain strategic steps.

  12. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  13. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  14. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  15. Early workplace intervention for employees with musculoskeletal-related absenteeism: a prospective controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Sjögren, Berit; Rydéhn, Berit; Meisel, Roland

    2003-05-01

    Sickness absenteeism caused by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is a persistent and costly occupational health challenge. In a prospective controlled trial, we compared the effects on sickness absenteeism of a more proactive role for insurance case managers as well as workplace ergonomic interventions with that of traditional case management. Patients with physician-diagnosed MSDs were randomized either to the intervention group or the reference group offered the traditional case management routines. Participants filled out a comprehensive questionnaire at the initiation of the study and after 6 months. In addition, administrative data were collected at 0.6, and 12 months after the initiation of the project. For the entire 12-month period, the total mean number of sick days for the intervention group was 144.9 (SEM 11.8) days/person as compared to 197.9 (14.0) days in the reference group (P management of MSDs should to a greater degree focus on early return to work and building on functional capacity and employee ability. Allowing the case managers a more active role as well as involving an ergonomist in workplace adaptation meetings might also be beneficial.

  16. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  17. Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention PRINCIPAL...INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in managing treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has led to the goal for detection and intervention of early -stage...Furthermore, these probes will be used to develop targeted therapeutic nanoparticles for early intervention in breast cancer. 2. KEYWORDS

  18. Moebius syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, management and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolini, Odoardo; Porro, Matteo; Cattaneo, Elisa; Castelletti, Silvia; Masera, Giuseppe; Mosca, Fabio; Bedeschi, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-03

    Moebius syndrome (MBS) is rare disease characterized by nonprogressive congenital uni- or bi-lateral facial (i. e. VII cranial nerve) and abducens (i. e. VI cranial nerve) palsy. Although the neurological and ophthalmological findings are quite well-known, data concerning the attendant functional difficulties and their changes over time are seldom addressed. In this study we attempt to estimate the prevalence of clinical and functional data in an Italian cohort affected by MBS. The study included 50 children, 21 males and 29 females, aged 1 month to 14 years. The patients entered into a multidisciplinary diagnostic and follow-up protocol that had the specific purpose of detecting clinical and developmental deficits related to MBS. Involvement of the VII cranial nerve (total/partial, bilateral or unilateral) was present in 96 % of patients, and of the VI nerve in 85 %. Two patients were without impairment of the VII nerve and seven patients had no involvement of the VI nerve and were thus classified as Moebius-like because of the involvement of other CNs. Additional affected CNs were numbers III-IV in 16 %, V in 11 %, VIII and X each in 8 %, the XI in 6 %, the IX, most often partially, in 22 %, and the XII in 48 % of cases. Their development was characterized by global delay at one year of age, motor, emotional and speech difficulties at two years of age, a trend toward normalization at three years of age but with weakness in hand-eye coordination, and achieving average results at five years of age. Overall 90 % of children had a normal developmental quotient whereas only 10 % manifested cognitive deficits. Early rehabilitation may enhance the recovery of normal function, particularly in vulnerable areas of development. It is possible that early intervention that integrates sensory and visual information with emotional difficulties can improve the prognosis of the child with MBS.

  19. At-Risk Readers in French Immersion: Early Identification and Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyses the impact of phonological awareness instruction on the reading achievement of at-risk Grade 1 readers enrolled in an early French immersion program. Twenty-nine children from diverse linguistic backgrounds participated in the study. At-risk readers were identified on the basis of their text reading performance and phonological awareness test scores, and received 20 weeks of phonological awareness training in small groups. The intervention was initially given in English, and switched to French once students had acquired a foundation in the language. Significant gains were found in the phonological awareness skills of the treatment group. Results also indicated that the end-of-year French reading levels of the treatment group were superior to those of the comparison group. These findings suggest that a phonologically-based intervention can effectively address phonological awareness deficits and facilitate French reading acquisition for early immersion students who are considered to be at-risk for later reading difficulties.

  20. Using e-Coaching to Support an Early Intervention Provider's Implementation of a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…

  1. 34 CFR 694.14 - What requirements apply to a State that served students under the National Early Intervention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the National Early Intervention Scholarship and Partnership program (NEISP) and that receives a... students under the National Early Intervention Scholarship and Partnership program (NEISP) and that... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION GAINING EARLY AWARENESS AND...

  2. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  3. Family Capacity-Building in Early Childhood Intervention: Do Context and Setting Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Espe-Sherwindt, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Findings from a study investigating the effects of early intervention settings on the extent of parent involvement in IDEA Part C Infant and Toddler Programs are reported. Participants were 124 parents and other primary caregivers of children receiving early intervention in 22 states who completed an investigator-developed scale measuring…

  4. Perspectives of Occupational Therapists on the Challenges of Early Intervention Practice: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Tiongco, Cynthia G.; Tkach, Melanie M.; Thom, Carly

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists in the field of early intervention (EI) are challenged with limited opportunities for communication and collaboration with colleagues and other EI team members. One hundred and two occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants with early intervention experience completed a descriptive survey. Questions on the…

  5. Brief Report: An Evaluation of an Australian Autism-Specific, Early Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…

  6. Comparing Brief Experimental Analysis and Teacher Judgment for Selecting Early Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…

  7. The effects of centralised and specialised intervention in the early course of severe unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Dam, Ole Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on whether centralised and specialised combined pharmacological and psychological intervention in the early phase of severe unipolar depression improve prognosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the benefits and harms of centralised and specialised secondary care...... intervention in the early course of severe unipolar depression....

  8. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men Through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    the early detection of PCa among AA men are critical. Although culturally targeted health interventions have been found to be effective there are no...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0026 TITLE: Increasing Early Detection of Prostate...Cancer in African American Men Through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hayley Thompson, Ph.D

  9. Systematic Review of Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews highlight limitations in the evidence base for early interventions for children with autism. We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for young children with autism. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (including two randomized controlled trials). At group level,…

  10. Effect of lutein intervention on visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of lutein intervention on visual function of patients with early age-related macular degeneration(AMD. METHODS: Totally 200 early AMD patients were divided into lutein intervention group(20mg/dand placebo group by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Questionnaire investigation, serum lutein concentration and visual function were conducted at baseline, 12, 24, 36 and 48wk respectively. RESULTS: The serum lutein concentration in lutein intervention group was higher than the baseline(PPPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Lutein intervention can improve the visual function of patients with early AMD.

  11. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, K Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.

  12. Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions across the World: (Under) Investing in the Very Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…

  13. Utilisation of Evidence-Based Practices by ASD Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb

    2017-01-01

    A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and…

  14. A WIC-Based Intervention to Prevent Early Childhood Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…

  15. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  16. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  17. Potential neural mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katherine; Stone, Wendy L.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence supports the efficacy of early intervention for improving outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness remain poorly understood. This paper reviews the research literature on the neural bases of the early core deficits in ASD and proposes three key features of early intervention related to the neural mechanisms that may contribute to its effectiveness in improving deficit areas. These features include (1) the early onset of intensive intervention which capitalizes on the experience-expectant plasticity of the immature brain, (2) the use of treatment strategies that address core deficits in social motivation through an emphasis on positive social engagement and arousal modulation, and (3) promotion of complex neural networks and connectivity through thematic, multi-sensory and multi-domain teaching approaches. Understanding the mechanisms of effective early intervention will enable us to identify common or foundational active ingredients for promoting optimal outcomes in children with ASD. PMID:25108609

  18. Early Numeracy: Assessment for Teaching and Intervention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.; Martland, Jim; Stafford, Ann K.

    2006-01-01

    This book has as its major focus the comprehensive assessment of children's early numerical knowledge and strategies and their advancement. Practical and theoretical aspects of assessment are explained in detail. A major feature of the book is a learning framework in early number that is applied in analyzing the results of assessment and planning…

  19. Early Marriage in Africa – Trends, Harmful Effects and Interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a ...

  20. Preventing Poor Vocational Functioning in Psychosis Through Early Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...

  1. HIT, hallucination focused integrative treatment as early intervention in psychotic adolescents with auditory hallucinations : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; van de Willige, G

    Objective: Early intervention in psychosis is considered important in relapse prevention. Limited results of monotherapies prompt to development of multimodular programmes. The present study tests feasibility and effectiveness of HIT, an integrative early intervention treatment for auditory

  2. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-02-14

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  4. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  5. Labor and Population Program: Analyzing the Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    As they pay more attention to accountability, funders and implementers of early childhood interventions are becoming more interested in comparing the benefits their programs produce and the costs they incur...

  6. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism, and other shocking events: Guideline development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.; Vries, M. de; Duin, D. van; Rooze, M.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  7. AAC and Early Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Parent Perceptions and Child Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Hustad, Katherine C

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26 two-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language.

  8. EPA guidance on the early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, S J; Schultze-Lutter, F; Schimmelmann, B G

    2015-01-01

    -analysis of current empirical evidence on the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological interventions in CHR samples. Eligible studies had to investigate conversion rate and/or functioning as a treatment outcome in CHR patients defined by the ultra-high risk and/or basic symptom criteria. Besides analyses...... on treatment effects on conversion rate and functional outcome, age and type of intervention were examined as potential moderators. Based on data from 15 studies (n=1394), early intervention generally produced significantly reduced conversion rates at 6- to 48-month follow-up compared to control conditions...... on conversion rates, but not on functional outcome relative to the control conditions. Early intervention in youth samples was generally less effective than in predominantly adult samples. Seven evidence-based recommendations for early intervention in CHR samples could have been formulated, although more...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. A Appendix A to Part 57—Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers.... The public awareness program must inform the public about: (i) The EDIS early intervention program...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...

  11. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

  12. Examining potential barriers to early intervention access in Australian hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francis Yx; Serraglio, Claire; Martin, Jenepher A

    2014-03-01

    Early intervention for children with hearing loss involves assistance in oral speech development, optimal use of hearing devices and fostering a holistic partnership between allied health and the children's families. Adequate access to early intervention has been shown to be vital in the positive development of long term language and social outcomes. However, there has been limited research to identify the factors which may influence access. This study aimed to explore whether access to early intervention by children with hearing loss is affected by: geographical location, socio-economic status and ethnic-minority family status. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study incorporating a survey of early intervention coordinators and an audit of an organization database. All (N=11) early intervention coordinators at an "Oral Language Centre for Deaf Children" in the state of Victoria, Australia were surveyed on whether child clients (N=133) were accessing an appropriate level of early intervention corresponding to their level of hearing loss. The length of time for each child to enroll for early intervention following diagnosis was obtained from the database of the organization. Potential differences in access between geographical groups, between socio-economic status groups and between ethnic-minority and non-minority groups were analyzed using inferential statistics. Closer geographical proximity to early intervention services was associated with more appropriate (P=.000) and more prompt (P=.005) access. No difference in access to early intervention was detected for different socio-economic status groups. Although, ethnic-minority family status was not shown to influence the level of access, it took a significantly longer time for ethnic-minority families to enroll for early intervention compared to non-minority families (P=.04). Findings suggest that geographical proximity and ethnic-minority family status, instead of socio-economic status, are more

  13. Generalization of Parenting Skills: An Early Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Mark A.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    1989-01-01

    In a short-term, intensive parent-training program, mothers of developmentally delayed infants are shown how to teach their children toy play behaviors. This study evaluates intervention effects on parents and children, with a focus on maternal behaviors. Results indicate improved maternal teaching behavior and generalizability of positive…

  14. Crisis Intervention in Early Adolescence. First Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescence Resources Center, Sumter, SC.

    The basic premise under investigation is that systematic intervention in a predictable, natural occurring stress situation for population groups: (1) can promote acquisition of competence and coping skills; and (2) minimize pathological response to stress and eventual need for treatment. This study is an exploration of preadolescent development of…

  15. "Teacher, I Can Read!" The Marvels of Early Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.; Hernandez, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    "Teacher, I can read!" exclaimed Saree, a fourth-quarter second grader who was placed in the lowest of reading groups at a southwest side elementary school in Chicago. This was her proud announcement after three weeks of intensive intervention with Ms. Gomez, a student teacher in her final semester at Chicago State University. "Ms.…

  16. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  17. DIAGNOSTIC GUIDANCE AND EARLY INTERVENTION IN CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinandri Charea Runizar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion has always been somewhat controversial. Many orthodontic pioneers like Angle, Tweed, and Graber have advocated early interception of class II malocclusion because this kind of skeletal discrepancy once established, would usually progress rapidly. What kind of early treatment would be appropriate for this malocclusion? Would this approach be effective and promises a stable result? Early orthodontic treatment is defined as a treatment that is initiated during the primary or mixed dentition stage to enhance skeletal and dental development. It is usually done in two phases. The first phase is intended to correct skeletal discrepancy by taking advantage of growth and development period. The second phase followed to improve occlusal relationship. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion is a possible alternative to improve skeletal discrepancy or at the very east may serve to prevent a worsening malocclusion. Principles of Class III early treatment depend on whether it is dental Class III, functional Class III, or skeletal Class III. Practitioners should consider positive and negative factors of a patient before initiating treatment. Likewise, they should understand factors that affect prognosis and stability of the results.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Kronborg, Christian; Bertelsen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the cost-effectiveness of early intervention programmes for first-episode psychosis is limited. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intensive early-intervention programme (called OPUS) (trial registration NCT00157313) consisting of enriched assertive...... community treatment, psychoeducational family treatment and social skills training for individuals with first-episode psychosis compared with standard treatment. METHOD: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial, adopting a public sector perspective was undertaken. RESULTS...

  19. Parent Satisfaction with Early Intervention Services for Children with Physical Disabilities: Internal Consistency of the European Parent Satisfaction Scale about Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Cuskelly, Monica; Feeney, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Measuring parent satisfaction with services is essential in the evaluation of early intervention programs. However, there is a paucity of satisfaction measures specifically developed for this purpose, and the psychometric properties of existing measures have not been widely examined. The aim of this study was to further investigate the internal…

  20. Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowani, Saima; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood programs are heralded as a way to improve children's health and educational outcomes. However, few studies in developing countries calculate the effectiveness of quality early childhood interventions. Even fewer estimate the associated costs of such interventions. The study here looks at the costs and effectiveness of a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial on children from birth to 24 months in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Responsive stimulation and/or enhanced nutrition interventions were integrated in the Lady Health Worker program in Pakistan. Outcomes suggest that children who receive responsive stimulation had significantly better development outcomes at 24 months than those who only received enhanced nutrition intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the results verifies that early childhood interventions that include responsive stimulation are more cost effective than a nutrition intervention alone in promoting children's early development. Costs of a responsive stimulation intervention integrated in an existing community-based service providing basic health and nutrition care is approximately US$4 per month per child. We discuss these findings and make recommendations about scaling up and costs for future early child development programs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Motivation of primary care physicians for participating in early intervention for psychosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Mitsuyuki; Hagi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2011-09-01

    People with psychosis as represented by schizophrenia experience lengthy delays between the onset and the start of treatment. This duration is called Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP). Since it has been indicated that shorter DUP leads to their better prognosis, early intervention has been a hot topic for decades in clinical psychiatry. In Japan, as any patient can visit either specialists or primary care physicians using medical insurance, a considerable portion of psychosis patients are supposed to visit the latter first. Thus, a role of primary care physicians seems keys of success in implementation of early intervention system in the Japanese society. In this study, to clarify the motivation of physicians to participate in early intervention, we sent postal questionnaires to 4030 private clinics throughout Japan, inquiring physicians' situations around psychiatric disorders. Seven hundred and fourteen questionnaires were used for analysis (17.7%). Among these 714 respondents, 364 (51.0%) reported that they have willingness to participate in early intervention. Similarly, 494 (69.2%) were interested in psychiatric disorders, whereas only 168 (23.5%) were confident in identifying schizophrenia. The interest in psychiatric disorders was most strongly associated with their willingness to participate (Odds ratio = 3.54 by logistic regression analysis). These results, therefore, suggest that the interest in psychiatric disorders motivates them to participate in early intervention for psychosis; this has considerable implications for future approach to build up early intervention system in Japan.

  2. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with…

  3. When Texts Become Action. The Institutional Circuit of Early Childhood Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Ann Christin E.

    2017-01-01

    Building on ideals of social cohesion, equality of opportunities and socio-economic benefits, there has been an increasing awareness in Norway of kindergarten employees' responsibility to initiate early childhood intervention. The process of identifying children in need of intervention involves a complex chain of actions in which documentation is…

  4. 76 FR 60139 - Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... intervention services under certain circumstances. Additionally, many commenters requested that music therapy.... New Sec. 303.32 adds to these regulations a definition of scientifically based research, which cross... many examples of early intervention services under part C of the Act, including occupational therapy...

  5. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  6. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  7. Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomone, E.; Beranova, S.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Lauritsen, M.; Budisteanu, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Canal-Bedia, R.; Felhosi, G.; Fletcher-Watson, S.; Freitag, C.; Fuentes, J.; Gallagher, L.; Primo, P. Garcia; Gliga, F.; Gomot, M.; Green, J.; Heimann, M.; Jonsdottir, S.L.; Kaale, A.; Kawa, R.; Kylliainen, A.; Lemcke, S.; Markovska-Simoska, S.; Marschik, P.B.; McConachie, H.; Moilanen, I.; Muratori, F.; Narzisi, A.; Noterdaeme, M.; Oliveira, G.; Oosterling, I.; Pijl, M.; Pop-Jordanova, N.; Poustka, L.; Roeyers, H.; Roge, B.; Sinzig, J.; Vicente, A.; Warreyn, P.; Charman, T.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions

  8. Procedures for Developing Evidence-Informed Performance Checklists for Improving Early Childhood Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2017-01-01

    A conceptualization-operationalization-measurement framework is described for developing evidence-informed early childhood intervention performance checklists. Performance checklists include lists of practice indicators where the indicators, taken together, operationally define particular types of intervention practices that, when used as…

  9. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  10. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  11. Use of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…

  12. Families as Partners: Supporting Family Resiliency through Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Rebecca; Hansen, Sarah Grace; Squires, Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Child development occurs within the context of the child's family, neighborhood, and community environment. Early childhood providers support positive outcomes, not only for the children with whom they directly work with but also for their families. Families of children with developmental delays often experience unique challenges. A family…

  13. Pharmacological intervention of early neuropathy in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Jee; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, TaeSoo; Lee, Sung Bae

    2017-05-01

    Extensive studies have reported the significant roles of numerous cellular features and processes in properly maintaining neuronal morphology and function throughout the lifespan of an animal. Any alterations in their homeostasis appear to be strongly associated with neuronal aging and the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, even before the occurrence of prominent neuronal death. However, until recently, the primary focus of studies regarding many neurodegenerative diseases has been on the massive cell death occurring at the late stages of disease progression. Thus, our understanding on early neuropathy in these diseases remains relatively limited. The complicated nature of various neuropathic features manifested early in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the involvement of a system-wide transcriptional regulation and epigenetic control. Epigenetic alterations and consequent changes in the neuronal transcriptome are now begun to be extensively studied in various neurodegenerative diseases. Upon the catastrophic incident of neuronal death in disease progression, it is utterly difficult to reverse the deleterious defects by pharmacological treatments, and therefore, therapeutics targeting the system-wide transcriptional dysregulation associated with specific early neuropathy is considered a better option. Here, we review our current understanding on the system-wide transcriptional dysregulation that is likely associated with early neuropathy shown in various neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the possible future developments of pharmaceutical therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early intervention for stuttering: similarities and differences between two programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aumont-Boucand, V.; Millard, S.; Packman, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two proponents of different approaches to early stuttering discuss how they would manage a hypothetical case of stuttering in a preschool-age girl. Two evidence-based approaches are discussed: Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the Lidcombe Program. This paper arose from an oral discussion session held at the International Fluency Association Conference in Tours, France in 2012.

