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Sample records for intervalo puerta-droga factor

  1. Los intervalos de confianza: confianza vs. precisión

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    Rangel, Luzdari; Yáñez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Las investigaciones dirigidas a conocer el nivel de comprensión de los estudiantes y de los usuarios de la estadística respecto a los intervalos de confianza han mostrado que estos conceptos no son claramente entendidos ni por los unos ni por los otros. En este trabajo presentamos algunas ideas que pueden permitir conocer un poco más el origen de las confusiones y las malas concepciones que las personas se forman alrededor de los intervalos de confianza. En particular presentamos unas evidenc...

  2. Propagación aproximada de intervalos de probabilidad en grafos de dependencias

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    Cano Utrera, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Las redes bayesianas han sido usadas muy frecuentemente para la construcción de sistemas expertos bayesianos. Estos sistemas expertos trabajan con valores de probabilidad precisos. Para un experto resulta muy difícil el dar una gran cantidad de probabilidades precisas a la hora de construir el sistema experto. Debido a ello en esta tesis se propone el uso de intervalos de probabilidad para representar la incertidumbre. Existen algoritmos exactos de propagación de intervalos de probabilidad so...

  3. Medicamentos que podem induzir prolongamento do intervalo QT utilizados por idosos em domicílio

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    Josiane Macêdo Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo QT (iQT, parâmetro eletrocardiográfico, é um biomarcador não invasivo da repolarização ventricular. O aumento do iQT é uma alteração que pode ser de considerável importância clínica, pois predispõe a torsade de pointes e morte cardíaca súbita. O objetivo do presente trabalho é identificar os medicamentos utilizados em domicílio por idosos, que podem induzir o prolongamento do iQT. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo descritivo exploratório e retrospectivo, realizado em um hospital público de ensino. Foram incluídos 190 idosos com informação sobre uso domiciliar de medicamentos registrada em prontuário. A mediana da idade foi de 69,5 anos, sendo 99 (52,1% mulheres. O número de medicamentos utilizados por paciente em domicílio apresentou mediana de 4,0. Foram identificados 159 fármacos, sendo que 23 (14,5% apresentavam capacidade de induzir prolongamento do iQT. Entre os idosos, 39 (20,5% usavam estes fármacos, sendo os mais prevalentes a amiodarona, amitriptilina, nortriptilina, citalopram e fluoxetina. A hipertensão arterial foi o fator de risco mais frequente dentre aqueles que predispõem a prolongamento do iQT. As utilizações de medicamentos que induzem prolongamento do iQT e a presença de fatores de risco predisponentes mostram que os idosos estão expostos ao risco de desenvolvimento de torsade de pointes. A identificação dos fármacos que induzem prolongamento do iQT, das interações medicamentosas e das condições clínicas que predispõem a esse prolongamento são importantes para garantia da segurança da farmacoterapia de idosos e para evitar eventos adversos graves.Palavras-chave: Prolongamento do intervalo QT. Medicamentos. Idosos. Torsades de pointes. ABSTRACT The QT interval (QTi, an electrocardiographic parameter, is a noninvasive biomarker of ventricular repolarization. Increased QTi is a change that may have clinical importance because predisposes to torsade de pointes and sudden

  4. COMPARACION DE 13 INTERVALOS DE CONFIANZA PARA LOS PARAMETROS DE LA DISTRIBUCION MULTINOMIAL

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    Difariney González-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La distribución multinomial es fundamental para la descripción de fenómenos en los que pueden ocurrir k > 2 eventos excluyentes, cada uno con probabilidad π = (π1, π2, . . . , πk. Algunos ejemplos de esta distribución incluyen la calidad de un producto o encuestas de selección múltiple. Un problema de gran interés en inferencia estadística es la construcción de intervalos de confianza los parámetros para π. En este trabajo se comparan, a través de un estudio de simulación, 13 metodologías para la construcción de intervalos de confianza para dicha distribución. Utilizando como criterios de comparación el nivel de confianza nominal, la longitud del intervalo y una combinación de estos, se encuentra que los intervalos de confianza basados en el Teorema del Límite Central no presentan el mejor desempeño. Finalmente se recomiendan los métodos basados en la distribución F (Leemis, 1996, seguido del método de verosimilitud relativa (Kalbfleish, 1985 y Quesenberry & Hurst (1964.

  5. Inclusión del Intervalo Interestral (IIE) como elemento diagnóstico de la fertilidad del rebaño bovino

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    M.Sc José A Betancourt Betancourt.

    2005-01-01

    ResumenA partir de los registros de 1404 bovinos lecheros de la raza Siboney de 6 empresas ganaderas de la provincia de Camaguey se realizó un análisis estadístico para determinar que variable de las estudiadas influyeron sobre el intervalo interestral (IIE). Se determinó que todos los factores que influyeron sobre el IIE pueden ser corregidos con acciones de manejo y organización del trabajo, y corrobora que el IIE es un valioso elemento diagnóstico de la fertilidad del rebaño bovino que ref...

  6. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA HEREDABILIDAD DEL INTERVALO DE PARTOS EN BOVINOS CRUZADOS

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    Oscar Vergara G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la heredabilidad del intervalo de partos en bovinos cruzados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó información de la base de datos de la hacienda La Leyenda, ubicada en el municipio de Caucasia (Antioquia. Se realizó un análisis uni-característico empleando el modelo animal. En el modelo se consideraron los efectos fijos del grupo genético, año de nacimiento, época de nacimiento y el número de partos y como efectos aleatorios, el efecto aditivo directo, de ambiente permanente y residual. Resultados. Se obtuvo una heredabilidad de 0.15 ± 0.07 y una media fenotípica de 544 ± 97 días. Conclusión. La heredabilidad para el intervalo de partos fue baja, por lo que se puede lograr poco progreso genético seleccionando para esta característica.

  7. La actividad física, el entrenamiento continuo e intervalo: una solución para la salud

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    Ricardo Ortiz-Pulido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este documento fue reportar los beneficios de la actividad física, entrenamientointervalo y entrenamiento continuo moderado en adultos sedentarios y físicamente activos.La actividad física involucra cualquier movimiento corporal que produce un aumento en elgasto energético en el metabolismo, mientras que el entrenamiento intervalo y entrenamientocontinuo moderado puede ser utilizado para controlar el programa de cargas de entrenamiento(intensidad, volumen y pausa. Los beneficios que se han reportado cuando se realiza actividadfísica son: el incremento o mantenimiento de la condición física muscular, funciones cognitivas,cardiorespiratoria, equilibrio, peso corporal, control de la obesidad; todos ellos disminuyen losriesgos de enfermedades cardiovasculares, enfernedades crónicorrespiratorias, diabetes, presiónalterial alta, sindrome metabolico, cáncer de colon, depresión y todas las causas de mortalidad.En contraste, la falta de actividad fisica ha ha sido identificada como factor de riesgo y estáasociada a diversas enfemedades no transmisibles a nivel mundial. En este documento puntua-lizamos dos tipos de entrenamiento que han tenido aplicaciones para la salud en adultos. Estetrabajo podría ayudar a promover la salud calidad de vida de la población adulta y eliminar elsedentarismo mediante la prescripción de la actividad física para la salud.

  8. Impacto do uso de psicotrópicos na dispersão do intervalo QT em pacientes adultos

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    Bruno de Queiroz Claudio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A dispersão do intervalo QT induzida por fármacos tem sido associada a arritmias ventriculares potencialmente fatais. Pouco se conhece sobre o uso de psicotrópicos, isolados ou em combinação com outros fármacos, na dispersão do QT. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do uso psicotrópicos na dispersão do intervalo QT em pacientes adultos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte observacional, envolvendo 161 pacientes hospitalizados em um departamento de emergência de hospital terciário, estratificados em usuários e não usuários de psicotrópicos. Dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e de fármacos em uso foram coletados à admissão, bem como o eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, com a mensuração do intervalo e da dispersão do QT. Resultados: A dispersão do intervalo QT foi significativamente maior no grupo de usuário de psicotrópicos comparado ao grupo não usuário (69,25 ± 25,5 ms vs. 57,08 ± 23,4 ms; p = 0,002. O intervalo QT corrigido pela fórmula de Bazzett também se mostrou maior no grupo de usuário de psicotrópicos, com significância estatística (439,79 ± 31,14 ms vs. 427,71 ± 28,42 ms; p = 0,011. A análise por regressão linear mostrou associação positiva entre o número absoluto de psicotrópicos utilizados e a dispersão do intervalo QT, com r = 0,341 e p < 0,001. Conclusão: Na população amostral estudada, o uso de psicotrópicos se mostrou associado ao aumento da dispersão do intervalo QT, e esse incremento se acentuou em função do maior número de psicotrópicos utilizados.

  9. Tamaños de muestra para estimar prevalencia animal que aseguran cortos intervalos de confianza

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    Osval Antonio Montesinos López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo del tamaño de las muestras juega un rol importante en el diseño óptimo de experimentos veterinarios y agrícolas para la estimación de proporciones de una población, incluyendo la prevalencia de enfermedades. Esta investigación propone un método de tres pasos para determinar el tamaño de muestra exacto para datos binomiales que asegura precisión en la estimación de la proporción, y muestra numéricamente el grado de subestimación que produce el uso de la fórmula tradicional (aproximación normal para el cálculo del tamaño de la muestra. El paso 1 obtiene un tamaño de muestra que garantiza que la anchura relativa completa del intervalo de confianza ( r w es más estrecha que la amplitud deseada (re, el paso 2 incrementa iterativamente el tamaño de muestra hasta que r w es mas pequeño que la amplitud deseada (re con un grado de certeza especificado (w y el paso 3 obtiene el número de conglomerados requeridos. Datos simulados fueron creados para ilustrar el método propuesto, además se presenta un cuadro con escenarios útiles para los investigadores. Un programa en el paquete estadístico R es dado y explicado, de tal manera que reproduce los resultados de una manera sencilla.

  10. La actividad física, el entrenamiento continuo e intervalo: una solución para la salud

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    Ricardo Ortiz-Pulido; Julio A. Gómez-Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    El propósito de este documento fue reportar los beneficios de la actividad física, entrenamientointervalo y entrenamiento continuo moderado en adultos sedentarios y físicamente activos.La actividad física involucra cualquier movimiento corporal que produce un aumento en elgasto energético en el metabolismo, mientras que el entrenamiento intervalo y entrenamientocontinuo moderado puede ser utilizado para controlar el programa de cargas de entrenamiento(intensidad, volumen y pausa). Los benefic...

  11. Efeito da composição genética e de fatores de meio sobre a produção de leite, a duração da lactação e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos de vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir Effects of genetic composition and environmental factors on milk production, lactation length and milk production per day of calving interval in crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows

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    J.R. Glória

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o método dos quadrados mínimos para avaliar os efeitos da composição genética (CG e dos fatores de meio sobre a produção total de leite (PL, duração da lactação (DL e produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos (P/I (n=2.016 de 822 vacas mestiças (1/2, 3/4 e 7/8 Holandês-Gir, criadas no oeste de Minas Gerais. O efeito da capacidade prevista de transmissão (PTA dos touros da raça Holandesa sobre a PL de suas filhas cruzadas também foi avaliado. O efeito da CG sobre as três características foi importante fonte de variação, sendo que a PL, a DL e a P/I aumentaram com o incremento da contribuição da raça Holandesa. As médias para PL foram 3549,3±39,3kg, 4331,7±56,2kg e 4515,7±115,9kg; para DL, 306,5±1,9 dias, 328,2±2,5 dias e 337,0±4,6 dias; e para P/I, 9,0±0,1kg, 10,6±0,2kg e 11,0±0,3kg por dia, respectivamente, para vacas 1/2, 3/4 e 7/8 Holandês-Gir. Estação de parição foi importante fonte de variação da PL das vacas 3/4 e da DL de vacas 3/4 e 1/2 Holandês-Gir. Maiores PL e DL foram observadas nas lactações iniciadas no final do período chuvoso. O efeito da idade da vaca ao parto sobre a PL foi linear ascendente para vacas 1/2 e 3/4 Holandês-Gir e curvilíneo para vacas 7/8 Holandês-Gir, com produção máxima (4733,5 kg na segunda lactação. Para DL esse efeito foi curvilíneo para vacas 1/2 e 3/4 Holandês-Gir, com mínimos de 284,7 e 309,2 dias aos 7,3 e 5,7 anos de idade, respectivamente; e linear descendente para vacas 7/8 Holandês-Gir. Já o efeito da idade da vaca sobre P/I foi linear ascendente para o conjunto 3/4 e 7/8, e curvilíneo para as 1/2 Holandês-Gir, com o máximo de 9,5kg/dia de intervalo de partos aos 6,4 anos de idade. O efeito do PTA de touros sobre a PL de suas filhas não foi diferente de zero. As estimativas de repetibilidade para PL foram 0,72, 0,69 e 0,63, respectivamente, para vacas 1/2, 3/4 e 7/8 Holandês-Gir.The effects of genetic composition (GC and

  12. Análise do efeito de diferentes intensidades e intervalos de recuperação na percepção subjetiva de atletas

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    Michel Santos Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa analisou os efeitos de diferentes intensidades e diferentes intervalos de recuperação do treinamento resistido na percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE em atletas jovens. Foram selecionados 23 adolescentes, homens, com 17.06 ± .73 anos de idade, 68.01 ± 8.09 kg massa corporal e 173.65 ± 5.61 cm de estatura. Submetidos à adequação de cargas (5 RM, 10 RM ou 15 RM e intervalo de recuperação (30, 60 ou 120 s, onde ao final de cada série foi pedido para apontar o esforço percebido na escala OMNI-RES. A estatística utilizada foi a two-way ANOVA. As diferenças significativas foram analisadas pelo post-hoc de Bonferroni. Na PSE não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as intensidades nos intervalos de recuperação avaliados. Com relação aos intervalos com a mesma intensidade, verificou-se diferença entre 15 RM e intervalo de 120 e 60 s com 15 RM e intervalo de 30 s. Para as intensidades de 10 e 5 RM, apenas o intervalo de 120 s apresentou diferença em relação a 5 e 10 RM com intervalo de 30 s demonstrou que entre as intensidades e intervalos de recuperação ocorreram diferenças significativas. Conclui-se que quanto menor o intervalo de recuperação maior serão os níveis de fadiga, independente do número de repetições executadas em todas as intensidades, podendo inferir que a PSE mostrou-se sensível a diminuição do intervalo de recuperação.

  13. Interpretando correctamente en salud pública estimaciones puntuales, intervalos de confianza y contrastes de hipótesis

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    Scotto Manuel G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo trata de aclarar algunos conceptos utilizados habitualmente en el campo de investigación de la salud pública, que en numerosas situaciones son interpretados de manera incorrecta. Entre ellos encontramos la estimación puntual, los intervalos de confianza, y los contrastes de hipótesis. Estableciendo un paralelismo entre estos tres conceptos, podemos observar cuáles son sus diferencias más importantes a la hora de ser interpretados, tanto desde el punto de vista del enfoque clásico como desde la óptica bayesiana.

  14. EFECTO DEL INTERVALO ENTRE ORDEÑOS SOBRE EL RECUENTO DE CÉLULAS SOMÁTICAS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN EN CONDICIONES TROPICALES

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    Natalia Ramírez Guerra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis es la enfermedad que mayores pérdidas económicas ocasiona a las ganaderías de leche en el mundo, y el recuento de células somáticas (RCS es una manera indirecta de medir la incidencia de esta infección. El intervalo entre ordeños es un factor que afecta el RCS, dificultando la precisión en la estimación de este, en programas de control de producción lechera y mejoramiento animal en los que solo se hagan mediciones en uno de los dos ordeños. El objetivo fue diseñar un modelo de predicción para el RCS total día, a partir de muestreos parciales en un solo ordeño, para ser utilizados posteriormente en programas de estimación de valores genéticos para la característica. La investigación fue realizada en tres hatos con 182 vacas Holstein, la información fue analizada mediante un modelo de regresión múltiple donde se encontró que los parámetros con mayor incidencia sobre el RCS fueron: número de parto, intervalo entre ordeños y días en lactancia. Posteriormente, a partir de los efectos significativos se ajustó un modelo de regresión múltiple definitivo que permite predecir el recuento de células somáticas día, a partir de muestreos parciales. Los coeficientes de regresión calculados para el intervalo entre ordeños y los días de lactancia con respecto al recuento de células somáticas fueron 13,4619 y 0,259182 respectivamente. Este modelo tuvo un coeficiente de determinación r2 de 0,953 convirtiéndose en un buen predictor de este parámetro.Abstract. Mastitis is the disease that causes the greatest economic losses in dairy herds in the world. Somatic cells count (SCC is an indirect way of measuring the incidence of this infection. Milking interval is a factor that affects the SCC, preventingits accurate estimation in milk production control programs and animal improvement programs in which measurements are taken only in one of the two milkings. This research was aimed to obtain a prediction model for

  15. Intervalos de referencia de minerales en cerdos confinados de diferentes genéticas y categorías

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    LUNA ML

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, no existen datos regionales de intervalos de referencia de minerales en cerdos según las líneas genéticas actuales y distintas categorías de producción en sistema intensivo. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar intervalos de minerales: calcio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, potasio, hierro, cobre y cinc, en suero de cerdos en establecimientos del centro de Santa Fe y de Entre Ríos. Se trabajó con 300 muestras de sangre de cerdos sanos de dos líneas genéticas diferentes en las categorías de lechones recién nacidos, lechones destetados, hembras nulíparas gestantes seleccionadas fenotípicamente para la reposición del plantel, y hembras multíparas gestantes. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de los minerales por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica (FAAS con un equipo Perkin Elmer modelo Analys 200, con métodos oficiales de AOAC. Se analizaron también muestras de agua. Los intervalos de referencia se calcularon utilizando parámetros paramétricos o no paramétricos dependiendo de la distribución de los datos. Los valores medios, medianas, valores mínimo y máximo e intervalos de referencia, para los distintos minerales en cada categoría productiva, se presentan en tablas. Los intervalos de referencia calculados serán útiles para el diagnóstico de deficiencias mineral y la vigilancia nutricional en cerdo de producción de carne. SUMMARY. Mineral reference intervals in confined swine with different genetic background and categories. In Argentina, there is no regional data on mineral reference intervals in swine, according to the genetic lines, categories of production in intensive systems. The objective of this study was to establish ranges of the following serum minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc, in swine farmed in Santa Fe and Entre Ríos. Blood samples were collected from 300 healthy pigs of two different genetic lines belonging

  16. Determination of conversion factors of kerma and fluence to ambient dose equivalent for X-rays generated between 50 kV{sub p} to 125 kV{sub p}; Determinacao dos fatores de conversao de kerma no ar e de fluencia para o equivalente de dose ambiental para raios-X gerados no intervalo de 50 kV{sub p} a 125 kV{sub p}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    1997-12-31

    The ambient dose equivalent was determined experimentally on the interval of energy of X ray applied in diagnostic radiology. A PMMA sphere was used to simulate the trunk human (phantom), based on the definition of the report ICRU 39. The absorbed dose in different positions in the phantom was determined using LiF-TLD 100. The X ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium detector (HP Ge). It was also determined the HVL and the effective energy in this energy range. The conversion coefficient of the K{sub air} and {Phi} to H{sup *}(d) were determined to 10, 50 and 60 mm deep in the PMMA sphere. The obtained values were compared with data of the literature. The maximum uncertainty obtained for the coefficients was 7.2%. All parameters were also determined to the X ray quality of the incident and transmitted beam by the patient, according to the recommendation of the standard DIN 6872. The conversion factor was calculated for those situations where the X-ray beam is transmitted by a layer and Pb and it is necessary to estimate the effective dose, as in the case of shielding project of radiology diagnosis room. (author) 51 refs., 35 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Determination of conversion factors of kerma and fluence to ambient dose equivalent for X-rays generated between 50 kV{sub p} to 125 kV{sub p}; Determinacao dos fatores de conversao de kerma no ar e de fluencia para o equivalente de dose ambiental para raios-X gerados no intervalo de 50 kV{sub p} a 125 kV{sub p}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    1998-12-31

    The ambient dose equivalent was determined experimentally on the interval of energy of X ray applied in diagnostic radiology. A PMMA sphere was used to simulate the trunk human (phantom), based on the definition of the report ICRU 39. The absorbed dose in different positions in the phantom was determined using LiF-TLD 100. The X ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium detector (HP Ge). It was also determined the HVL and the effective energy in this energy range. The conversion coefficient of the K{sub air} and {Phi} to H{sup *}(d) were determined to 10, 50 and 60 mm deep in the PMMA sphere. The obtained values were compared with data of the literature. The maximum uncertainty obtained for the coefficients was 7.2%. All parameters were also determined to the X ray quality of the incident and transmitted beam by the patient, according to the recommendation of the standard DIN 6872. The conversion factor was calculated for those situations where the X-ray beam is transmitted by a layer and Pb and it is necessary to estimate the effective dose, as in the case of shielding project of radiology diagnosis room. (author) 51 refs., 35 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Estimación de la Heterosis para Producción de Leche Vendible, Intervalo entre Partos y Duración de la Lactancia en Ganado Cruzado

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    Montoya S. Camilo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se revisaron 4948 datos referentes a lactancias de vacas en razas B taurus y B indicus, los cuales se obtuvieron entre los años 1986 y 1994 en las Ganaderías La Unión y La K, localizadas en los municipios Plato y Santa Ana en el departamento de Magdalena; San Fernando Pinillos y Magangué en el departamento de Bolívar; y Playones de Sucre y Buenavista en el departamento de Sucre. Para determinar la influencia de los diferentes efectos tanto genéticos como no genéticos sobre las características a estudiar, se utilizó el programa de mínimos cuadrados de Harvey (1988. Los efectos tenidos en cuenta en los modelos para las características leche vendible, días de lactancia e intervalo entre partos fueron: El grupo genético materno, la época y año de parto, número de parto, y hato. Como cavariables se tuvieron en cuenta el peso al destete, la producción de leche duración de la lactancia y el intervalo entre partos según el modelo a estudiar. De los factores 110 genéticos la gran mayoría dieron efecto significativo a los niveles del (P~0.05; no presentaron significancia la época para la duració1l de la lactancia y el grupo genético para el intervalo entre partos; y las covariables intervalo entre partos para la producción de leche y producción de leche en el modelo para el intervalo entre partos. La estimación de la heterosis se hizo una vez realizados los contrastes ortogonales entre los grupos genéticos para las características en las cuales el grupo racial presentó significancia en los ANAVAS. La heterosis obtenida para la producción de leche teniendo como base el promedio de las raza Criolla y el promedio entre el Criollo y el Cebú fue respectivamente: ½ Taurus-1/2 Criollo (17.95% y 22.5%; ½ Taurus - ½ Cebú (9% y 14%; Trihíbrido (7.7% y 11. 7%; ¼ Taurus- ¾ Cebú (5% y 9%; ½ Cebú- ½ Criollo (1.05% y 4.8%; y el ¾ Cebú- ½ Criollo (-7.88% y -4.46%; todas altamente

  19. Demanda de informação pelo setor industrial: dois estudos no intervalo de 25 anos

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    Araujo, Vania M. R. Hermes de; Freire, Isa Maria; Mendes, Teresa Cristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Os estudos sobre a demanda de informação dos usuários do setor produtivo industrial tornam-se cada vez mais necessários, à medida que a informação se estabelece como fator/insumo de produção. Neste trabalho, são analisados, comparativamente, dois estudos em nível nacional, separados por um intervalo de tempo de 25 anos. Neles, pode-se observar semelhanças e diferenças, sendo possível distinguir quais os tipos de informação mais relevantes para o setor industrial, nas respectivas etapas histór...

  20. Intervalos de referencia para concentraciones séricas de T3 y T4. Estudio preliminar

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    Cecilia Miranda Pantoja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la determinación cuantitativa de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 reviste gran importancia en el diagnóstico y la evaluación del hipertiroidismo, en especial del hipertiroidismo aislado causado por T3.Objetivo: establecer los intervalos de referencia de T3 y T4 en el laboratorio de medicina nuclear del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo realizado mediante el método de radioinmunoanálisis, competencia que se establece entre la T3 y T4 sin marcar, y la marcada por un número limitado de los sitios de unión del anticuerpo específico. Al hacer reaccionar una cantidad fija de trazador y anticuerpo con diferentes cantidades del ligando sin marcar, la cantidad de trazador unido por el anticuerpo será inversamente proporcional a la concentración del ligando sin marcar. Resultados: los valores obtenidos se describen según una distribución gaussiana (media aritmética = 117, desviación estándar =31 para T4; media aritmética = 2,64, desviación estándar = 0,64 para T3, comprobado mediante un test de Chi cuadrado. Los rangos de valores normales obtenidos fueron de de 55 – 178 nmol/L y 1,4 – 3,9 nmol/L para T4 y T3 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los intervalos de referencia obtenidos resultaron más amplios que los propuestos por el productor, sobre todo en el caso de T4.

  1. Efeito do Exercício com 1 e 3 Minutos de Intervalo de Descanso Entre as Séries na Atividade Sérica das Transaminases

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    Ramon Martins Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento de força (TF intenso ocasiona danos na estrutura muscular, que podem ser detectados por meio de marcadores indiretos. OBJETIVO. Verificar se há alterações na atividade da creatina quinase (CK, da aspartato transaminase (AST e alanina transaminase (ALT com o TF em diferentes intervalos entre séries e exercícios. MÉTODOS. Treze voluntários (± 21,8 anos; ±173,6 cm; ±68,3 kg realizaram o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM nos exercícios: supino reto, puxada (pulley, desenvolvimento sentado, tríceps (pulley e rosca bíceps. Após sete dias, todos foram submetidos a uma coleta de sangue (PRE e realizaram 4 séries máximas até a falha concêntrica com intensidade de 85% de 1RM e intervalos de 1 ou 3 minutos entre as séries e exercícios. Todos retornaram ao mesmo local 24, 48 e 72 horas após a sessão para mais uma coleta de sangue. Repetindo os procedimentos após uma semana, porém os voluntários que realizaram o teste com intervalo de 1 minuto na semana seguinte manteriam intervalos de 3 minutos e vice-versa. Realizou-se ANOVA mantendo como significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS. Houve redução significativa do número de repetições a cada série de todos os exercícios com 1 e 3 minutos de intervalo. Observou-se um aumento significativo da atividade sérica de CK e de AST 24, 48 e 72 horas utilizando ambos os intervalos. ALT não se alterou. CONCLUSÃO. O TF causou aumento na atividade de CK e AST, mas sem apresentar diferenças com os intervalos utilizados. Porém, pequenos intervalos reduzem o volume total de repetições.

  2. Una aplicación de las funciones débilmente contractivas a problemas de valor en la frontera de funciones con valores en intervalos

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    Vladimir Angulo-Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la existencia y unicidad de soluciones para problemas de valor en la frontera asociadas a ecuaciones diferenciales de funciones con valores en intervalos, usando la derivada de Hukuhara y algunos teoremas de punto fijo de funciones débilmente contractivas definidas en conjuntos par- cialmente ordenados.

  3. Reevaluación del paciente periodontal: intervalo de tiempo adecuado para reevaluar sus parámetros

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    Berenice Flores Díaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La reevaluación es uno de los pasos del tratamiento periodontal enfocados en determinar los resultados de la terapia inicial y la necesidad de terapias de soporte adicionales. El objetivo del artículo es revisar la información relacionada al intervalo de tiempo para la reevaluación los signos de progresión de la enfermedad periodontal apropiado para medir los efectos de la terapia inicial. Después de este período de tiempo, la estabilidad del periodonto debe ser evaluada en lugar de los efectos de la terapia. Conclusión: En síntesis el establecimiento de la nueva unión dento-epitelial se realiza de manera rutinaria por lo que se sugiere la reevaluación después de 2 semanas. Luego del raspado y alisado radicular hay restablecimiento del epitelio de unión al diente la super cie en 1 a 2 semanas el tejido conjuntivo continúa durante 4 a 8 semanas pero más de 2 meses puede ser demasiado tiempo porque las bacterias patógenas ya han repoblado las bolsas periodontales.

  4. ESTRATEGIA PARA REDUCIR INTERVALOS DE INCERTIDUMBRE APLICADA EN LOCALIZACIÓN DE FALLAS EN SISTEMAS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN

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    César Augusto Orozco Henao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de localización propuesto en este artículo se basa en una estrategia iterativa que determina el valor mínimo de la reactancia de falla, utilizando la técnica de reducción de intervalos de incertidumbre de Fibonacci. Esta técnica mejora el método de localización de fallas debido a que aumenta su precisión, mediante la aplicación de un tamaño de paso variable para determinar el valor absoluto de la reactancia de falla. La estrategia utiliza las mediciones de tensión y corriente en la subestación, por lo tanto, considera las variaciones en los estados de pre-falla y falla. El método se valida en el sistema de prueba IEEE 34 nodos conformado por laterales monofásicos, bifásicos y trifásicos, para todos los tipos de fallas y considerando resistencias de falla entre 0 y 40ohms. Los resultados obtenidos muestran errores de estimación inferiores al 1,8%, lo cual confirma la validez de la propuesta.

  5. Intervalo hídrico ótimo em um Latossolo vermelho cultivado em sistema semeadura direta por 25 anos

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    Fernando Rodrigues Moreira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO integra atributos físicos do solo relacionados ao crescimento das culturas e corresponde ao intervalo entre os limites superior e inferior do conteúdo de água no solo, no qual são mínimas as limitações para o crescimento radicular. Em áreas agrícolas, o manejo do solo pode alterar sua estrutura, de forma que, principalmente em razão da compactação, a densidade do solo (Ds poderá ficar fora desses limites em que as condições são ideais para o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o IHO para avaliação da qualidade física do solo e identificação de áreas com restrição para crescimento de plantas, visando ao manejo localizado. O estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso sob sistema semeadura direta (SSD com cultivos sucessivos de grãos por 25 anos em Campinas, SP. Foram coletadas amostras volumétricas de solo, nas camadas de 0,00-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m, destinadas à obtenção dos seguintes atributos: Ds, curva de resistência à penetração, curva de retenção de água e porosidade do solo para determinação do IHO e da densidade crítica do solo (Dsc. Dados de variabilidade e dependência espacial da Ds foram analisados por semivariogramas para elaboração de mapas desse atributo. O IHO diminuiu em profundidade e foi limitado na parte superior pela umidade na capacidade de campo e na parte inferior pela resistência à penetração, nas três profundidades avaliadas. A Dsc foi de 1,42 Mg m-3 para a camada de 0,00-0,10 m e de 1,39 e 1,41 Mg m-3, respectivamente, para as camadas de 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. Verificou-se que a Ds foi maior que a Dsc nas camadas de 0,00-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em porções localizadas no terço inferior do terreno, indicando condição crítica para o crescimento das plantas. A utilização do IHO, associado a mapas de variabilidade espacial da Ds, para determinação de pontos em que ela é maior que a Dsc

  6. Crescimento de alface hidropônica sob diferentes intervalos de irrigação Hydroponic lettuce growth under differents irrigation intervals

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    Fábio Zanella

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo entre irrigações é um importante critério a ser observado durante o cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de duas cultivares de alface (Lactuca sativa L., Regina 2000 e Lucy Brown sob três intervalos de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA, entre setembro e dezembro de 2006. Foram testados três intevalos entre irrigações: 5; 15 e 30 minutos. Cada tratamento constou de quatro repetições de cada cultivar, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado. Analisou-se o número de folhas.planta-1, a massa fresca e massa seca total de cada planta. O aumento no intervalo entre irrigações levou a uma menor produção da alface. Assim, o intervalo de 5 minutos entre irrigações promoveu o maior ganho de massa para as duas cultivares avaliadas.The interval among irrigations is an important criterion taken into account during the hidroponic cultivation of vegetables. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the productivity of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars, Regina 2000 and Lucy Brown, in three irrigations intervals. The experiment was carried out at the Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJ/ULBRA, from September to December 2006. Three intervals between irrigations were used: 5; 15 and 30 minutes. Each treatment had four replications of both cultivars, in a complete randomized outline. The number of leaves.plant-1, total fresh mass and total dry mass were analyzed. There was an increase of the lettuce production according to the increase of the irrigation interval. Thus, 5 minutes among irrigations promoted the greater gain of mass for both cultivars evaluated.

  7. INTERVALOS DE INTEGRACIÓN UNIFICADOS PARA LA CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DE PETRÓLEOS, CARBONES O SUS FRACCIONES POR RMN 1H Y RMN 13C

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    Avella Eliseo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la revisión de publicaciones, hechas entre 1972 y 2006, se evidenció que hay imprecisiones en los límites de los intervalos de integración que los autores asignan a las señales en resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN para hacer la caracterización estructural de petróleos, carbones o sus fracciones derivadas, a partir de sus espectros de hidrógeno (RMN 1H o de carbono (RMN 13C. En consecuencia, se determinaron límites unificados para la integración de los espectros RMN 1H y RMN 13C de tales muestras mediante un tratamiento estadístico aplicado a los límites de los intervalos de integración ya publicados. Con esos límites unificados se elaboraron cartas de correlación en RMN útiles para la asignación de la integral en esos intervalos, y aun en otros de menor extensión definidos en función de la intersección entre asignaciones diferentes. Además se plantearon ecuaciones necesarias para establecer la integral atribuible a fragmentos más específicos en un intento por hacer una caracterización estructural más exacta a partir de los espectros RMN de petróleos, carbones o sus fracciones derivadas.

  8. Efeito do ensacamento de cachos de banana 'Nanicão' na produção e no intervalo entre inflorescência e colheita

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    Costa José Nilton Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento de cachos de bananas (Musa sp. AAA, cultivar Nanicão, em diferentes épocas, na produção e no intervalo entre inflorescência e colheita. O experimento foi realizado no Município de Tietê, SP, em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x3, com quatro repetições. O ensacamento foi efetuado com sacos de polietileno em três épocas: 21/5/96, 17/12/96 e 26/2/97. Foram avaliados o intervalo entre emergência da inflorescência e colheita, a massa do cacho e o comprimento, diâmetro e densidade do fruto. A interação ensacamento x épocas não foi significativa em relação a nenhuma das variáveis. O ensacamento diminuiu o intervalo entre a emergência da inflorescência e a colheita na primeira (21/5/96 e segunda época (17/12/96.

  9. Prevalencia y comportamiento de los factores de riesgo del síndrome metabólico según los diferentes intervalos de edad, en una población femenina del área de influencia de la Clínica Las Américas, en Medellín - Colombia Prevalence and behaviour of risk factors in metabolic syndrome according to different age intervals, in a female cohort of the area of influence of the Clínica de las Américas in Medellín, Colombia

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    Fabio Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: el síndrome metabólico es una entidad de alto impacto epidemiológico, compuesto por elementos que tienen como sustrato común la resistencia a la insulina y son factores de riesgo para desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes. Objetivos: determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y describir el comportamiento de sus componentes en las diferentes etapas de la vida femenina, según la clasificación del National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III y la definición del consenso mundial de la International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2005. Diseño y Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el cual se incluyeron 271 voluntarias divididas en tres grupos etáreos (menores de 40, entre 40 y 64 y mayores de 65 años quienes tuvieron evaluación clínica y por laboratorio con el fin de determinar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo que constituyen el síndrome metabólico según las clasificaciones descritas. Resultados: la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue mayor al aplicar la definición de la IDF y significativamente superior en quienes superaban los 65 años para las dos clasificaciones, en comparación con las menores de 40 años. En las mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico, el número de factores de riesgo incrementó con la edad al aplicar los criterios del ATP III. Conclusiones: el síndrome metabólico en la mujer, es una manifestación multifactorial en la cual la edad y el estado menopáusico son importantes factores que predisponen a padecerlo. Los resultados son aplicables a poblaciones de estrato socioeconómico medio y medio-alto de la ciudad y se asemejan a hallazgos publicados por otros autores.Background: metabolic syndrome is a high impact epidemiologic entity made up of elements with a common substrate that is insulin resistance which is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives: to determine the

  10. Aspectos cognitivos relacionados à noção de intervalos de tempo Cognitive aspects related to time interval notion

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    Liliane Cristina de Além-Mar e Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Procuramos analisar os aspectos cognitivos e metodológicos envolvidos na avaliação da noção de intervalos de tempo, verificando os aspectos cognitivos envolvidos durante a sua execução, e apontar a relevância, aplicabilidade e sensibilidade dessa avaliação no exame neuropsicológico. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão bibliográfica abrangendo artigos e pesquisas das literaturas nacional e internacional no período de 1990 a 2005. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se 13 diferentes estudos. São controversas as discussões acerca de teorias sobre a noção de tempo. Os estudos podem ser agrupados de acordo com duas perspectivas diferentes: a teoria da contagem atencional, de grande utilização por pesquisadores americanos, e a teoria do relógio interno, muito abordada por estudiosos franceses que se diferem tanto em relação à abordagem teórica quanto à metodológica. CONCLUSÕES: Ambos os grupos de pesquisa, americanos e franceses, retratam a relevância da aplicação dos testes de estimativa, reprodução e produção de tempo no estudo das funções executivas.OBJECTIVE: We tried to analyze the cognitive and methodological aspects involved in the evaluation of time intervals notion, verifying the cognitive aspects involved during your execution, and to point the relevance, applicability and sensibility of this evaluation in the neuropsychologic exam. METHODS: Bibliographical revision was accomplished including articles and researches of the national and international literature in the period of 1990 to 2005. RESULTS: Were found 13 different researches. The discussions concerning theories about the time notion are controversial. These studies can be grouped into two different perspectives: the attentional counter theory, used by American researchers, and the internal clock theory, very boarded by French studious, that are differed in relation to the theoretical and to the methodological approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Both research groups

  11. Perfil lipídico: intervalos de referência em escolares de 2 a 9 anos de idade da cidade de Maracaí (SP

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    Seki Mario

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As recentes publicações disponíveis em nosso meio sobre dislipidemias na infância indicam progressão de uma silenciosa epidemia, que pode agravar as taxas de morbidade e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares nos próximos anos. Na falta de padronização dos intervalos de referência para população brasileira, muitos autores utilizam valores procedentes de outros países, em particular os recomendados pelas III Diretrizes Brasileiras Sobre Dislipidemias (III DBSD, 2001, que foram transcritos do National Cholesterol Education Program-NCEP (EUA, 1992. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer intervalos de referência para triglicerídeos (TG, colesterol total (CT e frações em escolares de 2 a 9 anos de idade da cidade de Maracaí, SP. MÉTODOS: delineamento transversal. Foram avaliados perfis lipídicos de 1.202 alunos de seis escolas (cinco públicas e uma privada, de 2 a 9 anos de idade, no período de 25 de março a 8 de outubro de 2002. Empregaram-se reações enzimáticas para determinações de TG e CT, kits Johnson & Johnson, metodologia de química seca e auto-analisador Vitros 750. Utilizaram-se reagentes magnéticos (sulfato de dextran e cloreto de magnésio, Johnson & Johnson para precipitação de LDL-c e VLDL-c e subseqüente determinação enzimática de HDL-c. O LDL-c foi obtido através de cálculo de Friedewald para TG abaixo de 400mg/dl; valores superiores a este foram determinados com kits Merck CHOD-PAP e leitura fotométrica. RESULTADOS: As exclusões totalizaram 266 casos e os analisados, 936. Os valores obtidos na amostra estudada diferem dos intervalos de referência recomendados pelas III DBSD. As maiores variações dos resultados de Maracaí, em relação às III DBSD, foram do percentil 95 de TG: 130mg/dl (+ 30%; percentil 75 de LDL-c: 101,1mg/dl (-8,1%; percentil 5 de HDL-c: 34mg/dl (-15%. DISCUSSÃO: os intervalos de referência transcritos de outros países desconsideram diferenças étnicas, socioecon

  12. Efeito do intervalo entre sessões de exercício de força sobre o desempenho neuromuscular

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    Charles Ricardo Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O intervalo de recuperação entre sessões é uma variável do treinamento de força fundamental para garantir a recuperação da capacidade neuromuscular. OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do tempo de recuperação entre sessões consecutivas de exercício de força sobre o desempenho neuromuscular de homens treinados. MÉTODOS: Oito homens treinados em força (21,6 ± 3,3 anos; 75,1 ± 11,3 kg; 178,2 ± 6,8 cm realizaram duas sessões de exercício de força randomizadas e cruzadas, repetidas com intervalo de recuperação de 24h ou 48h. As sessões consistiram dos exercícios supinos reto, inclinado e declinado executadas em cinco séries de 10 repetições com intensidade de 70% de uma repetição máxima (1RM para cada exercício. O desempenho neuromuscular pós-sessão de exercício (força, potência e velocidade, foi avaliado por meio de acelerômetro (Myotest(r, com carga de 50% de 1RM, no exercício supino reto. RESULTADOS: Ambas as sessões (24 e 48h apresentaram redução significante (P0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o intervalo de recuperação de 24h é suficiente para a recuperação do desempenho neuromuscular de membros superiores em homens treinados.

  13. Una aplicación de las funciones débilmente contractivas a problemas de valor en la frontera de funciones con valores en intervalos

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    Vladimir Angulo-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la existencia y unicidad de soluciones para problemas de valor en la frontera asociadas a ecuaciones diferenciales de funciones con valores en intervalos, usando la derivada de Hukuhara y algunos teoremas de punto fijo de funciones débilmente contractivas definidas en conjuntos parcialmente ordenados. Abstract. We study the existence and uniqueness of solutions for boundary value problems associated to differential equations of interval-valued functions, by using the derivative of Hukuhara and some fixed point theorems for weakly contractive mappings defined on partially ordered sets.

  14. Intervalo hídrico ótimo num nitossolo vermelho distroférrico irrigado Least limiting water range of an irrigated dystroferric red nitosol

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    Everton Blainski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação tem-se baseado no controle do potencial da água no solo (Ψ como fator limitante do crescimento das plantas. Entretanto, outras variáveis podem influenciar a cultura mesmo que o Ψ não seja limitante. O Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO é um conceito de disponibilidade de água no solo que leva em consideração a porosidade de aeração e a resistência do solo à penetração em adição ao Ψ. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o IHO num Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico irrigado e utilizá-lo no estabelecimento de critérios para o manejo de água e do solo em áreas irrigadas. A resistência do solo à penetração foi a variável que limitou o IHO com maior frequência, diminuindo sua magnitude com o aumento da densidade do solo (Ds. Com o aumento da Ds, ocorreu redução na frequência com que θ manteve-se dentro dos limites do IHO. A Ds crítica (Dsc foi de 1,40 Mg m-3, indicando severa degradação física do solo para Ds > Dsc. Para Ds 2,0 MPa; para 1,28 -800 hPa visando ao controle da RP. Para áreas em que Ds > Dsc, medidas que visem a redução da Ds poderiam ser tomadas em função da severa degradação física do solo.The establishment of irrigation management has been based on the soil water potential (Ψ as a limiting factor for plant growth. However, other variables can affect crop growth even when Ψ is not limiting. The least limiting water range (LLWR is a concept of available water that take account the influence of aeration and soil resistance to penetration (SR in addition to Ψ. The objective of this study was to quantify the LLWR in an irrigated Dystroferric Red Nitosol and to use it to determine the soil and water management for irrigated areas. Soil penetration resistance limited LLRW most often, reducing its magnitude with the increase of soil bulk density (Bd. Therefore, the higher Bd, the less often θ was inside the limits of LLWR. The critical Bd (Bdc was 1.40 Mg m-3, indicating

  15. Intervalo hídrico óptimo en suelos argiudoles plantados con Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Least limiting water range in argiudoll soils under eucalyptus dunnii maiden

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    Francisco Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es el rango de agua del suelo dentro del cual el crecimiento de la planta está menos limitado por el potencial de agua, la aireación y la resistencia del suelo a la penetración de raíces. El IHO es a menudo determinado en cultivos, pero su aplicación en estudios de plantaciones forestales son escasos. Los objetivos fueron: a estimar el IHO del suelo en plantaciones de Eucalyptus dunnii joven y adulto usando funciones de edafo-transferencia; b relacionar funcionalmente la frecuencia de humedad observada localizada fuera del IHO (p fuera con el IHO y determinar si la relación es influenciada por el tipo de suelo y las condiciones meteorológicas del período de crecimiento. Se estimó el IHO en suelos Argiudoles Típico y Abrúptico, usando funciones de edafo-transferencia (FT de retención hídrica y resistencia del suelo. La frecuencia de humedad observada fuera del rango del IHO (p fuera fue evaluada estadísticamente usando el modelo PROC CATMOD. El IHO aumentó de 0,009 cm³ cm-³ (horizonte Bt arcillo limoso a 0,207 cm³ cm-3 (horizonte C franco limoso. El modelo de regresión logística muestra que pfuera se relacionó negativamente con el IHO (R² = 0,83***. La pendiente del modelo (b1 = -30,5475 no varió por condiciones climáticas pero la ordenada al origen resultó influenciada por este parámetro (b o seco = 5,0083; b o húmedo = 3,5207. El modelo fundamental-empírico sostuvo al IHO como un indicador de calidad física del suelo apto para evaluar factores climáticos que inciden sobre el consumo de agua en eucaliptos.The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR integrates water potential, aeration and mechanical resistance conditions that can be limiting to plant growth. The LLWR was often determined in field crops, but studies performed under tree plantations are scarce. In this study, soil LLWR was determined in young and mature Eucalyptus dunnii plantations using pedo-transfer functions. Frequency

  16. Avaliação da idade materna, paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal para fissura lábio-palatina Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate

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    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato representam as anomalias congênitas craniofaciais mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco ambientais em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatinas não-sindrômicas, em um Serviço de Minas Gerais. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo caso-controle, avaliando 100 crianças com fissuras e 100 crianças sem alterações clínicas. As dimensões de análise (idade, cor de pele, sexo, classificação das fissuras, idade materna e paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal foram obtidas a partir de um questionário, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises realizadas pelo programa SPSS 17.0. Os resultados foram analisados com risco relativo para cada variável, para estimar odds ratios com intervalo de confiança de 95% seguido de análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 crianças, 54% foram do sexo masculino e 46% do feminino. Com relação à cor da pele, houve predomínio de parda, branca e preta, respectivamente. Entre os tipos de fissuras, as mais comuns foram as fissuras lábio-palatinas (54%, seguidas pela fissura labial (30% e fissura palatina (16%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora com uma população limitada, verificou-se associação entre idade materna e risco aumentado para fissuras lábio-palatinas, porém idade paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal não foram significantes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. AIM: To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval, obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the

  17. Intervalo hídrico ótimo e densidade crítica de um Latossolo Amarelo coeso sob diferentes usos no ecossistema Tabuleiro Costeiro

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    Camila Brasil Dias

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os impactos do uso e do manejo na qualidade física do solo têm sido quantificados, utilizando-se o intervalo hídrico ótimo e a densidade crítica do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO e a densidade crítica de um Latossolo Amarelo coeso, dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Recôncavo da Bahia, submetido a diferentes usos e manejo do solo. Foram selecionadas três áreas, sobre solo coeso típico, submetidas aos seguintes usos e manejos: mata nativa (Mata Atlântica; pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, em estado de degradação, e cana-de-açúcar, com subsolagem no sulco de plantio. Foram retiradas em cada área 40 amostras com estrutura indeformada, na porção central de cada horizonte (A e AB. Foram determinados nessas amostras, após serem submetidas a dez valores de tensão e pressão, a umidade, a resistência à penetração e a densidade do solo. Na área cultivada com cana, a coleta das amostras foi feita nas linhas de plantio, onde foi realizada a subsolagem. O intervalo hídrico ótimo do horizonte A, da mata, e do Ap, da cana-de-açúcar foram semelhantes e, ambos, maiores que na pastagem. Já no horizonte AB, o IHO da cana-de-açúcar foi maior que o da mata e, o desta, maior que o da pastagem. Os horizontes A e Ap apresentaram valores de densidade crítica maiores que os de AB para todos os usos avaliados. O uso que apresentou maior frequência de valores de densidade do solo acima da densidade crítica foi a pastagem.

  18. Intervalo hídrico ótimo utilizado como indicador da qualidade física em perímetro irrigado.

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    Thiago Lima da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais parâmetros para se avaliar as condições físicas do solo é o Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO que tem como conceito a incorporação de uma faixa de quantidade de água, as limitações ao desenvolvimento das plantas por aeração, água disponível e resistência do solo à penetração das raízes. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o intervalo hídrico ótimo de um Latossolo amarelo distrófico com diferentes usos e manejos no perímetro irrigado Piauí, município de Lagarto-SE. Foram selecionados 4 (quatro  diferentes tipos de usos do solo que tivessem diferentes manejos agrícolas no perímetro irrigado Piauí e três profundidades 0-0,15 m; 0,15-0,30 m e 0,30-0,45 m avaliadas nesses sistemas. Os usos distintos consistiram em: a área sob cultivo de pimenteira malagueta (Capsicum frutensens L; b área sob cultivo de maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis sims; c área sob cultivo de maracujazeiro em consórcio com pimenteira malagueta; d área sob pastagem (Brachiaria decumbens. O intervalo hídrico ótimo foi determinado por meio da curva de resistência à penetração e da curva de retenção da água no solo e mostrou-se importante indicador para avaliação da qualidade física do solo avaliado sob diferentes usos no perímetro irrigado Piauí, onde o manejo empregado no solo afetou a qualidade física deste, já que, em profundidades maiores todos os usos apresentam restrições ao desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, sendo que, a pastagem e o consórcio maracujá e a pimenteira apresentam essa restrição já na profundidade superficial 0-0-15m.

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOGÉNICAS Y SU INFLUENCIA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DEL PASTO MOMBAZA, COSECHADO A DIFERENTES INTERVALOS DE CORTE

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    Omar Ramírez Reynoso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el flujo de tejidos y rendimiento por corte del pasto Mombaza (Panicum maximum Jacq., cosechado a tres intervalos de corte (IC: 3, 5 y 7 semanas, durante un año, en las épocas de sequía (10-nov-2006 a 09-jun-2007 y lluvias (10-jun a 06-nov-2007. Los tratamientos (IC se distribuyeron en 12 parcelas de 17.5 m2, mediante un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. El IC de 3 semanas promedió mayor tasa de aparición de hojas (0.185 hojas tallo-1 d-1 durante el estudio (P

  20. Comportamiento del Intervalo QT corregido prolongado en el síndrome coronario agudo, sin elevación del segmento ST

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    Amauris Modesto Valera Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal prospectivo, para determinar el comportamiento del intervalo QT corregido prolongado, en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST, en el Centro Diagnóstico Integral “Los Arales”, San Diego, año 2009. El universo fue de 48 pacientes y la muestra incluyó a 29 pacientes con ECG normal o sin nuevos cambios isquémicos. Al ingreso se determinaron los valores del intervalo QT corregido, las variables demográficas, antecedentes personales, niveles enzimáticos de CK-MB y el score TIMI. Estos resultados se correlacionaron con la aparición de eventos clínicos (muerte, infarto no fatal y revascularización un mes después del ingreso. De los 29 pacientes analizados sólo 11 (38% presentaron eventos clínicos, mientras que los restantes 18 (62% no los tuvieron. Los pacientes con eventos presentaron valores del iQTc más prolongados por encima del punto de corte. En ambos grupos predominó el sexo masculino y el grupo de edad más frecuente fue el de 60 a 69 años. El tabaquismo, la hipertensión y la hipercolesterolemia fueron los más prevalentes para ambos grupos, así como el uso previo de aspirina. La estratificación de riesgo TIMI y los parámetros basales en los pacientes estudiados fueron mayores y revelan un mayor porcentaje en el grupo con eventos clínicos. Los resultados demuestran que el iQTc predice eventos adversos cardiovasculares hasta 30 días después del ingreso.

  1. Measuring quality indicators in the operating room: cleaning and turnover time Mensuración de indicadores de calidad en un centro quirúrgico: tiempo de limpieza e intervalo entre cirugías Mensuração de indicadores de qualidade em centro cirúrgico: tempo de limpeza e intervalo entre cirurgias

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    Marli de Carvalho Jericó

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory-descriptive study was carried out in the Surgical Center Unit of a university hospital aiming to measure time spent with concurrent cleaning performed by the cleaning service and turnover time and also investigated potential associations between cleaning time and the surgery's magnitude and specialty, period of the day and the room's size. The sample consisted of 101 surgeries, computing cleaning time and 60 surgeries, computing turnover time. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze time and Pearson's correlation to study potential correlations. The time spent in concurrent cleaning was 7.1 minutes and turnover time was 35.6 minutes. No association between cleaning time and the other variables was found. These findings can support nurses in the efficient use of resources thereby speeding up the work process in the operating room.Este estudio exploratorio y descriptivo fue conducido en la Unidad de Centro Quirúrgico de un hospital de enseñanza teniendo por objetivos mensurar el tiempo utilizado para limpieza concurrente en sala de operación (por el Servicio de Higiene y Limpieza y el intervalo entre las cirugías; e, investigar las asociaciones entre: tiempo de limpieza, porte de la cirugía, especialidad de la cirugía, período de ocurrencia y tamaño de la sala. El estudio fue constituido de 101 casos de limpieza (estudio de tiempo de limpieza y 60 cirugías (estudio de intervalo entre cirugías. El método de Kaplan-Meier fue utilizado para el análisis del tiempo y la correlación de Pearson para el estudio de las asociaciones. El tiempo promedio de limpieza concurrente de la sala fue de 7,1 minutos y el del intervalo entre cirugías de 35,6 minutos. No fue encontrada correlación entre el tiempo de limpieza y las demás variables. Estos hallazgos instrumentalizan a los enfermeros en el uso eficiente de recursos, agilizando el proceso de trabajo en el Centro Quirúrgico.Este estudo exploratório-descritivo foi

  2. Intervalos de confianza y pruebas de hipótesis : una comparación entre dos métodos para estimación de parámetros

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    Giorgini, H. J.; Garsd, Armando

    1998-01-01

    p.191-198 Las dos formas más usuales de inferencia estadística son la estimación a través de intervalos de confianza y las pruebas de hipótesis. Ambas formas de inferencia permiten llegar a conclusiones similares. Sin embargo, se observa en el ambiente científico una sobrevaluación del alcance de las pruebas de hipótesis, mientras que los intervalos de confianza tienen la imagen de una herramienta rudimentaria. El valor p, resultante de una prueba de hipótesis, puede ser de gran utilidad c...

  3. Estimativa do intervalo pós-morte em um canino (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus 1758 pela entomologia forense em Cabedelo-PB, Brasil: relato de caso

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    G. Martins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo pós-morte (IPM é um instrumento importante de diagnóstico relacionado à prática forense. O uso de insetos tem sido relatado como um modo eficiente para estimá-lo, quando o cadáver encontra-se em estágio avançado de decomposição. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o IPM com base em evidências entomológicas em um canino. Foram coletadas larvas de moscas no cadáver e encaminhadas ao laboratório de entomologia, onde foram criadas e eclodiram adultos da espécie Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. Somando-se os dados abióticos de temperatura e umidade relativa do local de coleta e do local de criação, estimou-se um IPM mínimo de 3,34 dias do momento da postura dos ovos pelas moscas até a coleta das larvas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a entomologia forense, como ferramenta para estimativa do IPM, mostrou-se eficaz e determinante na elucidação do caso em questão.

  4. Entomología forense: el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae, como herramienta para estimar el intervalo post-mortem

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    Enio B. Cano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann en condiciones controladas de laboratorio a 26 o C, con una humedad relativa de 75% y un período de iluminación de 12 h de luz y 12 h de oscuridad. El tiempo promedio de desarrollo estimado desde la oviposición hasta la salida de los adultos fue de 306 h (una media de casi 13 días. Bajo estas condiciones de temperatura y humedad, los huevos duran cerca de 19 h (0.8 días, las larvas duran unas 170 h (7.1 días y las pupas unas 116 h (4.8 días. En los meses secos y fríos de noviembre y diciembre en condiciones naturales, el ciclo de vida empírico fue de 25 días, implicando que las bajas temperaturas ralentizan el crecimiento y las altas lo aceleran. Se discute acerca de la importancia del ciclo de vida en la estimación del intervalo post-mortem en casos de muertes violentas en Guatemala.

  5. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

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    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, visando também avaliar e quantificar as conseqüências de tal interferência para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM. Os resultados aqui obtidos mostram claramente que a escopolamina afetou significativamente a taxa de desenvolvimento de imaturos de C. putoria, quando presente em seu substrato alimentar. Tendo em vista que o IPM em muitos casos é calculado levando em consideração o peso ou a idade dos imaturos coletados em um corpo, a não consideração deste fator de interferência negativa pode conseqüentemente levar a uma subestimativa do tempo de morte em até 48 horas, em certos casos.

  6. Efeito do tempo de intervalo da amostra ventilatória na variabilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx em jogadores de futebol profissional

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    Paulo Roberto Santos Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar, em futebolistas profissionais, o impacto de sete intervalos de tempo sobre a variável fisiológica consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. Dezoito jogadores de futebol com média de idade de 24 ± 4 anos (18-31, peso de 72,5 ± 5,9kg (62-83 e estatura de 176,5 ± 7,0cm (164-188 foram submetidos a teste ergométrico máximo em esteira rolante, utilizando-se protocolo escalonado contínuo. A resposta de freqüência cardíaca (FC foi registrada por meio de um eletrocardiógrafo computadorizado de 12 derivações simultâneas. A ventilação pulmonar (V E, o consumo de oxigênio (VO2, a produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2 e a razão de troca respiratória (RER foram calculadas a partir de valores medidos por um sistema espirométrico computadorizado. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que houve variabilidade significante do VO2 máx (p < 0,05 somente quando se comparou a resposta instantânea respiração-a-respiração (breath-by-breath em relação aos outros intervalos de tempos analisados (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 segundos, respectivamente. Concluindo, durante o exercício de intensidade progressiva, observou-se que o aumento do VO2 foi proporcional à diminuição do intervalo de tempo da coleta ventilatória. O tempo de intervalo maior subestimou esse aumento. Assim, sugere-se que o avaliador utilize intervalos médios na faixa de tempo entre 10 e 60 segundos, pois não foi verificada diferença estatística significante entre esses intervalos.