  15. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: BMC Cancer. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-9 Open access Background: Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereb...

  16. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  17. Determination of Preservice Special Education Teachers' Views on Early Childhood Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli

    2016-01-01

    Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…

  18. A Data-Driven Coaching Model Used to Promote Students' Response to Early Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of early reading performance as a foundational prerequisite for student achievement, schools have allocated significant attention over the past decade to training teachers to assess and monitor students' reading progress and to implement instruction or interventions targeting early reading skills (e.g., Fletcher & Vaughn,…

  19. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss: six-year results from the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, Michael R; Wasnich, Richard D; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    We report the effect of continuous treatment with alendronate for 6 yr vs. placebo in the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort study. A total of 1609 healthy, early postmenopausal women were recruited; we describe results for the 585 women who received continuous placebo or alendronate (2...

  20. Literacy in Early Intervention for Children with Visual Impairments: Insights from Individual Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Karen A.; Hatton, Deborah; Roy, Vicky; Fox, DanaLee; Renne, Diane

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative case study design was used to investigate the ways in which two early interventionists supported emergent literacy development for infants and toddlers with visual impairment. Three themes are addressed: (1) the importance of a family-centered approach in addressing emergent literacy in early intervention; (2) the role of the early…

  1. Working Together with Children and Families: Case Studies in Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, P. J., Ed.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.

    This book presents 21 case studies of young children with disabilities in a variety of family situations and settings, for early interventionists to study in planning and applying recommended practices. Section I, "Defining and Delivering Quality Services in Early Intervention," provides two introductory chapters: "The Search for Quality…

  2. The National Status of In-Service Professional Development Systems for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dietrich, Sylvia L.

    2009-01-01

    Early intervention and preschool special education coordinators in the 50 states and territories were interviewed about the current status of professional development in-service systems in their state. A definition consisting of 8 components of an in-service professional development system was used to analyze the state systems. Twenty Part C early…

  3. THE EARLY INTERVENTION TENDENCY OF CHINESE CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiaojiao; Xie, Yuhan

    2016-01-01

    From the change of adult unilateral cochlear implantation into young children even under the age of six implant cochlear, sequential bilateral cochlear implantation, which benefit by early hearing screening and technological development of cochlear implants. It is a worldwide trend that simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation for hearing impaired children under the age of three. Cochlear implants bring changes of education opportunities and choices for children with hearing impairment. F...

  4. Early intervention and management of adrenal insufficiency in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Sinéad

    2012-09-01

    The endocrine disorder adrenal insufficiency includes inadequate production of the steroid hormone cortisol. This results in poor physiological responses to illness, trauma or other stressors and risk of adrenal crisis. Management is based on administration of hydrocortisone. It is important to avoid under- or over-treatment and increase the dosage during times of physiological stress. To reduce morbidity, hospital admissions and mortality, the education and empowerment of parents and carers, and prompt intervention when necessary are essential. A steroid therapy card for adrenal insufficiency containing personal information on a patient\\'s condition was developed for use by families and their specialist centres.

  5. Perceptions of rural primary healthcare personnel about expansion of early communication intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzinger, Alta

    2013-01-01

    Background Early communication intervention services rendered by speech-language therapists and audiologists to families of infants and young children with feeding difficulties, hearing loss or emerging communication disorders should be implemented throughout South Africa. Early intervention can ameliorate risks, enhance development and may prevent further delays. Based on research initiated during a community-service year experience in a rural subdistrict, an incremental process of establishing accessible early communication intervention services was deemed feasible. Such a process cannot be successful if the collaboration of primary healthcare personnel and managers is not ensured. Objectives The aim of the article was to describe the perceptions of primary healthcare personnel with regard to expansion of early communication intervention services to infants at risk of developmental delay. Method A qualitative descriptive survey design was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 primary healthcare nurses and sisters and eight primary healthcare programme managers in Ditsobotla subdistrict in the North West province of South Africa. Results The participants indicated that by improving team work, developing training programmes and evaluating identification methods and resources, the step-by-step rollout of early communication intervention functions on four organisational levels may be a realistic goal for sustainable services in the resource-limited district. Conclusion The positive perceptions and contributions by participants promise a rich human-resource basis for transdisciplinary collaboration between speech-language therapists, audiologists and primary healthcare personnel in order to reduce the burden of early communication disorders in a rural district.

  6. Surgical interventions for the early management of Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Kerrie; Walker, David; Donnan, Peter T; Swan, Iain

    2013-10-16

    Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy. On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment. Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The

  7. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and

  8. Early Intervention for Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease affects the emotional, physical, and financial aspects of caregivers' lives. Healthcare providers have an opportunity to improve the lives of both caregivers and patients by helping caregivers understand how to best cope with symptoms of the disease. Teaching for caregivers should provide an understanding of the progression of the disease and its symptoms, how to cope with difficult behaviors and avoid triggers, appropriate use of medication and common side effects, and the use of a routine as a means to decrease stress for the caregiver and the patient. Finding ways to intervene early rather than performing crisis management may prevent adverse consequences for the patient and the caregiver.

  9. Preventing childhood obesity in early care and education settings: lessons from two intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The impact of early dementia diagnosis and intervention on informal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vugt, Marjolein E; Verhey, Frans R J

    2013-11-01

    In the absence of disease modifying therapies for dementia, the question rises what the benefits are of an early dementia diagnosis for patients and their caregivers. This paper reviews the caregiver perspective in dementia and addresses the question what the consequences are of promoting earlier dementia diagnosis. An early diagnosis offers caregivers the opportunity to advance the process of adaptation to the caregiver role. Caregivers that are better able to adapt to the changes that characterize dementia, feel more competent to care and experience less psychological problems. However, drawbacks of an early diagnosis may outweigh the benefits if people are left with a diagnosis but little support. There is convincing evidence that multicomponent caregiver interventions in the mild to moderate dementia stages are effective to improve caregiver well-being and delay institutionalization. However, there still exist a gap between the improved possibilities to diagnose people in the predementia stage versus the scarce knowledge on intervention effects in this very early stage. This stresses the urgent need for more research on early caregiver interventions that enhance role adaptation and that include long-term follow-up and cost-effectiveness evaluation. Early interventions may help caregivers in anticipating and accepting the future care role and transitions, with the increased possibility that caregivers can still involve the patient in the decision making process. As levels of stress and burden are still low in the predementia stage it provides excellent opportunities to empower the resources of caregivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. No impact of early intervention on late outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baardsen Roald

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury. Methods Three hundred and twenty six patients underwent stratified randomization to an intervention group (n = 163 or a control group (n = 163. Every second patient was allocated to the intervention group. Participants in this group were offered a cognitive oriented consultation two weeks after the injury, while subjects allocated to the control group were not. Both groups were invited to follow up 3 and 12 months after injury. Results A total of 50 (15% patients completed the study (intervention group n = 22 (13%, control group n = 28 (17%, not significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusions There was no effect on outcomes from an early educational intervention two weeks after head injury.

  12. Strength of obesity prevention interventions in early care and education settings: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S; Welker, Emily; Choate, Ashley; Henderson, Kathryn E; Lott, Megan; Tovar, Alison; Wilson, Amanda; Sallis, James F

    2017-02-01

    2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  14. Remembering Parents in Parent-Mediated Early Intervention: An Approach to Examining Impact on Parents and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon Griffith, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review is to advance the discussion regarding meaningful outcomes of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. The rapid growth in the development and evaluation of early intervention approaches for autism spectrum disorder includes both therapist-driven and parent-mediated interventions. The majority of…

  15. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Cason

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Occupational Therapy, Rural, Early Intervention, Children, Program Evaluation, Cost Analysis

  16. A Bibliometric Analysis of Current Research Situation of Early Intervention for Exceptional Children in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide reference for further studies, this study attempts to summarize and present current research situation of early intervention in China based on the bibliometric analysis of academic articles about early intervention from 2003 to 2014 in mainland China. The findings are as follows: (1 there is significant increase in the number of articles and more attention has been paid to this area; (2 relevant research results have a wide distribution and the quality of research still needs to be improved; (3 the research subjects of early intervention are various and a stable and mature research team is still unformed; (4 there is a increasing diversity of research methods and constant expanding of research content.

  17. Early Intervention Practices for Children With Autism: Descriptions From Community Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Collings, Nicole M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2005-01-01

    Across the country, states are reporting increases in the number of children with autism enrolled in the education system. Although a few specific treatment methods have been established as efficacious for some children with autism in controlled settings, research examining the translation of these treatments into early intervention programs has been minimal. The current study examined provider self-reports of the use of interventions in community settings through focus groups. Providers repo...

  18. Case study of the identification, assessment and early intervention of executive function deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Vakil, Lynn A. Ciccantelli and Shernavaz

    2011-01-01

    Educators recognize the need to identify young children who may require intervention because the sooner intervention is initiated, the greater the possibility for remediating a problem. It is imperative that teachers be provided with timely and sufficient information about their students in order to begin to help child become successful learners. Executive functions play a fundamental role in a child's cognitive and social-emotional/behavioral functioning; hence the importance of early...

  19. Early Intervention Stem Cell-Based Therapy (EISCBT) for Corneal Burns and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0465 TITLE: Early Intervention Stem Cell -Based Therapy (EISCBT) for Corneal Burns and Trauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Intervention Stem Cell -Based Therapy (EISCBT) for Corneal Burns and Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81WH-14-1-0465 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop a stem cell -based regenerative

  20. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  1. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  2. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case re...

  3. Early-Life Obesity Prevention: Critique of Intervention Trials During the First One Thousand Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R

    2017-06-01

    To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.

  4. Clinical abnormalities, early intervention program of Down syndrome children: Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim

    2014-06-01

    Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal

  5. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  6. Clinopyroxenite dikes crosscutting banded peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in the Oman ophiolite: early cumulates from the primary V3 lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2013-04-01

    .2-0.7, respectively. Garnets, both andradite and glossular, contain high amounts of TiO2 (up to 18 wt%). The TiO2 content should be higher in the primary CPX if we consider the formation of secondary Ti-rich garnet and titanite. The La/Yb ratio, normalized to C1 chondrite (subscript CN) (McDonough and Sun, 1995), of CPX in the dikes is high (1.1-2.0) and (La/Yb)CN of calculated melt in equilibrium with the CPX is 6.0-9.6. The REE patterns differ completely from those of diopsidite dikes, (La/Yb)CN < 1, related with hydrothermal fluid (Python et al., 2007), but are similar to those of V3 lava, (La/Yb)CN ≈ 5, (Godard et al., 2003). We can judge the CPXITE dikes are cumulates from alkaline basalt based on the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry of the dikes. Based on the similarity of the REE pattern between this CPXITE dike and V3 lava, the CPXITE dike thought to be cumulates from the primary or closely related V3 lava, filling its conduit. These dikes are the clear evidence for that the V3 magma came from outside of the Oman ophiolite after its obduction.

  7. Perceptions of rural primary healthcare personnel about expansion of early communication intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie van der Linde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early communication intervention services rendered by speech-language therapists and audiologists to families of infants and young children with feeding difficulties, hearing loss or emerging communication disorders should be implemented throughout South Africa. Early intervention can ameliorate risks, enhance development and may prevent further delays. Based on research initiated during a community-service year experience in a rural subdistrict,an incremental process of establishing accessible early communication intervention services was deemed feasible. Such a process cannot be successful if the collaboration of primary healthcare personnel and managers is not ensured.Objectives: The aim of the article was to describe the perceptions of primary healthcare personnel with regard to expansion of early communication intervention services to infants at risk of developmental delay.Method: A qualitative descriptive survey design was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 primary healthcare nurses and sisters and eight primary healthcare programme managers in Ditsobotla subdistrict in the North West province of South Africa.Results: The participants indicated that by improving team work, developing training programmes and evaluating identification methods and resources, the step-by-step rollout of early communication intervention functions on four organisational levels may be a realistic goal for sustainable services in the resource-limited district.Conclusion: The positive perceptions and contributions by participants promise a rich human-resource basis for transdisciplinary collaboration between speech-language therapists, audiologists and primary healthcare personnel in order to reduce the burden of early communication disorders in a rural district.

  8. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola ePitchford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-week period, for the equivalent of 30-minutes per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas. Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test.A final sample of 283 children from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standard 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child

  9. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental

  10. Occupational Therapy Contributions in Early Intervention: Implications for Personnel Preparation and Interprofessional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlenhaupt, Mary; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Schefkind, Sandra; Chandler, Barbara; Harvison, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy provides a unique contribution in early intervention programs for families and their children from birth to 3 years old who are at risk for, or who have, identified disabilities. This article describes occupational therapy's distinct value and presents the profession's perspective on services to enhance families' caregiving…

  11. Effective Use of Paraprofessionals as Early Intervention Reading Tutors in Grades K-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jennifer F.; Hines, Sara J.; Li, Kathrynne

    2015-01-01

    One-on-one reading interventions have long been supported in the research literature; however, research on effective use of paraprofessionals to deliver remedial reading tutoring early elementary grades is limited. This best-evidence synthesis of the literature was conducted to identify key components associated with effective use of…

  12. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the

  13. Controversial Practices: The Need for a Reacculturation of Early Intervention Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies characteristics (such as cure claims, practitioner specialization, and questionable research) of controversial practices in early intervention. Evaluates 13 such practices grouped into medical, educational, and therapeutic categories and suggests reasons that professionals and parents adopt such practices. Suggestions for the field…

  14. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  15. Parenting Interventions in Early Head Start: The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Boyd, Misty L.; Constantino, John N.; Hallam, Rena A.; Han, Myae; Hustedt, Jason; Harden, Brenda Jones; Raver, C. Cybele; Sarche, Michelle; Vu, Jennifer A.; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Meyer, Aleta; Fortunato, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium was created by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families to test preventive interventions for Early Head Start families facing toxic stress, as conceptualized by Shonkoff, Boyce, and McEwen in their influential 2009 article. Because relationships…

  16. A systematic review of the effects of early intervention on motor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, CH; Hadders-Algra, M

    We present a systematic review on the effect of early intervention, starting between birth and a corrected age of 18 months, on motor development in infants at high risk for, or with, developmental motor disorders. Thirty-four studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Seventeen studies were

  17. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  18. The Real-World Effectiveness of Early Teaching Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Corness, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of 3 early teaching interventions (applied behavior analysis [ABA], special nursery placement, and portage) for children with autism spectrum disorder was studied in a community-based sample over 10 months. Measures of autism severity as well as intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral function were administered. In…

  19. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  20. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  1. Effects on Reading of an Early Intervention Program for Children at Risk of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; Martín-Ruiz, Isaías

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects on reading of an early oral and written language intervention program for Spanish children at risk of learning difficulties. The goal of this classroom-based program was to prioritize a systematic approach to reading and writing and to foster phonological knowledge and the development of oral language…

  2. Trauma-Informed Part C Early Intervention: A Vision, A Challenge, A New Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Graham, Mimi; Harris, Deborah; Oser, Cindy; Clarke, Jane; Hairston-Fuller, Tody C.; Lertora, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Federal directives require that any child less than 3 years old with a substantiated case of abuse be referred to the early intervention (EI) system. This article details the need and presents a vision for a trauma-informed EI system. The authors describe two exemplary program models which implement this vision and recommend steps which the field…

  3. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County, Orlando..., 2010). The Orange County Health Department is known Statewide as an exceptional site for HIV/AIDS care...

  4. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  5. School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventative Interventions. Psychosocial Stress Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…

  6. Effectiveness of an early intervention for panic symptoms: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbeek, Petrus Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EARLY INTERVENTION FOR PANIC SYMPTOMS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL Peter Meulenbeek¹,3,4, Godelief Willemse², Filip Smit²,3, Pim Cuijpers²,3 ¹ GGNet, the Netherlands; UTwente ² Trimbos instituut, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction ³ Vrije Universiteit van

  7. Care Coordination Practices among Illinois Pediatricians and Early Intervention Service Coordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the past three decades, largely due to advances in technology, there has been growth in the fields of early intervention (EI) and pediatrics for infants/toddlers with special health care needs (SHCN). This growth has also brought about a change in the relationship between pediatricians and EI service coordinators, creating an…

  8. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  9. Maternal Scaffolding and Home Stimulation: Key Mediators of Early Intervention Effects on Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Finch, Jenna E.; Rasheed, Muneera A.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of how early parenting interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries during the first 2 years of children's lives are sustained longitudinally to promote cognitive skills in preschoolers. We employed path analytic procedures to examine 2 family processes--the quality of home stimulation…

  10. Formative Interventions in Leadership Development in Early Childhood Education: The Potential of Double Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Henderson, Linda

    2018-01-01

    This article critiques the usefulness of double stimulation, a key concept in Vygotskian analyses of human development, with leaders in early childhood services in Australia. A series of formative interventions was conducted to identify and address systemic tensions that were confounding leaders' attempts to realise a central object of activity in…

  11. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  12. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  13. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers'perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  14. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna; Dyer, Wm. Justin; Jeans, Laurie M.; Kern, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers' perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  15. The Need for More Effective Father Involvement in Early Autism Intervention: A Systematic Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippin, Michelle; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are underrepresented in both early intervention and research. However, fathers have unique interaction styles that make important contributions to the language and symbolic play development of typically developing children. Fathers may make similar contributions to the development of their…

  16. Early identification and intervention in children at risk for reading difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In pre-readers, a familial background of dyslexia and/or delayed emergent literacy should be considered a not-to-ignore risk signalling problems with learning to read. This thesis aims to study early identification and intervention in at-risk children shortly before or after the start of formal

  17. Community- And Hospital-Based Early Intervention Team Members' Attitudes and Perceptions of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael; McPherson, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Sixty early intervention team members (30 community-based and 30 hospital-based) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and perceptions of teamwork. Respondents were recruited using a purposive non-probability sampling technique and completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of a detailed demographic survey, Attitudes About Teamwork Survey,…

  18. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  19. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  20. Family Quality of Life: A Key Outcome in Early Childhood Intervention Services--A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…

  1. A Study of Early Fine Motor Intervention in Down's Syndrome Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2009-01-01

    The marked delay in acquisition of fine motor skills in trisomic-21/Down's syndrome children is undeniable. In this study, we began with an affirmation that the cause of this deficit could be found in a different environment for which early intervention is essential. A sample of 30 Down's syndrome children was used to study at different ages: six…

  2. Knowledge Translation: Supports, Challenges, and Opportunities for Change in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Susan; Ray, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) provides a lens to examine the process of moving research-informed knowledge into early intervention practice (P. Sudsawad, 2007). The process of KT entails cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages that are mediated by factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the practitioner. Facilitators and barriers to this process may…

  3. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sandy K.

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are…

  4. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  5. Early Intervention Aquatics: A Program for Children with Autism and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prupas, Andrea; Harvey, William J.; Benjamin, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The article describes an early intervention approach to aquatics for preschool children with autism. The Aquatic Nursery program successfully taught both the children and their parents to become involved in swimming. Specific programming details are provided in relation to people with autism, and particular attention is paid to aquatic skill…

  6. Medical Complications of the Critically Ill Newborn: A Review for Early Intervention Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Theresa C.; Blackman, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides early-intervention professionals with a basic familiarity and understanding of some of the newest technologies employed in the neonatal intensive care units for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Early…

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Compared to Telephone Counseling Early after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; van de Sande, Peter; van Kessel, Marlies E.; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients do not return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) because of persistent complaints that are often resistant to therapy in the chronic phase. Recent studies suggest that psychological interventions should be implemented early post-injury to prevent patients from

  8. Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Implications for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer J.; Willett, Marjorie; Ruminski, Christine; Spring, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of healthy relationships on child development is widely accepted. A healthy relationship between mother and child is at risk when a mother experiences symptoms of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mothers of children with special needs are at high risk for this disorder and early intervention (EI)…

  9. Essential elements of an early intervention service for psychosis: the opinions of expert clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Shôn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early intervention teams attempt to improve outcome in schizophrenia through earlier detection and the provision of phase-specific treatments. Whilst the number of early intervention teams is growing, there is a lack of clarity over their essential structural and functional elements. Methods A 'Delphi' exercise was carried out to identify how far there was consensus on the essential elements of early intervention teams in a group of 21 UK expert clinicians. Using published guidelines, an initial list was constructed containing 151 elements from ten categories of team structure and function. Results Overall there was expert consensus on the importance of 136 (90% of these elements. Of the items on which there was consensus, 106 (70.2% were rated essential, meaning that in their absence the functioning of the team would be severely impaired. Conclusion This degree of consensus over essential elements suggests that it is reasonable to define a model for UK early intervention teams, from which a measure of fidelity could be derived.

  10. Sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Gary; Cahill, Jane; Thorpe, Helen

    2017-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted to determine whether early interventions are effective in improving attachment security and parental sensitivity. Electronic databases were searched 2002-2015 onwards, All RCTs delivered to mothers, fathers or carers, before their child's mean age was 36 months, via 1:1 support, group work or guided self-help were included. The search was restricted to English Language publications. Study Selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were independently undertaken by two authors. With regard to analysis, where appropriate, dichotomous data were pooled using the Mantel- Haenszel odds ratio method and for continuous data descriptive statistics were collected in order to calculate standardized mean differences and effect sizes. Four studies met inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups: North American & Canadian and South African based studies. Combining data from both groups indicates that early interventions improve attachment security and improves rates of disorganized attachment. One study provided extractable data on the outcome of parental sensitivity which shows that early interventions were effective in improving maternal sensitivity at 6 and 12 months. Study results generally support the findings of a previous review (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2003) which found that early interventions improved attachment security and maternal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early language intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: A neurocognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    For children with intellectual disabilities (ID), stimulation of their language and communication is often not a priority. Advancements in brain research provide guidelines for early interventions aimed at the stimulation of language and communication skills. In the present study, the effectiveness

  12. Actual versus Desired Family-Centered Practice in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Sara; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention programs (EIPs) for children with hearing loss (HL) are increasingly characterized by a growing family-centered orientation. This article examined mothers' and professionals' assessments of actual and desired parental involvement in 6 educational centers in Israel that implement an EIP for young children with HL and their…

  13. The importance of context in early autism intervention: A qualitative South African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Jessy; de Vries, Petrus J; Seris, Noleen; Shabalala, Nokuthula; Franz, Lauren

    2017-09-01

    The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting. We conducted four focus groups and four in-depth interviews with 28 caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorder and used thematic analysis to identify key themes. Eight contextual factors including culture, language, location of treatment, cost of treatment, type of service provider, support, parenting practices, and stigma emerged as important. Caregivers reported a preference for an affordable, in-home, individualized early autism spectrum disorder intervention, where they have an active voice in shaping treatment goals. Distrust of community-based health workers and challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder-related stigma were identified. Recommendations that integrate caregiver preferences with the development of a low-cost and scalable caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention are included.

  14. Contributions to clinical Occupational Therapy in the area of early intervention in interdisciplinary team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Laura Peruzzolo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Specialized care for infants considers that the sooner the intervention in risk and symptoms occurs, the greater the possibility of obtaining better results. Aims: To describe the process of early intervention provided by an extension program of graduate studies in Occupational Therapy and Hearing, Speech and Languages Science courses and also discuss the theoretical and practical paths in the care for infants and in the Occupational Therapy area. Method: Case report with convenience sample. The study was carried out through an assessment interpreted in light of psychomotor, occupational therapeutic, and speech, hearing and language contributions. The intervention was under the responsibility of an occupational therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team. It occurred once a week from August 2011 to January 2012 and from March 2012 to July 2012. Data analysis was carried out by comparing the entry assessment test and the final assessment test. Results: The boy had not developed concepts of body schema and body image that could sustain his relationship with objects, space and other persons. He presented little linguistic evolution. Considering the contributions of occupational therapy in psychomotor clinic, the boy reconstructed his family place in early intervention. The possibility of language functioning connected to the boy’s demands allowed access to symbolism. Conclusion: The proposal of early occupational therapy intervention with a single therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team was able to overcome the structural and instrumental obstacles to the boy’s development.

  15. Disability is already pronounced in young people with early stages of affective disorders: data from an early intervention service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Blake A; Naismith, Sharon L; Scott, Elizabeth M; Purcell, Susie; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-06-01

    Although there is growing recognition that disability emerges early in the course of psychotic disorders, it is unclear whether young people with early stages of anxiety or affective disorders are similarly affected. This study examined patient self-reported disability in young people attending a designated early intervention service. Cross-sectional study comparing new headspace patients on self-reported measures of disability and distress (Kessler-10, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and Brief Disability Questionnaire) with clinician-rated diagnosis and clinical stage. Data from 330 participants with an average age of 16.8 years (50.0% male) was analysed and demonstrated high levels of psychological distress and disability in the overall group. Higher levels of self-reported psychological distress and disability were associated with affective disorder diagnosis and increased with advancing clinical stage. Female gender and younger age also predicted affective disorder diagnosis. Clinician-rated participant disability was obtained via a single global measure (SOFAS) and not a systematic assessment. Additionally, data collected was cross-sectional and collected at intake only. Longitudinal assessment of clinical features and disability is required to map changes in disability over time. Surprisingly high levels of psychological distress and disability are apparent in young people presenting to early intervention services. Data suggests that distress and disability in those with anxiety is less than for affective disorder. Results also suggest that clinical staging approaches capture the increasing disability associated with illness progression. The obtained results highlight the need for interventions that specifically target disability, rather than just symptoms of mental health problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Intervention Practices for Children With Autism: Descriptions From Community Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Collings, Nicole M; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2005-01-01

    Across the country, states are reporting increases in the number of children with autism enrolled in the education system. Although a few specific treatment methods have been established as efficacious for some children with autism in controlled settings, research examining the translation of these treatments into early intervention programs has been minimal. The current study examined provider self-reports of the use of interventions in community settings through focus groups. Providers report the use of both evidence-based and non-evidence-based techniques and indicate that they often combine and modify these techniques based on child, personal, and external factors. Few providers had a clear understanding of evidence-based practice, and all providers reported concerns about adequate training. Implications for early intervention research are discussed.

  17. Responsive teaching: early intervention for children with Down syndrome and other disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gerald; Perales, Frida; Wiggers, Bridgette; Herman, Bob

    2006-08-01

    Responsive Teaching is an early intervention curriculum designed to address the cognitive, language, and social emotional needs of young children with developmental problems. This innovative intervention model was derived from research conducted primarily with children with Down syndrome and their mothers. Results from these studies indicated that during the early childhood years, parents promote their children's development by engaging in highly responsive interactions throughout their daily routines. The effects of responsiveness are mediated by the impact it has on children's use of several pivotal developmental behaviours, such as social play, attention, initiation and persistence. Responsive Teaching helps parents learn to use Responsive Teaching strategies to promote the pivotal developmental behaviours that are relevant to their children's developmental needs. Research with 50 children with developmental problems and their parents indicated that Responsive Teaching was highly effective at addressing children's developmental and social emotional needs. The effects of this intervention were mediated by the impact that RT strategies had on children's pivotal developmental behaviours.

  18. Promoting language and social communication development in babies through an early storybook reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-12-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.

  19. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-09-01

    Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Barriers and facilitators to partnership working between Early Intervention Services and the voluntary and community sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Helen; Birchwood, Max; Tait, Lynda; Shah, Sonal; England, Elizabeth; Smith, Jo

    2008-09-01

    Partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector has become an increasing political priority. This paper describes and explores the extent and patterns of partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector in the context of Early Intervention Services for young people with a first episode of psychosis. Data were collected from 12 Early Intervention Services and through semistructured interviews with 47 voluntary and community sector leads and 42 commissioners across the West Midlands of England. Most partnerships were described as ad hoc and informal in nature although four formal partnerships between Early Intervention Services and voluntary and community sector organizations had been established. Shared agendas, the ability to refer clients onto an organization that could provide a service they could not and shared training facilitated partnership working in this context. Barriers to closer working included differences in culture such as managing risk, the time required to make and maintain relationships and recognition of the advantages of remaining a small and autonomous organization. The four more formal partnerships were also built on the organizations' experience of working together informally, in one case through a specific pilot project. The voluntary and community organizations involved were also branches of larger national organizations for whom finding sustainable funding was less of an issue. In theoretical terms, eight Early Intervention Service: voluntary and community sector partnerships were at a stage of 'pre-partnership collaboration', three at 'partnership creation and consolidation' and one at 'partnership programme delivery'. The empirical data viewed through the lens of the partnership life-cycle model could help early intervention services, and voluntary and community sector professionals better understand where they are, why they are there and the conditions needed to realise the full

  1. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about management of such cases, which might assist the clinician in decision-making in cases of impacted supernumerary teeth. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Marwah N. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):226-230. PMID:25206175

  2. Impacted supernumerary teeth-early or delayed intervention: decision making dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil

    2012-09-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about management of such cases, which might assist the clinician in decision-making in cases of impacted supernumerary teeth. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Marwah N. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth-Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):226-230.

  3. AIMS baby movement scale application in high-risk infants early intervention analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Shi, J-P; Li, Y-H; Yang, W-H; Tian, Y-J; Gao, J; Li, S-J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the application of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in screening motor development delay in the follow-up of high-risk infants who were discharged from NICU, to explain the state of infants' motor development and propose early individualized intervention. The study design was a randomized, single-blind trial by selecting patients between April 2015 and November 2015 in our hospital, children nerve recovery branch clinics and 77 cases of high-risk infants. We randomly divided the patients into observation group (39 cases) and control group (38 cases). To evaluate the application with AIMS, observation group was based on evaluation results for the first time to give rehabilitation training plan making, early intervention, control group according to the growth and development milestone in order to guide parents to take family training interval of 3 months. While comparing the two groups of high-risk infants before the intervention, the months of age, gender, risk factors, it was found that the AIMS scores, each position AIMS scores did not show a significant difference in percentile (p>0.05). There was also no significant difference between two groups in the seat and stand AIMS scores before and after intervention (p>0.05). However, the comparison of two groups of high-risk infants after intervention in comparison showed that the observation group supine AIMS scores and AIMS scores were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). Prone position AIMS scores observation group was also significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). The corresponding percentile for two groups after the intervention of AIMS scores was less than 10% of cases, which was significantly lower in the observation group (p<0.01). AIMS can predict the development delay in high-risk infants, for improving the early hypernymic diagnosis and intervention.

  4. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  5. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting Early Child Development With Interventions in Health and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Labor market returns to an early childhood stimulation intervention in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Paul; Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo; Zanolini, Arianna; Vermeersch, Christel; Walker, Susan; Chang, Susan M; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2014-05-30

    A substantial literature shows that U.S. early childhood interventions have important long-term economic benefits. However, there is little evidence on this question for developing countries. We report substantial effects on the earnings of participants in a randomized intervention conducted in 1986-1987 that gave psychosocial stimulation to growth-stunted Jamaican toddlers. The intervention consisted of weekly visits from community health workers over a 2-year period that taught parenting skills and encouraged mothers and children to interact in ways that develop cognitive and socioemotional skills. The authors reinterviewed 105 out of 129 study participants 20 years later and found that the intervention increased earnings by 25%, enough for them to catch up to the earnings of a nonstunted comparison group identified at baseline (65 out of 84 participants). Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. T42. WHEN SHOULD EARLY INTERVENTION START, AND FOR HOW LONG SHOULD IT LAST?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Early intervention in psychosis facilities have often failed to integrate the two main elements of early intervention. While some facilities have focused on early, and have had Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) as their main target, others have focused on the intervention and the treatment provided when patients were diagnosed. As both DUP reduction and specialized early intervention (SEI) has proved to have an effect on the treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis one could hope of a synergetic effect if the two strategies were integrated. In this study, we use data from a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged early intervention (5 years) compared to standard specialized early intervention (2 years). Overall the study found that both treatment groups remained stable or improved in psychopathology, functioning and cognition and that there was no further beneficial effect of the prolonged the treatment. Participants had a long DUP (median 52 weeks). For this specific sub-study we hypothesized that patients who were treated early in their course of illness would have a beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment compared to those who only received 2 years of specialized treatment. Methods 296 participants with a psychotic diagnosis within the schizophrenia spectrum (ICD 10 – F2x, excluding F21) were included. DUP start was assessed from first psychotic symptom equivalent to 3 or above on a global SAPS item. DUP stop was when patients started antipsychotic treatment or specialized early intervention treatment. To assess if there were a delay within the mental health referral system we used the national register to identify when participants first were diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis and calculated the time until they started SEI treatment. Finally, we added the DUP and the treatment delay together to assess the time from first psychotic symptom until the start of adequate treatment (both

  9. Training radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Caroline; Teasdale, Emma; Omar, Lynne; Tucker, Lorraine; Ramirez, Amanda-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer to all older women attending for their final routine mammogram within the NHS Breast Screening Programme. If the Promoting Early Presentation (PEP) intervention is demonstrated to be cost-effective, it may be implemented across the NHS requiring at least four radiographers per screening service to deliver the intervention. Methods: A pilot study in a single breast screening service was conducted to assess the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to meet this objective. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the impact of training on participating radiographers and the screening service. Competency to deliver the intervention was assessed at key points during training according to quality criteria based on delivery of the key messages and style of delivery. Confidence to deliver the intervention was assessed using a self-report measure before and after training. Radiographers' experiences of training were elicited in face-to-face qualitative interviews. Results: Seven of eight radiographers who were released to undertake the training achieved the required level of competency to deliver the intervention within four months. All improved over time in their confidence to deliver the key messages of the intervention. The qualitative analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of training from the perspective of the radiographers. Conclusion: It was feasible and acceptable to train sufficient radiographers to deliver the PEP Intervention. The training package will be streamlined to improve efficiency for large implementation trials and clinical practice across the NHS.

  10. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  11. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%–3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%–70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. PMID:25904724

  13. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H

    2007-07-01

    clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group had fewer teacher-reported internalizing problems and better work habits than the clinical-intervention-only group. Early failure to thrive increased children's vulnerability to short stature, poor arithmetic performance, and poor work habits. Home visiting attenuated some of the negative effects of early failure to thrive, possibly by promoting maternal sensitivity and helping children build strong work habits that enabled them to benefit from school. Findings provide evidence for early intervention programs for vulnerable infants.

  14. Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Freedman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.

  15. [Efficacy observation of electroacupuncture intervention on severe acute pancreatitis at early stage complicated with intestinal paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Guang-Wei; Zhao, Shuang-Ping; Tang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Na

    2011-02-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) at early stage complicated with intestinal paralysis. Sixty-eight cases of SAP were randomly divided into observation group (48 cases) and control group (20 cases). In observation group, according to the course of sickness, the early-stage subgroup (30 cases, hospitalized in 3 d) and late-stage subgroup (18 cases, hospitalized in 3-7 d) were subdivided. In control group, the conventional treatment was applied. In observation group, based on the same treatment as control group, electroacupuncture was supplemented at Zhongwan (CV 12), Zusanli (ST 36), Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, the recovery time of intestinal paralysis and laboratory indices, complications, operation transfer rate, death rate and the admission time were compared among groups after treatment. The total effective rate was 83.3% (25/30) in early-stage subgroup, which was superior to 72.2% (13/18) in late-stage subgroup and 65.0% (13/20) in control group (P complications, operation transfer rate, death rate and admission time were all lower remarkably than those in late-stage subgroup and control group (P 0.05). The clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention on SAP complicated with intestinal paralysis is superior remarkably to that of conventional treatment, and the efficacy of electroacupuncture intervention at early stage is better than that at late stage.

  16. Parapatric Speciation in the Evolution of Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    The term parapatric speciation, borrowed from biogeography, is used as a metaphor for describing and illustrating a little acknowledged change in the field of early intervention that occurred at the time of the passage of the Education of the Handicapped Act Part H early intervention legislation. The term refers to the formation of a new species…

  17. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  18. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  19. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY...: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award To... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  20. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early Intervention Services One-Time... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  1. Early Intervention in Europe: Organisation of Services and Support for Children and Their Families: Trends in 17 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Victoria, Ed.