  7. Laqueadura intraparto e de intervalo Intrapartum and interval tubal sterilization: characteristics correlated with the procedure and regret in a sample of women from a public hospital

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    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos países com alta prevalência de laqueadura tubária, sendo freqüente sua realização durante o parto. Nos últimos anos, tem-se notado aumento da busca por reversão, principalmente entre mulheres jovens. OBJETIVOS: Estudar, em amostra de mulheres laqueadas, as características relacionadas ao procedimento, determinar a freqüência de execução intraparto, medir as taxas de satisfação e arrependimento com o método. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 335 mulheres laqueadas. As variáveis estudadas foram as relacionadas ao procedimento: idade na laqueadura, se intraparto (vaginal ou cesárea ou de intervalo (fora do período de parto e puerpério, serviço no qual foi realizada, pagamento pelo procedimento, motivo declarado para a opção pelo método, e as relacionadas à satisfação/arrependimento: desejo de gravidez após esterilização, procura por tratamento e realização da cirurgia de reversão. As mulheres foram divididas em dois grupos, laqueadas intraparto e intervalo, avaliando-se associação das variáveis pelo teste Exato de Fisher e Qui-quadrado com correção de Yates. O estudo obteve aprovação do Comitê de Ética. RESULTADOS: Predominaram mulheres brancas, com mais de 35 anos, unidas, com baixa escolaridade e 43,5% esterilizadas antes dos 30 anos. Haviam realizado laqueadura intraparto 245 mulheres, 91,2% daquelas com parto cesárea e 44,6% com parto vaginal. Nos dois grupos, laqueadas intraparto e de intervalo, estavam satisfeitas com o método 82% e 80,8% das mulheres respectivamente. Apesar de 14,6% terem referido desejo de engravidar alguma vez após esterilização, consultaram por esterilidade 3,4% e 2,3%, respectivamente, e uma mulher submeteu-se à cirurgia de reversão. Os motivos mais freqüentes para a escolha do método foram a satisfação com a prole (35,5% e 46,7% e a indicação médica (41,6% e 32,2%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A laqueadura intraparto foi maior quando o último parto

  8. Uso dos diptera na análise entomotoxicológica e na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v13i1.2846

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    Diogo Barth Pacini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A entomologia forense é o estudo de insetos que são encontrados em locais de crimes, e são utilizados como vestígios, aumentando a possibilidade de encontrar a causa da morte e a estimar o intervalo pós-morte (IPM. Com base nessas análises os entomólogos e os peritos observaram que os componentes químicos utilizados pelo individuo, tais como medicamentos ou drogas, ou até mesmo o uso de venenos alterava o que já se conhecia da estimativa do IPM, surgindo, desse modo uma nova vertente nesta ciência, que é a entomotoxicologia forense. O presente trabalho bibliográfico descreve os princípios básicos da entomotoxicologia abordando principalmente a interferência na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  9. Intervalo de partos e fertilidade real em vacas Nelore no Estado do Maranhão Calving interval and real fertility of Nellore cows in State of Maranhão

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    Claudio Cabral Campello

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de fatores genéticos e de ambiente sobre características reprodutivas, a partir de 475 observações de intervalos de partos (IDP e 401 de fertilidade real (FR de vacas da raça Nelore, criadas no município de Santa Inês, Estado do Maranhão, em regime de pasto com suplementação na estação seca, no período de 1980 a 1994, foram estudados. Os dados foram analisados por intermédio de modelos lineares, que incluíram efeito de touro (aleatório, mês e ano do parto anterior e atual, ordem de parição e sexo da cria (fixos. O pai da vaca e a ordem de parição influenciaram significativamente ambas as características estudadas, enquanto o sexo da cria influiu apenas na FR. As médias estimada pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, para IDP e FR, foram 433,84 ± 88,20 dias e 184,69 ± 37,09 kg, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados pela correlação intraclasse entre meio-irmãs paternas foram estimados em 0,32 ± 0,15 e 0,49 ± 0,19, respectivamente, para IDP e FR.The effects of genetic and environmental factors on reproductive traits, from 475 records of calving interval (CI and 401 of real fertility (RF of Nellore cows reared at Santa Inês county, Maranhão State, in pasture grazing system with supplementation in the dry season, from 1980 to 1994, were studied. The data were analyzed by means of linear models, which included the sire effect (random effects, month and year of the last and the actual calving, calving number and sex of calf (fixed effects. The sire effect and calving number significantly affected both studied traits, while calf sex affected only the RF. The calving interval and R F by least square means were: 433.84 ± 88.20 days and 184.69 ± 37.09 kg, respectively. The heritability coefficients estimated by intraclass correlation of paternal half-sisters were .32 ± .15 and .49 ± .19, for CI. and RF. respectively.

  10. Interferência do intervalo de administração da droga sobre a nefrotoxicidade da gentamicina em ratos Influence of the dose regimen on the gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Verônica Cunha Rodrigues Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência renal aguda (IRA que apresenta índice de mortalidade em torno de 50%, pode ser definida como um abrupto declínio da filtração glomerular, resultante de isquemia ou toxicidade. A nefrotoxicidade por drogas é uma das etiologias mais freqüentes (27% e sugere-se que o intervalo de administração da droga pode interferir neste efeito colateral, entretanto o melhor regime de administração ainda não está bem estabelecido. Este conhecimento proporcionaria uma atuação mais direcionada de enfermagem na prevenção desta IRA hospitalar. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa, indicam que a infusão única de gentamicina determina menor nefrotoxicidade, provavelmente devido à redução da sua concentração plasmática nas 24hs, diminuindo o acúmulo intracelular deste fármaco, um dos principais mecanismos celulares deste tipo de lesão. Este regime de tratamento mostra portanto vantagens quanto ao custo, efeito nefrotóxico e segurança quanto à eficácia terapêutica.The acute renal failure (ARF, that still presents a righ mortality rate (50% can be defined as an abrupt decline of the glomerular filtration, resultant of isquemic or toxicity event. The drugs nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent cause (27% of ARF and it is suggested that the interval of administration of the drug can interfere in this side effect, however the best administration regimen is not very well established. This study evaluated the renal function of rats that received gentamicin (100mg/kg in one dose or in two doses (2x 50mg/kg,by intraperitoneal infusion. The results obtained in this research, indicated that the single infusion of gentamicin determined smaller nephrotoxicity by the reduction of serum concentration of this drug in 24 hours, decreasing the intracelular accumulation of this gentamicin, which is one of the main cellular mechanisms of this renal injury. The single dose treatment regime, otherwise, showes advantages not only related

  11. Intervalo hídrico ótimo e compactação do solo com cultivo consorciado de milho e braquiária

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    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo consorciado entre a espécie forrageira e a cultura produtora de grãos garante a produção de forragem no outono-inverno, além de palha para cobertura do solo em sistema semeadura direta. O aporte de matéria seca radicular no perfil do solo possibilita a melhoria da qualidade estrutural do solo. Objetivou-se com este experimento verificar as alterações nos atributos físicos e físico-hídricos do solo com o cultivo de milho solteiro e consorciado com Brachiaria brizantha. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (UNESP, Botucatu-SP, entre os anos agrícolas de 2002/2003 e 2003/2004. Foram coletadas amostras com estrutura preservada de solo, por meio de anéis volumétricos, nas camadas de 0 a 20 e 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, em trincheiras abertas em parcelas cultivadas com milho e mantidas em pousio na entressafra, bem como em parcelas cultivadas com milho consorciado com B. brizantha na linha de semeadura, mantendo a forrageira para pastagem após a colheita do milho. A partir dessas amostras, foi avaliado o Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO, por meio de curvas de resistência à penetração e de retenção de água, em amostras com diferentes densidades do solo. O cultivo solteiro de milho na safra de verão é suficiente para melhorar as características físicas e estruturais do solo na camada de 0 a 20 cm. O cultivo de braquiária em consórcio com o milho por dois anos consecutivos melhora as condições físicas e estruturais do solo na camada de 20 a 40 cm, com redução da resistência mecânica à penetração e aumento da densidade crítica do solo.

  12. Intervalos de referência longitudinais de parâmetros doplervelocimétricos materno-fetais Longitudinal reference intervals of maternal-fetal Doppler parameters

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    Nelsilene Mota Carvalho Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Criar intervalos de referência longitudinais para os valores de índices de pulsatilidade (IP dos fluxos nas artérias umbilicais (AU, cerebral média (ACM e uterinas (AUt e IP venoso do fluxo no ducto venoso (DV com uma amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional longitudinal realizado de fevereiro de 2010 a maio de 2012. Gestantes de baixo risco foram submetidas a exames ultrassonográficos quinzenais da 18ª a 40ª semana para obtenção dos IP das AU, AUt, ACM e IP venoso do DV. Modelos lineares mistos foram usados para elaboração de intervalos de referência longitudinais (percentis 5, 50 e 95 dos IP dos vasos mencionados. Os IP das porções placentária e abdominal do cordão umbilical foram comparados por meio do teste t de amostras independentes. Valores de p bilaterais menores do que 0,05 foram considerados significativos. RESULTADOS: Cento e sessenta e quatro gestantes foram submetidas a 1.242 exames ultrassonográficos. Houve redução significativa nos valores de todos esses parâmetros com o avançar da IG. Entre a 18ª e a 40ª semana de gravidez, as medianas de IP da AU (porções abdominal e placentária do cordão, da ACM, do DV e do IP médio das AUt variaram de 1,19 a 0,74; 1,33 a 0,78; 1,56 a 1,39; 0,58 a 0,41; e 0,98 a 0,66, respectivamente. As equações obtidas para predição das medianas foram: IP-AU=1,5602786 - (0,020623 x IG; Logaritmo do IP-ACM=0,8149111 - (0,004168 x IG - [0,002543 x (IG - 28,7756²]; Logaritmo do IP-DV=-0,26691- (0,015414 x IG; IP-AUt=1,2362403 - (0,014392 x IG. Houve diferença significativa entre os IP-AU obtidos nas extremidades placentária e abdominal fetal (pPURPOSE: To create longitudinal reference intervals for pulsatility index (PI of the umbilical (UA, middle cerebral (MCA, uterine (UtA arteries and ductus venosus (DV in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: A longitudinal observational study performed from February 2010 to May 2012. Low risk pregnancies were

  13. Respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício resistido são afetadas pela carga e intervalos entre séries

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    Antonio Gil Castinheiras-Neto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O controle das respostas cardiovasculares durante exercício resistido (ER é importante para a segurança do paciente. OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do número de repetições máximas (RM e dos intervalos de recuperação entre séries (IR sobre a frequência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e duplo produto (DP durante ER. MÉTODOS: Vinte sujeitos saudáveis (26 ± 5 anos realizaram protocolos de ER envolvendo três séries do leg press (6 e 12 RM e IR proporcional ao tempo de contração (1:3 e 1:5. Aferiu-se a FC continuamente com cardiofrequencímetro e a PAS foi verificada ao final das séries, por meio de protocolo validado com método auscultatório. RESULTADOS: A FC sofreu influência da carga (p = 0,008 e das séries (p < 0,001, mas não do IR (p = 0,087. A PAS sofreu efeito isolado do número de séries (p < 0,001 e do IR (p = 0,017, mas não da carga (p = 0,95. O DP elevou-se em relação direta com a carga (p = 0,036 e com as séries (p < 0,001, mas inversamente ao IR (p = 0,006. Nos protocolos de 6 RM, a variação da FC foi maior para IR = 1:3 (Δ = 11,2 ± 1,1 bpm do que para IR = 1:5 (Δ = 4,5 ± 0,2 bpm; p = 0,002, mas não houve diferença para 12 RM (Δ 1:3 = 21,1 ± 2,2 bpm; Δ 1:5 = 18,9 ± 2,0 bpm, p = 0,83. O IR influenciou a variação da PAS em todas as cargas (6 RM - Δ 1:3 = 10,6 ± 0,9 mmHg, Δ 1:5 = 6,6 ± 0,7 mmHg; p = 0,02 e 12 RM - Δ 1:3 = 15,2 ± 1,1 mmHg, Δ 1:5 = 8,4 ± 0,7 mmHg; p = 0,04. O DP elevou-se proporcionalmente à carga (p = 0,036 e para séries (p < 0,001, mas inversamente ao IR (p = 0,006. Com IR = 1:3, houve diferença de DP para 6 RM (Δ = 2.892 ± 189 mmHg.bpm e 12 RM (Δ = 4.587 ± 300 mmHg.bpm; p = 0,018, mas não com IR = 1:5 (6 RM: Δ = 1.224 ± 141 mmHg.bpm, 12 RM: Δ = 2.332 ± 194 mmHg.bpm; p = 0,58. CONCLUSÃO: Independentemente da carga, um maior IR associou-se a menores respostas cardiovasculares durante ER, especialmente de PAS.

  14. AlphaCI: un programa de cálculo de intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach AlphaCI: a computer program for computing confidence intervals around Cronbach's alfa coefficient

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    Rubén Ledesma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el modo más habitual de estimar la fiabilidad de pruebas basadas en Teoría Clásica de los Test. En dicha estimación, los investigadores usualmente omiten informar intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente, un aspecto no solo recomendado por los especialistas, sino también requerido explícitamente en las normas editoriales de algunas revistas especializadas. Esta situación puede atribuirse a que los métodos de estimación de intervalos de confianza son poco conocidos, además de no estar disponibles al usuario en los programas estadísticos más populares. Así, en este trabajo se presenta un programa desarrollado dentro del sistema estadístico ViSta que permite calcular intervalos de confianza basados en el enfoque clásico y mediante la técnica bootstrap. Se espera promover la inclusión de intervalos de confianza para medidas de fiabilidad, facilitando el acceso a las herramientas necesarias para su aplicación. El programa es gratuito y puede obtenerse enviando un mail de solicitud al autor del trabajo.Cronbach's alpha coefficient is the most popular way of estimating reliability in measurement scales based on Classic Test Theory. When estimating it, researchers usually omit to report confidence intervals of this coefficient, as it is not only recommended by experts, but also required by some journal's guidelines. This situation is because the different methods of estimating confidence intervals are not well-known by researchers, as well as they are not being available among the most popular statistical packages. Therefore, this paper describes a computer program integrated into the ViSta statistical system, which allows computing confidence intervals based on the classical approach and using bootstrap technique. It is hoped that this work promotes the inclusion of confidence intervals of reliability measures, by increasing the availability of the required computer tools. The program is free and

  15. Intervalo hídrico ótimo em um latossolo vermelho distroférrico sob diferentes sistemas de produção Least limiting water range in a distroferric red latossol under different growing systems

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    Milson E. Serafim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar sistemas de cultivo quanto à qualidade estrutural do solo para o desenvolvimento de plantas por meio da determinação do Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO. O estudo foi realizado com amostras indeformadas de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, sob os sistemas de cultivo convencional, direto e integração lavoura-pecuária, no município de Dourados - MS. Em cada sistema de cultivo, foram amostrados 28 pontos, nas camadas de 0-0,05 m, 0,05-0,10 m, e 0,10-0,20 m, totalizando 84 amostras por sistema, que foram utilizadas para a determinação da curva de retenção de água no solo, da curva de resistência do solo à penetração e da porosidade. No sistema de cultivo convencional e no direto, a menor limitação ao desenvolvimento radicular foi na camada de 0-0,05 m, e na integração, a limitação foi menor na camada de 0,10-0,20 m. Na camada de 0-0,05 m do convencional, o IHO foi igual à capacidade de água disponível. Nos sistemas direto e integração, a resistência à penetração foi limitante. A resistência à penetração foi o principal fator limitante do IHO na maioria das situações estudadas.The objective of this work was to characterize the growing systems related to the structural soil quality for plants development by the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR. The study was developed using soil samples with preserved structure of a Distroferric Red Latossol under the conventional, no tillage and integrated growing systems in de county of Dourados-MS, Brazil. In each system 28 points were sampled, in 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m deep layers, ending up with 84 samples by system which was used to adjust the water retention curve in the soil, soil resistance to penetration curve and porosity determination, all of them necessary to the LLWR determination. In the conventional and no-tillage systems the smallest restriction to de roots development was in the 0-0.05 m layer, while in

  16. Espaçamento de plantio e intervalos de colheita na biomassa e no óleo essencial de gerânio Plant spacing and harvest intervals on biomass and essential oil of geranium

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    Arie F Blank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens é uma erva aromática e seu óleo essencial é comumente utilizado na constituição de fármacos e cosméticos no mundo. A planta adapta-se bem às condições climáticas do nordeste brasileiro, mas são escassos os dados sobre seu rendimento quantitativo e qualitativo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de espaçamento de plantas e intervalos de colheita em gerânio na produção de biomassa e de óleo essencial. Foram testados três espaçamentos de plantio (50x50, 50x60 e 50x80 cm e três intervalos de colheita (8, 12 e 16 semanas. Os maiores valores totais de massa fresca e seca de folhas e caules (2679,04 g m-2; 424,62 g m-2; 1035,08 g m-2; 136,85 g m-2, respectivamente e rendimento de óleo essencial (7,56 mL m-2, que são características de interesse direto para o mercado, foram obtidos em intervalo de colheita de oito semanas e no espaçamento de 50x50 cm. Nas demais variáveis analisadas, houve pouca diferenciação entre os tratamentos, contudo, períodos longos de colheita são menos produtivos, pois houve queda nos valores de todas as variáveis nas ultimas colheitas de cada intervalo. Assim, melhores resultados de quantidade e qualidade para o gerânio foram obtidos com intervalo de 8 semanas e no espaçamento 50x50 cm.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is an aromatic herb and its essential oil is commonly used in the creation of drugs and cosmetics worldwide. The plant is well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Brazilian northeast, but there are few data on its quantitative and qualitative yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of plant spacing and harvest intervals of geranium on the production of biomass and essential oil. Three different plant spacings (50x50, 50x60 and 50x80 cm and three harvest intervals (8, 12 and 16 weeks were tested. The highest values of total fresh and dry weight of leaves and stems (2679.04 g m-2; 424.62 g m-2; 1035.08 g m-2

  17. Produtividade do repolho utilizando cobertura morta e diferentes intervalos de irrigação com água moderadamente salina Cabbage yield using mulching and different irrigation intervals with moderately saline water

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    José F. de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação em áreas sob escassez hídrica é imperativo para o incremento da eficiência do uso da água, particularmente em áreas susceptíveis a salinização e a elevadas demandas atmosféricas. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito da cobertura morta e de intervalos de irrigação utilizando-se água moderadamente salina sobre a produtividade do repolho e sobre suas variáveis relacionadas, em vale aluvial no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições, mediante a aplicação de intervalos de irrigação de 12, 24 e 48 h, com utilização de uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, e presença ou ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Verificou-se que as produtividades foram afetadas pelos intervalos de irrigação e pela presença da cobertura morta. A máxima eficiência uso da água foi obtida aplicando-se o intervalo de irrigação de 12 h com cobertura morta, correspondendo a 110,49 Mg ha-1 mm-1, em consequência da menor variação da umidade ao longo do experimento. A relevância da cobertura morta ficou evidenciada para o tratamento com intervalo de irrigação de 48 h, tendendo a controlar as perdas de umidade e manter a produtividade do repolho.The irrigation management in areas under water scarcity is imperative to increase the water use efficiency particularly in areas with salinization risk and high atmospheric demands. In this study, effect of mulching and irrigation intervals was evaluated using moderately saline water on cabbage yield and on its related variables in an alluvial valley in the semiarid. The experimental design was in random blocks using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 4 replications, adopting irrigation application intervals of 12, 24 and 48 h, and a leaching fraction of 20%, and considering mulching presence or absence on the soil. It was verified that productivities have been affected by the irrigation interval and by mulching. The

  18. Produtividade da biomassa de melissa em função de intervalo de cortes e doses de nitrogênio Biomass production of Lemon balm as a result of cutting interval and nitrogen levels

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    André May

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Melissa officinalis tem crescido em importância econômica no setor produtivo de plantas medicinais, contudo o nível de informações agronômicas a cerca da espécie é limitado. Dessa forma, foi instalado um experimento visando avaliar a influência do intervalo de cortes e de doses de nitrogênio sobre a produção de biomassa dessa espécie. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo os fatores estudados o intervalo de cortes (30; 42; 54 e 66 dias e dose de nitrogênio (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas a altura da planta e massa seca da parte aérea. Observou-se maior altura da planta para maior intervalo entre corte. Maiores rendimentos de massa seca foram observados com a aplicação de 180 kg ha-1 de N, havendo uma resposta linear para a produção de massa seca com a aplicação de N.Cultivation of Melissa officinalis is increasing in economic importance in the market of medicinal plants, although the level of agronomic information concerning the specie is limited. To achieve those objectives, a trial was carried out to study the influence of cutting intervals and nitrogen levels in biomass production. The experimental design was in blocks with three replications in a 4 x 4 factorial cheme: cutting intervals (30; 42; 54 and 66 days and nitrogen (0; 60; 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N. The characteristics of plant height and aerial part and accumulated dry mater were evaluated. Increasing the cutting intervals resulted in higher plants. The highest dry matter value was observed using 180 kg ha-1 of N, having a linear reply for the production of dry mass with the application of N.

  19. Intervals between observations for ingestive behavior evaluation of young bulls in feedlot/ Intervalo de tempo entre observações para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo de tourinhos em confinamento

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    Willian Gonçalves do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the intervals of time for observing the ingestive behavior of 36 young crossbred bulls in feedlot. The animals were housed in individual stalls, in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (sorghum silage with 1.0 % concentrate, sugar cane with 1.0 % concentrate and sugar cane with 1.2 % concentrate. Five different intervals between observations were studied. The evaluated parameters were: feeding, rumination and idle, time and frequency, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake, total chewing time, feeding and rumination efficiency of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, as well as, the percentage of the time in that the animals were laying during rumination or idle. The intervals of time did not differ (P > 0.05 for analyzed variable of the time and efficiency. The percentage of time in that the animals were laid while ruminating, was 91 %. The frequencies of feeding, rumination and idle, differed (P Objetivou-se com o experimento estudar intervalos de tempo para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo de tourinhos confinados. Foram utilizados 36 animais, alojados em baias individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (silagem de sorgo com 1,0 % de concentrado, cana-deaçúcar com 1,0 % de concentrado e com 1,2 % de concentrado. Foram comparadas cinco escalas de intervalos de observações. Avaliou-se o tempo e freqüência de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, sendo que destes dois últimos itens calculou-se a percentagem do tempo que os animais permaneciam deitados, ingestão de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro, tempo de mastigação total e eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro. Não se observou diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre as escalas de tempo analisadas para as variáveis relacionadas a tempo e eficiência. A percentagem de tempo que os animais permaneceram

  20. Interpretando correctamente en salud pública estimaciones puntuales, intervalos de confianza y contrastes de hipótesis Accurate interpretation of point estimates, confidence intervals, and hypothesis tests in public health

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    Manuel G Scotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo trata de aclarar algunos conceptos utilizados habitualmente en el campo de investigación de la salud pública, que en numerosas situaciones son interpretados de manera incorrecta. Entre ellos encontramos la estimación puntual, los intervalos de confianza, y los contrastes de hipótesis. Estableciendo un paralelismo entre estos tres conceptos, podemos observar cuáles son sus diferencias más importantes a la hora de ser interpretados, tanto desde el punto de vista del enfoque clásico como desde la óptica bayesiana.This essay reviews some statistical concepts frequently used in public health research that are commonly misinterpreted. These include point estimates, confidence intervals, and hypothesis tests. By comparing them using the classical and the Bayesian perspectives, their interpretation becomes clearer.

  1. Intervalos de integración unificados para la caracterización estructural de petróleos, carbones o sus fracciones por rmn 1h y rmn 13c

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    Eliseo, Avella; Fierro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Con base en la revisión de publicaciones, hechas entre 1972 y 2006, se evidenció que hay imprecisiones en los límites de los intervalos de integración que los autores asignan a las señales en resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) para hacer la caracterización estructural de petróleos, carbones o sus fracciones derivadas, a partir de sus espectros de hidrógeno (RMN 1H) o de carbono (RMN 13C). En consecuencia, se determinaron límites unificados para la integración de los espectros RMN 1H y RMN 13C...

  2. Intervalos de observações com diferentes escalas de tempo no comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras confinadas Intervals between observations at different time scales in the feeding behavior of dairy confined cows

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    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as diferentes escalas de tempo para determinar qual o intervalo mais adequado no estudo do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras confinadas. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Água Azul, Município de Macarani-Bahia, no período de outubro a novembro de 2005. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas mestiças Holandês, apresentando, em média, 478,5  15,89kg de peso corporal. Os tratamentos do presente estudo foram os intervalos (cinco, 10; 15; 20 e 30 minutos, observados durante o comportamento ingestivo. A observação do comportamento ocorreu no penúltimo dia de cada período de 12 dias durante 24 horas. Procedeu-se a análise de variância e a aplicação do teste de Dunnett, adotando-se 0,05 como nível crítico de probabilidade. Não houve efeito significativo das escalas de registro do tempo de alimentação, ruminação, ócio e para as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação. Para as variáveis dos números de períodos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio e os tempos por período de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, as escalas de 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos foram diferentes quando comparadas com o intervalo de observação de cinco minutos. As coletas totais dos tempos de alimentação ruminação e ócio, e as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação nos diferentes nutrientes podem ser realizadas com intervalo de observação de até 30 minutos. Para a discretização das séries temporais do comportamento ingestivo recomenda-se a escala de cinco minutos entre as observações.This study aimed to analyze different time scales to determine the most appropriate interval in the study of ingestive behavior of confined dairy cows. The experiment was conducted at the farm Blue Water, city of Macarani-Bahia, in the period from October to November 2005. 12 crossbred Holstein cows were used, with an average body weight of 478.5  15.89kg. The treatments of this study were the intervals (five; 10; 15; 20 and 30

  3. Efectos de la suplementación de omega-3 y entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad en el rendimiento físico, presión arterial y composición corporal en individuos sedentarios con sobrepeso

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    Peñailillo Escarate, Luis; Mackay Phillips, Karen; Serrano Duarte, Natalia; Canales Espinoza, Pablo; Miranda Herrera, Pamela; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) y el consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 (O3) ha demostrado cada uno por separado aumentar la capacidad aeróbica, el metabolismo oxidativo y la función cardiovascular. Objetivo: examinar el efecto combinado de HIIT más suplementación de O3 en el rendimiento físico, presión arterial y composición corporal en jóvenes sedentarios. Métodos: 28 jóvenes sedentarios con sobrepeso (edad = 22 ± 4 años; IMC = 25,8 ± 2,4 kg·m-2) fueron ...