    This study describes how European countries deal with the issues and practicalities surrounding early intervention services. The current situation in relation to early intervention is examined in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Holland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Luxembourg, Iceland,…

  2. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of the Implementation of a Routines-Based Early Childhood Intervention Model in Australia: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.; Gatt, Sarah L.; Davis, Kate; Mahar, Nicole; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a "routines-based early childhood intervention" (RBECI) model by Australian Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) professionals. The RBECI model consisted of four key components: (a) Routines-Based Interviews (RBIs), (b) participation-based goals, (c) home visits, and…

  4. The Student Profile, Service Delivery Model, and Support Practices of Four Early Childhood Intervention Environments in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Yang, Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    The student profile, model of service delivery, and support practices for young children with disabilities receiving early childhood intervention (ECI) in Singapore is reported and contrasted in this study. The supervisors/managers/principals of eight Early Intervention Programme for Infants and Children (EIPIC) centres, eight Integrated Child…

  5. Enabling choice, recovery and participation: evidence-based early intervention support for psychosocial disability in the National Disability Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Laura; Brophy, Lisa; Harvey, Carol; Tellez, Juan Jose; Herrman, Helen; Killackey, Eoin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most effective interventions for early intervention in psychosocial disability in the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) through an evidence review. A series of rapid reviews were undertaken to establish possible interventions for psychosocial disability, to develop our understanding of early intervention criteria for the NDIS and to determine which interventions would meet these criteria. Three interventions (social skills training, supported employment and supported housing) have a strong evidence base for effectiveness in early intervention in people with psychosocial disability, with the potential for adoption by the NDIS. They support personal choice and recovery outcomes. Illness self-management, cognitive remediation and cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis demonstrate outcomes to mitigate impairment. The evidence for family psycho-education is also very strong. This review identified evidence-based, recovery-oriented approaches to early intervention in psychosocial disability. They meet the criteria for early intervention in the NDIS, are relevant to participants and consider their preferences. Early intervention has the potential to save costs by reducing participant reliance on the scheme.

  6. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child’s life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure’s reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children’s developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children’s needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing

  8. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vitor; Melo, Madalena; Santos, Graça; Apolónio, Ana; Amaral, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure's reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children's developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children's needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing educational policies that

  9. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high

  10. Participatory design in the development of an early therapy intervention for perinatal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice Elizabeth; Baggaley, Jessica; Watson, Rose Mary; Rapley, Tim

    2017-01-23

    Perinatal stroke is the leading cause of unilateral (hemiparetic) cerebral palsy, with life-long personal, social and financial consequences. Translational research findings indicate that early therapy intervention has the potential for significant improvements in long-term outcome in terms of motor function. By involving families and health professionals in the development and design stage, we aimed to produce a therapy intervention which they would engage with. Nine parents of children with hemiparesis and fourteen health professionals involved in the care of infants with perinatal stroke took part in peer review and focus groups to discuss evolving therapy materials, with revisions made iteratively. The materials and approach were also discussed at a meeting of the London Child Stroke Research Reference Group. Focus group data were coded using Normalisation Process Theory constructs to explore potential barriers and facilitators to routine uptake of the intervention. We developed the Early Therapy in Perinatal Stroke (eTIPS) program - a parent-delivered, home-based complex intervention addressing a current gap in practice for infants in the first 6 months of life after unilateral perinatal stroke and with the aim of improving motor outcome. Parents and health professionals saw the intervention as different from usual practice, and valuable (high coherence). They were keen to engage (high cognitive participation). They considered the tasks for parents to be achievable (high collective action). They demonstrated trust in the approach and felt that parents would undertake the recommended activities (high collective action). They saw the approach as flexible and adaptable (high reflexive monitoring). Following suggestions made, we added a section on involving the extended family, and obtained funding for a website and videos to supplement written materials. Focus groups with parents and health professionals provided meaningful feedback to iteratively improve the

  11. Moderators of intervention effects on parenting practices in a randomized controlled trial in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theise, Rachelle; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Doctoroff, Greta L; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Palamar, Joseph J; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether parent psychological resources (parenting stress, depression, and social support from friends and family) moderated the effects of early family preventive intervention on parenting among high-risk families. Ninety-two preschool-age children (M age = 3.94 years) at familial risk for conduct problems participated in a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention to prevent conduct problems. The majority of families were African American or Latino and experienced multiple stressors associated with poverty and familial antisocial behavior. Families were randomized to a 22-session group-based intervention or to a no-intervention, assessment-only control condition. Parents reported on their psychological resources (parenting stress, depression and social support from friends and family) at baseline. Parenting (responsive, harsh, stimulation for learning) was assessed through self-report and observational measures four times over 24 months. Previously-reported intervention effects on responsive parenting and stimulation for learning were moderated by depression and social support from friends, respectively, such that benefits were concentrated among those at greatest risk (i.e., depressed, limited support from friends). The intervention effect on harsh parenting was not moderated by any of the parent psychological resources examined, such that parents with high and low resources benefited comparably. Consideration of moderators of preventive intervention effects on parenting provides important information about intervention impact among families experiencing multiple barriers to engagement and effective parenting. Findings suggest that parents with diminished psychological resources are just as likely to benefit. Family-focused, group-based intervention is promising for strengthening parenting among the highest risk families.

  12. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  13. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  14. Paediatric Early Warning Score - A multi-center randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    Paediatric Early Warning System on evolving critical illness and intervention in hospitalised children; a regional multicentre study on implementation of a Paediatric Early Warning System Background: Critical illness in the patient and death can potentially be predicted and prevented. Deterioration...... of the clinical condition of hospitalised patients is often preceded by physiological changes up to 24 hours before death. Despite this several reports show that lack of identification and proper actions in patients developing acute and critical illness remains a problem. Challenges in assessing if a child...

  15. [Study on early intervention of compound nutrition for cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai

    2014-01-01

    To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Overall outcomes following early interventions for intracranial arteriovenous malformations with hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy Kumar; Konar, Subhas; Nanda, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the timing and predictors of surgical intervention for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with hematoma. A ruptured intracranial AVM with hematoma is an emergency condition, and the optimal timing for surgical intervention is not well understood. In addition, the outcome predictors of surgical intervention have rarely been reported. We identified and analyzed 78 patients treated with microsurgical resection for pathologically proven AVM at Louisiana State University Health in Shreveport from February 1992 to December 2004. All 78 patients were diagnosed with ruptured AVM before surgery. The independent variables, including patient demographics, timing of surgery, location of the AVM and comorbidities were analyzed to assess outcome. The results of this series revealed that surgical intervention after 48hours resulted in poor outcomes for patients with hematoma, following a ruptured AVM. Several other prognostic factors, including younger age (11-40years), Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II, and AVM in a supratentorial location, had significant positive effects on outcomes. However, hypertension, smoking, and a prior embolization showed significant negative effects on outcomes after surgery. The multiple logistic regression analyses also revealed that the timing of surgical intervention had a significant effect on outcomes in patients with hematoma following ruptured AVM. Early intervention is the key to success in these patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. PMID:25945160

  18. A pilot telerehabilitation program: delivering early intervention services to rural families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services.

  19. Sparking a Reading Revolution: Results of Early Literacy Interventions in Egypt and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Amber; Brombacher, Aarnout; Ward-Brent, Michelle

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the effects of two early grade reading interventions in two Arabic-speaking contexts (Egypt and Jordan), developed in partnership with ministries of education. The interventions relied on similar research bases for improving reading instruction in Arabic. In Egypt, the results of a 166-school pilot led to the national scale-up of the Early Grade Reading Program for more than 4 million children in grades 1-3. Informed by Egypt's experience, a demonstration effort in 43 schools led to a national rollout in Jordan's 2,651 public primary schools and the creation of a remediation program. We reflect on the conditions that influenced the pilot and scale-up outcomes given the commitments made to "inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all" under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impact of early intervention on psychopathology, crime, and well-being at age 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of early intervention to prevent adult psychopathology and improve well-being in early-starting conduct-problem children. Kindergarteners (N=9,594) in three cohorts (1991-1993) at 55 schools in four communities were screened for conduct problems, yielding 979 early starters. A total of 891 (91%) consented (51% African American, 47% European American; 69% boys). Children were randomly assigned by school cluster to a 10-year intervention or control. The intervention goal was to develop social competencies in children that would carry them throughout life, through social skills training, parent behavior-management training with home visiting, peer coaching, reading tutoring, and classroom social-emotional curricula. Manualization and supervision ensured program fidelity. Ninety-eight percent participated during grade 1, and 80% continued through grade 10. At age 25, arrest records were reviewed (N=817, 92%), and condition-blinded adults psychiatrically interviewed participants (N=702; 81% of living participants) and a peer (N=535) knowledgeable about the participant. Intent-to-treat logistic regression analyses indicated that 69% of participants in the control arm displayed at least one externalizing, internalizing, or substance abuse psychiatric problem (based on self- or peer interview) at age 25, in contrast with 59% of those assigned to intervention (odds ratio=0.59, CI=0.43-0.81; number needed to treat=8). This pattern also held for self-interviews, peer interviews, scores using an "and" rule for self- and peer reports, and separate tests for externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and substance abuse problems, as well as for each of three cohorts, four sites, male participants, female participants, African Americans, European Americans, moderate-risk, and high-risk subgroups. Intervention participants also received lower severity-weighted violent (standardized estimate=-0.37) and drug (standardized

  1. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/str...

  2. Can early intervention policies improve wellbeing? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Daly; Liam Delaney; Orla Doyle; Nick Fitzpatrick; Christine O'Farrelly

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of well-being, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal well-being in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global...

  3. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  4. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    cancer . There are two forms of hormone therapy. One approach involves surgically removing the testicles . The other form of hormone therapy involves... Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hayley Thompson, Ph.D...COVERED (From - To) 1 Mar 2004 – 31 May 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African

  5. STUDY ON EARLY PHYSICAL THERAPY IN POSTOPERATIVE INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN WITH MYELOMENINGOCELE

    OpenAIRE

    Necula Dana; Marcu Vasile; Pădure Liliana; Hodorcă Raluca Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives targeted in early intervention thru physical therapy postoperative, to recover the functional for the neuro-musculo-arthropod kinetic system and prevent bone deformities and dysfunctions of micturition and defecation sequlae. Materials and methods The study included 12 children aged 0-5 years, 7 boys and 5 girls that followed at least 12 months of recovery. The group included children with hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele and equinus foot lime, lime myelomeningocele ...

  6. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  7. Predictors of effectiveness of early intervention on children with intellectual disability: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Liu, Jiun-Horng; Yao, Shu-Fen; Guo, How-Ran; Tseng, Yen-Cheng

    2014-07-02

    The Taiwanese government has been promoting early intervention to children with intellectual disability for years, but data on its effectiveness are limited. We recruited children who were treated for intellectual disability at a teaching hospital and had two IQ tests from 2001 to 2005 and used the difference between the two tests as the indicator of effectiveness. The participants included 23 boys and 13 girls 56.5 ± 5.9 months of age at the first test and 73.4 ± 4.9 months at the second. The IQ increased from 57.0 ± 8.0 to 65.1 ± 12.3 (p intervention can improve the IQ of children with intellectual disability, and the earlier the intervention the better. The effectiveness is demonstrable in boys and more prominent in children whose mothers had a low educational level.

  8. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention for Malaysian families: Four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of behavior analytic and eclectic early interventions for young children with autism after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jane S; Stanislaw, Harold; Green, Gina; Sparkman, Coleen R; Cohen, Howard G

    2014-12-01

    . These results provide further evidence that intensive behavior analytic intervention delivered at an early age is more likely to produce substantial improvements in young children with autism than common eclectic interventions, even when the latter are intensive. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Early intervention surveillance strategies (EISS) in dental student clinical performance: a mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2005-12-01

    Graduating dental practitioners requires the mastery of a number of skills and a significant body of basic information. Dental education is a complex combination of didactic and physical skill learning processes. It is necessary to develop appropriate tools to measure student clinical performance to allow the provision of interventional strategies at the right time targeted at the right individuals. In this study, an approach to early intervention surveillance strategies was developed that is cost-effective, transparent, and robust based on mathematical predictions of student clinical achievements. Using a cohort of students' clinical activity profile, a polynomial pair was developed that represents the predictive function of low and high achieving students. This polynomial pair can then be applied to students to predict their final achievement based on their current status. The polynomial methodology is adaptable to local variation such as access to clinical facilities. The early intervention surveillance strategy developed in this study provides a simple, cost-effective, predictive risk assessment system that relies on data sets already collected in most dental schools and can be completed without the need for significant human intervention. The mathematical approach allows the focusing of educational support towards students that require the assistance, thus augmenting the better use of resources.

  11. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-12-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved.

  13. Evolution of care indicators after an early discharge intervention in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-López, Isabel; González-Carrión, María Pilar; Rivas-Campos, Antonio; Lafuente-Lorca, Justa; Castillo-Vera, Josefa; de Casas, Carmen; Peña-Caballero, Manuela

    To evaluate the evolution of health outcomes in preterm infants included in an early discharge programme. Controlled, non-randomised trial with an intervention group and a control group children admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves of Granada were included in the study. The intervention group comprised preterm infants admitted to the neonatal unit clinically stable, whose family home was located within 20km. from the hospital. They were discharged two weeks before the established time and a skilled nurse in neonatal care monitored them at home. The control group comprised infants who could not be included in home monitoring due to the distance to the hospital criterion or because their families did not give their consent and who received the usual care until their discharge. The study variables were the outcome indicators of the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Differences were found in the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The early discharge of preterm infants followed up at home by an expert nurse in neonatal care is a health service that achieves results in preparating parents for the care of their child, enabling them to learn about the health services, adapt to their new life, and establishbreastfeeding times. It constitutes safe intervention for children and is beneficial to parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual. DESIGN: Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome...... assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...

  15. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patientcase manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......Objective To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual. Design Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome...... assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. Setting Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...

  16. Effectiveness of the Preschool Version of the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program for Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…

  17. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  18. [Early detection and intervention of hearing impairment in Cuba: outcome after 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Abalo, M C; Gaya, J A; Savio, G; Ponce de Leon, M; Perera, M; Reigosa, V

    Infant hearing loss is a highly prevalent disorder which untreated can severely disrupt normal brain development. As a result there is a significant delay in language acquisition as well as many cognitive and emotional problems in the child. Over the last decades important advances have occurred in the available technology for early detection and assessment of hearing impairment. Therefore many countries worldwide have become aware of the need for hearing screening programs. The optimal protocols depending on the local conditions of health care as well as the availability of technological and human resources. To summarize the results obtained over the last 20 years by an ongoing hearing screening protocol. Data on the coverage program, sensitivity and specificity, age of identification of hearing losses, diagnostic and intervention stages will be summarized and discussed. Also the long terms effects of early detection on the child cognitive and language development are analyzed. Finally, the possible role of a new technique based on the recording of multiple auditory steady state potentials with Cuban equipment (AUDIX system) was evaluated within this context. The Cuban targeting multiple high risk hearing screening program is a useful alternative to early detection of hearing losses. The average detection age of hearing loss was 10 months during the period of optimal functioning. Cognitive, emotional and linguistic development are improved by early detection and intervention. The multiple auditory steady state responses can provide valuable audiometric information within a screening context.

  19. Early Intervention With Transplantation Recipients to Improve Access to and Knowledge of Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Karen L

    2016-08-01

    The literature continues to support that patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) receive early consultation with palliative care specialists. Nurses can be leaders in this initiative. This quality improvement project was conducted to determine whether patients undergoing HSCT, who were provided an early consultation with palliative care, would report increased knowledge and increased ability to access palliative services. Patients completed a postintervention questionnaire in which the majority of patients reported that they had increased knowledge about palliative care and learned how to access their services. Patient comments were positive about the successful intervention of early palliative care. The palliative care team, however, revealed a different view of the situation, showing that patients were often overwhelmed, anxious, and sometimes did not remember the content of their meetings.

  20. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  1. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  2. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood.

  3. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  4. [Effect of early nutritional intervention in the a outcome of patients at risk clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Montoya, Susana; Múnera García, Nora Elena

    2014-02-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a multi-causal process and high prevalence. Nutritional intervention at an early stage improves prognosis of affected patients. To compare the effect of early nutritional intervention with a routine care on clinical outcome in patients with detected nutritional risk screening tool NRS Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, entering an institution of complex health. A quasi-experimental study. Was assessed in the first 48 hours of admission to 891 patients, of whom 247 were at nutritional risk, 116 were the routine care group and 54 the intervention group. We evaluated complications, hospital stay, weight loss, change in body mass index and protein-calorie adequacy. Patients undergoing caloric intake had higher (1617 ± 444.5 vs 1366 ± 467.1 kcal, p = 0.002) and protein (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.9 ± 0.3 g, p = 0.000), average weight gain of 0.7% vs a loss of 2.3% (p = 0.000), a proportion of moderate complications 8.2% vs 25.2% (p = 0.012) and decreased time hospital stay of 2.2 days (p = 0.138) compared with routine care group. Early nutritional intervention in patients at nutritional risk decreased the proportion of moderate complications, improved the adequacy of energy, protein and nutritional evolution in terms of weight gain and change in BMI. The length of stay did not differ significantly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. The C'JAAD: a French team for early intervention in psychosis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppetit, Alice; Bourgin, Julie; Martinez, Gilles; Kazes, Mathilde; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Gaillard, Raphael; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2018-04-01

    The aim is to describe a centre operating in Paris that pioneers the early intervention for young people at the onset and at high risk of psychosis in France. Comprehensive descriptive analysis of different clinical and service measures is used in describing the implementation of the C'JAAD (Evaluation Centre for Young Adults and Adolescents) using data from an ongoing prospective non-interventional research programme. Over a 2-year period, 151 patients were referred to the C'JAAD and included in the ICAAR research programme. After evaluation by the Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental States Scale, 53.7% were identified at risk of developing a psychosis, 20.6% presented a full-blown psychosis and 25.7% were considered not at risk of developing a psychosis. A total of 84% of the at-risk subjects suffered from a psychiatric co-morbidity, of which anxiodepressive symptoms being the most frequent (39%). The global functioning of these at-risk subjects was seriously impaired (average Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale score = 48.9). More than one third of the patients was self-referred (33.8%), 22.5% were addressed by a psychiatrist whereas 10.6% were referred by a general practitioner. In this paper, we report for the first time the activities of the C'JAAD, the pioneer unit in France for early detection and treatment of young adults with early psychosis. These observations indicate that such early intervention centre is a feasible and sustainable extension of traditional care for people with mental disorders in this country and offers promising perspective for the development of further centres. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. [Interventional emergency embolization for severe pelvic ring fractures with arterial bleeding. Integration into the early clinical treatment algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, J; Laurer, H; Wutzler, S; Wyen, H; Mack, M; Maier, B; Marzi, I

    2008-10-01

    Presentation of our own experiences and results of an early clinical algorithm for treatment integrating emergency embolization (TAE) in cases of unstable pelvic ring fractures with arterial bleeding. Consecutive patient series from April 2002 to December 2006 at a level 1 trauma center. The data of the online shock room documentation (Traumawatch) of patients with a pelvic fracture and arterial bleeding detected on multislice computed tomography (MSCT) were examined for the following parameters: demographic data, injury mechanism, fracture classification according to Tile/AO and severity of the pelvic injury assessed with the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS), accompanying injuries with elevation of the cumulative injury severity according to the Injury Severity Score (ISS), physiological admission parameters (circulatory parameters and initial Hb value) as well as transfusion requirement during treatment in the shock room, time until embolization, duration of embolization, and source of bleeding. Of a total of 162 patients, arterial bleeding was detected in 21 patients by contrast medium extravasation on MSCT, 12 of whom were men and 9 women with an average age of 45 (14-80) years. The mechanism of injury was high energy trauma in all cases. In 33% it involved type B pelvic fractures and in 67% type C fractures with an average AIS pelvis of 4.4 points (3-5) and a total severity of injury with the ISS of 37 points (21-66). Upon admission 47.6% presented hemodynamic instability with an average Hb value of 7.8 g/dl (3.2-12.4) and an average transfusion requirement of 6 red blood cell units (4-13). The time until the TAE was started was on average 62 min (25-115) with a duration period of the TAE of 25 min (15-67). Branches of the internal iliac artery were identified as the sole source of bleeding. The success rate of TAE amounted to over 90%. Interventional TAE represents an effective as well as a fast procedure for hemostasis of arterial bleeding detected on MSCT in

  7. Vocabulary development and intervention for English learners in the early grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.