  4. Influência do intervalo de tempo entre as sessões de alongamento no ganho de flexibilidade dos isquiotibiais Influence of the time interval between stretching sessions on increased hamstring flexibility

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    Zenewton André da Silva Gama

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A otimização do treino de flexibilidade está relacionada com o uso de parâmetros adequados de alongamento. Entretanto, o intervalo de tempo adequado entre as sessões de alongamento tem sido pouco investigado. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a variação no intervalo de tempo entre sessões de alongamento influencia no ganho de flexibilidade. MÉTODOS: 28 mulheres, com idade de 22,5 ± 1,8 anos, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos. Aplicaram-se 10 sessões de alongamento nos isquiotibiais do membro direito. O grupo 0X (n = 8 foi o controle e não recebeu alongamento. O grupo 3X (n = 10 alongou três vezes por semana (intervalo de 48 horas e o grupo 5X (n = 10, cinco vezes (intervalo de 24 horas. Aplicaram-se 10 sessões de alongamento (sustentar-relaxar nos isquiotibiais direitos. As medidas foram tomadas por análise fotométrica no programa AutoCad® 2000. A análise estatística foi realizada com ANOVA e teste post hoc de Newman-Keuls adotando um p-valor referencial de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Após 10 sessões, identificou-se aumento da flexibilidade nos grupos experimentais, porém sem diferença entre estes. O grupo 3X aumentou significativamente a partir do 10º dia do programa (quinta sessão e o grupo 5X, a partir do terceiro (terceira sessão. CONCLUSÕES: O alongamento aumenta a flexibilidade dos isquiotibiais, independente do tempo entre as sessões (24 ou 48 horas; e a variável tempo não influencia o ganho de flexibilidade total. Porém, com cinco sessões semanais, ganha-se flexibilidade mais rapidamente. Isso sugere que o ganho de flexibilidade é sessão-dependente.CONTEXT: The optimization of flexibility training is related to the use of ideal stretching parameters. However, the time interval between sessions has been little investigated. OBJECTIVE: To verify if the variation in time interval between stretching sessions influences in flexibility gain. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-eight women, average age of 22.5 ± 1

  5. Avaliação dos intervalos e números de observações no comportamento ingestivo de novilhas leiteiras confinadas Evaluation of the intervals and numbers of observations on the ingestive behavior of dairy heifers confined

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    Lucas Nascimento de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o efeito dos intervalos e números de observações no comportamento ingestivo de novilhas leiteiras confinadas. Foram utilizadas 20 novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, com peso corporal médio inicial de 165,5kg e idade média de 13 meses. As novilhas foram distribuídas em quatro grupos, compostos por níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau com base na matéria seca das dietas (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Os tratamentos do presente estudo foram os intervalos (cinco; 10; 15; 20 e 30 minutos, números de repetições (quatro, três, duas e uma, e turnos (quatro, três, dois e um de observação durante o comportamento ingestivo. A avaliação ocorreu no fim de cada período de 21 dias de coleta de dados, durante 24 horas, sendo as atividades registradas em cinco escalas diferentes: cinco; 10; 15; 20 e 30 minutos de intervalo. Os aspectos do comportamento ingestivo foram observados em quatro, três, duas e uma repetições e turnos. Não houve efeito significativo das escalas de registro sobre o tempo de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, nem sobre as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação. Para as variáveis relacionadas com a atividade de ruminação, não houve diferença entre os diferentes números de observações, nem para os diferentes turnos de observação. A determinação dos tempos totais das atividades de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, e as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação dos diferentes nutrientes podem ser realizadas com intervalo de observação de até 30 minutos.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the intervals and numbers of observations on the ingestive behavior of confined dairy heifers. We used 20 heifers Holstein x Zebu, with initial body weight of 165.5kg and mean age of 13 months. The heifers were divided into four feeding groups, composed of inclusions of cocoa meal based diets (0; 7; 14 and 21%. The treatments were the intervals (five; 10; 15; 20 and 30 minutes

  6. Determinação dos intervalos de referência para lipídeos e lipoproteínas em escolares de 10 a 19 anos de idade de Maracaí (SP

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    Seki Mario

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os estudos epidemiológicos do perfil lipídico em jovens fornecem subsídios para a prevenção da aterosclerose e a redução das elevadas taxas de mortalidade provocadas por doenças do aparelho circulatório. Observa-se, entretanto, que os autores nacionais utilizam intervalos de referência procedentes de outros países, geralmente os norte-americanos. As III Diretrizes Brasileiras Sobre Dislipidemias (III DBSD, 2001 também adotam este recurso, recomendando valores do National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP (EUA, 1992. Esta prática, que desconsidera diferenças raciais, condições socioeconômicas, constituição física e hábitos alimentares da população brasileira, pode induzir potenciais vieses, prejudicando o dimensionamento das dislipidemias em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer intervalos de referência para triglicerídeos (TG, colesterol total (CT, LDL-colesterol (LDL-c, HDL-colesterol (HDL-c e não-HDL-colesterol (não-HDL-c em escolares de Maracaí (SP, de ambos sexos e faixa etária de 10 a 19 anos. MÉTODOS: Delineamento transversal. No período de 25 de março a 8 de outubro de 2002, foram avaliados 1.371 alunos de ambos os sexos, de 10 a 19 anos de idade, matriculados em oito escolas públicas e uma privada. Foram utilizadas reações enzimáticas para determinações de CT e TG, kits Johnson & Johnson (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, metodologia de química seca e auto-analisador Vitros 750. A dosagem enzimática de HDL-c foi precedida pela precipitação de LDL-c e VLDL-c presentes nos soros mediante uso de reagentes responsivos à separação magnética, contendo sulfato de dextran e cloreto de magnésio (Johnson & Johnson. Valores de LDL-c para TG sérico abaixo de 400mg/dl foram obtidos pelo cálculo de Friedewald: LDL-c = CT - HDL-c - TG/5; para valores superiores a este, os soros foram precipitados com sulfato de polivinil dissolvido em polietilenoglicol a 25%, pH 6,7 e posterior determinação com

  7. Cálcio ionizado no soro: estimativa do intervalo de referência e condições de coleta Serum ionized calcium: reference interval estimation and blood collection condictions

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    Adagmar Andriolo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A dosagem de cálcio ionizado, em nosso meio, tem se tornado freqüente em substituição à de cálcio total, com vantagens, por ser a fração fisiologicamente ativa e pelo desenvolvimento de metodologia robusta e com relação custo/benefício adequada. Seu uso implica a necessidade de definição de intervalos de referência. OBJETIVO: Estimar o intervalo de referência para o cálcio ionizado sérico e avaliar interferências do tempo de permanência do torniquete e do resfriamento da amostra. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Para a estimativa do intervalo de referência, foram incluídos os resultados de 11.320 dosagens consecutivas de cálcio ionizado realizadas de janeiro de 2000 a novembro de 2002; para avaliar o efeito da refrigeração foram realizadas 16 coletas em duplicata, sendo que um dos tubos foi colocado em banho de gelo imediatamente após a coleta e o outro foi mantido à temperatura ambiente; para avaliar o efeito do tempo de garroteamento, em seis voluntários foi realizada a coleta em um dos braços imediatamente após a aplicação do torniquete e, no outro braço, após 3 minutos de garroteamento. O sangue foi colhido em tubos sem ar, contendo gel separador, e centrifugado em até 30 minutos após a coleta. Todas as dosagens foram realizadas em até 4 horas após a centrifugação por eletrodo íon-seletivo. RESULTADOS: Considerando-se os 95% centrais dos dados, os limites inferior e superior foram 1,11mmol/l (intervalo de confiança de 90%: 1,1 a 1,11mmol/l e 1,4mmol/l (intervalo de confiança de 90%: 1,39 a 1,41mmol/l, respectivamente. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas nos resultados das amostras com e sem refrigeração e entre as amostras coletadas com menos de um minuto e com três minutos de garroteamento.INTRODUCTION: The ionized serum calcium determination has become frequent replacing the total calcium with advantages: it is the physiologically active fraction, and the availability of robust

  8. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

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    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  9. Variação da evapotranspiração de referência calculada em diferentes intervalos de tempo Variation of the reference evapotranspiration calculated for different times interval

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    Álvaro J. Back

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Valores de evapotranspiração de referência foram calculados em intervalos de um, cinco, dez, quinze dias e mensal. Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos da Estação Meteorológica de Urussanga - SC (latitude 28°31'S, longitude 49°19'W referentes ao período de 1981 a 2004. A evapotranspiração de referência foi calculada pelo método de Penman-Monteith com base nas médias das variáveis meteorológicas dos diferentes períodos estudados. Observou-se que não houve diferenças significativas nas médias de evapotranspiração calculadas nos diversos intervalos de tempo. No entanto, houve diferenças significativas na dispersão dos valores em torno da média. Para valores diários, foi obtido coeficiente de variação (C.V. entre 30 e 40%, e para valores mensais, variou entre 6% e 12%. Observou-se, também, que os dados de evapotranspiração se ajustaram à distribuição Beta, e assim foram estimados, para cada mês, os valores de evapotranspiração de referência com probabilidades de 5; 10; 25; 50; 75; 90 e 95%.Reference evapotranspiration values were calculated for time interval of one, five, ten, fifteen days and monthly. Meteorological series data from 1981 to 2004 from Urussanga Weather Station (latitude 28°31'S, longitude 49°19'W were used to calculate reference evapotranspiration with Penman-Monteith method with mean of meteorological variables for every time intervals. No difference was observed in average reference evapotranspiration computed in all time steps. However, some difference in variations of data around the average was observed. For daily value, the variation coefficient varies from 30 to 40% and for monthly values de coefficient variation varied from 6 to 12%. It was observed that the reference evapotranspirations adjusted very well to Beta distribution probability, and the reference evapotranspiration with probability of 5; 10; 25; 50; 75; 90 e 95% was estimated.

  10. Influência do intervalo entre cortes sobre a produção de biomassa de duas espécies de capim limão Influence of the interval between cuts on biomass yield of two lemon grass species

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    André May

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência do intervalo entre cortes na produção de massa seca da parte aérea de duas espécies de capim limão. O experimento foi realizado no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas-SP, 04 de junho/05 a 28 de agosto/06. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo duas espécies (C. citratus e C. flexuosus e quatro intervalos entre cortes (40; 60; 80 e 100 dias. Para C. flexuosus, maiores intervalos entre cortes proporcionaram maior massa seca acumulada ao longo do ciclo de cultivo, partindo de 329,04 para 704,16 g planta-1 de massa seca acumulada da parte aérea, para intervalos entre cortes de 40 e 100 dias, respectivamente. A espécie C. citratus apresentou resposta linear decrescente da massa seca acumulada da parte aérea quanto maior o intervalo entre cortes utilizado, produzindo 238,68 g planta-1 utilizando intervalo entre cortes de 40 dias.The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the interval between cuts on the dry mass yield of the aerial part of two lemon grass species. The experiment was conducted at Agronomical Institute (IAC, in Campinas - SP, from June 4th, 2005 through August 28th, 2006. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized block design, with three replications, and the treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design, corresponding two species (C. citratus and C. flexuosus and four intervals between cuts (40; 60; 80 and 100 days. For C. flexuosus, longer intervals between cuts generated more dry mass accumulated throughout the cultivation cycle, beginning on 329,04 to 704,16 g plant-1 of accumulated dry mass of the aerial part, for intervals between cuts of 40 and 100 days, respectively. The C. citratus species showed a decrease in its linear response for the accumulated dry mass of the aerial part the longer the interval between cuts was, yielding 238,68 g plant-1 for a 40 day interval between

  11. Growth analisys and assimilate partitioning in physalis plants under leaf fertilization intervalsAnálise de crescimento e partição de assimilados em plantas de fisalis submetidas a intervalos de adubação foliar

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    Tiago Pedó

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was conducted in greenhouse and aimed to analyze the growth and partitioning of assimilates in Physalis peruviana subjected in intervals of leaf fertilization. The plants were collected at regular intervals of fourteen days after transplantation until the end of the cycle and determined the dry mass and leaf area. From the primary data analysis was applied to growth analysis and calculated the total dry matter production (Wt, rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw, net assimilation (Ea, leaf area index (L, relative growth of leaf area (Fa and ratios of leaf area and leaf mass (Fw, specific leaf area (Sa and dry matter partitioning between organs. Plants of Physalis peruviana subjected to leaf fertilization biweekly reached higher Wt, Ct, number of fruits and similar dry mass of fruits (Wfr of plants subjected to foliar weekly application and higher Wfr compared to plants without application leaf of fertilization. Thus, the application of leaf fertilization provided benefits of growth and the partition of assimilates in Physalis peruviana plants. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e objetivou analisar o crescimento e a partição de assimilados em Physalis peruviana submetida a intervalos de adubação foliar. As plantas foram coletadas a intervalos regulares de quatorze dias após o transplante até o final do ciclo e foram determinados a massa seca e a área foliar. A partir dos dados primários foi aplicada a análise de crescimento, sendo calculados a massa seca total (Wt, taxas de produção de matéria seca (Ct, crescimento relativo (Rw e assimilatória liquída (Ea, índice de área foliar (L, razões de área foliar (Fa e massa foliar (Fw, área foliar específica (Sa, partição de matéria seca entre órgãos e o número de frutos. Plantas de Physalis peruviana submetidas à adubação foliar quinzenal atingiram maior Wt, Ct, superior número de frutos e semelhante matéria seca de frutos (Wfr a

  12. Productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico); Intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39 del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electridad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39. These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate (PTS) electronic logs, used for the first time in this field. The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H-35 fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 45 bars and a mass flow rate of 40 t/h. Well H-39 fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 27 bars and a mass flow rate of 30 t/h. [Spanish] Se presenta la intervencion realizada por el metodo de porcentajes para definir los intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39. El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo (PTS), utilizada por primera vez en este campo. En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro, con presion de cabezal de 45 bar manometricos y un gasto de mezcla de 40 t/h. El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro y produce 30 t/h de mezcla con una presion en la cabeza de 27 bar.

  13. Comparación reproductiva de vacas holstein, bon y f1 bon x holstein en el centro paysandú, 2. Edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción.

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    Quijano B Jorge H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron los porcentajes de heterosis para edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción, en vacas F1 (BON x HOLSTEIN del Centro Paysandú, propiedad de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ubicado en la zona ecológica de bosque muy húmedo montano bajo (bmh-MB y situado a 2600 m.s.n.m. con una temperatura promedio de 12,5C, en el corregimiento de Santa Elena, Municipio de Medellín. El modelo usado incluyó los efectos de: Grupo Genético, año de parto, edad al parto sobre las variables edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción. El efecto del grupo genético fue altamente significativo (P0,05, -7,9 (P0,05 para edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción respectivamente.

  14. Teoría de la incertidumbre aplicada al valor del cliente en situaciones contractuales con intervalos de confianza = The Uncertainty Theory assignment in the Customer Lifetime Valuation (CLV for contractual settings with security intervals

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    Merigó, José M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El valor del consumidor ha sido un concepto muy estudiado desde hace tiempo por investigadores en las áreas de marketing. La mayoría de estas investigaciones están basadas en supuestos deterministas o aleatorios, al medir magnitudes o eventos que intervienen en el cálculo del valor del cliente. En muchas ocasiones, los modelos del valor del consumidor en los que se involucran magnitudes que hacen referencia al futuro, por el entorno regido por su mutabilidad y por la incertidumbre, resultan excesivamente precisos para poder reflejar la realidad. Kaufmann y Gil Aluja (1986, que son dos de los precursores e investigadores más notables en Europa en las técnicas operativas de gestión, sostenían que “lo impreciso, lo borroso, no tiene por qué ser inexacto”. Podemos trabajar con modelos en los que tradicionalmente se utilizan cifras precisas pero no son necesariamente exactos. En la investigación que nos ocupa, proponemos las aportaciones necesarias para utilizar cifras inciertas, borrosas, pero más adecuadas a la realidad. Vamos a presentar, para ello, dos modelos del valor del cliente (CLV con la herramienta menos estructurada de la teoría de la incertidumbre: los intervalos de confianza, con la finalidad de ayudar a trabajar magnitudes inciertas involucradas en el cálculo del CLV. = The Customer Lifetime Value (CLV concept has been highly purposed in many researches in the marketing area since long time ago. Almost all of them tend to be based on determinist or stochastic assumptions when measuring magnitudes or events which have to do with CLV estimates. Often, the Customer Lifetime Valuation (CLV involves magnitudes that link to the future by the running environment, its mutability and uncertainty, and this turn out the results to be too accurate. Kaufman and Gil Aluja (1986, who are the two most well known European investigators, have carried out researches into several operative management techniques, stood by the following

  15. Estudio cinético comparativo del proceso de digestión anaerobia del alpechín en los intervalos mesofílico y termofílico de temperatura

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    Borja Padilla, R.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater in the mesophilic (from 30ºC to 40°C and thermophilic (from 50ºC to 60ºC ranges of temperature has been carried out. Two reactors containing suspended biomass were used. The Chen-Hashimoto substrate utilization kinetic model has been applied, obtaining the values of the maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms, μmax,. and the kinetic constant, K, for each case studied. The obtained results showed an increase of 55% and 34% for μmax and K, respectively, of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process in relation to the mesophilic process. The substrate utilization maximum rate value was reached for the hydraulic retention times of 7,7 and 11,6 days, for the thermophilic and mesophilic processes, respectively.

    Se ha efectuado un estudio cinético del proceso de digestión anaerobia del alpechín en los intervalos mesofílico (de 30ºC a 40ºC y termofílico (de 50ºC a 60°C de temperatura, utilizando dos reactores de lecho fluidizado con biomasa suspendida. Se aplica el modelo de utilización de sustrato propuesto por Chen- Hashimoto, obteniéndose los valores de la velocidad máxima de crecimiento específico de microorganismos, μmax, y de la constante cinética del proceso, K, para cada uno de los casos estudiados. Se obtiene un aumento de los parámetros cinéticos μmax. y K, del 55% y 34% respectivamente, en el proceso de digestión anaerobia termofílico respecto al mesofílico. El valor máximo en la velocidad volumétrica de utilización de sustrato se alcanza para un tiempo de retención hidráulico de 7,7 y 11,6 días en los procesos termofílico y mesofílico, respectivamente.

  16. Resistance exercise-induced microinjuries do not depend on 1or 3 minutes rest time interval between series. (Las microlesiones inducidas por el entrenamiento con cargas no dependen de los intervalos de descanso entre series de 1 o 3 minutos.

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    Rafael Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the muscle fiber integrity, 14 male subjects volunteered to participate in randomized crossover design methodology. All subjects completed 2 experimental training sessions. Both sessions consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 10 repetition maximum resistance bench press, cable pulldowns, military press, biceps curl, triceps curl, leg press, leg extension, and lying leg curls. The 2 experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest period between sets and exercises: 1 session with a 1-minute and the other with a 3-minute rest period. the mechanical stress caused by the proposed training session cause similar damage in the muscle fibers do not depend of the 1 or 3 minutes of rest interval between series. ResumenEl propósito de ese estudio fue comparar los efectos de 2 diferentes períodos de descanso durante una sesión de entrenamiento con cargas en la integridad de la fibra muscular. Participaron de forma voluntaria 14 hombres en un estudio con diseño cruzado aleatorio. Todos los sujetos realizaron 2 sesiones de entrenamiento con cargas. Durante cada sesión, los sujetos completaban 3 series de 10 repeticiones máximas de press de banca, jalón en polea alta para dorsal, press militar, curl de bíceps con barra, extensión de tríceps trasnuca con mancuerna, prensa de piernas en máquina, extensión de rodillas en máquina, y flexión de rodillas en máquina. Las 2 sesiones experimentales diferían sólo en la longitud del período de descanso entre las series y los ejercicios: una sesión con 1 minuto y la otra con 3 minutos en los períodos de descanso. La tensión mecánica causada por las sesiones puede causar daños similares en las fibras musculares y no dependen de hacer 1 o 3 minutos de intervalo de descanso entre las series.

  17. Efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos Effects of different rest intervals on isokinetic muscle performance among older adults

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    C Ernesto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de contração isocinética no desempenho muscular em idosos. MÉTODOS: Vinte idosos voluntários (66,9±3,9 anos, 76,1±13,4kg, 169±5,2cm foram submetidos a três sessões de exercício resistido isocinético unilateral da musculatura extensora do joelho com diferentes IR (1 minuto, 2 minutos, e 3 minutos na velocidade de 60°•s-1. Cada sessão consistia em três séries de 10 repetições durante as quais foram avaliados o pico de torque (PT, trabalho total (TT e índice de fadiga (IF. ANOVA fatorial para medidas repetidas, com a análise de Post hoc por Bonferroni, foi utilizada para identificar possíveis diferenças entre os IR. O nível de significância estatístico utilizado foi de p0,05. Apesar de ter sido observado menor desempenho muscular na 3ª série em todos os IR, maiores quedas no PT, TT e IF foram observadas quando adotado o IR de 1minuto (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults. METHODS: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor muscles, with different RI (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes at an angular velocity of 60°•s-1. Each session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, during which the peak torque (PT, total work (TW and fatigue index (FI were evaluated. Factorial ANOVA for repeated measurements, with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, was used to identify possible differences between the RI. The statistical significance level was set at p0.05. Although muscle performance was lower during the third sets with all RI, the greatest decreases in PT, TW and FI occurred with the 1 minute RI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the RI variable has an important influence on isokinetic muscle performance in older

  18. Intervalo hídrico ótimo na avaliação de sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado Least limiting water range in the evaluation of continuous and short-duration grazing systems

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    T. P. Leão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade física do solo sob sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado foi avaliada pelo Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO. A amostragem foi realizada na área experimental da Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foi estudado um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram avaliados quatro piquetes, sendo dois no sistema de pastejo contínuo e dois no sistema de pastejo rotacionado. No sistema de pastejo contínuo, implementado com a espécie Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete, não tendo um dos piquetes recebido adubação de manutenção (Cs, enquanto o outro havia recebido adubação bianual de manutenção (Cc. No sistema de pastejo rotacionado, implementado com a espécie Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete; em um dos piquetes, o resíduo pós-pastejo era mantido entre 2,0 e 2,5 t ha-1 de matéria seca total (MST (R1, enquanto no outro era mantido entre 3,0 e 3,5 t ha-1 MST (R2. As amostras foram submetidas a um gradiente de tensão de água e, posteriormente, utilizadas nas determinações da densidade do solo (Ds, resistência do solo à penetração (RP, umidade volumétrica (tetav e do IHO. O sistema de pastejo rotacionado apresentou piores condições físicas do solo para o crescimento vegetal, avaliadas pelo critério do IHO. Os maiores valores de Ds e menor IHO foram observados no R1, o que foi atribuído às taxas de lotação mais elevadas aplicadas neste piquete.Soil physical quality in continuous and short-duration rotational cattle grazing systems was evaluated using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR approach. Soil samples were collected on an experimental site at the Embrapa - Beef Cattle Research Center (Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. The studied soil was a Typic Acrudox. Four sampling sites were selected: two under a short-duration continuous grazing system and two under intensive short-duration rotational grazing system. Thirty soil cores were collected in each site

  19. Actualización de los límites críticos del intervalo hídrico óptimo Review of the critical limits of the optimal hydric interval

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    Miguel Angel PIlatti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es la fracción de agua edáfica fácilmente utilizable por los cultivos, durante la cual el suelo puede ser penetrado por las raíces sin mayor resistencia y la aeración no limita la respiración radical. En este trabajo se discuten los límites superior e inferior del IHO. El primero es èCC -agua retenida en capacidad de campo- si garantiza una aceptable capacidad de aire (èa; de lo contrario, el límite se alcanza cuando èa no restringe la respiración radical. El límite inferior queda determinado por la variable de mayor valor entre èRP (contenido hídrico edáfico por debajo del cual las raíces restringen su crecimiento, y èFU (agua fácilmente utilizable por debajo del cual comienza el estrés hídrico. Se analiza y discute la validez de los límites, y las dificultades metodológicas que implican sus determinaciones. Se comparan valores del IHO obtenidos por otros autores, que utilizaron diferentes límites, con los calculados con los límites críticos aquí propuestos. Cada situación agronómica (combinación de suelos, clima, cultivo requiere valores particulares de IHO que deberán ser determinados para cada región. Para el norte de la Región Pampeana (Argentina y sus cultivos habituales proponemos los siguientes valores críticos: èCC = contenido hídrico a -10 kPa; èa = 15%; èRP = 2,5 a 6 MPa (según el porcentaje de arcilla y èFU = -0,17 MPa.The Optimal Hydric Interval (IHO is the interval of easily available soil water for the crops, during which soil resistance and aeration do not limit root growth. In this paper, the upper and lower limits of the IHO are discussed. The upper limit is èCC (soil water content at field capacity when air capacity (èa is not restrictive for root respiration; otherwise, the limit is èa. The lower limit is determined by the variable of greater value between èRP (soil water content at which soil resistance reduces root elongation and èFU (soil water

  20. Least limiting water range and physical quality of soil under groundcover management systems in citrus Intervalo hídrico ótimo e qualidade física do solo em sistemas de manejo nas entrelinhas de citros

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    Jonez Fidalski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Machinery-based farming operations used for perennial fruit crops often damage soils, particularly if the soil is wet and prone to compaction. We hypothesized that perennial vegetation growing in the interrows of orange orchards can mitigate the soil physical degradation from machinery traffic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different groundcover management systems on the soil physical quality indicators including the least limiting water range (LLWR. An experiment was started in 1993 in a Typic Paleudult to evaluate three groundcover management systems: Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum with mowing, perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi, and natural regrowth in which weeds were controlled by herbicide. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. In May 2003, 216 undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.15-m depths under and between wheel tracks in the orchard interrows. The soil bulk density, soil organic carbon content, resistance to penetration, soil water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration curve were determined in order to estimate the LLWR. The higher LLWR under wheel tracks in Bahia grass compared to perennial peanut or natural regrowth suggest that a better soil physical quality was achieved with Bahia grass.Operações motomecanizadas utilizadas no manejo das entrelinhas dos pomares de frutas com freqüência causam a degradação física do solo, especialmente quando realizadas com o solo úmido e suscetível à compactação. A hipótese desse estudo é que a manutenção da vegetação permanente nas entrelinhas do pomar pode mitigar a degradação física do solo causada pelo tráfego de máquinas. O objetivo desse estudo é verificar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo da cobertura permanente das entrelinhas sobre o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO e a qualidade física do solo. Um experimento foi iniciado em 1993 num Argissolo Vermelho distr

  1. Efeitos do intervalo de recuperação entre as séries sobre a pressão arterial após exercícios resistidos Efectos del intervalo de recuperación entre las series sobre la presión arterial luego de ejercicios de resistencia Effects of rest interval between exercise sets on blood pressure after resistance exercises

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    João Veloso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Apesar de os estudos demonstrarem a ocorrência da hipotensão pós-exercício (HPE em exercícios resistidos, ainda não há consenso sobre um protocolo ideal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de exercício resistido (ER na pressão arterial (PA pós-exercício. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis homens jovens sedentários e não hipertensos realizaram, de forma contrabalanceada três protocolos de ER com 1 (P1, 2 (P2 e 3 (P3 minutos de IR entre as séries, e um protocolo controle (CON. Os protocolos de ER consistiram em três séries de oito repetições em seis exercícios. As cargas utilizadas na 1ª, 2ª e 3ª série dos exercícios foram respectivamente 80, 70 e 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. As medidas foram realizadas em repouso (REP, 15 (T15, 30 (T30, 45 (T45, 60 (T60, 75 (T75 e 90 (T90 minutos após a sessão. Foi realizada uma análise de variância fatorial (ANOVA com post hoc LSD. RESULTADOS: Não foi encontrada alteração significativa na PA sistólica após os protocolos. Foi encontrado um aumento significativo da PA diastólica, após o CON, nos momentos T45 e T90. Ocorreu redução significativa na PA diastólica após P1 e P3, com duração de 30 e 15 minutos respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas respostas da PA sistólica e diastólica entre os protocolos com diferentes IR. CONCLUSÃO: Parece que o IR não influencia a redução da PA sistólica após uma sessão de ER. No entanto, foi encontrada uma queda na PA diastólica (P1 e P3 com duração de até 30 minutos.FUNDAMENTO: A pesar de que los estudios demuestran la aparición de hipotensión post-ejercicio (HPE en Ejercicios de Resistencia, aún no existe consenso sobre un protocolo ideal. OBJETIVO: Evaluar los efectos de diferentes intervalos de recuperación (IR entre series de ejercicios de resistencia (ER en la presión arterial (PA post-ejercicio. MÉTODOS: Dieciséis hombres j

  2. Análisis de imágenes mediante el método de los momentos usando funciones de base continuas a intervalos (PCBF

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    Sergio Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los invariantes generados a partir de momentos extráıdos de una imagen aparecen recurrentemente en la bibliograf́ıa como uno de los métodos más potentes para la descripción de imágenes, y más concretamente de formas. En este art́ıculo se propone el uso de funciones de base continuas a intervalos (PCBF como alternativa a las bases que se vienen utilizando tradicionalmente en la aplicación de este método, todas ellas continas como puedan ser las muy conocidas de Zernike, Legendre o Tchebichev. El uso de funciones discontinuas se justifica en la naturaleza discontinua de los objetos analizados, en este caso las imágenes: es de sobra conocido que los contornos de los objetos visibles en ellas se caracterizan como discontinuidades en la serie de valores de luminancia cuando nos desplazamos de un lado a otro de dichos contornos. El análisis de tales señales con funciones continuas produce resultados no deseados, como el fenómeno de Gibbs, que pueden ser evitados mediante el uso de funciones como las propuestas, generando mejores aproximaciones a la forma analizada. Adicionalmente, las bases propuestas permiten fácilmente, como se demuestra, la generación de invariantes a rotación, caracteŕıstica altamente deseable para un descriptor de forma, puesto que a priori no se conoce con qué orientación aparecerá esta en la imagen objeto del análisis. La invarianza a traslación y escala se consigue mediante un sencillo proceso de normalización. Se presentan los test que confirman esta hipótesis, comenzando por un análisis del comportamiento de los invariantes ante el ruido en la imagen que permitirá determinar en qué número deben ser extráıdos. A continuación, y una vez definida esta longitud de descripción, se realizan sendos experimentos para determinar el comportamiento de los invariantes propuestos en una

  3. O Efeito de diferentes intervalos de recuperação entre as séries de treinamento com pesos, na força muscular em mulheres idosas treinadas The effect of different recovery intervals between sets of strength training on muscular force in trained older women

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    José Claudio Jambassi Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a influência de dois diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de repetições de treinamento com pesos (TP, no desempenho da força muscular em mulheres idosas treinadas. Dez mulheres idosas (66,6 ± 5,8 anos, com experiência prévia em TP, realizaram o seguinte protocolo: a o teste de repetições máximas (10-12RM no exercício Rosca Scott para bíceps; b com a carga encontrada no teste de 10-12RM, outras duas sessões de teste (separadas por 48 horas, agora com três séries, foram realizadas até a fadiga muscular em cada série. Dois diferentes IR foram utilizados para diferenciar essas duas sessões, isto é, numa sessão o IR era de 90 segundos (IR 90 entre as séries e na outra, de 180 segundos (IR 180. O teste t de Student para amostras dependentes mostrou que o volume total da sessão de teste com IR 180 foi estatisticamente superior (19%; P The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of two different recovery intervals (RI between repetition sets of strength training (ST on muscular strength performance in trained elderly women. Ten older women (age of 66.6 ± 5.8 with previous experience in ST, performed the following protocol: a test of maximum repetition (10-12 RM in the Scott biceps curl exercise; b two additional test sessions (48 hours apart from each other of three sets were performed until muscle fatigue in each set by applying the load found during the 10-12 RM test. Two different RI were used in these two sessions; that is, in one of the sessions the RI lasted 90 seconds (RI 90 between sets and 180 seconds in the other (RI 180. Student's t test for dependent samples showed that the total volume of the RI 180 test session was statistically superior (19%, P <0.05 compared to the RI 90 session (27.5 ± 3.4 e 23.1 ± 3.3 repetitions, respectively. The two-way 2x3 ANOVA for repeated measures in the last factor, including IR and number of repetitions for each set

  4. Asociación de la neuropatía autonómica cardiovascular y el intervalo QT prolongado con la morbimortalidad cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Association of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and prolonged QT interval with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ray Ticse Aguirre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la neuropatía autonómica cardiovascular (NACV y el intervalo QT corregido (QTc con la morbimortalidad cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, se realizó el seguimiento a 5 años de 67 pacientes que acudieron a consulta externa del Servicio de Endocrinología. Se presentaron eventos cardiovasculares en 16 pacientes; el 82% completó el seguimiento y se encontró que el intervalo QTc prolongado fue la única variable que se asoció de forma significativa a morbimortalidad cardiovascular en el análisis de regresión logística múltiple (RR: 13,56; IC 95%: 2,01-91,36 (p=0,0074.In order to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and corrected QT interval (QTc with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, we followed up for 5 years 67 patients attending the outpatient Endocrinology Service. 82% completed follow-up and cardiovascular events occurred in 16 patients. We found that long QTc interval was the only variable significantly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the multiple logistic regression analysis (RR: 13.56, 95% CI: 2.01-91.36 (p = 0.0074.

  5. Elaboração e validação de intervalos de referência longitudinais de peso fetal com uma amostra da população brasileira Elaboration and validation of longitudinal reference intervals of fetal weight with a sample of the Brazilian population

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    Érica Luciana de Paula Furlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Elaborar modelos de predição de peso fetal e de percentis longitudinais de peso fetal estimado (PFE com uma amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo. Dois grupos de gestantes foram recrutados: Grupo EPF (estimativa de peso fetal: pacientes para elaboração (EPF-El e validação (EPF-Val de um modelo de predição de peso fetal; Grupo IRL (intervalos de referência longitudinais: gestantes para elaboração (IRL-El e validação (IRL-Val de intervalos de referência longitudinais de PFE. Regressão polinomial foi utilizada com os dados do subgrupo EPF-El para gerar o modelo de predição de peso fetal. O desempenho deste modelo foi comparado com os de outros disponíveis na literatura. Modelos lineares mistos foram usados para elaboração de intervalos longitudinais de PFE com os dados do subgrupo IRL-El. Os dados do subgrupo IRL-Val foram usados para validação destes intervalos. RESULTADOS: Quatrocentos e cinqüenta e oito pacientes compuseram o Grupo EPF (EPF-El: 367; EPF-Val: 91 e 315 o Grupo IRL (IRL-El: 265; IRL-Val: 50. A fórmula para cálculo do PFE foi: PFE=-8,277+2,146xDBPxCAxCF-2,449xCFxDBP². Os desempenhos de outras fórmulas para estimativa de peso fetal em nossa amostra foram significativamente piores do que os do modelo gerado neste estudo. Equações para predição de percentis condicionais de PFE foram derivadas das avaliações longitudinais do subgrupo IRL-El e validadas com os dados do subgrupo IRL-Val. CONCLUSÕES: descrevemos um método para adaptação de intervalos de referência longitudinais de PFE, sendo este obtido por meio de fórmulas geradas em uma amostra da população brasileira.PURPOSES: To elaborate models for the estimation of fetal weight and longitudinal reference intervals of estimated fetal weight (EFW using a sample of the Brazilian population. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Two groups of patients were evaluated: Group EFW (estimation of

  6. Intervalo e intensidade de desfolhação nas taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolhação e no equilíbrio de gramíneas em associação Interval and intensity of defoliation on the growth, senescence and defoliation fluxes and equilibrium of associated grasses

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    Andréa Machado Groff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique em Theix, França. Duas gramíneas (azevém perene e festucaforam semeadas em caixas (0,13 m² e submetidas a três intervalos (3,5, 7 e 14 dias e três intensidades (160, 320 e 640 bocados.m-2 a cada desfolhação de desfolhação, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Quatro meses após a semeadura, a cada data de desfolhação, as caixas foram oferecidas, individualmente, a quatro ovelhas secas e retiradas após a realização de um determinado número de bocados. Para cada gramínea foram estudadas as taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolhação. Os resultados mostraram que o intervalo e a intensidade de desfolhação tiveram efeitos diferenciados nas taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolhação e no equilíbrio da associação.The experiment was carried in INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique at Theix, France. Two grasses (perennial ryegrass and tall fescue were grown in sward boxes (0,13 m² and submitted to three defoliation intervals (3,5, 7 and 14 days between two successive defoliation and three defoliation intensities (160, 320 and 640 bites.m-2 at each defoliation. Four months after sowing, at defoliation date, sward boxes were offered to four individual dry ewes and removed after a given number of bites had been taken. For each grass species, the growth, senescence and defoliation fluxes were studied. The results showed that the interval and the intensity of grazing had distinct effects on the growth, senescence and defoliation fluxes as well as on the equilibrium of grass mixtures.

  7. Efeitos de esmolol, lidocaína e fentanil nos intervalos dispersão da onda P, QT, QTc e respostas hemodinâmicas à intubação endotraqueal durante indução com propofol: um estudo comparativo

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    Volkan Hancı

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito de esmolol, lidocaína e fentanil na dispersão da onda P (DP, durações dos intervalos QT e QT corrigido (QTc e as respostas hemodinâmicas à intubação endotraqueal durante a indução com propofol. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 80 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I ou II, idade entre 18 e 60 anos, neste estudo prospectivo, randômico e duplo-cego. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame eletrocardiográfico (ECG antes da indução da anestesia. Os pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em quatro grupos iguais. O grupo controle (Grupo C recebeu 5 mL de solução salina; o grupo esmolol (Grupo E recebeu 0,5 mg.kg-1 de esmolol; o grupo fentanil (Grupo F recebeu 2 µg.kg-1 de fentanil e o grupo lidocaína (Grupo L recebeu 1,5 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína antes da indução anestésica. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol. ECG foi feito em todos os pacientes durante o primeiro e o terceiro minutos de indução, 3 minutos após a administração de relaxante muscular e 5 e 10 minutos após intubação. A DP e intervalos QT foram medidos em todos os ECGs. Os intervalos QTc foram determinados com o uso da fórmula de Bazett. Frequência cardíaca (FC e pressão arterial média (PAM foram registradas antes e depois da indução anestésica, imediatamente após a intubação e em 1, 3, 5, 7 e 10 minutos após a intubação. RESULTADOS: Após a intubação, a FC aumentou significativamente nos Grupos C, L e F em comparação com o grupo controle. Porém, não houve diferença significativa nos valores da FC após a intubação entre os grupos E e controle. Nos Grupos C e L, a PAM aumentou significativamente após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. No entanto, nos Grupos L, F e E não houve diferença significativa entre os valores da PAM após a intubação em comparação com o grupo controle. A DP foi significativamente mais longa no Grupo C após a intubação em comparação com o

  8. ALGORITMO PARA LA SOLUCIÓN NUMÉRICA DE SISTEMAS DE ECUACIONES NO LINEALES MEDIANTE UNA ESTRATEGIA DE OPTIMIZACIÓN GLOBAL BASADA EN ANÁLISIS DE INTERVALOS ALGORÍTMO PARA A SOLUÇÃO NUMÉRICA DE SISTEMAS DE EQUAÇÕES NÃO LINEARES MEDIANTE UMA ESTRATÉGIA DE OTIMIZAÇÃO GLOBAL BASEADA EM ANÁLISE DE INTERVALOS AN ALGORITHM FOR NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR EQUATIONS SYSTEMS USING A STRATEGY OF GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION BASED ON INTERVAL ANALYSIS

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    Luis Antonio Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un algoritmo para la solución numérica de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales. Para este propósito el sistema de ecuaciones se convierte en una función de valor real para luego ser minimizada, en el sentido global, en un dominio inicial dado (una caja en n usando análisis de intervalos. El algoritmo diseñado tiene la capacidad de determinar la existencia o no de soluciones al sistema de ecuaciones en una caja dada. Las soluciones del sistema de ecuaciones, si existen dentro de la caja dada, son expresadas mediante encerramientos por subcajas cuyo tamaño es menor que la exactitud establecida. No hay restricción acerca de la relación entre el número de ecuaciones y el número de incógnitas del sistema. Se realiza además un análisis de la convergencia del algoritmo y se muestran los resultados de su aplicación para algunos problemas de prueba.Em este artigo apresenta-se um algoritmo para a solução numérica de sistemas de equações não lineares. Para este propósito o sistema de equações converte-se em uma função de valor real para logo ser minimizada, no sentido global, em um domínio inicial dado (uma caixa em n usando análise de intervalos. O algoritmo desenhado tem a capacidade de determinar a existência ou não de soluções ao sistema de equações em uma caixa dada. As soluções do sistema de equações, se existirem dentro da caixa dada, são expressas mediante fechamentos por subcaixas cujo tamanho é menor que a exatidão estabelecida. Não há restrição a respeito da relação entre o número de equações e o número de incógnitas do sistema. Realiza-se ademais uma análise da convergência do algoritmo e mostram-se os resultados de sua aplicação para alguns problemas de prova.In this paper an algorithm for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations systems is presented. For this purpose the system of equations becomes a function of real value which will be minimized, in the

  9. Intervalo para o alojamento e níveis de lisina, em dietas baseadas no conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desenvolvimento muscular e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte Delayed placement and dietary lysine levels, on diets based in the ideal protein concept, on muscular development and carcass yield of broiler chickens

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    José Rodrigo Galli Franco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos do intervalo para o alojamento (IA e de níveis de lisina digestível (LD nas dietas iniciais sobre o desenvolvimento do músculo do peito e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte. Para tanto, 1.760 pintos de corte, machos, Cobb500, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em oito grupos experimentais em arranjo fatorial 2x4 de 4 IAs (12, 24, 36 e 48h e dois níveis de LD (1,143 e 1,267%, com quatro repetições e 55 aves por unidade experimental. Met+Cys, Thr e Trp foram balanceados no conceito de proteína ideal. Não houve interação significativa entre LD e IA sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os maiores pesos do peito desossado e filé de peito aos 21 dias de idade e peso corporal aos 43 dias foram obtidos no nível de 1,143% de LD. O peso do peito desossado, peso do filé, diâmetro das fibras musculares aos 21 dias, peso vivo, peso da carcaça e peso das pernas aos 43 dias de idade decresceram linearmente de acordo com o aumento no intervalo para alojamento. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que o nível de 1,143% de LD favorece aumento no músculo peitoral aos 21dias e o peso vivo dos frangos aos 43 dias, e que o menor intervalo para o alojamento melhora o desenvolvimento dos músculos peitorais durante a fase inicial, e maior rendimento da carcaça inteira e das pernas no abate.This study aimed to study the effects of delayed placement (IA and dietary lysine levels (LD in initial diets on breast muscle development and carcass yield of broiler chickens. For this, 1,760 male Cobb500 chicks were allocated randomly to eight experimental groups according to a 2x4 factorial arrangement for 4 IAs (12, 24, 36 and 48h and 2 levels of LD (1.143 and 1.267% with four replicates and 55 chicks per experimental unit. Met+Cys, Thr and Trp were balanced according to the ideal protein concept. There were no significant interactions between LD and IA on variables evaluated. The highest breast weight and breast

  10. Ritmo circadiano e doença vascular encefálica: um estudo de correlação com fatores de risco Circadian rhythm and encephalic vascular disease: a correlative study with risk factors

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    Helio Araújo Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos biológicos humanos exibem variabilidade clínica previsível no tempo, o que tem permitido reavaliação das práticas médicas atuais, do estudo mais aprofundado do ritmo circadiano (RC e dos mecanismos que geram as oscilações sustentadas em todos os níveis biológicos. Fizemos um estudo procurando relacionar o RC e o momento do aparecimento do quadro clínico neurológico decorrente da lesão vascular do encéfalo com os fatores de risco modificáveis identificados no momento da internação. Foram estudados 53 pacientes, sendo 50,94% (n =27 do sexo feminino e 49,50%(n =26 do masculino, com média de idade de 66,4 anos. Quatro intervalos de 6 horas (0-6; 6-12; 12-18; 18-24 foram usados para análise da freqüência do ictus e da incidência em cada intervalo. Os resultados mostraram 6 (11,32% pacientes no intervalo 0-6 hs; 21 (39,62% no intervalo 6-12 hs; 10 (18,86% no intervalo 12-18 hs; 16 (30,18% no intervalo 18-24 hs. Estudo de correlação com os fatores de risco, baseado nos dados clínicos no momento da internação, mostrou que a hipertensão arterial [(81,25%] e o tabagismo[ (56,25%] predominaram no intervalo 18-24 hs, enquanto o sedentarismo[11; (52,38%] o estresse[11 (52,38%] o diabetes [(47,61%] a hiperlipidemia [8 (38,09%] e o alcoolismo[8 (38,09%] predominaram no intervalo 6-12 hs; as cardiopatias [(50,00%] predominaram no intervalo de 12-18 hs.The human biological mechanisms show a predictable clinical variability in time, which has allowed a deeper reevaluation of present-day medical practices, regarding the circadian rhythm (CR and the mechanisms that produce the supported variations in all biological levels. We have made a study aiming to relate the CR and onset of the neurological clinic situation due to the encephalic vascular lesion, correlating with modifying risk factors. Fifty three patients were studied, 50,94% female (n=27 and 49,50% male (n=26, at average age 66.4 years old. Four intervals of six

  11. Iconologia dos intervalos, limiares cartográficos

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    Daniel Melo Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resgata a relevância do pensamento de Aby Warburg para a compreensão das imagens no campo da comunicação. São discutidos os conceitos de “pós-vida” (nachleben e de “fórmula de pathos” (pathosformel, centrais na constituição da “iconologia dos intervalos” desse pensador alemão. Partindo das conexões abertas por Warburg em seu Atlas Mnemosyne, esta investigação procura se aprofundar nas aplicações dessa metodologia para o estudo de mapas. Levantamos a hipótese de que a distorção da linguagem cartográfica nos abre a possibilidade de potencializar as funções heurísticas dos mapas, despertando um saber imaginativo sobre a heterogeneidade do espaço. Para demonstrar esses dois conceitos, será analisada uma obra de arte chamada “A Longa Marcha” do artista Qin Ga, que explora a linguagem cartográfica no contexto das artes contemporâneas. As discussões serão amparadas por autores como Agamben e Didi-Huberman.

  12. Risk factors for low birth weight according to the multiple logistic regression model. A retrospective cohort study in José María Morelos municipality, Quintana Roo, Mexico

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    José Franco Monsrea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN El bajo peso al nacer ha constituido un enigma para la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples han sido los trabajos de investigación realizados con respecto a las causas que lo producen y los efectos que provoca. El bajo peso al nacer es un indicador que permite predecir la probabilidad de sobrevivencia de un niño. De hecho, existe una relación exponencial entre el déficit de peso, la edad gestacional y la mortalidad perinatal. La regresión logística múltiple es uno de los instrumentos estadísticos más expresivos y versátiles de que se dispone para el análisis de datos tanto en clínica y en epidemiología como en salud pública. OBJETIVO Evaluar de forma multivariada la importancia de 17 variables independientes en el bajo peso al nacer (variable dependiente, de niños nacidos en el municipio maya de José María Morelos, Quintana Roo, México. MÉTODOS Estudio epidemiológico observacional analítico de cohortes, con temporalidad retrospectiva. Se registraron todos los nacimientos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, ocurridos en el Hospital Integral José María Morelos de la Secretaría de Salud, correspondientes al municipio maya de José María Morelos, durante el período comprendido del 1 de agosto de 2014 al 31 de julio de 2015. El número total de recién nacidos registrados fue de 1147; 84 de estos (7,32% tenían bajo peso al nacer. Para evaluar la asociación independiente entre las variables explicativas o factores de riesgo y la variable respuesta, se realizó un análisis de regresión logística múltiple utilizando el software IBM SPSS Statistics 22. RESULTADOS En orden numérico ascendente de valores de odds ratios > 1 señalaron la contribución positiva de las variables explicativas o factores de riesgo: estado civil no–casada (1,08, intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,55 a 2,10; edad a la menarca ≤ 12 años (1,08, intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,64 a 1,84; antecedentes de

  13. ANÁLISIS ELECTROCARDIOGRÁFICO DE LA DISPERSIÓN DEL INTERVALO TPICO-TFINAL EN EL INFARTO AGUDO DE MIOCARDIO CON ELEVACIÓN DEL ST / Electrocardiographic analysis of the T peak-T end interval dispersion in acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation

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    Raimundo Carmona Puerta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción y objetivos: La dispersión del intervalo TPICO-TFINAL (Tpeak-Tend constituye una novedosa variable electrocardiográfica asociada recientemente, al riesgo de arritmias ventriculares malignas en el síndrome de Brugada, pero apenas se ha estudiado en el infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, por lo que se decidió analizarlo en este contexto. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal donde se compararon los electrocardiogramas de 37 pacientes con infarto con elevación del segmento ST y otros 37, supuestamente sanos con respecto a las variables electrocardiográficas que evalúan la repolarización ventricular. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas (p<0,001 al comparar a los pacientes infartados (QT 416,9 ± 42,3; QTc 431,4 ± 36,2 con los sanos (QT 441,2 ± 57,4 y QTc 477,6 ± 58,5, y significativas (p < 0,05 en la TPICO-TFINAL (37.2 ms vs. 21,6 ms. Existió correlación significativa entre el QT y la TPICO-TFINAL en el IMACEST inferior y ántero-septal, la que fue doblemente intensa en la localización ántero-septal (r = 0,34 vs. r = 0,80. Conclusiones: La dispersión del intervalo TPICO-TFINAL fue significativamente mayor en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, independientemente de la localización del infarto. / Abstract Introduction and objectives: Tpeak-Tend interval dispersion is a new electrocardiographic variable recently associated to the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome but it has hardly been studied in the acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. That is why it was analyzed in this context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which the electrocardiograms of 37 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions and other 37 apparently healthy patients (regarding electrocardiographic variables that assess ventricular repolarization were compared. Results

  14. Terapia trombolítica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio en Cienfuegos

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    Lázaro Abilio Hernández Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el tratamiento trombolítico practicado a menos de dos horas, tras el inicio del infarto tiene resultados similares a la reperfusión mecánica. Objetivo: describir aspectos relevantes de la terapia trombolítica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en 225 pacientes egresados (vivos y fallecidos desde el 1o de abril de 2012 al 31 marzo de 2013, de la Unidad de Cuidados Integrales del Corazón y la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Polivalentes, del Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima. Las variables estudiadas se obtuvieron de la revisión de las historias clínicas e incluyeron: variables demográficas y clínicas, tiempos de demora, sitio, motivo de exclusión y nivel de prioridad para la trombolisis. Resultados: la media de edad superó los 60 años. Predominaron los hombres, hipertensos y de alto riesgo según la escala GRACE. El 29,7 % de los pacientes no recibió terapia trombolítica, debido mayormente al factor tiempo y la mayoría (82,3 % se trató en el Hospital. Las medianas de los tiempos de demora: síntomas-puerta, puerta-droga y síntomas-droga fueron 90, 35 y 140 minutos respectivamente. Conclusiones: la trombolisis extrahospitalaria acorta el tiempo total de isquemia, pero pocos pacientes se beneficiaron de ella. Los retrasos para la terapia trombolítica en Cienfuegos continúan por encima de los estándares requeridos.

  15. Análise da qualidade das córneas doadas e do intervalo entre óbito, enucleação e preservação após a implantação de novas normas técnicas e sanitárias em Banco de Olhos Universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Zantut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o intervalo entre o óbito e a enucleação (ΔT-O-E, entre a enucleação e a preservação (ΔT-E-P e a qualidade da córnea antes e após a implantação de novas normas técnicas e sanitárias baseadas na Resolução RDC 347. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram avaliados os prontuários dos doadores de córnea do Banco de Tecidos Oculares da Santa Casa de São Paulo, 2 anos antes e 2 anos depois da implementação de novas normas sanitárias. RESULTADOS: Foi observado aumento do número absoluto de 205 para 374 doadores após as mudanças adotadas. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante no Δt-O-E e ΔT-E-P antes e após as mudanças implantadas. Do total de 1.105 córneas doadas, foi observado 388 córneas doadas antes das mudanças e 717 córneas doadas após as mudanças implementadas. Foi observado aumento estatisticamente significante da graduação da qualidade da córnea doada de 1,76 ± 0,90 para 1,94 ± 0,88 após a implementação das novas normas da Resolução. CONCLUSÃO: Após as mudanças técnicas e sanitárias exigidas pela Resolução 347, houve grande aumento no número de córneas doadas, captadas e preservadas. O Banco de Tecidos Oculares não diminuiu os ΔT O-E e ΔT E-P. A qualidade da córnea apresentou-se inferior após as mudanças realizadas no setor.

  16. Intervalo hídrico ótimo de um latossolo vermelho distrófico, após o primeiro período de pastejo contínuo de brachiaria ruziziensis, em sistema integração lavoura-pecuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO destaca-se como um dos melhores indicadores da qualidade física do solo, sob sistemas intensivos de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico por meio do IHO, após três safras agrícolas de lavoura e o primeiro ano de sistema integração lavoura-pecuária, em Xambrê, noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi implantado em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de pastejo (0,10; 0,20; 0,30; e 0,40 m e um tratamento testemunha sem pastejo. A braquiária (BRACHIARIA RUZIZIENSIS foi semeada em março de 2010 e o pastejo contínuo de bovinos foi realizado durante 110 dias (março-setembro. Em outubro desse ano, coletaram-se 90 amostras de solo com cilindros metálicos (0,05 m de altura e 0,05 m de diâmetro no centro das camadas de 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; e 0,20-0,30 m. Essas amostras foram utilizadas para obter a curva de retenção de água, a curva de resistência do solo à penetração e a densidade do solo (Ds; a partir dessas, foi calculado o IHO e obtida a densidade crítica do solo (Dsc. Utilizaram-se os limites críticos de -80 hPa, para a capacidade de campo (θcc; -15.000 hPa, para o ponto de murcha permanente (θpmp; 2,5 MPa, para a resistência do solo à penetração (θrp; e 0,10 m³ m-3, para a porosidade de aeração (θpa. O IHO foi maior a 0-0,10 m e a RP foi o fator de maior limitação do IHO em todas as camadas, especialmente a 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. As Dsc decresceram em profundidade de 1,66; 1,64; e 1,62 Mg m-3, respectivamente, para as camadas de 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; e 0,20-0,30 m. O manejo desse solo sob sistema integração lavoura-pecuária com altura de pastejo de 0,10 m apresentou a maior frequência de amostras de solo com Ds ≥ Dsc.

  17. Efeito do intervalo de recuperação entre séries de extensões isocinéticas de joelho em homens jovens destreinados Effect of recovery interval between sets of isokinetic knee extensions among untrained young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Celes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de dois diferentes Intervalos de Recuperação (IR entre séries de extensões isocinéticas de joelho no Pico de Torque (PT e no Trabalho Total (TT em jovens destreinados. MÉTODOS: Dezoito homens (24,22±2,58 anos; 80,42±11,41 kg realizaram três séries de 10 extensões isocinéticas com o joelho direito a 60° e 180°/s. O IR entre as séries foram de 1 e 2 minutos, contrabalanceados entre os dois dias de teste, separados por, no mínimo, 48 horas. A taxa de trabalho-recuperação foi de 1:3 e 1:6 para 60°/s e 1:6 e 1:12 para 180°/s. Os voluntários não participavam de programas de treinamento resistido há pelo menos 6 meses. A análise estatística foi a ANOVA de medidas repetidas 2 x 3 [IR (1 e 2 minutos x série (1ª, 2ª e 3ª]. O nível de significância foi aOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of two recovery intervals (RIs between sets of isokinetic knee extension exercises on peak torque (PT and total work (TW, among untrained young men. METHODS: Eighteen men (24.22±2.58 years; 80.42±11.41 kg performed three sets of ten isokinetic extensions of the right knee, at 60° and 180°/s. The RIs between the sets were one and two minutes long, spread over two test days separated by a minimum of 48 hours. The work-to-recovery ratio was 1:3 and 1:6 for 60°/s, and 1:6 and 1:12 for 180°/s. The subjects had not participated in any resistance training programs within the last six months. The statistical analysis consisted of 2 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA [RI (one or two minutes x set (1st, 2nd or 3rd]. The significance level was a<0.05. RESULTS: Neither one minute nor two minutes RIs maintained the PT and TW throughout the three sets (p<0.05. However, at 60°/s, two minutes RIs enabled better PT and TW in the second and third sets than one minute RIs (p<0.05. At 180°/s, two minutes RIs were only better (p<0.05 than one minute RIs for TW in the third set. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that, during an isokinetic

  18. Factores asociados a la aceptación de salpingoclasia posparto entre mujeres infectadas por el VIH

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    Figueroa-Damián Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados a la aceptación de salpingoclasia entre mujeres infectadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, después de finalizar su embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con 72 pacientes embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatología (INPer, entre marzo de 1988 y febrero de 1999. Se consideraron casos a 49 mujeres que al finalizar el embarazo aceptaron la realización de salpingoclasia, 23 pacientes que rechazaron este procedimiento conformaron los controles. En cada paciente se investigaron antecedentes demográficos, historia sexual y reproductiva y condiciones relacionadas con la infección por el VIH. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, las variables categóricas se compararon con ji² o prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas con t de Student, se hizo cálculo de razón de momios (RM, con intervalo de confianza al 95% y se realizó análisis estratificado mediante ji² de Mantel Haenszel para variables potencialmente confusoras. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio de las pacientes seropositivas fue de 25.5 ± 5.5 años. Estas ingresaron al hospital con una mediana de 27 semanas de gestación (intervalo de 7 a 40 semanas; 16 (22.2% no tuvieron control prenatal en el INPer. La mediana de tiempo de conocerse infectadas fue de nueve meses (intervalo 1 a 108. Las variables que se asociaron con la aceptación de salpingoclasia fueron: el antecedente de hijos previos, con una RM de 11.1 (IC 95% 3.4 a 36; la atención a partir del año de 1995, con una RM de 4.7 (IC 95% 1.7 a 13.3 y el tener cuando menos un hijo previo infectado, con una RM de 4.6 (IC 95% 1.1 a 23.1. El análisis estratificado no mostró modificación en la fuerza de asociación de estas variables con la aceptación de salpingoclasia. CONCLUSIONES: El tener hijos previos fue el factor que más influyó en la aceptación de salpingoclasia. El texto completo en inglés de este

  19. FACTORES AMBIENTALES QUE AFECTAN LOS COMPONENTES DE PRODUCCION Y PRODUCTIVIDAD DURANTE LA VIDA DE LAS CERDAS

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    Jesús Enrique Ek Mex

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir algunos factores ambientales que influyen sobre los componentes de producción y productividad durante la estancia de las cerdas en el hato. La productividad de la cerda puede ser medida como el número o kilogramos de cerdos nacidos vivos o destetados por camada, por año o durante la estancia en el hato. El efecto de año y granja son importantes fuentes de variación, se deben principalmente a los cambios climatológicos y diferencias en el manejo. El efecto de época en las regiones tropicales es debido al estrés calórico y la alta humedad en la época de calor. Las cerdas de primer parto tienen intervalo entre partos e intervalo destete a la concepción mayor y camadas pequeñas en comparación con las cerdas multíparas. La productividad durante la vida productiva es afectada por el manejo particular de cada unidad de producción, la edad y el número de lechones nacidos al primer parto y la causa de desecho. La mayoría de los estudios son en zonas templadas. En conclusión, la productividad de las cerdas es afectada por las diferentes condiciones climáticas de cada región y a diferencias de manejo entre granjas en diferentes años y épocas, así como por el número de parto, por lo que es importante realizar la caracterización de las condiciones específicas de cada granja o región.