  8. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  9. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nurses’ Experience of Using an Application to Support New Parents after Early Discharge: An Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Boe Danbjørg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses’ ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.

  11. Predicting bipolar disorder on the basis of phenomenology: implications for prevention and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Bargh, Danielle M; Coulston, Carissa M; Das, Pritha; Berk, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a multifaceted illness and there is often a substantial delay between the first onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Early detection has the potential to curtail illness progression and disorder-associated burden but it requires a clear understanding of the initial bipolar prodrome. This article summarizes the phenomenology of bipolar disorder with an emphasis on the initial prodrome, the evolution of the illness, and the implications for prevention and early intervention. A literature review was undertaken using Medline, Web of Science, and a hand search of relevant literature using keywords (e.g., phenomenology, initial or early symptoms, risk factors, and predictors/prediction). Findings from the literature were reviewed and synthesized and have been put into a clinical context. Bipolar disorder is a recurrent, persistent, and disabling illness that typically develops in adolescence or early adulthood. The literature search yielded 28 articles, in which mood lability, nonspecific, non-mood symptoms, and cyclothymic temperament were the most cited prodromal features. A small number of key prospective studies have provided evidence in support of an initial bipolar prodrome; however, methodological differences across studies have prohibited its clear delineation. It is, therefore, not currently possible to anticipate those who will develop bipolar disorder solely on the basis of early phenomenology. Accurate characterization of the bipolar disorder prodrome through high-quality, prospective research studies with adequate control groups will ultimately facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity.

  13. Early Detection, Intervention and Prevention of Psychosis Program: Community Outreach and Early Identification at Six U.S. Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sarah; McFarlane, William R; Joly, Brenda; Adelsheim, Steven; Auther, Andrea; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Migliorati, Margaret; Ragland, J Daniel; Sale, Tamara; Spring, Elizabeth; Calkins, Roderick; Carter, Cameron S; Jaynes, Rebecca; Taylor, Stephan F; Downing, Donna

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of a community outreach and education model implemented as part of the Early Detection, Intervention and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP), a national multisite study in six U.S. regions. EDIPPP's model was designed to generate rapid referrals of youths at clinical high risk of psychosis by creating a network of professionals and community members trained to identify signs of early psychosis. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through an evaluation of outreach efforts at five sites over a two-year period and through interviews with staff at all six sites. All outreach activities to groups (educational, medical, and mental health professionals; community groups; media; youth and parent groups; and multicultural communities) were counted for the six sites to determine correlations with total referrals and enrollments. During the study period (May 2007-May 2010), 848 formal presentations were made to 22,840 attendees and 145 informal presentations were made to 11,528 attendees at all six sites. These presentations led to 1,652 phone referrals. A total of 520 (31%) of these individuals were offered in-person orientation, and 392 (75%) of those were assessed for eligibility. A total of 337 individuals (86% of those assessed) met criteria for assignment to the EDIPPP study. EDIPPP's outreach and education model demonstrated the effectiveness of following a protocol-defined outreach strategy combined with flexibility to reach culturally diverse audiences or initially inaccessible systems. All EDIPPP sites yielded appropriate referrals of youths at risk of psychosis.

  14. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Synnot, Anneliese; Ryan, Rebecca; Hill, Sophie; Horey, Dell; Willis, Natalie; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2013-05-31

    Childhood vaccination (also described as immunisation) is an important and effective way to reduce childhood illness and death. However, there are many children who do not receive the recommended vaccines because their parents do not know why vaccination is important, do not understand how, where or when to get their children vaccinated, disagree with vaccination as a public health measure, or have concerns about vaccine safety.Face to face interventions to inform or educate parents about routine childhood vaccination may improve vaccination rates and parental knowledge or understanding of vaccination. Such interventions may describe or explain the practical and logistical factors associated with vaccination, and enable parents to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination for their family or community. To assess the effects of face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on immunisation uptake and parental knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to July 2012); EMBASE + Embase Classic (OvidSP) (1947 to July 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to July 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2012); Global Health (CAB) (1910 to July 2012); Global Health Library (WHO) (searched July 2012); Google Scholar (searched September 2012), ISI Web of Science (searched September 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for ongoing trials in The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched August 2012) and for grey literature in The Grey Literature Report and OpenGrey (searched August 2012). We also contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. There were no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effects of face to face interventions delivered to individual parents or groups of parents to inform or educate

  15. Early renin-angiotensin system intervention is more beneficial than late intervention in delaying end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schievink, B; Kröpelin, T; Mulder, S

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To develop and validate a model to simulate progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) from early onset until end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to assess the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) intervention in early, intermediate and advanced stages of DKD. METHODS: We used data from......, intermediate and advanced stage of disease, whose mean age was 60 years and who received placebo, the median time to ESRD was 21.4, 10.8 and 4.7 years, respectively. RAS intervention delayed the predicted time to ESRD by 4.2, 3.6 and 1.4 years, respectively. The benefit of early RAS intervention was more...... pronounced in younger patients; for example, for patients with a mean age of 45 years, RAS intervention at early, intermediate or advanced stage delayed ESRD by 5.9, 4.0 and 1.1 years versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: RAS intervention early in the course of proteinuric DKD is more beneficial than late...

  16. Maternal scaffolding and home stimulation: Key mediators of early intervention effects on children's cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Finch, Jenna E; Rasheed, Muneera A

    2016-09-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of how early parenting interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries during the first 2 years of children's lives are sustained longitudinally to promote cognitive skills in preschoolers. We employed path analytic procedures to examine 2 family processes-the quality of home stimulation and maternal scaffolding behaviors-as underlying mechanisms through which a responsive stimulation intervention uniquely predicted children's verbal intelligence, performance intelligence, and executive functioning. The sample included 1,302 highly disadvantaged children and their mothers living in rural Pakistan, who from birth participated in a 2-year, community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial designed to promote sensitive and responsive caregiving. Family processes were assessed at 2 developmental time points using parent reports, ratings of home environments, and observed parent-child interactions. Cognitive skills at age 4 were assessed using standardized tests. Controlling for socioeconomic risk (e.g., wealth, maternal education, food insecurity) and individual factors (e.g., gender, growth status), the quality of current home stimulation as well as both earlier and concurrent measures of maternal scaffolding independently mediated the intervention effects on cognitive skills at age 4. In addition, the intervention had a significant direct effect on executive functioning and performance intelligence over and above significant family processes and other covariates. We highlight implications for future program design and evaluation studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  18. Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; Diggle, Tim

    2007-02-01

    Recent estimates concerning the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that at least one in 200 children is affected. This group of children and families have important service needs. The involvement of parents in implementing intervention strategies designed to help their autistic children has long been accepted as helpful. The potential benefits are increased skills and reduced stress for parents as well as children. This research review focused on interventions for children aged 1-6 years, and was carried out using systematic methodology: a comprehensive search of psychological, educational and biomedical databases, as well as bibliographies and reference lists of key articles, contact with experts in the field, and hand search of key journals. Only studies which involved a concurrent element of control were included. The review found very few studies that had adequate research design from which to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of parent-implemented early intervention. Both randomized and controlled studies tended to suggest that parent training leads to improved child communicative behaviour, increased maternal knowledge of autism, enhanced maternal communication style and parent child interaction, and reduced maternal depression. It seems that parent training can successfully contribute to intervention for young children with ASD. However, the review highlights the need for improved research in this area.

  19. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  20. Brief report: relative effectiveness of different home-based behavioral approaches to early teaching intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A; Corness, Mark

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of home-based early behavioral interventions for children (2:6-4:0 years old) with autistic spectrum disorders was studied over 9-10 months. Measures of autistic severity, intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral functioning were taken. There was no evidence of recovery from autism. High-intensity behavioral approaches (mean 30 h/week) produced greater gains than low-intensity programs (mean 12 h/week). Lovaas- and complete application of behavior analysis to schools approach-type interventions produced largest gains [similar to gains produced by longer-term clinic-based applied behavior analysis (ABA) programs]. Within the high-intensity groups, increased temporal input on the program was not associated with increased gains in the children. The results from clinic-based ABA trials were partially replicated on a home-based sample, using children with greater autistic and intellectual impairments.

  1. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887

  2. The effect of IPS-modified, an early intervention for people with mood and anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lone; Bech, Per; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    that Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has a positive effect on employment when provided to people with severe mental illness. This modified IPS intervention is aimed at supporting people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in regaining their ability to work and facilitate their return......Anxiety and affective disorders can be disabling and have a major impact on the ability to work. In Denmark, people with a mental disorder, and mainly non-psychotic disorders, represent a substantial and increasing part of those receiving disability pensions. Previous studies have indicated...... to work or education.Aim: To investigate whether an early modified IPS intervention has an effect on employment and education when provided to people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in a Danish context.Methods/design: The trial is a randomised, assessor-blinded, clinical superiority...

  3. A selective overview of issues on classification, causation, and early intensive behavioral intervention for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelios, L V; Lund, S K

    2001-10-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined disorder that comprises a controversial diagnostic category due to heterogeneity in symptomatology, causation, and etiology and significant variance in response to intervention. In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of the clinical category and a summary of diagnostic developments with respect to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Regarding causation and etiology, they briefly discuss selected perspectives from the fields of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. The article concludes with a summary of effective behavioral strategies for the treatment of children with autism. This section highlights the importance of early intensive behavioral intervention and includes a discussion of some important aspects of this approach.

  4. Youth mental health in deprived urban areas: a Delphi study on the role of the GP in early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schaffalitzky, E

    2014-09-06

    GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.

  5. The effect of duration of untreated psychosis and treatment delay on the outcomes of prolonged early intervention in psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether...... psychosis influences the long-term outcomes of treatment. Nikolai Albert, at the Copenhagen Mental Health Centre, and a team of Danish researchers have investigated the effects of a specialized early intervention program (OPUS) in 400 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and compared...... the effects of OPUS after two and five years. Their findings suggest that five years of specialized early intervention was most beneficial when the total duration from symptom start to treatment was shorter than 6 months. The treatment was particularly effective at improving patients' disorganized behavior...

  6. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  7. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  8. Parent-mediated early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Inalegwu P; Honey, Emma J; McConachie, Helen

    2013-04-30

    Young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in the areas of communication and social interaction and often display repetitive or non-compliant behaviour. This early pattern of difficulties is a challenge for parents. Therefore, approaches that help parents develop strategies for interaction and management of behaviour are an obvious route for early intervention in ASD. This review updates a Cochrane review first published in 2002 but is based on a new protocol. To assess the effectiveness of parent-mediated early interventions in terms of the benefits for both children with ASD and their parents and to explore some potential moderators of treatment effect. We searched a range of psychological, educational and biomedical databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and ERIC in August 2012. As this is an update of a previous review, we limited the search to the period following the original searches in 2002. Bibliographies and reference lists of key articles were searched, field experts were contacted and key journals were handsearched. We included only randomised controlled trials of early intervention for children with ASD. The interventions in the experimental condition were mediated by parents; the control conditions included no treatment, treatment as usual, waiting list, alternative child-centred intervention not mediated by parents, or alternative parent-mediated intervention of hypothesised lesser effect than the experimental condition. Two review authors (HM and IPO) independently screened articles identified in the search and decided which articles should be retrieved in full. For each included study, two review authors (IPO and EH) extracted and recorded data, using a piloted data collection form. Two review authors (IPO and HM) assessed the risk of bias in each study. We performed data synthesis and analysis using The Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.1 software. The review includes 17 studies from six countries

  9. WHO Global Consultation on Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana

    2018-01-30

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be

  10. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems.Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing.The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM. Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday.The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  11. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O'Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  12. Parental reminder, recall and educational interventions to improve early childhood immunisation uptake: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Hannah; Reissland, Nadja; Mason, James

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of reducing childhood mortality. Despite global uptake of childhood vaccinations increasing, rates remain sub-optimal, meaning that vaccine-preventable diseases still pose a public health risk. A range of interventions to promote vaccine uptake have been developed, although this range has not specifically been reviewed in early childhood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of parental interventions to improve early childhood (0–5 y...

  13. Early Stent Thrombosis and Mortality After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dangas, George D; Schoos, Mikkel M.; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early stent thrombosis (ST) within 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is a serious event. We sought to determine the predictors of and risk of mortality after early ST according to procedural antithrombotic therapy...... percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation at 188 international sites, randomized to either bivalirudin or heparin±a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI). Early ST occurred in 100 patients (2.0%), 20 of whom (20.0%) died. Bivalirudin was associated with higher rates of early ST compared...... with bivalirudin compared with heparin±GPI because of increased ST within 4 hours after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the mortality attributable to early ST was significantly lower after bivalirudin than after heparin±GPI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http...

  14. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.

  15. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01 and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01. Conclusions Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  16. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01) and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01). Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led) physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  17. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  18. Sensory Integration Therapy in Malaysia and Singapore: Sources of Information and Reasons for Use in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, H. M.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Sensory integration (SI) therapy is a popular form of intervention for children with disabilities, particularly those with autism spectrum disorders, even though research evidence demonstrating beneficial outcomes from the use of SI therapy is limited. A questionnaire was distributed to early intervention education service providers in Malaysia…

  19. Early intervention leads to long-term developmental improvements in very preterm infants, especially infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hus, Jwp; Jeukens-Visser, M.; Koldewijn, K.; Holman, R.; Kok, J. H.; Nollet, F.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Various early intervention programmes have been developed in response to the high rate of neurodevelopmental problems in very preterm infants. We investigated longitudinal effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program on cognitive and motor development of very preterm infants

  20. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3-9 mo...

  1. An Intervention to Increase Early Childhood Staff Capacity for Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Development in Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L.; Malsch, Anna M.; Kothari, Brianne Hood; Busse, Jessica; Brennan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a pilot intervention designed to enhance preschool programs' ability to support children's social-emotional development. Working with two Head Start programs, the intervention included (1) restructuring existing early childhood mental health consultation services; (2) engaging…

  2. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  3. Early psychosocial intervention does not delay institutionalization in persons with mild Alzheimer disease and has impact on neither disease progression nor caregivers' well-being: ALSOVA 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Anne M; Hallikainen, Ilona; Välimäki, Tarja; Hongisto, Kristiina; Hiltunen, Asta; Karppi, Pertti; Sivenius, Juhani; Soininen, Hilkka; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-03-01

    Early diagnosis, initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy and programs that support care of persons with AD at home are recommended. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early psychosocial intervention on delaying the institutionalization of persons with AD. We also assessed the influence of intervention on AD progression, behavioral symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with AD and caregivers. Kuopio ALSOVA study, a prospective, randomized intervention study with a 3-year follow-up, was carried out at memory clinics. Home-dwelling persons with very mild or mild AD (n = 236) and AD-targeted therapy and their family caregivers (n = 236) were randomized to the intervention or control group (1:2). Psychosocial intervention including education, counseling, and social support was given during the first 2 years (16 days). The primary outcome was the cumulative risk (controlled for death) of institutionalization over 36 months. Secondary outcomes were adjusted mean changes from baseline in disease severity, cognition, daily activities, behavior, and HRQoL for persons with AD; and change in psychological distress, depression, and HRQoL for caregivers. No differences were found in nursing home placement after the 36-month follow-up between intervention and control groups. No beneficial effects of the intervention were found on the secondary outcomes. The psychosocial intervention did not delay nursing home placement in persons with AD and had no effect on patient well-being, disease progression, or AD-related symptoms or caregiver well-being. Instead of automatically providing psychosocial intervention courses, individualized support programs may be more effective. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus noninterve...

  5. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Beyond Cumulative Risk: A Dimensional Approach to Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Children who have experienced environmental adversity-such as abuse, neglect, or poverty-are more likely to develop physical and mental health problems, perform poorly at school, and have difficulties in social relationships than children who have not encountered adversity. What is less clear is how and why adverse early experiences exert such a profound influence on children's development. Identifying developmental processes that are disrupted by adverse early environments is the key to developing better intervention strategies for children who have experienced adversity. Yet, much existing research relies on a cumulative risk approach that is unlikely to reveal these mechanisms. This approach tallies the number of distinct adversities experienced to create a risk score. This risk score fails to distinguish between distinct types of environmental experience, implicitly assuming that very different experiences influence development through the same underlying mechanisms. We advance an alternative model. This novel approach conceptualizes adversity along distinct dimensions, emphasizes the central role of learning mechanisms, and distinguishes between different forms of adversity that might influence learning in distinct ways. A key advantage of this approach is that learning mechanisms provide clear targets for interventions aimed at preventing negative developmental outcomes in children who have experienced adversity.