  20. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  1. Factores pronósticos del cáncer de mama Prognostic factors of breast cancer

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    José María González Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los factores pronósticos se deben diferenciar de los factores predictivos. Un factor pronóstico es cualquier medición utilizable en el momento de la cirugía que correlaciona con el intervalo libre de enfermedad o supervivencia global en ausencia de tratamiento adyuvante sistémico y como resultado es capaz de correlacionar con la historia natural de la enfermedad. En contraste, un factor predictivo es cualquier medición asociada con respuesta a un tratamiento dado. Entre los factores pronósticos del cáncer de mama existen factores clínicos, histológicos, biológicos, genéticos y psicosociales. En esta revisión de los factores pronósticos psicosociales ha quedado demostrado que el estrés y la depresión son factores pronósticos negativos en las pacientes con cáncer de mama. Se debe recordar que la evaluación de un solo parámetro pronóstico ayuda, pero no es útil para la gestión clínica y terapéutica de la paciente.The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.

  2. Avaliação dos intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas para crianças e adolescentes: associação das dislipidemias e sobrepeso em escolares de 4 a 19 anos de idade de Maracaí (São Paulo Evaluation of lipids and lipoproteins range values for children and adolescents: associations of dyslipidemia to overweight in schoolchildren from 4 to 19 years old from Maracaí (State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Seki

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas estabelecidos para crianças e adolescentes de Maracaí, São Paulo, através das associações das dislipidemias com sobrepeso em escolares de quatro a 19 anos de idade daquela cidade. MÉTODOS: Foram determinados perfis lipídicos e índices antropométricos de 2.481 estudantes de ambos sexos estratificados em duas faixas etárias de quatro a nove anos (n = 1.121 e dez a 19 anos (n = 1.360. Os pontos de corte para categorizar as dislipidemias foram estabelecidos em estudos prévios sobre os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas para crianças e adolescentes de Maracaí. RESULTADOS: Na faixa etária de quatro a nove anos, as associações de triglicérides > 130mg/dl (ambos os sexos e colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C > 101,1mg/dl (sexo masculino, com sobrepeso, foram estatisticamente significativas. Entre os alunos de 10 a 19 anos, as associações de triglicérides > 131mg/dl (ambos os sexos, de colesterol total > 161,3mg/dl (sexo masculino e LDL-C > 93mg/dl (sexo masculino, com sobrepeso, foram estatisticamente significativas. Os valores de corte estabelecidos pelo percentil 5 de colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, para ambos os sexos e grupos etários, não apresentaram associações estatisticamente significativas com sobrepeso. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados fornecem subsídios para estudos sobre os intervalos de referência de lípides e lipoproteínas, para crianças e adolescentes, e permitem ampliar discussões sobre os valores dos pontos de corte adequados que possam definir dislipidemias na população infanto-juvenil brasileira.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lipids and lipoproteins range values established for children and adolescents from Maracaí, State of São Paulo, through the associations of dyslipidemia and overweight in students from four to 19 years old, from that city. METHODS: The lipid

  3. Evaluation of the cell death mechanisms activated by the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy; Evaluacion de los mecanismos de muerte celular activados por el radiofarmaco {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 en un intervalo de dosis de 1 a 5 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, E.P.; Rojas C, E. L.; Martinez V, B. E.; Ramos B, J. C.; Jimenez M, N. P.; Ferro F, G., E-mail: erica.azorin@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The radio immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the remission rate of patients with B-cell lymphomas over expressing the CD20. The radiolabeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. The anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The {sup 177}Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum reach on soft tissue of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45 m Ci/m{sup 2}) for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of action by synergistic effect of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work was evaluated; by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 in non-Hodgkin (Raji) lymphoma cells. The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20, are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation, activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio sensitivity) causes the acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation

  4. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Incidencia y prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en el desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Poch Olivé

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la incidencia y prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en el desarrollo en La Rioja con el fin de compararlos con otros estudios realizados y llegar a establecer las necesidades de intervención temprana en esta Comunidad. Se han recopilado y analizado los datos correspondientes a la totalidad de los nacimientos ocurridos durante los años 1998 a 2003 (inclusive en La Rioja. Se ha extraído, mediante el programa SPSS, la incidencia y prevalencia de los factores de riesgo (pre, peri y postnatal, comparativamente entre ellos, así como el momento de detección. Los resultados muestran: a una tendencia al alza de la tasa de natalidad; b prevalencia del riesgo situada en el intervalo entre el 3’51% y 4’73%; c entre los factores de riesgo, la prematuridad es la de mayor prevalencia e incidencia; y, d la detección del riesgo se realiza en edad temprana, predominantemente durante los primeros seis meses de vida, con un porcentaje medio de detección neonatal del 71’52% diferencial interanualmente. Conocer las situaciones de riesgo y su detección temprana permiten establecer programas de prevención e intervención infantil y familiar para optimizar el desarrollo.

  6. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal effect...

  7. Organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, J.

    1999-12-01

    The following organizational factors are considered with respect to the human factor and operating safety of nuclear power plants: external influences; objectives and strategy; positions and ways of management; allocation of resources; working with human resources; operators' training; coordination of work; knowledge of organization and management; proceduralization of the topic; labour organizing culture; self-improvement system; and communication. (P.A.)

  8. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  9. Tamaños de muestra para estimar prevalencia animal que aseguran cortos intervalos de confianza

    OpenAIRE

    Osval Antonio Montesinos López; Abelardo Montesinos López; Eric Eduardo Santos Fuentes; Patricia Edwigis Valladares Celis; Martha Alicia Magaña Echeverría

    2011-01-01

    El cálculo del tamaño de las muestras juega un rol importante en el diseño óptimo de experimentos veterinarios y agrícolas para la estimación de proporciones de una población, incluyendo la prevalencia de enfermedades. Esta investigación propone un método de tres pasos para determinar el tamaño de muestra exacto para datos binomiales que asegura precisión en la estimación de la proporción, y muestra numéricamente el grado de subestimación que produce el uso de la fórmula tradicional (aproxima...

  10. Discriminación de fuentes de control temporal en programas de reforzamiento de intervalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García-Leal

    2009-01-01

    activo. Se utilizaron ocho ratas distribuidas en dos grupos con diferente razón y se compararon dos fases, una con discriminativo y otra sin este. Se encontró que la inclusión de la señal alteró la tasa de respuestas en los componentes de menor duración.

  11. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  12. Quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Análisis multifactorial de los factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer en Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solla Jorge José Santos Pereira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio constituye un análisis multifactorial de los factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer en un grupo de recién nacidos en una zona urbana del Brasil. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 1 023 nacidos vivos, dados a luz en cuatro maternidades de Salvador, Bahia, entre julio de 1987 y febrero de 1988. Las fuentes de información fueron las historias clínicas y las entrevistas con las madres en la maternidad. El análisis se realizó mediante regresión logística. En el modelo final los factores de riesgo incluidos fueron los siguientes: edad materna menos de 21 años o más de 35; edad gestacional menos de 38 semanas; resultado desfavorable del embarazo anterior; intervalo intergenésico previo de 12 meses o menos; tabaquismo; e hipertensión. Se presentan los valores del riesgo atribuible poblacional para los factores de riesgo incluidos en el modelo final. Esos factores deben emplearse para detectar a las gestantes con alto riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso, a las que debe brindarse mayor atención prenatal.

  14. Análisis de posibles factores determinantes de la proporción sexual secundaria en una población Toba

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    Lanza, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En mamíferos, una de las posibles estrategias para maximizar el éxito reproductivo de las hembras, es ajustar la proporción sexual de sus descendientes. Como Trivers y Willard propusieron en 1973 si la varianza en el éxito reproductivo es mayor en un sexo que en el otro y este éxito está determinado por la condición física de la madre, aquellas que se encuentren en buenas condiciones favorecerían el sexo que mayor varianza tenga en el éxito reproductivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar esta hipótesis en una población rural Toba de la provincia de Formosa. Se relevaron 154 historias reproductivas, comprendiendo 635 nacimientos. Se analizó la variación de la proporción sexual secundaria con relación a la edad de madre, el orden de parición y el intervalo intergenésico. Nuestros resultados muestran que la proporción de varones al nacimiento aumenta con la edad de la madre, el orden de parición y el intervalo intergenésico. Sin embargo, es posible que estos factores no sean buenos predictores de la condición física materna. Esto plantea un marco de análisis más complejo y la necesidad de considerar otros parámetros que detallen mejor la historia de vida de los individuos.

  15. Factores de riesgo asociados a la infección vaginal por Chlamydia trachomatis Risk factors associated with vaginal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Inés Infante Tavío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, a fin de identificar la posible asociación causal entre algunos factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de infección vaginal por Chlamydia trachomatis en féminas provenientes de la consulta de Infertilidad del Policlínico Docente "José Martí Pérez" del municipio Santiago de Cuba, desde junio hasta diciembre de 2010. En el estudio se incluyeron 25 casos y se seleccionaron 3 controles por cada uno, mientras que para los cálculos estadísticos se aplicaron la razón de productos cruzados y el intervalo de confianza. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección vaginal por esta bacteria fueron: tener historia previa de infección de transmisión sexual y mantener una conducta sexual riesgosa.A case-control study was carried out in order to identify the potential causative association between some risk factors and the occurrence of vaginal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in females from the Infertility Department of "José Martí Pérez" Teaching Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba municipality, from June to September 2010. Twenty five cases were included in the study and 3 controls were selected for each, while for the statistical calculations odds ratio and confidence interval were used. History of sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual conduct were the risk factors associated with vaginal infection by this bacterium.

  16. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  17. Organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lecture is to give an overview of important concepts connected to organisational factors and to provide an understanding of mechanisms by which they can contribute to safe or unsafe behaviour of people. The lecture gives examples of ways to organise work, organisational deficiencies and good practices applied in safety oriented organisations. The lecture also gives an introduction to international work and Finnish national regulation connected to organisation and management. (orig.)

  18. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  19. Factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortman

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN es el principal factor determinante conocido de la mortalidad infantil. Pese a la notable reducción de las tasas de mortalidad infantil y al aumento de las tasas de supervivencia de niños con BPN, en Neuquén, Argentina, no se han observado descensos notables de las tasas de BPN. El propósito de este estudio fue conocer los factores de riesgo de BPN, su frecuencia en la población y el papel de la atención prenatal en su prevención, y desarrollar una escala de riesgo que permita identificar a las mujeres en mayor riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio transversal en el cual se utilizó 50% de los datos del Sistema Informático Perinatal correspondientes al período 1988­1995 y procedentes de los 29 hospitales de la provincia de Neuquén (46 171 nacimientos. Se analizaron la distribución del peso y la frecuencia de los posibles factores de riesgo de BPN. La asociación entre estos factores y el BPN se analizó mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Con los resultados obtenidos se desarrolló una escala aditiva, que fue validada con el 50% restante de los registros de nacimientos. La razón de posibilidades (RP más elevada correspondió a la falta de atención prenatal (RP = 8,78; IC95%: 6,7 a 11,4. Las RP asociadas con una atención prenatal inadecuada, una primera consulta prenatal tardía, preeclampsia o eclampsia, hemorragia o anomalías de la placenta o sus membranas e historia de un hijo previo con BPN fueron mayores de 2,0. El riesgo de tener hijos con BPN también fue más alto en las mujeres mayores de 40 años, las menores de 20, las solteras, las fumadoras, aquellas cuyo intervalo intergenésico fue menor de 18 meses y las que tenían un índice de masa corporal menor de 20. Por último, se encontró una relación lineal directa entre el puntaje en la escala y el riesgo de tener un hijo con BPN.

  20. Human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reactor accidents have spurred the major review, described here, of the contribution of operator personnel to safety in Scottish Nuclear Power Stations. The review aims to identify factors leading to the Chernobyl accident and take preventative measures to avoid possible recurrence. Scottish Nuclear power stations aim to remove the operator from a position where failure to take correct action could lead to a safety hazard. Instead operators concentrate on routine and breakdown maintenance and measures are taken to minimize the probability of operator error. The review concluded that most safety procedures were satisfactory but safety analysis supported by good design practices may offer a significant reduction in the risk of operator error. (UK)

  1. Factores asociados a la infestación intradomiciliaria por Aedes aegypti en el distrito de Tambogrande, Piura 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar J. Pozo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados para la infestación de las viviendas por Aedes aegypti en el distrito de Tambogrande, Piura. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio de casos y controles en la capital del distrito de Tambogrande, en diciembre de 2004. Consideramos como vivienda-caso (Vc a la vivienda positiva a la infestación por Ae. aegypti, y vivienda-control (Vo a la vivienda negativa a la infestación por Ae. aegypti en por lo menos un año, de acuerdo a los registros de las actividades de control larvario. Por cada caso consideramos dos controles. La encuesta incluyó factores ambientales, sociales y culturales, y se aplicó a la persona encargada del cuidado de la vivienda. Los factores asociados con un valor de p<0,10 en el análisis bivariado, fueron ingresados a un modelo de regresión logística para estimar los OR ajustados y los intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC. Resultados: Encuestamos 60 Vc y 124 Vo. Los factores asociados encontrados en modelo logístico múltiple fueron la presencia de botellas dentro de la vivienda (OR: 7,66; IC: 2,95-19,84, vivienda ubicada a menos de 200 m de una llantería (OR: 2,90; IC: 1,13-7,48, vivienda ubicada a menos de 200 m. de una maderera (OR: 2,76; IC: 1,14-6,66 y tener un jardín en el interior de la vivienda (OR: 2.31; IC: 0,98-7,48. Tener una trabajadora del hogar en la vivienda fue un factor protector (OR: 0,07; IC: 0,014- 0,37. Conclusiones: Los factores identificados deben ser tomados en cuenta para el desarrollo de programas de control vectorial en Tambogrande.

  2. Factores de riesgo del intento suicida en adolescentes, Pinar del Río Risk factors of suicide attempt in adolescents, Pinar del Río

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    Elba Cruz Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de caso y control, con el objetivo de identificar los factores de riesgo relacionados con el intento suicida en los adolescentes del municipio Pinar del Río, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2009. El universo del estudio estuvo constituido por la población de 10 a 19 años con intento suicida, quedando conformada la muestra por 36 casos contra 72 controles, seleccionados por un pareo de 1:2, se analizaron los factores de riesgo individuales y familiares asociados al intento suicida. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario diseñado por la autora de la investigación, se determinó la asociación entre los factores de riesgo y el intento suicida, a través de la prueba de Chi cuadrado y la razón de productos cruzados (OR con estimación puntual y por intervalos de confianza; entre los principales resultados se encontró asociación estadística significativa al intento suicida, de los siguientes factores de riesgo: la presencia de adolescentes con desordenes mentales como depresión y retraso mental, dificultades escolares e internamiento invo luntario y el antecedente de suicidio por otro miembro del hogar.An observational, analytical case-control study was carried out with the purpose of identifying the risk factors related to suicide attempt in adolescents in Pinar del Rio municipality from January to June 2009. The target group was comprised of the total population from 10 to 19 years old with suicide attempts; the sample consisted of 36 cases vs. 72 controls, chosen by a matching of 1:2, individual and familial risks factors associated with suicide attempt were analyzed as well. Data were obtained by means of the application of a questionnaire designed by the author of the study, the association between the risk factors and suicide attempt was determined using chi square test and the reason of crossed products ratio by punctual estimation and by

  3. Factores de riesgo del bajo peso al nacer, Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico Provincial de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Grau Espinosa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar algunos factores de riesgo que pudiera presentar la madre durante el embarazo, asociados con la incidencia de bajo peso al nacer (menos de 2500 g. Se diseñó un estudio con 378 casos y 649 controles del Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico Provincial de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, durante el año 1994. Los datos se obtuvieron de la historia clínica, el registro de partos y una entrevista personal con la madre. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y se controlaron los posibles factores de confusión utilizando la regresión logística dicotómica, mediante los programas Epi Info 5 y SPSS. Por medio del modelo multivariado final se identificaron como factores de riesgo significativos de bajo peso al nacer la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la consulta extemporánea de evaluación del embarazo, los abortos anteriores, último intervalo intergenésico menor de 2 años y el aumento de peso materno menor de 8 kg. Se debe dar prioridad a estas tres últimas variables para mantener buenos indicadores en el programa maternoinfantil de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.

  4. Factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria en niños del municipio Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Fajardo Ochoa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de tipo caso control, con el objetivo de determinar los factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria, como principal causa del síndrome de malabsorción intestinal en niños del municipio de Las Tunas durante el año 2011. El mismo fue realizado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas”, con una muestra de 87 pacientes que formaron parte del grupo de estudio, cuyos datos se recolectaron de la consulta médica de gastroenterología en el policlínico de consulta externa de dicha unidad asistencial y 174 en el grupo control, tomados de pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urología, paralela en tiempo y contigua a la de gastroenterología. A cada grupo se le realizó un interrogatorio y examen físico exhaustivo, que permitió recoger todos los posibles factores de riesgo existentes. Para la determinación de los factores de riesgo se utilizaron los paquetes de programas estadísticos Epinfo versión 6, en el que se realizaron análisis univariados y se evaluó el ODDS RATIO, intervalo de confianza y probabilidad. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó con un 95% de confiabilidad. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la enteropatía parasitaria fueron: pertenecer al sexo masculino, los hábitos higiénicos inadecuados, estado nutricional inadecuado, la ingestión de agua sin hervir y la evacuación de excretas no sanitarias. Se recomienda realizar estudios analíticos para determinar la asociación de otros factores de riesgo, con vistas a establecer programas de intervención en estos pacientes.

  5. Análise da qualidade das córneas doadas e do intervalo entre óbito, enucleação e preservação após a implantação de novas normas técnicas e sanitárias em Banco de Olhos Universitário Comparative analysis of the donor cornea quality and of the interval between death and preservation before and after new sanitary and technique rules in a University Eye Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Zantut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o intervalo entre o óbito e a enucleação (ΔT-O-E, entre a enucleação e a preservação (ΔT-E-P e a qualidade da córnea antes e após a implantação de novas normas técnicas e sanitárias baseadas na Resolução RDC 347. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram avaliados os prontuários dos doadores de córnea do Banco de Tecidos Oculares da Santa Casa de São Paulo, 2 anos antes e 2 anos depois da implementação de novas normas sanitárias. RESULTADOS: Foi observado aumento do número absoluto de 205 para 374 doadores após as mudanças adotadas. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante no Δt-O-E e ΔT-E-P antes e após as mudanças implantadas. Do total de 1.105 córneas doadas, foi observado 388 córneas doadas antes das mudanças e 717 córneas doadas após as mudanças implementadas. Foi observado aumento estatisticamente significante da graduação da qualidade da córnea doada de 1,76 ± 0,90 para 1,94 ± 0,88 após a implementação das novas normas da Resolução. CONCLUSÃO: Após as mudanças técnicas e sanitárias exigidas pela Resolução 347, houve grande aumento no número de córneas doadas, captadas e preservadas. O Banco de Tecidos Oculares não diminuiu os ΔT O-E e ΔT E-P. A qualidade da córnea apresentou-se inferior após as mudanças realizadas no setor.PURPOSE: To compare the interval between death and enucleation (ΔT-O-E, between enucleation and preservation (ΔT-E-P and the quality of the cornea before and after the implantation of new technique and sanitary rules. METHODS: A retrospective study that evaluated the records of cornea donors in Sao Paulo's Santa Casa Eye Tissue Bank 2 years before and 2 years after the implementation new sanitary rules. RESULTS: An increase was observed in the absolute number of 205 to 374 donors following the adopted changes. There was no statistically significant difference in Δt-O-E and ΔT-E-P before and after the implemented

  6. Factores condicionantes de depresión en trabajadores metalúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Díaz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Buscar factores determinantes en el desarrollo del cuadro clínico de depresión. Material y Métodos: Estudio de 153 trabajadores ferroviarios y operadores de grúa-puente en una empresa minero metalúrgica de cobre, evaluados con la Escala de Hamilton. Se detecta 25 casos probables de depresión, quienes son examinados por el médico psiquiatra. En 13 se confirma el diagnóstico y para fines comparativos constituyen el grupo "casos". El resto de la población, 140, integran el grupo "control". Se compara los grupos estadísticamente por regresión logística. Usamos el Programa SPSS / 6,1 y el intervalo de confianza se calcula para el 95% de certeza. Resultados: Se encuentra una prevalencia de depresión de 8,49%. El sentimiento de pérdida actual, disfunción familiar severa, condiciones de trabajo inadecuadas y desempeño laboral presentan razón de probabilidad con valor de p altamente significativo (59,3; 11,4; 10,0 y 11,2, respectivamente. Edad, estado civil, nivel de instrucción, consumo de alcohol o tabaco, antecedentes personales o familiares de trastorno psiquiátrico y dolencia orgánica crónica no son significativos. Conclusiones: La depresión en la población estudiada está fuertemente asociada a sentimiento de pérdida actual, disfunción familiar severa, desempeño laboral y condiciones de trabajo inadecuadas, que constituyen los factores de riesgo.

  7. Factores de riesgo de la enfermedad tromboembólica en puérperas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudelca Esperanza Abelino Castillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la enfermedad tromboembólica es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad materna en los países desarrollados. Objetivo: determinar los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad tromboembolia durante el puerperio en gestantes con riesgo ingresadas en el Hospital General "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" en el período de enero a diciembre del año 2011 para disminuir su incidencia. Material y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, longitudinal, analítico y aplicado. De un universo total de 5598 paridas o cesareadas, la muestra definitiva quedó constituida por 47 casos y 23 controles aleatoriamente. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas individuales. Para analizar las variables utilizamos el porcentaje y la determinación del odds ratio (OR, el intervalo de confianza (IC, así como la prueba estadística X2. Resultados: el riesgo de la enfermedad tromboembólica fue independiente de la edad materna y la paridad, pero fue 23,57 veces mayor en las que usaron anticonceptivos orales, así como en el 31,9 % de las pacientes con insuficiencia venosa, y en el 73,4% de las pacientes cesareadas y con trombosis venosa superficial, donde predominaron el dolor, el edema y la taquicardia. Conclusiones: la condición de estado trombofílico obliga a su vigilancia estrecha durante el puerperio para detectar los factores de riesgo más frecuentes de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (uso de anticonceptivos orales, pacientes con insuficiencia venosa y cesareadas, siendo su tratamiento profiláctico la piedra angular para prevenir los episodios trombóticos.

  8. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  9. Factores de riesgo de neumonía nosocomial en terapia intensiva. Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Santiesteban Escalona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico, de tipo caso control pareados 1:2, para determinar los factores de riesgo de neumonía nosocomial en pacientes ingresados en terapia intensiva del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de Las Tunas, en el período de enero de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. El universo fue de 1035 pacientes ingresados en terapia intensiva (UCI, en dicho período, de ellos constituyeron la muestra, denominada “casos”, 56 pacientes que desarrollaron Neumonía Nosocomial durante su estadía en UCI. Para el “control” de los factores de confusión, por cada caso, se parearon dos pacientes sin diagnóstico de neumonía. La información se obtuvo de fuentes secundarias (historias clínicas. A los casos y a los controles se les llenó una planilla de vaciamiento de datos con las variables analizadas. Los datos se procesaron utilizando el paquete de programas estadísticos Epinfo, versión 6. Para el estudio de los factores de riesgo se realizaron análisis univariados, evaluándose: ODDS RATIO, intervalo de confianza y probabilidad. Resultaron ser factores de riesgo para presentar neumonía nosocomial: la intubación endotraqueal, los trastornos de conciencia, el aislamiento de bacilos no fermentadores, citrobacter diversus y/o klebsiella ssp., haber requerido neurocirugía, el uso de tratamiento antibiótico previo, antiácidos anti H2, nutrición parenteral y la estadía en UCI mayor de siete días.

  10. Factores de riesgo asociados a la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos a Neospora caninum en ganado lechero de Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Conzuelo Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar potenciales factores de riesgo, incluyendo laposible presencia de contaminación del agua de bebida con ooquistes del parásito, asociados con la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos a N. caninum en hatos lecheros de Aguascalientes, México. Se tomaron muestras de suero sanguíneo de 150 vacas, mismas que fueron analizadas por la técnica de ELISA, se detectó la presencia de ADN de N. caninum en el agua de bebida mediante una prueba de PCR anidada, y se aplicó una encuesta para identificar diferentes características y prácticas zootécnicas de los hatos. Se calculó la seroprevalencia a la infección por N. caninum, así como la frecuencia de detección de ADN del parásito en las muestras de agua de bebida. Se estimó la asociación entre la seroprevalencia y cada uno de los factores considerados como potenciales factores de riesgo, calculando la razón de momios (OR. La seroprevalencia a N. caninum fue de 30 %, se identificó ADN del parásito en el 90 % de la muestras de agua colectadas. Se identificaron a los siguientes potenciales factores de riesgo con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %, presencia de coyotes (OR= 2.40, 1.05 - 5.47, P<0.05, presencia de aves domésticas en el establo (OR= 2.32, 1.06 - 5.3, P<0.05, antecedentes de la presencia de micotoxinas (OR= 4.16, 1.41 - 13.18, P<0.05, y los antecedentes de aborto (OR= 2.13, 0.95 - 4.81, P<0.05.

  11. Factores contribuyentes al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 admitidos en salas de medicina del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia-Zegarra Gino Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio es identificar factores contribuyentes al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 hospitalizados. De tal forma, se siguió el diseño de un estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Consecuentemente, se eligieron en forma aleatoria 105 diabéticos con infección adquirida en la comunidad y 105 diabéticos con patología no infecciosa, obtenidos de los Servicios de Medicina de un hospital universitario, entre 1991 y 1998. Mediante el análisis bivariado y multivariado, se obtuvo la estimación ajustada del valor de odds ratio. Los resultados permitieron, según análisis estratificado por edad y sexo, obtener a neuropatía autonómica como factor contribuyente de infecciones urinarias (OR = 4,07. En el modelo multivariado se aisló a vasculopatía periférica (R²: 0,24 como contribuyente de infección de piel y partes blandas (OR = 6,79. Los intervalos de confianza fueron significativos y de 95% de confiabilidad. En conclusión, vasculopatía periférica y vejiga neurogénica contribuyen al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 hospitalizados.

  12. Factores de riesgo del recién nacido macrosómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irka Ballesté López

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Para reconocer algunos factores asociados a la macrosomía, se realizó un estudio tipo caso control. Los casos estaban formados por 170 neonatos con 4 000 g y más y los controles por 260 recién nacidos con peso entre 3 000 y 3 999 g. Se evaluó un grupo de factores de riesgo materno, antecedentes obstétricos, relacionados con el parto y con el recién nacido. Se estimó el riesgo relativo de cada factor de asociarse con la macrosomía mediante la razón de productos cruzados (OR y se evaluó la significación estadística mediante el intervalo de confianza del 95 % (IC-95 % y mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado (X2 o la prueba de Fisher según conviniera en cada caso.Se halló asociado con la macrosomía, la edad materna mayor de 30 años (OR = 4, la edad gestacional mayor de 42 semanas (OR = 5,8, la talla materna mayor de 1,70 cm (OR= 6,6, antecedente de hijo macrosómico anterior (OR = 5,7, la diabetes familiar (OR = 3,6 y el sexo masculino (OR = 2,8. No aumentó el riesgo de cesáreas ni de Apgar bajo.A case-control study was conducted to recognize some factors associated with macrosomia. The cases were 170 neonates with 4 000 g and over, whereas the controls were 260 newborn infants with a weight that ranged between 3 000 and 3 999 g. A group of maternal risk factors, obstetric history, related to delivery and to the newborn infant were evaluated. The relative risk of each factor for associating with macrosomy was estimated by the cross product ratio (OR. The statistical significance was evaluated by the confidence interval of 95 % (CI-95 % and by the Chi square test (X2 or the Fisher test according to each case. Maternal age over 30 (OR=4, gestational age over 42 weeks (OR=5.8, maternal height over 1.70 cm (R=6.6, history of previous macrosomic children (OR=5.7, family diabetes (OR=3.6 and the male sex (OR=2.8 were associated with macrosomia. No increase was observed in the risk of cesarean section, or low Apgar score.