  7. The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI): A Classroom Teacher Tier 2 Intervention to Help Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Amendum, Steve; Kainz, Kirsten; Ginsburg, Marnie

    2009-01-01

    The two studies presented in this report were designed to test the effectiveness of a new diagnostic-based reading intervention for classroom teachers, called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI). This TRI Tier 2 intervention stressed diagnostic teaching as the key to helping struggling readers make rapid progress in reading in the regular…

  8. Interrater reliability of early intervention providers scoring the alberta infant motor scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Y; Neilan, E; Busanich, J; Garavuso, L; Klimas, D

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the interrater reliability of early intervention providers scoring of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and to examine whether training on the AIMS would improve their interrater reliability. Eight early intervention providers were randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group 1 scored the AIMS on seven videotapes of infants prior to receiving training and after training on another set of seven videotapes of infants. Participants in Group 2 scored the AIMS on all 14 videotapes of the infants after receiving training. Overall interrater reliability before and after training was high with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. Detailed examination of the results showed that training improved the reliability of the supine subscale in a subgroup of infants between the ages of five and seven months. Training also had an effect on the classification of infants as normal or abnormal in their motor development based on their percentile rankings. The AIMS manual provides sufficient information to attain high interrater reliability without training, but revisions regarding scoring are strongly recommended.

  9. Evaluating families' satisfaction with early hearing detection and intervention services in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Liu, Chia-Ling; Stone, Sarah; Farrell, Janet

    2007-06-01

    To determine levels of families' satisfaction and anxiety associated with the early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) process in Massachusetts, and to assess the relationship between a child's hearing status and levels of family satisfaction. Surveys were mailed to families whose infants (a) passed their initial hearing screening (Group 1), (b) did not pass their initial screening but subsequently passed an outpatient rescreen or diagnostic evaluation (Group 2), or (c) were identified with permanent hearing loss (Group 3). Survey instruments measured families' satisfaction and anxiety associated with each stage of the EHDI process. Of the 4,138 families surveyed, 1,106 (27%) responded. Families reported satisfaction with screening services (Group 1 = 88%; Group 2 = 86%; Group 3 = 75%), and few reported anxiety prior to the hearing screening (Group 1= 4%; Group 2 = 15%; Group 3 = 19%). Among families requiring retesting services, 97% of Group 2 and 87% of Group 3 families were satisfied. Among Group 3 families, 94% reported satisfaction with the care their audiologist was providing, and 79% were satisfied with their early intervention services overall. Families reported satisfaction with the EHDI services they received in Massachusetts and expressed strong support for the universal newborn hearing screening initiative.

  10. Federal privacy regulations and the provision of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K Todd; Behl, Diane D; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene

    2010-08-01

    To be successful, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs require individually identifiable information about children to be shared among people who are responsible for screening, diagnosis, early intervention, family support, and medical home services. Pediatricians and other stakeholders in the EHDI process often point to federal laws that were passed to ensure privacy and confidentiality in health care and educational programs as major obstacles to achieving efficient and effective EHDI programs. In this article we summarize the provisions of 3 federal laws (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA], and Part C privacy regulations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]) that most directly affect information-sharing in EHDI programs. We suggest strategies for sharing the information needed to operate successful EHDI programs while remaining in compliance with these laws, including obtaining signed parental consent to share information between providers, including an option on the individual family services plan for parents to permit sharing of the plan with pediatricians and other providers, and giving copies of all relevant test results to parents to share with providers as they wish.

  11. Severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pegylated interferon treatment and early intervention with corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe acute exacerbation or liver failure induced by standard interferon-α(IFN-α therapy had been reported to occur in few patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, no report showed that pegylated interferon-α therapy was able to induce severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Here, we describe three patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pegylated interferon-α2a (Pegasys treatment. One patient progressed into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF at the second week of Pegasys treatment. Two patients progressed into acute-on-chronic pre-liver failure (pre-ACLF at the second and eighth week of Pegasys treatment, respectively. Three patients recovered after early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine. Our data indicated that there was a risk of severe acute exacerbation among patients with chronic hepatitis B during receiving Pegasys treatment. Importantly, early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine should be introduced to prevent the disease progression and improve their prognosis once severe acute exacerbation was diagnosed.

  12. Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD Dependents. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    This rule reissues the current regulations and: Establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and implements the non-funding and non-reporting provisions in DoD for: Provision of early intervention services (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and related services to children with disabilities entitled under this part to receive education services from the DoD; implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program of EIS for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families who, but for age, are eligible to be enrolled in DoD schools; provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE), including special education and related services, for children with disabilities, as specified in their individualized education programs (IEP), who are eligible to enroll in DoD schools; and monitoring of DoD programs providing EIS, and special education and related services for compliance with this part. This rule also establishes a DoD Coordinating Committee to recommend policies and provide compliance oversight for early intervention and special education.

  13. Prevalence of Asperger syndrome among patients of an Early Intervention in Psychosis team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Conor; Greenwood, Nick; Stansfield, Alison; Wright, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of systematic studies into comorbidity of Asperger syndrome and psychosis. To determine the prevalence of Asperger syndrome among patients of an early intervention in psychosis service. This study was a cross-sectional survey consisting of three phases: screening, case note review and diagnostic interviews. All patients on caseload (n = 197) were screened using the Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire. The case notes of patients screened positive were then reviewed for information relevant to Asperger syndrome. Those suspected of having Asperger syndrome were invited for a diagnostic interview. Thirty patients were screened positive. Three of them already had a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome made by child and adolescent mental health services. After case note review, 13 patients were invited to interview. Four did not take part, so nine were interviewed. At interview, four were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. In total, seven patients had Asperger syndrome. Thus, the prevalence rate in this population is at least 3.6%. The results suggest that the prevalence of Asperger syndrome in first-episode psychosis is considerably higher than that in the general population. Clinicians working in early intervention teams need to be alert to the possibility of Asperger syndrome when assessing patients. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Participation by pediatricians in early intervention: impetus from Public Law 99-457.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, J A; Healy, A; Ruppert, E S

    1992-01-01

    Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (originally enacted as Public Law 99-457) requires that participating states phase in a system of early intervention services by 1993. By recognizing the importance of good health in the development of infants and toddlers, Congress acknowledged the key role of medical care providers in a comprehensive program for young children with or at risk for developmental delay or dysfunction. National and state surveys of pediatricians suggest limited but growing awareness of this legislation and uncertainty about how they might participate effectively. A chief concern relates to mechanisms of payment for developmental screening and assessment as well as time-demands for participation in interdisciplinary team activities. The American Academy of Pediatrics and its state chapters are responding to requests for information with educational seminars and print materials. Pediatricians can enhance the quality of community support services for children with special needs by participating in planning efforts and by coordinating health care with other aspects of early intervention. Other professionals and parents are looking to pediatricians for leadership and willing participation in the implementation of PL 99-457.

  15. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70-80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  17. The Verbal Behavior Approach to Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism: A Call for Additional Empirical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E.; Firth, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been firmly established and disseminated as one of the most effective treatments for early childhood autism. Recently, a number of practitioners have employed a variant of this approach in which the language curriculum is organized and taught according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal…

  18. The importance of sustainability in the design of culturally appropriate programmes of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, A

    1990-01-01

    The need for early intervention with regard to children with developmental disabilities is of increasingly universal relevance. The means adopted in pursuit of this end will, however, vary appropriately across cultures. All intervention programmes will inevitably share many features in common, but to be truly effective, programmes need to take into account circumstances in the locality in which they operate. This notion is frequently paid 'lip-service', but many programmes across the globe still retain the essential character of services developed in the context of Europe or North America. What is required is a radical appreciation of the importance of service programmes reflecting the structure and functions of indigenous culture. A concept useful in this regard is that of sustainability, which is currently guiding much discussion concerning the nature of economic and agricultural programmes in the developing world. This term emphasizes the need to consider from the outset the mechanisms that will serve to support changes brought about on the formal introduction of intervention programmes. Using a behaviour analytic framework to examine the concept of sustainability, specific prerequisites of a 'sustainable service' within any particular setting are suggested. A resulting checklist of factors that should be considered in advance of service development may be a useful aid to service planners.

  19. An Online Change of Activity in Energy Spectrum for Detection on an Early Intervention Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudergui, K.; Laine, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire de Modelisation et de Simulation des Systemes, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blanc, P. [IMS, Innovation and Measurement Systems, 94100 Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France); Deltour, A. [ECA Robotics, 91892 Orsay Cedex (France); Mozziconacci, S. [SDIS13, 13110 Port de Bouc (France)

    2015-07-01

    With the growth of industrial risks and the multiplication of CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological and explosive) attacks through toxic chemicals, biological or radiological threats, public services and military authorities face with increasingly critical situations, whose management is strongly conditioned by fast and reliable establishment of an informative diagnostic. Right after an attack, the five first minutes are crucial to define the various scenarios and the most dangerous for a human intervention. Therefore the use of robots is considered essential by all stakeholders of security. In this context, the SISPEO project (Systeme d'Intervention Sapeurs Pompiers Robotise) aims to create/build/design a robust response through a robotic platform for early intervention services such as civil and military security in hostile environments. CEA LIST has proposed an adapted solution to detect and characterize nuclear and radiological risks online and in motion, using a miniature embedded CdZnTe (CZT) crystal Gamma-ray spectrometer. This paper presents experimental results for this miniature embedded CZT spectrometer and its associated mathematical method to detect and characterize radiological threats online and in motion. (authors)

  20. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  1. What are the best animal models for testing early intervention in cerebral palsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin John Clowry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery or generalised anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal system of various animals models human corticospinal system function and development is also explored. Where attempts have already been made to test early intervention in animal models, the outcomes are evaluated in light of the suitability of the model.

  2. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-02-01

    For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is designed to assist parents to support and enhance their infant's regulatory competence and development. The intervention consisted of 6-8 home visits during the first 8 months after birth. Seventy-eight mothers of very preterm infants (attachment representations were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI). The interviews resulted in a classification of the attachment representations into balanced or non-balanced. 30% of the mothers had non-balanced attachment representations. Qualitative content analysis of the answers showed that negative feelings when first seeing their baby and negative or ambivalent feelings in the first weeks at home with their baby are related to non-balanced attachment representations. The WMCI revealed no differences between the intervention and control group. Early support for mothers of very preterm born infants to develop a healthy mother-infant relationship is recommended especially for mothers who report negative first experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. POSTSURGICAL RECURRENT CUSHING DISEASE: CLINICAL BENEFIT OF EARLY INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL URINARY FREE CORTISOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ty B; Javorsky, Bradley R; Findling, James W

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of biochemical markers in the detection of recurrent Cushing disease (CD), as well as the potential benefit of early intervention in recurrent CD patients with elevated late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) and normal urinary free cortisol (UFC). The design was a single-center, retrospective chart review. Patients treated by the authors from 2008-2013 were included. Recurrence was defined by postsurgical remission of CD with subsequent abnormal LNSC, UFC, or dexamethasone suppression test (DST). We identified 15 patients with postsurgical recurrent CD after initial remission; all but one underwent testing with LNSC, DST, and UFC. Although 12 of 15 patients had normal UFC at time of recurrence, DST was abnormal in 11 of 15, and all 14 patients with LNSC results had ≥1 elevated measurement. Nine patients (7 with normal UFC) showed radiologic evidence of a pituitary tumor at time of recurrence. Among the 14 patients with available follow-up data, 12 have demonstrated significant improvement since receiving treatment. Five patients underwent repeat pituitary surgery and 4 achieved clinical and biochemical remission. Eight patients received mifepristone or cabergoline, and 6 showed clinical and/or biochemical improvement. Three patients (2 with prior mifepristone) underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and 2 demonstrated significant clinical improvements. LNSC is more sensitive than UFC or DST for detection of CD recurrence. Prompt intervention when LNSC is elevated, despite normal UFC, may yield significant clinical benefit for many patients with CD. Early treatment for patients with recurrent CD should be prospectively evaluated, utilizing LNSC elevation as an early biochemical marker. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome CV = coefficient of variation DST = dexamethasone suppression test IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol QoL = quality of life TSS = transsphenoidal

  4. Effectiveness of very early workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Demou, Evangelia; Lalloo, Drushca; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Sanati, Kaveh A; Sampere, Maite; Freer, Kerry; Serra, Consol; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace return-to-work (RTW) interventions delivered at very early stages (researchers carried out the study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction. Workplace interventions before day 15 of SA, were included. Primary outcome measures included rates of and time until RTW, productivity loss, and recurrences of SA. We found limited available evidence on the benefits of "very early" workplace interventions in terms of RTW after a SA episode compared to usual care. Only three randomized controlled trials classed as high or intermediate quality were identified. Early part-time sick leave together with appropriate job modifications led to a reduction in the duration and recurrence of SA. There is evidence of benefit of intervening during the first two weeks of SA for musculoskeletal disorders. Our review has identified a lack of evidence from the literature at this time point to support "very early" intervention compared to usual care. The methodological design of the studies, notably the extent and timing of usual care provided and variable compliance/crossover between groups could however explain the lack of demonstrated benefit. Consensus is required on the definition of "early" and "very early" interventions, and further research is recommended to improve understanding of the factors influencing when and how best to intervene for maximum gain.

  5. A systematic review evaluating the role of nurses and processes for delivering early mobility interventions in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Anna; Steege, Linsey; King, Barbara

    2018-04-19

    To investigate processes for delivering early mobility interventions in adult intensive care unit patients used in research and quality improvement studies and the role of nurses in early mobility interventions. A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases PubMED, CINAHL, PEDro, and Cochrane were searched for studies published from 2000 to June 2017 that implemented an early mobility intervention in adult intensive care units. Included studies involved progression to ambulation as a component of the intervention, included the role of the nurse in preparing for or delivering the intervention, and reported at least one patient or organisational outcome measure. The System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, a framework for understanding structure, processes, and healthcare outcomes, was used to evaluate studies. 25 studies were included in the final review. Studies consisted of randomised control trials, prospective, retrospective, or mixed designs. A range of processes to support the delivery of early mobility were found. These processes include forming interdisciplinary teams, increasing mobility staff, mobility protocols, interdisciplinary education, champions, communication, and feedback. Variation exists in the process of delivering early mobility in the intensive care unit. In particular, further rigorous studies are needed to better understand the role of nurses in implementing early mobility to maintain a patient's functional status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research Paper: Production of A Protocol on Early Intervention for Speech and Language Delays in Early Childhood: An Novice Experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Vameghi

    2016-01-01

    Results The result of this study is presented as 7 intervention packages, including the following domains of disorders: prelingual lingual speech and language hearing impairment, speech sound, dysphagia, stuttering, and dysarthria  Conclusion Most studies have confirmed the effectiveness and need for early interventions for children with speech and language impairment. However, most do not explain the details of these interventions. Before the present study, no systematic and evidence-based protocol existed for early intervention in childhood speech and language impairments, in Iran; and due to language differences, as well as possible differences in the speech and language developmental process of children of different communities, making direct use of non-Persian references was not possible and effective. Thus, there was a clear demand for the production of such a protocol.

  7. Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants' development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtala, Paula; Partanen, Eino

    2018-04-30

    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. The impact of indicated prevention and early intervention on co-morbid eating disorder and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.

  9. Extending the Reach of Early Intervention Training for Practitioners: A Preliminary Investigation of an Online Curriculum for Teaching Behavioral Intervention Knowledge in Autism to Families and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Charles D.; Serna, Richard W.; Morrison, Leslie; Fleming, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Early behavioral intervention (BI), based on the methods of applied behavior analysis, has the strongest and most consistent scientific support as a means of teaching skills to young children with autism spectrum disorder and reducing their restricted and maladaptive behavior. Although individual applied behavior analysis (ABA)-based treatment…

  10. Vers un modele d'intervention precoce en lecture en actualisation linguistique (Towards a Model of Early Intervention in Reading Readiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marie Josee

    1999-01-01

    Argues that in Ontario's French-medium schools, reading is often a challenge, particularly for those in readiness classes who speak little or no French. A model for early intervention in reading is recommended, combining reading and writing to address the linguistic challenges of students in a minority-language community. (Author/MSE)

  11. A Comparison of Equine-Assisted Intervention and Conventional Play-Based Early Intervention for Mother-Child Dyads with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…

  12. [Gold standards for scientific proof of efficacy and effectiveness as prerequisites for the dissemination of intervention programs in the field of early intervention. Randomized controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengning, A

    2010-10-01

    The necessity of early intervention is recognized both nationally and internationally. This however goes hand in hand with the legitimate request for proving the efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs. There are many international studies on this. Some of these exhibit a number of problems, which often restricts the validity of the studies' results. A scientific evaluation of programs in Germany, on the other hand, is often missing entirely or the studies and evaluations are currently in progress. The article at hand using the example of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) gives an overview of which gold standards of evaluation are desirable or should be scientifically demanded to prove efficacy and effectiveness of prevention/intervention in the field of early intervention. Standards for efficacy refer to 1) specification of the program's efficacy, 2) program documentation, 3) evaluating the quality of how the program was carried out, 4) recording and evaluating expected changes, as well as 5) conclusions concerning the causality of results and generalizations. Standards for efficiency refer to 1) description of the intervention, 2) evaluation in real-life contexts and 3) cost-benefit analysis. Based on a presentation of these standards, recommendations are made for the dissemination of prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Early intervention for adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathleff Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported knee pain is highly prevalent among adolescents. As much as 50% of the non-specific knee pain may be attributed to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS. In the short term, exercise therapy appears to have a better effect than patient education consisting of written information and general advice on exercise or compared with placebo treatment. But the long-term effect of exercise therapy compared with patient education is conflicting. The purpose of this study is to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of patient education compared with patient education and multimodal physiotherapy applied at a very early stage of the condition among adolescents. Methods/Design This study is a single blind pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Four upper secondary schools have been invited to participate in the study (approximately 2500 students, aged 15-19 years. Students are asked to answer an online questionnaire regarding musculoskeletal pain. The students who report knee pain are contacted by telephone and offered a clinical examination by a rheumatologist. Subjects who fit the inclusion criteria and are diagnosed with PFPS are invited to participate in the study. A minimum of 102 students with PFPS are then cluster-randomised into two intervention groups based on which school they attend. Both intervention groups receive written information and education. In addition to patient education, one group receives multimodal physiotherapy consisting primarily of neuromuscular training of the muscles around the foot, knee and hip and home exercises. The students with PFPS fill out self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion in the study. The primary outcome measure is perception of recovery measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from "completely recovered" to "worse than ever" at 12 months. Discussion This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of patient

  14. Early signs of mobility decline and physical activity counseling as a preventive intervention in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina

    study, on 63 to 75-year-old community-dwelling women (n=434). Data on mobility limitation, physical activity and health status were obtained in face-to-face interviews or with questionnaires. Muscle power and walking speed were measured during the research centre examinations and falls were followed......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...