  13. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Campos Lobato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal surgeons often struggle to explain to administrators/payers reasons for prolonged length of stay (LOS. This study aim was to identify factors associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Design: The study population included patients from the 2007 American-College-of-Sur- geons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP database undergoing ileocolic resection, segmental colectomy, or anterior resection. The study population was divided into normal (below 75th percentile and prolonged LOS (above the 75th percentile. A multivariate analysis was performed using prolonged LOS as dependent variable and ACS- NSQIP variables as predictive variables. P-value < 0.01 was considered significant. Results: 12,269 patients with a median LOS of 6 (inter-quartile range 4-9 days were includ- ed. There were 2,617 (21.3% patients with prolonged LOS (median 15 days, inter-quartile range 13-22. 1,308 (50% were female, and the median age was 69 (inter-quartile range 57-79 years. Risk factors for prolonged LOS were male gender, congestive heart failure, weight loss, Crohn's disease, preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dL and hematocrit < 47%, base- line sepsis, ASA class ≥ 3, open surgery, surgical time ≥ 190 min, postoperative pneumonia, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, deep venous thrombosis, urinary-tract in- fection, systemic sepsis, surgical site infection and reoperation within 30-days from the primary surgery. Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Our results are useful for surgeons to explain prolonged LOS to administrators/payers who are critical of this metric. Resumo: Objetivo: Os cirurgiões proctologistas muitas vezes enfrentam dificuldades para explicar aos administradores/contribuintes as razões para o prolongamento do tempo de interna- ção hospitalar (TIH. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores associados ao aumen- to do TIH ap

  14. Factores cognitivos asociados con el inicio del consumo de tabaco en adolescentes Cognitive factors associated with smoking initiation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Cortés

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación de los factores cognitivos del modelo de cambio conductual Attitude Self-Efficacy (ASE a las diferentes fases de inicio del consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal (durante el año 2000 en el que se encuestó al alumnado de 2.o de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (13-14 años de edad de los institutos de educación secundaria públicos de Cornellà de Llobregat (Barcelona sobre las actitudes y el consumo de tabaco. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para identificar las variables asociadas con cada estado del consumo de tabaco (odds ratio [OR] de experimentadores frente a no fumadores y de fumadores frente a experimentadores. Resultados: La prevalencia del consumo diario de tabaco fue del 22,9% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 16,5-29,3 en los chicos y del 36,2% (IC del 95%, 29,7-42,6 en las chicas. Los determinantes de la experimentación (frente a no fumar fueron las actitudes hacia el tabaco -desacuerdo con los espacios sin humo (OR = 3,46; IC del 95%, 1,65-7,24 y acuerdo con la promoción del tabaco (OR = 3,42; IC del 95%, 1,42-8,28- y la norma subjetiva (amigos percibidos como fumadores: OR = 2,50; IC del 95%, 1,17-5,35. Los factores asociados con el consumo regular de tabaco (frente a experimentar fueron de autoeficacia y actitudinales. Conclusiones: Parece indicado trabajar los determinantes de norma subjetiva y las actitudes hacia el tabaco en programas dirigidos a edades más tempranas, ya que están más asociados con el paso de no fumador a experimentador, e insistir más tarde en las habilidades para el rechazo de tabaco ofrecido por amigos que cobró importancia en la fase de experimentador a fumador.Objective: To study the association between cognitive factors of the behavioral change model «Attitude Self Efficacy» (ASE at different phases of smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional survey among

  15. Edad avanzada y factores de riesgo para infarto agudo de miocardio Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ciruzzi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio caso-control analizó en los sujetos añosos el rol de los factores de riesgo coronario en el desarrollo del infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM, estableció la naturaleza de esta asociación y el grado de riesgo. Los datos fueron obtenidos en una investigación que incluyó 1060 casos y 1071 controles, realizada en 35 unidades coronarias de centros médicos de Argentina entre noviembre de 1991 y agosto de 1994. Nuestro análisis se basó en la información de los sujetos mayores de 65 años. Los casos fueron 427 pacientes con un primer IAM. Los controles fueron 396 sujetos sin evidencias clinicas de enfermedad cardiovascular, seleccionados en los mismos centros que los casos. Los Odds Ratios (OR y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95% se obtuvieron mediante un análisis de regresión logística, incluyendo variables como la edad, educación, clase social, tabaquismo, antecedente de diabetes o hipertensión arterial, índice de masa corporal e historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria. Los factores de riesgo relacionados independientemente con IAM fueron los siguientes: hipercolesterolemia (colesterol sérico > 240 mg/dl: OR=1.76 (IC 95%: 1.25-2.49, tabaquismo: OR=1.6 (IC 95%: 1.06-2.4, hipertensión arterial: OR=2.05 (IC 95%: 1.51-2.73, diabetes OR=1.71 (IC 95%: 1.12-2.70, historia de un familiar con enfermedad coronaria: OR=1.36 (IC 95%: 0.93-1.97 y de dos o más familiares: OR=2.63 (IC 95%: 1.21-5.71. Este estudio, confirma en los sujetos de edad avanzada la importancia de la hipercolesterolemia, del tabaquismo, la hipertesión arterial, la diabetes y la historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria como factores de riesgo de IAMThis case-control study, analized the role of coronary risk factors in acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the elderly, and established the nature of this association and the degree of risk. Data were derived from an investigation (1060 cases and 1071 controls conducted in 35 coronary care units from clinical

  16. Risk factors for cervical cancer among HPV positive women in Mexico Factores de riesgo de cáncer cervical en mujeres VPH positivas en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne N Flores

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that are associated with an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or cancer among human papillomavirus (HPV-positive women in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study design was used. A total of 94 cases and 501 controls who met the study inclusion criteria were selected from the 7 732 women who participated in the Morelos HPV Study from May 1999 to June 2000. Risk factor information was obtained from interviews and from HPV viral load results. Odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional multivariate regression. RESULTS: Increasing age, high viral load, a young age at first sexual intercourse, and a low socio-economic status are associated with an increased risk of disease among HPV-positive women. CONCLUSIONS: These results could have important implications for future screening activities in Mexico and other low resource countries.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC de alto grado o cáncer en mujeres con virus de papiloma humano (VPH, en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un diseño de casos y controles. Un total de 94 casos y 501 controles fueron seleccionados de las 7 732 mujeres que participaron en el Estudio de VPH en Morelos, de mayo de 1999 a junio de 2000. La información sobre factores de riesgo se obtuvo de entrevistas y de los resultados de carga virales de VPH. Se estimaron razones de momios e intervalos de confianza de 95% con modelos multivariados de regresión no condicionada. RESULTADOS: El incremento de edad, la carga viral elevada, la edad temprana al inicio de la vida sexual y el nivel socioeconómico bajo se asocian con un mayor riesgo de enfermedad en mujeres VPH positivas. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados podrían tener implicaciones importantes a futuro para las actividades de tamizaje en México y en otros países de

  17. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass M A in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  18. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  19. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  20. Factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for low birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortman

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN es el principal factor determinante conocido de la mortalidad infantil. Pese a la notable reducción de las tasas de mortalidad infantil y al aumento de las tasas de supervivencia de niños con BPN, en Neuquén, Argentina, no se han observado descensos notables de las tasas de BPN. El propósito de este estudio fue conocer los factores de riesgo de BPN, su frecuencia en la población y el papel de la atención prenatal en su prevención, y desarrollar una escala de riesgo que permita identificar a las mujeres en mayor riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio transversal en el cual se utilizó 50% de los datos del Sistema Informático Perinatal correspondientes al período 1988­1995 y procedentes de los 29 hospitales de la provincia de Neuquén (46 171 nacimientos. Se analizaron la distribución del peso y la frecuencia de los posibles factores de riesgo de BPN. La asociación entre estos factores y el BPN se analizó mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Con los resultados obtenidos se desarrolló una escala aditiva, que fue validada con el 50% restante de los registros de nacimientos. La razón de posibilidades (RP más elevada correspondió a la falta de atención prenatal (RP = 8,78; IC95%: 6,7 a 11,4. Las RP asociadas con una atención prenatal inadecuada, una primera consulta prenatal tardía, preeclampsia o eclampsia, hemorragia o anomalías de la placenta o sus membranas e historia de un hijo previo con BPN fueron mayores de 2,0. El riesgo de tener hijos con BPN también fue más alto en las mujeres mayores de 40 años, las menores de 20, las solteras, las fumadoras, aquellas cuyo intervalo intergenésico fue menor de 18 meses y las que tenían un índice de masa corporal menor de 20. Por último, se encontró una relación lineal directa entre el puntaje en la escala y el riesgo de tener un hijo con BPN.Low birthweight (LBW is the main known determinant of

  1. Intervalos de Confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach: aportes a la investigación pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, es cada vez más común encontrar estudios que brinden evidencias de la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones obtenidas, por instrumentos de medida utilizadas en investigaciones en ciencias de la salud. Este es el caso de la valiosa contribución de Aguilar-Navarro et al, quienes adaptaron la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Alimentación Infantil de Iowa (IIFAS en México, reportando la confiabilidad a través del alfa de Cronbach.

  2. Prediction of inspection intervals using the Markov analysis; Prediccion de intervalos de inspeccion utilizando analisis de Markov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, R.; Arellano, J. [IIE, Calle Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rrea@iie.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    To solve the unmanageable number of states of Markov of systems that have a great number of components, it is intends a modification to the method of Markov, denominated Markov truncated analysis, in which is assumed that it is worthless the dependence among faults of components. With it the number of states is increased in a lineal way (not exponential) with the number of components of the system, simplifying the analysis vastly. As example, the proposed method was applied to the system HPCS of the CLV considering its 18 main components. It thinks about that each component can take three states: operational, with hidden fault and with revealed fault. Additionally, it takes into account the configuration of the system HPCS by means of a block diagram of dependability to estimate their unavailability at level system. The results of the model here proposed are compared with other methods and approaches used to simplify the Markov analysis. It also intends the modification of the intervals of inspection of three components of the system HPCS. This finishes with base in the developed Markov model and in the maximum time allowed by the code ASME (NUREG-1482) to inspect components of systems that are in reservation in nuclear power plants. (Author)

  3. Análisis de variabilidad del intervalo QT en la señal electrocardiográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Cardona, Edison

    2009-01-01

    El electrocardiograma o ECG es una representacion gráfica de las fuerzas eléctricas que trabajan dentro del corazón. durante el ciclo cardíaco de bombeo y llenado, un patrón conocido de pulsos eléctricos cambiantes refleja exactamente la acción del corazón. Estos pulsos pueden ser recogidos a través de eléctrodos pedgados a la superficie del cuerpo. La actividad del corazón representada por ondas características puede así ser evaluada instantáneamente en un monitor o ser impresa sobre un pape...

  4. O intervalo Escola-Universidade: mais do que uma questão genérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Becker Lopes Perna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo almeja trazer à agenda das discussões sobre letramento na universidade a lacuna existente entre o ensino e a aprendizagem de gêneros escolares e de gêneros acadêmicos. Nossa inquietação é fruto de uma preocupação com os alunos ingressantes em instituições de ensino superior que não tiveram uma experiência escolar com vistas a uma prática social de letramento acadêmico. A partir do tema proposto, refletimos sobre como a teoria dos gêneros discursivos, bem como sua aplicabilidade, auxilia no desenvolvimento do letramento acadêmico desses alunos universitários. A proficiência, ou inserção, na esfera discursiva acadêmica está muito relacionada com a competência genérica que o aluno deve possuir para assegurar sua comunicação de forma a alcançar seu status de sujeito discursivo e transformador. Portanto, defendemos que, aliada à análise de gêneros discursivos acadêmicos, a metodologia de ensino de Português para Fins Acadêmicos, aos moldes da consagrada área de Inglês para Fins Acadêmicos (English for Academic Purposes, pode, em muito, contribuir para se criar uma tradição de letramento acadêmico que propicie ao estudante uma experiência mais significativa não somente na sua esfera acadêmica, mas também no domínio discursivo do qual ele venha a participar, uma vez egresso da universidade e apto para atuar na sua profissão.

  5. Factors and factorizations of graphs proof techniques in factor theory

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Jin

    2011-01-01

    This book chronicles the development of graph factors and factorizations. It pursues a comprehensive approach, addressing most of the important results from hundreds of findings over the last century. One of the main themes is the observation that many theorems can be proved using only a few standard proof techniques. This stands in marked contrast to the seemingly countless, complex proof techniques offered by the extant body of papers and books. In addition to covering the history and development of this area, the book offers conjectures and discusses open problems. It also includes numerous explanatory figures that enable readers to progressively and intuitively understand the most important notions and proofs in the area of factors and factorization.

  6. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población urbana del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Casnati

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa bucal e identificar los factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de las mismas en una muestra representativa de la población adulta urbana del Uruguay. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal que registró 922 personas (537 F/385M, edades de 15-24, 35-44 y 65-74 años basado en un diseño muestral estratificado por conglomerado polietápico. A partir de los datos de la muestra se estimaron las prevalencias de cada entidad así como los intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: La candidosis y las lesiones proliferativas se observaron en 26% y en 17% de las personas y se presentaron significativamente asociadas al género femenino. La prevalencia de la leucoplasia fue del 7% y en el análisis multivariado presentó una asociación significativa con el consumo de mate. Conclusiones: Las lesiones orales se presentan de manera prevalente en los adultos mayores en el Uruguay, lo que sugiere que se deberían implementar programas de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado de las mismas

  7. Infección nosocomial en la terapia intensiva neonatal. Factores de riesgo. Pinar del Río 2001-2003 Nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit. Risk factors, Pinar del Río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Aimé Sánchez Monterrey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar los factores de riesgo de las infecciones nosocomiales en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal del Hospital General Universitario "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" de Pinar del Río, se realizó una investigación observacional, analítica, de tipo caso-control, para ello se estudiaron 170 niños ingresados en esta unidad en el período comprendido de abril de 2001 a diciembre de 2003. Se recogió en una planilla tipo y momento de adquisición de la infección, abordaje vascular, ventilación mecánica y gérmenes aislados, entre otros. Se elaboró una base de datos en Microsoft Excel-97, se aplicaron los Test de Chi cuadrado y test de Student, ambos con un intervalo de confianza de p With the purpose of evaluating risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Intensive Care Unit of the "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" General Hospital in Pinar del Río, an observational, analytical and a case-control research was performed in 170 children admitted at this Unit from April 1st., 2001, to December 31st., 2003. The nosocomial infection and time of being infected were recorded in a form, as well as the vascular approach, artificial ventilation and isolated germs, among others. A data base using the Microsoft Excel 97 software was designed, and chi-square test was used, both of them with a confidence interval of p<0,05. It was observed that birth weight, sex, gestational age, stay at ICU, artificial ventilation and deep vascular approach were related significantly with the onset of the nosocomial infection versus a control group showing similar characteristics. E. Coli and negative coagulase were the most frequent isolated germs.

  8. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  9. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  10. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  11. Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the ...

  12. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  13. Factores asociados al ejercicio de la sexualidad de las y los adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena – Colombia 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Díaz Montes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Title: Associated factors in the sexual practices of school adolescents of Cartagena- Colombia 2008Objetivo: Establecer las prácticas sexuales y los factores asociados al ejercicio de la sexualidad de las y los adolescentes escolarizados en Cartagena. Metodología: Estudio transversal, población 104.088 adolescentes estudiantes de secundaria en colegios oficiales y privados de Cartagena. Muestra 1.035 adolescentes, intervalo de confianza 95%, error 2%. Muestreo; multietapico. Se utilizaron una escala de conocimientos y actitudes y la escala Francis para valorar religiosidad. Resultados: La edad promedio de inicio de relaciones sexuales fue de 14.1 años, el 17% de los adolescentes ha tenido relaciones sexuales. Tener relaciones sexuales se asocia con ser varón, mayor grado de escolaridad, consumir cigarrillo, pertenecer a un grupo social, desigualdad de género, tener pareja y considerarla estable. Tener relaciones sexuales es más frecuente, en adolescentes de colegios públicos que privados. Conclusión: de los veintidós factores estudiados, ocho factores se mantuvieron fuertemente asociados al inicio de relaciones sexuales.AbstractObjective: To establish the sexual practices and the associated factors of the sexual behavior of school adolescents of Cartagena. Methodology: Transversal study, population 104.088 adolescent students of Secondary School of Public and private schools of Cartagena. Sample 1.035 adolescents, confidence level 95 %, and error 2 %. Sampling: multistage. Two scales of knowledge and attitudes were used, and the Francis scale. Results: The average age to start sexual relations was 14.1, 17% of the adolescents have had sexual relationships. To have sexual relations is associated significantly with the fact of being male, being in a higher grade, cigarette consumption, belonging to a social group, gender inequality, having a partner and considering him/her stable. Sexual relations are more common in public

  14. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  15. The joy of factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Wagstaff, Samuel S

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the theory and practice of integer factorization presented in a historic perspective. It describes about twenty algorithms for factoring and a dozen other number theory algorithms that support the factoring algorithms. Most algorithms are described both in words and in pseudocode to satisfy both number theorists and computer scientists. Each of the ten chapters begins with a concise summary of its contents. The book starts with a general explanation of why factoring integers is important. The next two chapters present number theory results that are relevant to factoring. Further on there is a chapter discussing, in particular, mechanical and electronic devices for factoring, as well as factoring using quantum physics and DNA molecules. Another chapter applies factoring to breaking certain cryptographic algorithms. Yet another chapter is devoted to practical vs. theoretical aspects of factoring. The book contains more than 100 examples illustrating various algorithms and theorems. It also co...

  16. Algunos factores de riesgo asociados al recién nacido con bajo peso Some risk factors associated with the low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora María Pérez Guirado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y con un modelo de diseño del tipo de casos y controles de toda las mujeres pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Docente "Bernardo Posse", en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, que tuvieron un recién nacido con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g en el período comprendido entre los años 1995 y 2004, conformada así la muestra estudio. De forma aleatoria se conformó un grupo control de mujeres con recién nacidos con peso superior o igual a los 2 500 g. Se aplicaron test estadísticos para la determinación del riesgo relativo, el Chi cuadrado y el intervalo de confianza del riesgo relativo de cada factor. En esta investigación quedó demostrado que la edad mayor de 35 años, la anemia, la urosepsis, la hipertensión arterial y las modificaciones cervicales son, entre otros, los antecedentes y riesgos que con más frecuencia aportaron a este indicador en nuestra área de salud. Se observó también la incidencia de los problemas nutricionales relacionados con la ganancia total de peso menor de 8 kg, la valoración nutricional de bajo peso, y el antecedente de recién nacido bajo peso al nacer.An observational analytical case and control study was conducted among all women from the health area of "Bernardo Posse" Teaching Polyclinic, in the municipality of San Miguel del Padrón, that had children with a weight under 2 500 g between 1995 and 2004 (study group. A control group composed of women with newborns with a weight equal to or over 2 500 g was selected at random. Statistical tests, such as Chi square test and the confidence interval of the relative risk of every factor, were applied to determine the relative risk. It was proved in this research that age over 35, anemia, urosepsis, arterial hypertension and the cervical modifications are, among others, the antecedents and risks that influenced the most on this indicator in our health area. It was also observed the incidence of

  17. Embarazo en la adolescencia y factores sociodemográficos en Guantánamo en 1998 Pregnancy in adolescence and sociodemographic factors in Guantánamo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Soto Martínez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con el objetivo de identificar factores de riesgo del embarazo en la adolescencia. Se estudiaron a todas las pacientes (37 con edades entre 12 y 19 años, pertenecientes al Policlínico "Emilio Daudinot", embarazadas en el año 1998 (casos y 37 adolescentes (controles que nunca han estado embarazadas, de igual área de salud y edades que los casos. Se aplicó un cuestionario a cada una de las adolescentes. Los datos se procesaron en SPSS 9.0. Estos se presentan en tablas y figuras donde se utilizan las medidas de resumen del nivel analítico. Se obtuvo la significación de la asociación mediante la prueba X2 de Mantell- Haenszel, en el que se prefijó el 95 % para el intervalo de confianza. A las variables significativas se les determinó el grado de asociación mediante el odds ratio. Resultaron significativas de forma bivariada el número de casamientos (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], la ocupación (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], el estado civil (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86].A case-control study was conducted aimed at identifying the risk factors of pregnancy in adolescence. All the patients aged 12-19 (37 from "Emilio Daudinot" Polyclinic that got pregnant in 1998 and 37 adolescents (controls who have never been pregnant with the same age and from the same area were studied. Every adolescent answered a questionnaire. Ddata were processed in SPSS 9.0 and they were shown in tables and figures where the summary measures of the analytical level were used. The association significance was obtained by Mantell-Haenszel X2 test, in which 95 % was prefixed as the confidence interval. The association degree was determined in the significant variables by the odds ratio. The number of marriages (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], the occupation (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], and the marital status (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86] proved to be significant in a bivariated way.

  18. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  19. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  20. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  1. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  2. Neutron electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Madey, R.; Eden, T.; Markowitz, P.; Rutt, P.M.; Beard, K.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Keane, D.; Manley, D.M.; Watson, J.W.; Zhang, W.M.; Kowalski, S.; Bertozzi, W.; Dodson, G.; Farkhondeh, M.; Dow, K.; Korsch, W.; Tieger, D.; Turchinetz, W.; Weinstein, L.; Gross, F.; Mougey, J.; Ulmer, P.; Whitney, R.; Reichelt, T.; Chang, C.C.; Kelly, J.J.; Payerle, T.; Cameron, J.; Ni, B.; Spraker, M.; Barkhuff, D.; Lourie, R.; Verst, S.V.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Jiang, W.-D.; Flanders, B.; Pella, P.; Arenhoevel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon form factors provide fundamental input for nuclear structure and quark models. Current knowledge of neutron form factors, particularly the electric form factor of the neutron, is insufficient to meet these needs. Developments of high-duty-factor accelerators and polarization-transfer techniques permit new experiments that promise results with small sensitivities to nuclear models. We review the current status of the field, our own work at the MIT/Bates linear accelerator, and future experimental efforts

  3. Prevalencia y factores asociados a macrosomía en Perú, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de macrosomía y factores asociados en Perú, y describir la ocurrencia de complicaciones durante el parto y posparto. Materiales y métodos. Los pesos al nacer de los niños menores de cinco años fueron analizados usando datos de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES 2013, llevada a cabo por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Los niños con un peso mayor a 4000 g al nacer fueron considerados como macrosómicos. Se empleó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer la asociación independiente de factores sociodemográficos con la macrosomía. Resultados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 6121 niños. La prevalencia de macrosomía fue 5,3% (intervalo de confianza al 95%: 4,8 a 5,9. El sexo masculino, un orden de nacimiento mayor, la obesidad materna y una mayor estatura materna estuvieron independientemente asociados con la macrosomía. Los partos por cesárea fueron más frecuentes en niños macrosómicos (43,9% vs 26,9%. Las complicaciones durante el parto y posparto fueron frecuentes, pero no estadísticamente asociadas con la macrosomía. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de macrosomía en Perú es relativamente baja comparada con otros países de ingresos bajos o medios. Los factores asociados con la macrosomía fueron principalmente no modificables, con excepción de la obesidad materna. Los niños macrosómicos nacieron más frecuentemente por cesárea. La reducción del peso y la prevención de la obesidad en mujeres en edad fértil en Perú podrían potencialmente reducir la macrosomía y las tasas de cesáreas.

  4. Edad avanzada y factores de riesgo para infarto agudo de miocardio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ciruzzi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio caso-control analizó en los sujetos añosos el rol de los factores de riesgo coronario en el desarrollo del infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM, estableció la naturaleza de esta asociación y el grado de riesgo. Los datos fueron obtenidos en una investigación que incluyó 1060 casos y 1071 controles, realizada en 35 unidades coronarias de centros médicos de Argentina entre noviembre de 1991 y agosto de 1994. Nuestro análisis se basó en la información de los sujetos mayores de 65 años. Los casos fueron 427 pacientes con un primer IAM. Los controles fueron 396 sujetos sin evidencias clinicas de enfermedad cardiovascular, seleccionados en los mismos centros que los casos. Los Odds Ratios (OR y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95% se obtuvieron mediante un análisis de regresión logística, incluyendo variables como la edad, educación, clase social, tabaquismo, antecedente de diabetes o hipertensión arterial, índice de masa corporal e historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria. Los factores de riesgo relacionados independientemente con IAM fueron los siguientes: hipercolesterolemia (colesterol sérico > 240 mg/dl: OR=1.76 (IC 95%: 1.25-2.49, tabaquismo: OR=1.6 (IC 95%: 1.06-2.4, hipertensión arterial: OR=2.05 (IC 95%: 1.51-2.73, diabetes OR=1.71 (IC 95%: 1.12-2.70, historia de un familiar con enfermedad coronaria: OR=1.36 (IC 95%: 0.93-1.97 y de dos o más familiares: OR=2.63 (IC 95%: 1.21-5.71. Este estudio, confirma en los sujetos de edad avanzada la importancia de la hipercolesterolemia, del tabaquismo, la hipertesión arterial, la diabetes y la historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria como factores de riesgo de IAM

  5. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  6. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  7. Factores que influyen en la emesis postaturdimiento en bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón; Alfredo Estrada Angulo; Jorge Hernández Bautista; Cristina Pérez Linares; Jesús José Portillo Loera; Juan Carlos Robles Estrada

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto del tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio, la efectividad del aturdimiento, el tipo de categoría comercial y la consistencia del contenido ruminal en la emesis durante el intervalo entre aturdimiento y desangrado en ganado bovino, se seleccionaron 9,446 canales en cuatro plantas procesadoras (P1, P2, P3, P4). El tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio se clasificó en: 1) menor a 3 h (T1); 2) de 3 a 12 h (T2); 3) mayor a 12 h (T3). El aturdimiento se registró como efectivo y no efe...

  8. Factores de riesgo de mortalidad en personas mayores de 65 años internadas en un hospital universitario, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro J. Martins

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios muestran que la edad en sí no es un factor independiente predictor de la supervivencia de las personas mayores gravemente enfermas, pero el grupo mayor de 65 años de edad no suele tener acceso a los recursos diagnósticos y terapéuticos más complejos. Con el continuo envejecimiento de la población se hace cada vez más importante poder determinar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad que afectan a las posibilidades de supervivencia de la gente mayor hospitalizada, especialmente en condiciones de urgencia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores de riesgo asociados con la mortalidad de personas mayores de 65 años internadas en el Servicio de Urgencia del hospital Santa Casa de São Paulo, institución académica de nivel terciario. El estudio se basó en un análisis por regresión logística no condicional de los datos personales recogidos en el hospital en las historias clínicas respectivas y otros documentos pertenecientes a los pacientes hospitalizados durante el período de julio de 1993 a marzo de 1994, inclusive. Durante dicho período se hospitalizó a 599 pacientes -326 hombres (54,4% y 273 mujeres (45,6%- con una mediana de edad de 73,3 años. Las razones principales de internamiento fueron neumonía (14,4%, enfermedad cerebrovascular (11,5% e insuficiencia cardíaca (8,2%. El total de defunciones ascendió a 160. Los pacientes que fallecieron tuvieron una estadía mediana en el hospital de 4 días (intervalo de 1 a 72, semejante a la de los que sobrevivieron (3 días; intervalo de 0 a 35 días; P = 0,29. Según el análisis multivariado, independientemente del sexo, la edad, la raza, la observancia del tratamiento, el diagnóstico inicial y otros estados patológicos presentes, la hipertensión arterial (razón de posibilidades, RP u odds ratio en inglés = 0,39, IC95%: 0,23 a 0,68, la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (RP = 0,45; IC95%: 0,22 a 0,95 y la diabetes mellitus (RP = 0,50; IC95

  9. Factores asociados con la aparición de disfunciones sexuales en una población femenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Guibert Reyes

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio explicativo para determinar la frecuencia de las disfunciones sexuales y algunos de los factores biológicos, psicosociales, culturales y ambientales asociados con la aparición de éstas en el período de 1 año, a partir de agosto de 1993 en Alamar. Se expresa que la muestra está compuesta por 48 mujeres mayores de 15 años, un grupo de estudio de 24, e igual cantidad de controles. Se les aplica una encuesta de 30 preguntas, cuyos resultados se muestran en 5 tablas y se utiliza el cálculo porcentual para estimar la frecuencia y odds ratio con intervalo de confianza al 95 %, para valorar fuerza de asociación entre las variables. Se encuentra que las difunciones sexuales femeninas de mayor frecuencia son el deseo sexual inhibido y la anorgasmia, que las variables ingestión de fármacos, ausencia de salud física, poco deseo sexual, comunicación deficiente de pareja y no recibir educación sexual, son factores de riesgo que están fuertemente asociados con la aparición de disfunciones sexuales en nuestras mujeres y tienen relación causal con ellas. Se señala que los factores ambientales no se asocian con la aparición de disfunciones sexualesAn explanatory study was conducted to determine the frequency of sexual dysfunctions and some of the biological, psychosocial, cultural and environmental factors associated with the appearance of these disorders from August, 1993, to August, 1994, in Alamar. The sample was composed of 48 women over 15, a case-base study consisting of 24 women, and the same number of controls. A survey with 30 questions was applied and the results were shown in 5 tables. Percentage was calculated to estimate the frequency and odds ratio with a confidence interval at 95 % so as to assess the force of association among the variables. It was found that the most frequent female sexual dysfunctions are the inhibited sexual desire and the anorgasmy, and that drug taking, the absence of physical health

  10. Factores individuales y familiares asociados con sintomatología depresiva en adolescentes de escuelas públicas de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva y explorar su asociación con factores individuales y familiares en estudiantes de escuelas públicas de nivel medio superior en México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal con muestra representativa de 9 982 estudiantes de 14 a 19 años. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística para obtener razones de momios (RM, con intervalos de confianza a 95% (IC95%. Resultados. El 27% de los estudiantes presentó sintomatología depresiva; la proporción fue mayor en mujeres (34% que en hombres (18%. Factores asociados: sexo femenino (RM=2.25 IC95% 1.86-2.71; baja autoestima (RM=2.77 IC95% 2.41-3.19; consumo de alcohol (RM=1.72 IC95% 1.46-2.02; consumo de tabaco (RM=1.57 IC95% 1.31-1.88; consumo de drogas (RM=1.63 IC95% 1.29-2.05; violencia intrafamiliar (RM=2.05 IC95% 1.77-2.39; baja comunicación padres e hijos (RM=1.78 IC95% 1.59-2.00. Conclusiones. La sintomatología depresiva en estudiantes de nivel medio superior es un problema de salud pública en México. Se requiere la implementación de programas de intervención enfocados en el manejo de factores de riesgo asociados.