  15. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Shmuel; Greenberg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined. PMID:25336980

  16. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under...... clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. METHODS: The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. RESULTS: The current situation...... of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed...

  17. Buffalo pox outbreak with atypical features: a word of caution and need for early intervention!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, Surrinder Kumar; Barua, Sanjay; Bera, Bidhan Chandra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Despite repeated outbreaks of poxvirus infections unique to the Indian subcontinent region and veterinary research work in this field, much less diagnostic awareness with resultant treatment protocols have been formulated in the human medical field. With this objective in mind, a combined human medical and veterinary study was conducted on a recent outbreak of buffalopox infection in a village in northern India. A team of doctors did the clinical examination and collected swab and serum samples from both cattle and humans, and these were subjected to viral isolation, cell culture, plaque reduction neutralization test, polymerase chain reaction, and partial genome sequencing. A clustered foci of 12 human patients aged 11-60 years, 12 buffaloes, and 10 cows were found to be affected with buffalopox infection with some atypical features. Awareness, diagnosis, education, early intervention, and formulation of disaster guidelines are needed in view of the potential epidemiologic outbreak, if this happens in the future. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Is a Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R; Carta, Judith J; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether or not preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, we conducted a process-product description of preschool instruction and children's growth and outcomes in typical programs (i.e., Pre-Kindergarten, Title 1, Head Start, Tuition-Based) using a Response to Intervention (RTI) perspective. Results indicated that (a) students in their preschool year prior to kindergarten made small gains, but students starting the year in lower Tier 2 and 3 performance levels did not close initial skills gaps, (b) variations were noted by program types with varying socio-demographics and instructional processes, and (c) the quality of instruction (Tier 1) received by all was low with room for improvement. Implications for future research on the application of the RTI approach and potential benefits are discussed.

  19. Modern care for patients with Alzheimer disease: rationale for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Katherine E; Appelt, Denah M; Balin, Brian J

    2010-09-01

    More than 5 million people in the United States are afflicted with Alzheimer disease, a condition that is the seventh leading cause of death in the nation. Lacking definitive disease-modifying treatments, modern care for individuals with Alzheimer disease is necessarily multimodal, combining the use of approved pharmaceutic agents (ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, antipsychotics), lifestyle and behavioral interventions, and components of palliative care. Some promising experimental treatments are undergoing clinical trials, including immunotherapy to prevent the deposition of β-amyloid, a protein implicated as an etiologic factor in the disease. The authors briefly examine the rationale and methods for screening patients for early indications of the onset of Alzheimer disease. They also describe current and potential treatments for patients with this disease.

  20. Multisensory-Based Rehabilitation Approach: Translational Insights from Animal Models to Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Purpura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory processes permit combinations of several inputs, coming from different sensory systems, allowing for a coherent representation of biological events and facilitating adaptation to environment. For these reasons, their application in neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation has been enhanced in the last decades. Recent studies on animals and human models have indicated that, on one hand multisensory integration matures gradually during post-natal life and development is closely linked to environment and experience and, on the other hand, that modality-specific information seems to do not benefit by redundancy across multiple sense modalities and is more readily perceived in unimodal than in multimodal stimulation. In this review, multisensory process development is analyzed, highlighting clinical effects in animal and human models of its manipulation for rehabilitation of sensory disorders. In addition, new methods of early intervention based on multisensory-based rehabilitation approach and their applications on different infant populations at risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities are discussed.

  1. Multiple magnet ingestion: is there a role for early surgical intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.

  2. Effect of nursing intervention on early rehabilitation of patients with abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zhen Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study effect of nursing intervention on early rehabilitation of patients with abdominal surgery. Methods: A total of 90 patients with abdominal surgery were randomly divided into observation group and control group by half. Patients in the control group were given routine nursing care, observation group given conventional gum chewing training and anal contraction movements. Results: In the observation group anal exhaust time, indwelling gastric tube and catheter time defecate, eating time, hospitalization days were significantly reduced compared with controls (P 0.05. Conclusions: Strengthened perioperative nursing, gum chewing training and anal contraction movements can promote gastrointestinal functional recovery after abdominal surgery. It can shorten hospitalization time, reduce the patients' pain. It is safety, effective and worthy clinical application.

  3. Improving metabolic and cardiovascular health at an Early Psychosis Intervention program in Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane H. Fredrikson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health Early Psychosis Intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study which evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

  4. Early interdisciplinary hospital intervention for elderly patients with hip fractures : functional outcome and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hip fractures are associated with high levels of co-morbidity and mortality. Orthogeriatric units have been shown to be effective with respect to functional recovery and mortality reduction. The aim of this study is to document the natural history of early multidisciplinary intervention in elderly patients with hip fractures and to establish the prognostic factors of mortality and walking ability after discharge. METHODS: This observational, retrospective study was performed in an orthogeriatric care unit on patients aged >70 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture between 2004 and 2008. This study included 1363 patients with a mean age of 82.7 + 6.4 years. RESULTS: On admission to the unit, the average Barthel score of these patients was 77.2 + 27.8 points, and the average Charlson index score was 2.14 + 2.05. The mean length of stay was 8.9 + 4.26 days, and the readmission rate was 2.3%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.7%, and the mortality rates at one, six, and 12 months after discharge were 8.7%, 16.9%, and 25.9%, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards model estimated that male sex, Barthel scale, heart failure, and cognitive impairment were associated with an increased risk of death. With regard to functionality, 63.7% of the patients were able to walk at the time of discharge, whereas 77.4% and 80.1% were able to walk at one month and six months post-discharge, respectively. The factors associated with a worse functional recovery included cognitive impairment, performance status, age, stroke, Charlson score, and delirium during the hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Early multidisciplinary intervention appears to be effective for the management of hip fracture. Age, male sex, baseline function, cognitive impairment and previous comorbidities are associated with a higher mortality rate and worse functional recovery.

  5. Modeling determinants of medication attitudes and poor adherence in early nonaffective psychosis: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leboyer, Marion; Leucht, Stefan; Leweke, Markus; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris E; Kahn, René S; Lewis, Shon W

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to design a multimodal intervention to improve adherence following first episode psychosis, consistent with current evidence. Existing literature identified medication attitudes, insight, and characteristics of support as important determinants of adherence to medication: we examined medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6 weeks and 3 and 18 months. Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) and treatment satisfaction were rated from 6 weeks onward. Structural equation models of their relationships were compared. Insight measures' and DAI's predictive validity were compared against relapse, readmission, and remission. Analysis found five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation predicted readmission. Good 6-week insight (unlike drug attitudes) predicted remission. Literature review and data modeling indicated that a multimodal intervention using motivational interviewing, online psychoeducation, and SMS text medication reminders to enhance adherence without damaging self-concept was feasible and appropriate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  6. Effects of early intervention on EEG power and coherence in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J; Reeb, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of Romanian children were compared on spectral power and coherence in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in early childhood. One group consisted of previously institutionalized children who had been randomly assigned to a foster care intervention at a mean age of 23 months. The second group had been randomized to remain in institutional care. Because of a policy of noninterference, a number of these children also experienced placement into alternative family care environments. There were minimal group differences between the foster care and institutionalized groups in EEG power and coherence across all measured frequency bands at 42 months of age. However, age at foster care placement within the foster care group was correlated with certain measures of EEG power and coherence. Earlier age at foster care placement was associated with increased alpha power and decreased short-distance EEG coherence. Further analyses separating age at placement from duration of intervention suggest that this effect may be more robust for EEG coherence than EEG band power. Supplementary analyses examined whether the EEG measures mediated changes in intellectual abilities within the foster care children, but no clear evidence of mediation was observed.

  7. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-01-21

    There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. The current situation of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed to this situation precluding that children with autism receive the most beneficial assistance. The authors have initiated and been working in an intervention centre offering EIBI for a decade and report on their experience with the implementation of EIBI. Based on their clinical practice, they document that EIBI also works efficiently under ordinary mental health service conditions. EIBI needs to be implemented more intensively in Switzerland. Although the effects of EIBI as implemented in Zurich are promising, the results are not as pronounced as under controlled research conditions.

  8. Need for Early Interventions in the Prevention of Pediatric Overweight: A Review and Upcoming Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Dattilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.

  9. Need for early interventions in the prevention of pediatric overweight: a review and upcoming directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Anne M; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M; Saavedra, Jose M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.

  10. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss.

  11. Data management for early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internationally, newborn hearing screening is becoming part of standard neonatal healthcare service guidelines for the implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI initiatives, including screening, diagnosis, data management and intervention. Data management includes the processes of data collection and storage thereof, as well as analysis and interpretation of data to guide the future planning, implementation and evaluation of EHDI programmes. There have been limited studies on data management in the South African EHDI context. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the type of data management systems in use in South Africa and whether they allow for cross-disciplinary sharing and evaluation of the EHDI processes. A survey instrument on the management of EHDI data was developed and sent to HI HOPES referral agents in both public and private sectors. Results: A return rate of 80% was achieved, with 19 (59% public sector and 13 (41% private sector audiologists participating in the study. The data revealed that there was no uniform data management system in use nationally, and no consistent shared system within the public or private sectors. The majority of respondents (44% used a paper-based system for data recording. No institutions were using data management systems that enabled sharing of information with other medical professionals. Conclusion: Data management and tracking of the pathway from screening to diagnosis to intervention is necessary to ensure quality care and outcomes for children identified with hearing loss. International studies reveal the importance of effective implementation of data management systems; however, to date these have focussed on developed country contexts. Data management challenges identified in this study reflect international challenges as well as challenges unique to a developing country context.

  12. Priorities for early hearing detection and intervention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2008-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa not only has the highest rates of neonatal, infant, and child mortality worldwide but also accounts for a significant proportion of the global burden of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL). This article explores the diverse psychosocial, educational, and economic consequences of PCEHL in the region and highlights the interrelationships between this condition and the crucial domains of early childhood development. It also examines relevant levels of prevention and current practices within the context of the birthing patterns and routine immunization schedules in the first three months of life. It presents practical options for addressing the needs of children with PCEHL and their parents against the backdrop of the prevailing health and socioeconomic conditions. It concludes by underscoring the crucial dimensions of culturally-sensitive interventions as well as the need for ear-care professionals in each country to take advantage of the growing global initiatives for hearing impairment prevention within a multidisciplinary framework to advance the best interests of the affected children and their families.

  13. Early intervention services for psychosis and time until application for disability income support: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Terry; Oyewumi, Kola; Archie, Suzanne; Lawson, J Stuart; Nandlal, Joan; Conrad, Gretchen

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the financial security of individuals recovering from first episode psychosis is imperative, but disability income programs can be powerful disincentives to employment, compromising the social and occupational aspects of recovery. Survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to examine the rate at which individuals served by early intervention for psychosis (EIP) services apply for government disability income benefits and factors that predict rate of application. Health records for 558 individuals served by EIP programs were reviewed. Within the first year of receiving services 30% will make application for disability income; 60% will do so by 5 years. Rate of application is predicted by rate of hospital admission, financial status and engagement in productivity roles at the time of entry to EIP service. The findings suggest the need to examine the extent to which the recovery goals of EI services are undermined by early application for government income support. They also suggest the need to develop best practice guidelines related to ensuring the economic security of individuals served.

  14. [Early multi-disciplinary intervention reduces neurological disability in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Fu; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Chen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Li; Long, Qi; Kong, Qi; Mao, Heng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-disciplinary treatment approaches in reducing neurological disabilities in premature infants. A total of 117 infants who were born premature in our hospital between March 2008 and February 2010 but had no congenital malformations and no severe neonatal complications, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly allocated to a multi-disciplinary treatment group (n=63) and a control group (n=54). While patients in the control group underwent an early conventional treatment, those in the multi-disciplinary treatment group were subjected to regular development monitoring, neurological examination and screening for brain injury, neuro-nutrition and neurodevelopment therapies, and rehabilitation training. The incidence rates of abnormalities in posture, reflex, sleep, muscle tone and EEG were significantly lower in the multi-disciplinary treatment group than in the control froup (Planguage barrier, abnormal muscle tone and hearing impairment were significantly lower in the multi-disciplinary treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Early multi-disciplinary intervention approaches may significantly improve mental and motor developments and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy-associated neurological disabilities in premature infants.

  15. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  16. Early detection of malaria foci for targeted interventions in endemic southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chime Nnenna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system could be an additional tool to identify foci of elevated incidence for targeted intervention. Methods Based on surveillance data collected weekly from 13 rural health centres (RHCs divided into three transmission zones, early warning thresholds were created following a technique successfully implemented in Thailand. Alert levels were graphed for all 52 weeks of a year using the mean and 95% confidence interval upper limit of a Poisson distribution of the weekly diagnosed malaria cases for every available week of historic data (beginning in Aug, 2008 at each of the sites within a zone. Annually adjusted population estimates for the RHC catchment areas served as person-time of weekly exposure. The zonal threshold levels were validated against the incidence data from each of the 13 respective RHCs. Results Graphed threshold levels for the three zones generally conformed to observed seasonal incidence patterns. Comparing thresholds with historic weekly incidence values, the overall percentage of aberrant weeks ranged from 1.7% in Mbabala to 36.1% in Kamwanu. For most RHCs, the percentage of weeks above threshold was greater during the high transmission season and during the 2009 year compared to 2010. 39% of weeks breaching alert levels were part of a series of three or more consecutive aberrant weeks. Conclusions The inconsistent sensitivity of the zonal threshold levels impugns the reliability of the alert system. With more years of surveillance data available, individual

  17. Assessing the impact of a program for late surgical intervention in early-blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, A; Gandhi, T; Chatterjee, G; Swami, P; Dhillon, H; Bi, S; Chauhan, N; Gupta, S D; Sharma, P; Sood, S; Ganesh, S; Mathur, U; Sinha, P

    2017-05-01

    Many blind children in the developing world are unable to obtain timely treatment due to lack of financial and medical resources. Can public health programs that identify and treat such children several years after the onset of blindness enhance their quality of life? The notion that visual development is subject to an early 'critical period' argues against this possibility. However, there are inadequate empirical data from humans on this issue. To address this need, we examined the quality of life of children living in India and who were treated for early-onset blindness (before one year of age), due to cataracts or corneal opacities. Survey study. As part of an ongoing scientific effort named Project Prakash, we screened over 40,000 children in rural northern India to identify those suffering from early-onset blindness. They were provided eye surgeries in a tertiary care ophthalmic center in New Delhi. We subsequently surveyed 64 Prakash children, ranging in age from 5 to 22 years and obtained their responses on a multi-dimensional quality of life questionnaire. Nearly all of the subjects indicated that their quality of life had improved after treatment. Children reported marked enhancement in their mobility, independence, and safety, and also in social integration. Surprisingly, we found no significant correlations between quality of life metrics and factors such as age at treatment, gender, time since treatment, and pre-surgery and post-surgery acuity. A key question for public health policy makers is whether a program of surgical intervention for older blind children is likely to be beneficial, or if the resources are better spent on rehabilitation via vocational training and assistive devices. The marked improvements in quality of life we find in our data strongly argue for the provision of surgical care regardless of a child's age. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of States' Use of Telehealth for the Delivery of Early Intervention (IDEA Part C) Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana; Behl, Diane; Ringwalt, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are designed to promote the development of skills and enhance the quality of life of infants and toddlers who have been identified as having a disability or developmental delay, enhance capacity of families to care for their child with special needs, reduce future educational costs, and promote independent living (NECTAC, 2011). EI services are regulated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telehealth is an emerging delivery model demonstrating potential to deliver EI services effectively and efficiently, thereby improving access and ameliorating the impact of provider shortages in underserved areas. The use of a telehealth delivery model facilitates inter-disciplinary collaboration, coordinated care, and consultation with specialists not available within a local community. A survey sent by the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) to IDEA Part C coordinators assessed their utilization of telehealth within states' IDEA Part C programs. Reimbursement for provider type and services and barriers to implement a telehealth service delivery model were identified. Representatives from 26 states and one jurisdiction responded to the NECTAC telehealth survey. Of these, 30% (n=9) indicated that they are either currently using telehealth as an adjunct service delivery model (n=6) or plan to incorporate telehealth within the next 1-2 years (n=3). Identified telehealth providers included developmental specialists, teachers of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH), speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, behavior specialists, audiologists, and interpreters. Reimbursement was variable and included use of IDEA Part C funding, Medicaid, and private insurance. Expressed barriers and concerns for the implementation of telehealth as a delivery model within Part

  19. A Low-Intensity Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Mood Symptoms in People with Early Psychosis: Development and Pilot Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Alan Chun Yat; Lin, Jessie Jing Xia; Cheung, Veronica Yuen Ki; Lau, Nicole Ka Man; Chang, Wing Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2016-11-01

    Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in people suffering from early psychosis. Growing evidence shows that mindfulness-based intervention is an effective option in handling depression and anxiety disorders. Current article aims to provide documentation on the development and pilot study, before a RCT of larger scale, evaluating the acceptability and potential effects of a 7-week mindfulness-based intervention programme (MBI-p). MBI-p was developed over nine months in 2014. A total of 14 people with early psychosis were recruited to three pilot trials of MBI-p. Eleven of them completed the programme and were interviewed. Eight of them were measured quantitatively at baseline and post-intervention on clinical symptoms, depression and anxiety levels, quality of life and mindfulness. Mixed qualitative and quantitative results supported MBI-p as an acceptable and feasible intervention. Significant statistical improvements were found in depression levels, mental quality of life, general psychopathology and ability to observe emotions and act with awareness. Qualitative comments suggested that the intervention was safe, enjoyable and had a positive impact on mood symptoms. In summary, these results provide a promising pilot support for a potentially effective and cost-efficient treatment option for people with early psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in people with early psychosis but long received little attention. A low-intensity mindfulness-based intervention targeting depression and anxiety symptoms among people with early psychosis was developed and pilot tested. It is feasible and acceptable to use mindfulness-based intervention as a complementary treatment for psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8

    OpenAIRE

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their fami...

  1. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention and the Role of Parents in Language Development of Hearing Loss Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shekari

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Research showed the effectiveness of early intervention in the early development of language and vocabulary. In addition, early detection of hearing loss in the first 6 months of age has a positive impact on children and families interactions and consequently, on language and vocabulary development. The primary focus in the implementation of early intervention services is to reduce the negative effects of risk factors and facilitate optimum development over time. Finally, the combination of early diagnosis and early intervention for children with hearing impairment is necessary.

  3. IMPLEMENTING AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION WITHIN HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START: HOME-VISITORS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. My Family-Study, Early-Onset Substance use Prevention Program: An Application of Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.

  5. Early Intervention May Prevent the Development of PTSD: A Randomized Pilot Civilian Study with Modified Prolonged Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C.; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J.; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder is a major public health concern with long term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD prior to memory consolidation. Methods Patients (N=137) were randomly assigned to receive 3 sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department (ED) compared to an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Results Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours post-trauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks post-injury, p rape victims at Week 4 (p=.004) and Week 12 (p=.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the ED is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms one and three months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately post-trauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. PMID:22766415

  6. Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks postinjury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours posttrauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks postinjury, p rape victims at week 4 (p = .004) and week 12 (p = .05). These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the emergency department is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms 1 and 3 months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately posttrauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. CDC Kerala 7: Effect of early language intervention among children 0-3 y with speech and language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Mini, A O; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Harikumaran Nair, G S; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To assess the effect of systematic clinic and home based early language intervention program in children reporting to the early language intervention clinic with full partnership of specially trained developmental therapist and the parents. All babies between 0 and 3 y referred to Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala for suspected speech/language delay were assessed and those without hearing impairment were screened first using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST) and assessed in detail using Receptive Expressive Emergent Language Scale (REELS). Those having language delay are enrolled into the early language intervention program for a period of 6 mo, 1 h at the CDC clinic once every month followed by home stimulation for rest of the month by the mother trained at CDC. Out of the total 455 children between 0 and 3 y, who successfully completed 6 mo intervention, the mean pre and post intervention language quotient (LQ) were 60.79 and 70.62 respectively and the observed 9.83 increase was statistically significant. The developmental diagnosis included developmental delay (62.4%), global developmental delay (18.5%), Trisomy and other chromosomal abnormalities (10.5%), microcephaly and other brain problems (9.9%), misarticulation (8.4%), autistic features (5.3%) and cleft palate and lip (3.3%) in the descending order. In the present study among 455 children between 0 and 3 y without hearing impairment, who successfully completed 6 mo early language intervention, the mean pre and post intervention LQ were 60.79 and 70.62 respectively and the observed 9.83 increase was statistically significant.

  9. Early Warning Scoring System for Early Recognition of and Timely Intervention in Deteriorating Patients in the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikirti

    2016-05-01

    Delay in recognizing clinical deterioration in acutely unwell patients often leads to cardiac arrests and unexpected admissions to the Intensive Care Unit. Early Warning Scoring Systems based on vital physiological parameters help in early detection of clinical deterioration. When combined with a system of prompt and appropriate clinical response, they have been shown to improve outcome. A standardised National Early Warning Score has been implemented in the United Kingdom. There is a need to implement an early warning scoring system in hospitals in India in order to ensure effective and judicious utilization of our overburdened acute services and to minimize adverse outcomes. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  10. Development and evaluation of an early detection intervention for mouth cancer using a mass media approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; MacKintosh, A M; MacAskill, S; Brown, A

    2009-12-03

    Scotland has a high incidence of mouth cancer, but public awareness and knowledge are low compared with other cancers. The West of Scotland Cancer Awareness Project sought to increase public awareness and knowledge of mouth cancer and to encourage early detection of symptoms among an at-risk population of people aged over 40 years from lower socio-economic groups using a mass media approach. The media campaign aimed to increase people's feelings of personal risk, while also enhancing feelings of efficacy and control. To achieve this, a testimonial approach (using real people to tell their own stories) was adopted. Campaign impact and reach was assessed using in-home interviews with a representative sample of the target population in both the campaign area and controls outside of the target area. Surveys were conducted at three stages: at baseline before the campaign was launched, and at 7 and 12 months thereafter. Awareness of media coverage was higher at both follow-up points in the intervention area than in the control area, the differences largely being accounted for by television advertising. The campaign had a short-term, but not a long-term impact on awareness of the disease and intention to respond to the symptoms targeted by the campaign. Awareness of two of the symptoms featured in the campaign (ulcers and lumps) increased, post-campaign, among the intervention group. While the study provides evidence for the effectiveness of the self-referral model, further work is needed to assess its ability to build public capacity to respond appropriately to symptoms and to compare the cost-effectiveness of a mass media approach against alternative communication approaches and more conventional mass screening.

  11. Preferences for Early Intervention Mental Health Services: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mackenzie P E; Christensen, Bruce K; Cunningham, Charles E; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Chen, Yvonne Y S; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Early intervention services (EISs) for mental illness may improve outcomes, although treatment engagement is often a problem. Incorporating patients' preferences in the design of interventions improves engagement. A discrete-choice conjoint experiment was conducted in Canada to identify EIS attributes that encourage treatment initiation. Sixteen four-level attributes were formalized into a conjoint survey, completed by patients, family members, and mental health professionals (N=562). Participants were asked which EIS option people with mental illness would contact. Latent-class analysis identified respondent classes characterized by shared preferences. Randomized first-choice simulations predicted which hypothetical options, based on attributes, would result in maximum utilization. Participants in the conventional-service class (N=241, 43%) predicted that individuals would contact traditional services (for example, hospital location and staffed by psychologists or psychiatrists). Membership was associated with being a patient or family member and being male. Participants in the convenient-service class (N=321, 57%) predicted that people would contact services promoting easy access (for example, self-referral and access from home). Membership was associated with being a professional. Both classes predicted that people would contact services that included short wait times, direct contact with professionals, patient autonomy, and psychological treatment information. The convenient-service class predicted that people would use an e-health model, whereas the conventional-service class predicted that people would use a primary care or clinic-hospital model. Provision of a range of services may maximize EIS use. Professionals may be more apt to adopt EISs in line with their beliefs regarding patient preferences. Considering several perspectives is important for service design.

  12. Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost

  13. Effects of early comprehensive interventions on child neurodevelopment in poor rural areas of China: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Wang, Z; Zhao, C; Huang, X; Liang, X; Wang, X; Lu, S; Scherpbier, R W

    2018-03-22

    To examine the effects of early comprehensive interventions on home environment and child neurodevelopment among children younger than 3 years in poor rural areas of China, as well as the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms. Non-randomized intervention study was conducted among 216 children aged 0-3 years in Shanxi province of China. Based on a 2 × 2 factor design, children in Lin and Fenxi County were assigned to an intervention group with duration less than 1 year (n = 26) or an intervention group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 82), while children in Fangshan County served as a control group with duration less than 1 year (n = 30) or a control group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 78). The control group received national public health services (NPHS), while the intervention group received NPHS plus comprehensive interventions covering health, nutrition, early psychosocial stimulation, and child protection. Home environment (Infant-Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) and child neurodevelopment (Ages and Stages Questionnaire [ASQ]) were measured by observation and interview with mothers after the intervention program. The intervention group showed significantly higher overall HOME, organization, learning materials, and involvement than the control group, only for a duration longer than 1 year. Children in the intervention group performed better in overall ASQ, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal-social than children in the control group. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that there were significantly indirect effects of treatment on overall ASQ through overall HOME, organization, and involvement only when the duration was longer than 1 year. Early comprehensive interventions longer than 1 year improve home environment and promote child neurodevelopment among children younger than 3 years in poor rural areas. What is more, effects of early comprehensive interventions longer than 1 year on

  14. Intersecting disadvantage: Unpacking poor outcomes within early intervention in psychosis services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nev; Godzikovskaya, Julia; Zhao, Zhen; Vasquez, Anthony; Gilbert, Al; Davidson, Larry

    2017-10-27

    In order to strengthen specialized early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services, a contextually nuanced understanding of psychosocial forces driving suboptimal treatment response is critical. This study sought to examine factors driving poor outcomes through a systematic emic coding of psychosocial assessments for discharged EIP clients categorized as leaving with all treatment goals met (AG) or no treatment goals met (NG). Psychosocial assessments at baseline, 1 year, 2 years and discharge were extracted from an EIP research registry and systematically coded. One hundred and thirty clients met the study's inclusion criteria (72 NG, 58 AG) from a larger pool of 278. Assessments were coded, quantized and analysed using a combination of basic inferential statistics and thematic analysis. Structural adversity, individual trauma, history of aggression/violence, limited insight and long treatment histories prior to EIP, were strong and significant predictors of poor client outcomes (NG), while motivation for treatment, college goals or preparedness at baseline, baseline engagement in constructive activities, social strengths, individual strengths, talents and family support strongly predicted better outcomes (AG). Race/ethnicity also significantly predicted outcome group. Analyses underscore the powerful impact of multiple converging forms of structural disadvantage, on the one hand, and individual, family and social strengths and supports on the other, in shaping clients' response to EIP treatment. Findings emphasize the importance of greater empirical attention to background structural and socio-economic conditions among early psychosis clients and their multifaceted impacts and underscore the potential value of programmatic components explicitly designed to support clients from multiply disadvantaged backgrounds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Early surgical intervention and its impact on patients presenting with necrotizing soft tissue infections: A single academic center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Hadeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis and emergent surgical debridement of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs remains the cornerstone of care. We aimed to study the effect of early surgery on patients' outcomes and, in particular, on hospital length of stay (LOS and Intensive Care Unit (ICU LOS. Materials and Methods: Over a 6-year period (January 2003 through December 2008, we analyzed the records of patients with NSTIs. We divided patients into two groups based on the time of surgery (i.e., the interval from being diagnosed and surgical intervention: Early (<6 h and late (≥6 h intervention groups. For these two groups, we compared baseline demographic characteristics, symptoms, and outcomes. For our statistical analysis, we used the Student's t-test and Pearson Chi-square (χ2 test. To evaluate the clinical predictors of early diagnosis of NSTIs, we performed multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: In the study population (n = 87; 62% males and 38% females, age, gender, wound locations, and comorbidities were comparable in the two groups. Except for higher proportion of crepitus, the clinical presentations showed no significant differences between the two groups. There were significantly shorter hospital LOS and ICU LOS in the early than late intervention group. The overall mortality rate in our study patients with NSTIs was 12.5%, but early intervention group had a mortality of 7.5%, but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Our findings show that early surgery, within the first 6 h after being diagnosed, improves in-hospital outcomes in patients with NSTIs.

  16. Cultural and Linguistic Alchemy: Mining the Resources of Spanish-Speaking Children and Families Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to gain insight into how early intervention (EI) services incorporate the cultural and linguistic resources of families and how EI professionals and families build partnerships with each other. Through observation and interview, the author looked deeply at the experiences of a small group of culturally and linguistically…

  17. Prevention of and Early Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systems to Support Data-Based Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…

  18. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services...

  19. Information and professional support: key factors in the provision of family-centred early childhood intervention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, L; Gibson, F; Bowes, J

    2012-09-01

    Much has been written on the principles of family-centred practice and on the service delivery methods and skills required of its practitioners. Far less has been written from the perspective of families whose children have a disability. The aims of this study were twofold: firstly to understand families' experiences of family-centred early childhood intervention services and secondly to explore other factors that might impact on these experiences. One hundred and thirty families attending two established early childhood intervention services in New South Wales, Australia completed a survey incorporating the Measure of Processes of Care-56, the Family Empowerment Scale, the Family Support Scale and the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale. Consistent with previous research using the Measure of Processes of Care-56, 'respectful and supportive care' was the domain of care families rated to occur most and 'provision of general information' was the domain they rated to occur least. Significant positive relationships existed between families' ratings of family-centred care and feelings of empowerment. Being provided with general information was strongly correlated with family empowerment. Families' social support networks played an important role but support from professionals was most strongly correlated with families' experiences of family-centred care. Finally, families whose children's early intervention services were co-ordinated by a professional experienced significantly better care. The provision of general information and professional support are key components of family-centred early childhood intervention services. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Early Intravenous Beta-Blockers in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Before Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, Vincent; Ibáñez, Borja; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Pizarro, Gonzalo; van Royen, Niels; Mateos, Alonso; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E.; Escalera, Noemi; Lipsic, Erik; Albarran, Agustín; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Goicolea, Javier; Botas, Javier; Remkes, Wouter; Hernandez-Jaras, Victoria; Kedhi, Elvin; Zamorano, José L.; Navarro, Felipe; Alfonso, Fernando; García-Lledó, Alberto; Alonso, Joaquin; van Leeuwen, Maarten; Nijveldt, Robin; Postma, Sonja; Kolkman, Evelien; Gosselink, Marcel; de Smet, Bart; Rasoul, Saman; Piek, Jan J.; Fuster, Valentin; van 't Hof, Arnoud W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of intravenous (IV) beta-blockers before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) on infarct size and clinical outcomes is not well established. This study sought to conduct the first double-blind, placebo-controlled international multicenter study testing the effect of early IV

  1. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  2. On Track for Success: The Use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems to Build a Grad Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Balfanz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, schools, districts, and states have become increasingly savvy with data collection and analysis to drive student outcomes. The development and use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems (EWS) are at the cutting edge of the data- driven, outcomes-focused, high-impact education movement. These systems can increase…

  3. Fostering a Social Child with Autism: A Moment-by-Moment Sequential Analysis of an Early Social Engagement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with autism often experience limited social motivation and responsiveness that restricts establishment of crucial social momentum. These characteristics can lead to decreased opportunities for parental engagement and the social learning associated with these moments. Early social interventions that capitalize on pre-existing…

  4. A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

  5. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of noncompetitive award of Part C funds for Saint Michael's Medical...

  6. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  7. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  8. School Mental Health Early Interventions and Academic Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…

  9. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  10. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  11. Early Intervention in Children (0–6 Years with a Rare Developmental Disability: The Occupational Therapy Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Dall'Alba

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Family-centred practice, play therapy, and individually tailored programmes are identified as key practice areas for this population. The important role occupational therapists play in early intervention teams is highlighted; however, further research is needed to develop the evidence base for best practice with particular rare developmental conditions.

  12. Banking Time in Head Start: Early Efficacy of an Intervention Designed to Promote Supportive Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Katherine C.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This exploratory study encompassed a collaboration to implement and evaluate the early efficacy of Banking Time, a dyadic intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Banking Time is a set of one-on-one meetings between a teacher and a child consisting of child-led play and teacher facilitation…

  13. Verbal Behavior in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at the Onset of an Early Behavioral Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Melina; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was direct observation of verbal behaviors of 14 children with autism spectrum disorders at the onset of an early behavioral intervention (EBI) program delivered in a public services agency. Objectives were to (1) describe frequencies of vocal, verbal, and listener behaviors; (2) evaluate the relationship between the…

  14. Does early intervention in infants at high risk for a developmental motor disorder improve motor and cognitive development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, C. H.; de Graaf-Peters, V. B.; Dirks, T.; Bos, A. F.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders are in general referred to early intervention (EI) services. It is a matter of debate to which extent El may facilitate outcome in various developmental domains. We reviewed the effects of El programmes aiming at promoting rnotor and cognitive

  15. Similarities and Differences Among Young Gifted Children Who Did or Did Not Participate in an Early Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, A. Harry; And Others

    To determine the effectiveness of the Astor Program, an early intervention program for children aged 4 years and above who show unusual evidence of academic ability, 28 Astor children and 24 control children equally qualified as gifted were compared. The children were tested with the Stanford-Binet Test, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test, and the…

  16. Behavioral problems and the effects of early intervention on eight-year-old children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer W; Buka, Stephen L; McCormick, Marie C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Indurkhya, Alka

    2006-07-01

    1) To investigate the comorbidity of verbal and nonverbal learning disability subtypes with several domains of behavior problems among 8-year-old children. 2) To determine whether receipt of an early intervention modified the association between childhood behavior problems and learning disabilities (LD). This is a secondary data analysis of the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a randomized clinical trial of an early intervention provided between ages 0 and 3 involving 985 children born low birthweight and premature. The findings are based on a prospective follow-up of these children at 8 years of age. Compared to children without verbal LD (VLD), those with VLD were twice as likely to exhibit clinical levels of total behavior problems and 89% more likely to exhibit externalizing behavior problems. Analysis of specific subscales of behavior revealed significant associations with anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors, as well as an increased likelihood of attention problems among children with VLD. No significant association was found between nonverbal LD (NVLD) and any type of behavior problem. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between VLD and the intervention, in which the odds of internalizing behavior problems were greater among children with VLD. No interaction effect of the intervention occurred for any type of behavior problem among children with NVLD. These findings provide evidence that distinct differences exist for different learning disability subtypes with regards to behavioral outcomes and the effects of early intervention services among 8-year-old children.

  17. Alfalfa Intervention Alters Rumen Microbial Community Development in Hu Lambs During Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The pre-weaning period is crucial for rumen developmental plasticity, which can have a long-term impact on animal performance. Understanding the rumen microbiota during early life is important to elucidate its potential role in rumen development. In this study, the rumen microbiota of 10-day-old Hu lambs fed either milk replacer (B-10, milk replacer and starter (STA or milk replacer and starter supplemented with alfalfa (S-ALF in the pre- (d17, 24, and 38 and post-weaning periods (d45 and 66 were assessed to characterize rumen microbial colonization during early life and its response to fiber intervention. In the rumens of B-10 lambs, 498 operational taxonomic units belonging to 33 predominant genera were observed, and the top six predicted functions included “Membrane transport,” “carbohydrate metabolism,” “amino acid metabolism,” “replication and repair,” “translation,” and “energy metabolism.” Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Bifidobacterium, and Butyrivibrio abundances were increased at d38 for both STA and S-ALF groups compared to the B-10 group, whereas fibrolytic bacteria of the taxa Lachnospiraceae and Treponema were only increased in the S-ALF group at d38. A number of saccharolytic bacteria (Bacteroidaceae, organic acid-producing bacteria (Coprococcus and Actinomyces, proteolytic and amino acid fermenters (Fusobacterium and fibrolytic bacteria (unclassified Ruminococcaceae were significantly decreased in the STA lambs but not in the S-ALF lambs at d38. After weaning and exposed to alfalfa, the rumen microbial composition in the STA group started to appear similar to that of the S-ALF lambs. The relative abundance of unclassified Clostridiales was higher in S-ALF lambs than STA lambs after weaning. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed positive relationships between unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Treponema, unclassified Bacteroidales, Coprococcus and crude protein intake, neutral detergent

  18. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth.

  19. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  20. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William

    2014-12-01

    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.