  11. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    .8%) than those in other nce of 35.4% which was actors can predispose alence of malaria in a study were significantly eveloping guidelines and more effective disease endemic areas (Bashar et therefore attempts to rmation on possible demographic factors d out in four selected geria; Major Ibrahim B. Hospital Zaria, Hajiya.

  12. Factores asociados a la aceptación de salpingoclasia posparto entre mujeres infectadas por el VIH Factors associated with acceptance of postpartum tubal ligation among HIV infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueroa-Damián

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados a la aceptación de salpingoclasia entre mujeres infectadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, después de finalizar su embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con 72 pacientes embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatología (INPer, entre marzo de 1988 y febrero de 1999. Se consideraron casos a 49 mujeres que al finalizar el embarazo aceptaron la realización de salpingoclasia, 23 pacientes que rechazaron este procedimiento conformaron los controles. En cada paciente se investigaron antecedentes demográficos, historia sexual y reproductiva y condiciones relacionadas con la infección por el VIH. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, las variables categóricas se compararon con ji² o prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas con t de Student, se hizo cálculo de razón de momios (RM, con intervalo de confianza al 95% y se realizó análisis estratificado mediante ji² de Mantel Haenszel para variables potencialmente confusoras. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio de las pacientes seropositivas fue de 25.5 ± 5.5 años. Estas ingresaron al hospital con una mediana de 27 semanas de gestación (intervalo de 7 a 40 semanas; 16 (22.2% no tuvieron control prenatal en el INPer. La mediana de tiempo de conocerse infectadas fue de nueve meses (intervalo 1 a 108. Las variables que se asociaron con la aceptación de salpingoclasia fueron: el antecedente de hijos previos, con una RM de 11.1 (IC 95% 3.4 a 36; la atención a partir del año de 1995, con una RM de 4.7 (IC 95% 1.7 a 13.3 y el tener cuando menos un hijo previo infectado, con una RM de 4.6 (IC 95% 1.1 a 23.1. El análisis estratificado no mostró modificación en la fuerza de asociación de estas variables con la aceptación de salpingoclasia. CONCLUSIONES: El tener hijos previos fue el factor que más influyó en la aceptación de salpingoclasia. El texto completo en inglés de este

  13. Aspects of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The QCD factorization approach provides the theoretical basis for a systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes of B mesons in the heavy-quark limit. After recalling the basic ideas underlying this formalism, several tests of QCD factorization in the decays B→D (*) L, B→K * γ, and B→πK, ππ are discussed. It is then illustrated how factorization can be used to obtain new constraints on the parameters of the unitarity triangle

  14. Oversimplifying quantum factoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, John A; Smith, Graeme; Vargo, Alexander

    2013-07-11

    Shor's quantum factoring algorithm exponentially outperforms known classical methods. Previous experimental implementations have used simplifications dependent on knowing the factors in advance. However, as we show here, all composite numbers admit simplification of the algorithm to a circuit equivalent to flipping coins. The difficulty of a particular experiment therefore depends on the level of simplification chosen, not the size of the number factored. Valid implementations should not make use of the answer sought.

  15. Intervening factors for the initiation of treatment of patients with stomach and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Thaína Dalla; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2017-05-15

    to identify the time between symptoms, the request for care and the beginning of treatment in patients with stomach and colorectal cancer as well as the factors that interfere in these processes. correlational descriptive study, including 101 patients diagnosed with stomach or colorectal cancer, treated in a hospital specialized in oncology. the 101 patients investigated there was predominance of males, mean age of 61.7 years. The search for medical care occurred within 30 days after the onset of symptoms, in most cases. The mean total time between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of treatment ranged from 15 to 16 months, and the mean time between the search for medical care and the diagnosis was 4.78 months. The family history of cancer (p=0.008) and the implementation of preventive follow-up (pel tiempo entre los síntomas, la búsqueda de asistencia y el inicio del tratamiento en pacientes con cáncer gástrico y colorrectal y los factores que interfieren en estos procesos. estudio descriptivo correlacional, incluyendo 101 pacientes con diagnostico de cáncer gástrico o colorrectal, atendidos en un hospital especializado en oncología. de 101 pacientes investigados la mayoria eran hombres, con edad media de 61,7 años. La búsqueda de la atención médica se produjo dentro de los 30 días después de la aparición de los síntomas, en la mayoría de los casos. El promedio de tiempo total entre el inicio de los síntomas y el inicio del tratamiento fue de 15,16 meses y el tiempo medio entre la búsqueda de la atención médica y el diagnóstico fue de 4,78 meses. La historia familiar de cáncer (p=0,008) y la realización de seguimiento preventivo (pel tratamiento temprano. Náuseas, vómitos, hematoquecia, pérdida de peso y dolor se asociaron con la búsqueda más rápida de la asistencia. el intervalo más largo entre la búsqueda de la atención médica y el diagnóstico se produjo posiblemente por asociación negativa entre los síntomas que se

  16. Factores de riesgo ambientales y alimentarios para la fluorosis dental, Andes, Antioquia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Posada-Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar los factores ambientales y alimentarios asociados a la fluorosis dental en la población de 12 a 15 años del municipio de Andes en el año 2015, para generar propuestas de intervención en salud bucal. Metodología: estudio de casos y controles, con un control por caso. Con una población de 206 adolescentes de 12 a 15 años. Criterios de selección: adolescentes con diagnóstico de fluorosis dental entre 2012 y 2014, reportados al Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica; se excluyeron aquellas personas que no tuvieran dientes erupcionados en más de un 50%, restauraciones amplias o caries extensas, dientes fracturados y edentulos totales. Los casos fueron seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple, los controles a conveniencia. Se realizó examen clínico para clasificar según el Índice de Dean la presencia y nivel de fluorosis dental, se aplicó encuesta a los padres para indagar sobre hábitos de autocuidado, e identificar posibles fuentes de exposición a flúor. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, alimentarias y comportamentales, ambientales y clínicas, se utilizaron Chi2 de Pearson – or con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Se efectúo análisis de contenido de concentración de flúor en muestras de agroquímicos, alimentos, agua de consumo humano, sal, cremas dentales y suelos. Resultados: mediante regresión logística binaria usando el método stepwise los resultados mostraron una asociación entre manipulación de agroquímicos y fluorosis dental (or = 2,093; 95% 1,017 y 4,307. Conclusión: la manipulación de agroquímicos es un factor de riesgo para la aparición de la fluorosis dental en los adolescentes del municipio de Andes.

  17. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuesca R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of human Hageman factor (factor XII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Ratnoff, O.D.; Pensky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A specific, sensitive, and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human Hageman factor (HF, factor XII) has been developed with purified human HF and monospecific rabbit antibody. Precise measurements of HF antigen were possible for concentrations as low as 0.1 percent of that in normal pooled plasma. A good correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.82) existed between the titers of HF measured by clot-promoting assays and radioimmunoassays among 42 normal adults. Confirming earlier studies, HF antigen was absent in Hageman trait plasma, but other congenital deficient plasmas, including those of individuals with Fletcher trait and Fitzgerald trait, contained normal amounts of HF antigen. HF antigen was reduced in the plasmas of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation or advanced liver cirrhosis, but it was normal in those of patients with chronic renal failure or patients under treatment with warfarin. HF antigen was detected by this assay in plasmas of primates, but not detectable in plasmas of 11 nonprimate mammalian and one avian species

  19. Alteraciones osteomusculares asociadas a factores físicos y ambientales en estudiantes de odontología Musculoskeletal alterations associated factors physical and environmental in dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntzo Fals Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las alteraciones osteomusculares y su asociación con factores físicos y ambientales en estudiantes de odontología. MÉTODOS: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Se realizó muestreo aleatorio simple por fijación proporcional de acuerdo al ciclo académico cursado, seleccionado una muestra de 182 estudiantes. La recolección de la información de las exposiciones físicas, ambientales relacionadas con la práctica clínica odontológica y diferentes a estas fueron valoradas mediante un cuestionario validado tipo encuesta estructurada. La valoración muscular se realizó mediante un análisis visual con el Scan-test. Para los factores relacionados con la posición de trabajo, se utilizó el instrumento RULA. Para el análisis bivariable se utilizaron las razones de disparidad con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Para el análisis multivariable se utilizó la regresión logística nominal. RESULTADOS: El 58,2% de los estudiantes presentaron dolor a la palpación en trapecio superior y el 45,6% en zona cervical. En los movimientos de lateralidad cervical se encontró dolor en un 35,7%, junto con el de flexión cervical en 35,1%. La prevalencia de dolor estuvo relacionada con factores propios de la práctica clínica odontológica y no hubo relación con otros factores externos. CONCLUSIONES: La aparición de dolor muscular en esta población está influida por múltiples variables, la mayoría de éstas, relacionadas con la práctica odontológica de los estudiantes, las cuales al interactuar entre sí pueden desencadenar sintomatología a nivel de espalda y cuello.OBJECTIVE: To describe the musculoskeletal disorders and association with physical and environmental in students of Dentistry. METHODS: Cross sectional study. Simple random sampling was conducted obtaining a proportional sample of 182 students per semester. Collecting information from physical and environmental exposures related to different clinical practice

  20. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  1. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  2. Respirator field performance factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; DeField, J.D.; Strandberg, S.W.; Sutcliffe, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Industrial Hygiene Group assisted OSHA and the NRC in measurements of respirator performance under field conditions. They reviewed problems associated with sampling aerosols within the respirator in order to determine fit factors (FFs) or field performance factor (FPF). In addition, they designed an environmental chamber study to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on a respirator wearer

  3. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  4. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados con el intento suicida y criterios sobre lo ocurrido en adolescentes Risk factors associated with the suicide attempt and the criteria on it happened in the adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cortés Alfaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las tentativas de suicidio se han incrementado considerablemente antes de los 20 años en las últimas décadas. Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con los intentos suicidas en adolescentes de 10 a 19 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico (casos controles pareados de los adolescentes que tuvieron intento de suicidio en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante el segundo semestre de 2007. Se calcularon porcentajes y medias aritméticas, para identificar asociación se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado de Mantel y Haenszel y cálculo de odds ratio, sus intervalos de confianza y significación para a= 0,05. Resultados: se identificó asociación con el intento de suicidio de las variables siguientes: deseos de hacerse daño, elaboración de planes anteriores para cometer dicho acto, presencia de desesperanza, maltrato físico, disputa, desconfianza y malas relaciones con los padres, antecedentes familiares de suicidio y enfermedad psiquiátrica, sentirse atormentado, y problemas con la pareja, entre otros. Se encontró que un 9,0 % de los adolescentes estudiados manifestaron no arrepentimiento o sin crítica de lo ocurrido. Conclusiones: existieron factores personales y familiares asociados con los intentos de suicidio, así como un alto porcentaje de adolescentes que intentaron suicidarse con crítica o arrepentimiento de lo ocurrido.Introduction: suicide attempts have increased before the twenties in past decades. Objectives: to identify the risk factors associated with the suicide attempts in adolescents aged 10-19. Methods: an analytical study (matched case-controls was conducted in adolescents with a suicide attempt in the Cienfuegos province during the second semester of 2007. The percentages and arithmetic means were estimated to identify the association we used the Mantel-Haenszel Chi2 test and the odds-ratio calculus, its confidence and signification interval (IC for a= 0,05. Results: the

  6. Factores de riesgo que influyen en el retardo del brote de la dentición temporal.: Policlínico "Turcios Lima", 2000-2003 Risk factors influencing the primary dentition eruption retardation. "Turcios Lima" polyclinics, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Rosa Podadera Valdés

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de casos y controles en el área de salud del Policlínico "Turcios Lima" en el período comprendido entre julio de 2000 y julio de 2003, con el objetivo de identificar los factores de riesgo que influyen en el retardo del brote de la dentición temporal. El universo estuvo constituido por 1454 niños, de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra aleatoria de 93 niños. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante porcentajes, la prueba Chi cuadrado y el cálculo de los odds ratio con sus intervalos de confianza. Se observó que el estado nutricional anormal al inicio del embarazo, las enfermedades asociadas con este, la inadecuada ganancia de peso de la madre y el desarrollo físico del niño, constituyeron los factores que más influyeron en la problemática estudiada. Se concluye que existe una significativa influencia del estado nutricional de la madre y del niño en el retardo del brote de su dentición temporal.An analytical case-control study was carried out in "Turcios Lima" polyclinics from July, 2000 to July, 2003, to identify the risk factors influencing primary dentition eruption retardation. The universe was formed by 1 454 children from whom a random sample of 93 children was taken. The statistical analysis was based on Chi-square test and calculation of percentages and odds ratios with confidence intervals. It was observed that poor nutritional status at the beginning of pregnancy, pregnancy-related diseases, inadequate weight gain by the mother and the physical development of the infant were the most influential factors. It was concluded that there is significant influence of the nutritional status of the child and the mother on primary dentition eruption retardation.

  7. Factores de riesgo socioeconómicos de la tuberculosis pulmonar en el municipio de Santiago de Cuba Social and economic risk factors of the lung tuberculosis in Santiago de Cuba municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Lozano Salazar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles (con 12 integrantes en cada grupo sobre los principales factores de riesgo socioeconómicos de la tuberculosis pulmonar en la población de 15 y más años del municipio de Santiago de Cuba durante el 2005. Las variables de interés analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, escolaridad, ocupación, per cápita familiar, condiciones de la vivienda, hacinamiento, evaluación nutricional, hábito de fumar y alcoholismo. Se determinaron la asociación entre variables cualitativas mediante la prueba estadística de Ji al cuadrado, la fuerza de asociación a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza al 95 %, así como el impacto de la exposición por medio del riesgo atribuible porcentual. Los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos asociados causalmente con la tuberculosis pulmonar resultaron ser: el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, la evaluación nutricional con un índice de masa corporal de ≤19,9 y la exposición al tabaco.A case-control study (12 people in each group on main social and economic risk factors of the lung tuberculosis was carried out in the population aged 15 and over of Santiago de Cuba municipality during 2005. The analyzed variables of interest were age, sex, educational status, occupation, family income, and housing conditions, overcrowding, nutritional evaluation, smoking habit and alcoholism. Association among qualitative variables by means of the chi-square test, association strength through the odds ratio and estimate of 95 % confidence intervals were determined, as well as the exposure impact by means of the percentage attributable risk. The social and economic risk factors causally associated with the lung tuberculosis were consumption of alcoholic drinks, nutritional evaluation with a 19,9 body mass index and exposure to the cigar.

  8. Factores de riesgo socioeconómicos de la tuberculosis pulmonar en el municipio de Santiago de Cuba Social and economic risk factors of the lung tuberculosis in Santiago de Cuba municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Lozano Salazar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles (con 12 integrantes en cada grupo sobre los principales factores de riesgo socioeconómicos de la tuberculosis pulmonar en la población de 15 y más años del municipio de Santiago de Cuba durante el 2005. Las variables de interés analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, escolaridad, ocupación, per cápita familiar, condiciones de la vivienda, hacinamiento, evaluación nutricional, hábito de fumar y alcoholismo. Se determinaron la asociación entre variables cualitativas mediante la prueba estadística de Ji al cuadrado, la fuerza de asociación a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza al 95 %, así como el impacto de la exposición por medio del riesgo atribuible porcentual. Los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos asociados causalmente con la tuberculosis pulmonar resultaron ser: el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, la evaluación nutricional con un índice de masa corporal de ≤19,9 y la exposición al tabaco.A case-control study (12 people in each group on main social and economic risk factors of the lung tuberculosis was carried out in the population aged 15 and over of Santiago de Cuba municipality during 2005. The analyzed variables of interest were age, sex, educational status, occupation, family income, and housing conditions, overcrowding, nutritional evaluation, smoking habit and alcoholism. Association among qualitative variables by means of the chi-square test, association strength through the odds ratio and estimate of 95 % confidence intervals were determined, as well as the exposure impact by means of the percentage attributable risk. The social and economic risk factors causally associated with the lung tuberculosis were consumption of alcoholic drinks, nutritional evaluation with a 19,9 body mass index and exposure to the cigar.

  9. Factores asociados a la no adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad en adultos infectados con el VIH-sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Alvis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La no adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (Targa es la principal causa de fracaso terapéutico. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la no adherencia al Targa en adultos infectados con el VIH-sida. Diseño: Estudio transversal. Institución: Servicio de Infectología, Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. Participantes: Pacientes infectados con el VIH que se encontraban recibiendo tratamiento antirretroviral. Intervenciones: A pacientes infectados con el VIH que se encontraban recibiendo tratamiento antirretroviral en el hospital, se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado, elaborado en función a instrumentos que evalúan la adherencia y factores asociados. Para determinar la asociación, se empleó las pruebas de chi cuadrado y t de student, se estableció un nivel de significación estadística p<0,05, y para calcular el riesgo se utilizó el OR, con intervalos de confianza de 95%. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística. Principales medidas de resultados: No adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad. Resultados: Se encuestó 465 personas; la edad promedio fue 36,8±9,1 años; 64,1% era varón. El 35,9% de los encuestados resultó ser no adherente. Los factores independientemente asociados a la no adherencia fueron: ser homosexual/bisexual (OR: 3,85, IC95% 1,98 a 7,51, tener una baja calidad de vida relacionada a la salud (OR: 6,22, IC95% 3,47 a 11,13, poco apoyo social (OR: 5,41, IC95% 3,17 a 9,22, no tener domicilio fijo (OR 3,34, IC95% 1,93 a 5,79, tener morbilidad psíquica (OR 2,93, IC95% 1,78 a 4,82 y tener mayor tiempo en tratamiento (OR 1,04, IC95% 1,02 a 1,07. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de no adherencia fue mayor a la reportada previamente en este mismo hospital, pero similar a la encontrada en diferentes estudios, pese a la heterogeneidad de los mismos. Los factores de tipo psicosocial fueron los que influyeron de forma más importante en la

  10. OPTIMAL SELECTION OF THE CA-CFAR ADJUSTMENT FACTOR FOR K POWER SEA CLUTTER WITH STATISTICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la señal interferente de clutter marino establece limitaciones en la calidad de la detección de radar en ambientes costeros y de alta mar. El procesador CA-CFAR es la solución clásica para detectar blancos de radar. Usualmente mantiene su factor de ajuste constante todo el período de operación. Como consecuencia, el esquema no toma en consideración las variaciones estadísticas de la señal de fondo cuando realiza la discriminación del clutter . Para resolver este problema, los autores realizaron un procesamiento intensivo de 40 millones de muestras de clutter de intensidad, generadas en computadora a través de MATLAB. Como resultado, encontraron los valores óptimos del factor de ajuste a ser aplicados para 40 posibles estados estadísticos del clutter , sugiriendo el uso de la arquitectura CA-CFAR con un factor de ajuste variable. Adicionalmente, fue llevado a cabo un ajuste de curvas, obteniéndose expresiones matemáticas que generalizan los resultados en todo el intervalo de considerado de estados estadísticos del clutter . Los experimentos se ejecutaron con un CA-CFAR de 64 celdas y apuntaron a encontrar los valores del factor de ajuste para tres probabilidades de falsa alarma comunes. La distribución K fue elegida como el modelo usado para el clutter , gracias a su amplia popularidad. Este artículo facilita el manejo de la distribución K de intensidad, evitando el uso de funciones Gamma y Bessel, comúnmente encontradas en desarrollos relacionados con el modelo K. Además, fueron cumplidos los requerimientos necesarios para construir un detector adaptativo en clutter de potencia K con conocimiento previo del parámetro de forma. Al mismo tiempo, fueron dadas varias recomendaciones para continuar el desarrollo de una solución más general que también incluirá la estimación del parámetro de forma.

  11. Two-factor authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Stanislav, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the book, readers will learn about the various technical methods by which two-factor authentication is implemented, security concerns with each type of implementation, and contextual details to frame why and when these technologies should be used. Readers will also be provided with insight about the reasons that two-factor authentication is a critical security control, events in history that have been important to prove why organization and individual would want to use two factor, and core milestones in the progress of growing the market.

  12. Business Intelligence Success Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardboe, Rikke; Jonasen, Tanja Svarre

    2018-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) is a strategically important practice in many organizations. Several studies have investigated the factors that contribute to BI success; however, an overview of the critical success factors (CSFs) involved is lacking in the extant literature. We have integrated...... 34 CSFs related to BI success. The distinct CSFs identified in the extant literature relate to project management skills (13 papers), management support (20 papers), and user involvement (11 papers). In the articles with operationalized BI success, we found several distinct factors: system quality...

  13. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  14. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  15. Development and reliability of an instrument to measure psychosocial determinants of salt consumption among hypertensive patients Desarrollo y confiabilidad de un instrumento para medir los factores psicosociales determinantes en el consumo de sal entre hipertensos Desenvolvimento e confiabilidade de instrumento para mensuração dos fatores psicossociais determinantes do consumo de sal entre hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Estevam Cornélio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present the content validity and reliability analyses of an instrument to study the determinant factors of salt consumption among hypertensive subjects, based on an extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Content validity was assessed by 3 experts and a pre-test was carried out with 5 subjects. The final tool, comprising 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption and corresponding psychosocial variables, was applied to 32 subjects for internal consistency and temporal stability (15-day interval analysis. Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.70 and significant intra-class correlation coefficients were observed for most variables, indicating the temporal stability of the measured concepts. The developed instrument exhibited evidence of both content validity and reliability.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar el análisis de validez de contenido y de confiabilidad de un instrumento para estudiar los factores determinantes del consumo de sodio entre hipertensos, basado en la extensión de la Teoría del Comportamiento Planificado. El instrumento fue sometido a validez de contenido por 3 jueces y a una prueba piloto con 5 sujetos. El instrumento final, compuesto por 3 comportamientos relacionados al consumo de la sal y por las variables psicosociales correspondientes, fue aplicado a 32 sujetos para evaluación de la consistencia interna y de la estabilidad temporal (intervalo de 15 días. Fueron observados coeficientes alfa de Cronbach>0,70 para la mayoría de las variables y coeficientes de correlación entra clases significativas, que apuntaron la estabilidad temporal de los conceptos mensurados. El instrumento desarrollado mostró evidencias de validez de contenido y de confiabilidad.Este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar a análise da validade de conteúdo e da confiabilidade de um instrumento para estudo dos fatores determinantes do consumo de sódio entre hipertensos, baseado na extensão da Teoria do

  16. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  17. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm Factor V deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Rheumatoid factor (RF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003548.htm Rheumatoid factor (RF) To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Factor X deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000553.htm Factor X deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. New microbial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  7. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  8. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  9. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  10. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  11. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  12. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  13. Los factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Senado Dumoy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el fundamento filosófico de los conceptos de la Dialéctica Materialista, se presenta un análisis en relación con el concepto e interpretación de los Factores de Riesgo.A analysis on the concept and interpretation of risk factors is presented based on the philosophical foundation of the concepts of materialist dialectics.

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  15. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  16. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  17. Factorization and pion form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of the pion electromagnetic form factor (EMFF) in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is discussed. Pion is considered to be a quark-antiquark bound state. It is proposed to use an OPE description of the bound state structure by matrix elements of certain local gauge-invariant operators. Short-distance quark interactions is proved using a direct analysis of perturbation theory in the α-parametric representation of the Feynman diagrams. It is shown that the short-distance parton picture privides a self-consistent description of the large Q 2 momentum behaviour of the pion EMFF in QCD. Pion EMFF asymptotics is expressed in terms of fu fundamental constants of the theory

  18. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  19. Prevalence of fatigue and associated factors in chronic low back pain patients Prevalencia y factores asociados con la fatiga en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico Prevalência de fadiga e fatores relacionados em pacientes com dor lombar crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Góes Salvetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence and key factors associated with fatigue in chronic low back pain patients. METHODS: cross-sectional study of 215 chronic low back pain patients from three health care centers and two industrial corporations. The crude prevalence of fatigue and its 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Associations between fatigue and the independent variables were measured. RESULTS: the prevalence of fatigue among the participants was 26.0% [95% CI: 20.3 - 32.5]. Fatigue was independently associated with depression and self-efficacy. An increase of one unit in the score of depression increased the risk of fatigue by 9%; an increase of one unit in the score of self-efficacy reduced the risk of fatigue by 2%. CONCLUSIONS: fatigue was prevalent in chronic low back pain patients and associated with depression and self-efficacy. Knowing these factors can direct strategies for prevention and control of fatigue in chronic low back pain patients.OBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia y factores asociados con la fatiga en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 215 pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico en tres servicios de salud y dos industrias. La prevalencia de la fatiga y su intervalo de confianza (IC se calcularon. Las asociaciones entre variables independientes y la fatiga se calcularon. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de la fatiga en los pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico fue del 26% [20,3 a 32,5, IC 95%]. La fatiga se asocia con la depresión y la autoeficacia. El aumento de un punto en la puntuación de depresión aumentó un 9% el riesgo de fatiga y un aumento de un punto en la auto-eficacia reduce el riesgo de la fatiga en el 2%. CONCLUSIONES: La fatiga es frecuente en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico y se asocia con la depresión y la autoeficacia. Conocer estos factores puede dirigir las estrategias de prevención y control de la fatiga en pacientes con dolor lumbar cr

  20. Frecuentación del servicio de urgencias y factores sociodemográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La utilización por parte de la población de los recursos sanitarios se encuentra relacionada con los niveles de salud y con factores socioeconómicos. Los grupos de población con menor nivel socioeconómico tienen una mayor utilización de determinados recursos sanitarios; los servicios de urgencia podrían presentar un uso diferencial entre los distintos grupos de población. El presente estudio pretende identificar diferencias en el uso de los recursos de atención urgente entre grupos con diferentes características socioeconómicas. Material y métodos: Se realiza un estudio poblacional, en el que mediante el agrupamiento de las secciones censales de la ciudad de Santander, según variables sociodemográficas (edad, nivel de formación y nivel de empleo, se establecen áreas de la ciudad con similares características, mediante análisis de clusters. Se identifica el origen de los pacientes que consultan en el Servicio de Urgencias Hospitalarias (SUH del Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, y se calcula la tasa de demanda para cada una de las áreas sociodemográficas. Resultados: El análisis de clusters es capaz de identificar cuatro agrupaciones de diferentes características socioeconómicas que se ajustan a barrios de la ciudad de Santander. Se aprecia una mayor utilización del SUH en los grupos sociales más desfavorecidos y de mayor edad media (odds ratio [OR] = 1,91; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95% 1,73-2,1 de la agrupación 1 con respecto a la 4. La proporción de ingresos es superior en las agrupaciones más favorecidas, mientras que el número de usuarios que realizan visitas repetidas proceden de agrupaciones con menor nivel socioeconómico. Conclusión: La utilización del SUH está condicionada por las características sociodemográficas del área de residencia, identificándose mayor uso entre los grupos de más bajo nivel socioeconómico.

  1. Is tumor necrosis factor - 376a promoter polymorphism associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis? ¿El polimorfismo-376A del promotor del gen del factor de necrosis tumoral se asocia con una mayor susceptibilidad a padecer esclerosis múltiple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Kauffman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position -376 of the tumor necrosis factor á gene (TNFA has been associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in Spain. However, no association was found in populations from the USA and The Netherlands. Here we investigate the association between the TNFA - 376A SNP and MS susceptibility in Argentinean patients with MS. The A/G genotype was found in 4.4% of patients (n=90 and in 4.8% of healthy individuals (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; confidence interval: 0.23- 3.84. Thus, no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies were found between healthy individuals and patients with MS in Argentina.Un polimorfismo de nucleótido único (SNP, por sus iniciales en inglés en la posición -376 del gen codificante del factor de necrosis tumoral á (TNFA ha sido asociado en España con un mayor riesgo a padecer esclerosis múltiple (EM. Sin embargo, esta asociación no fue encontrada en estudios hechos en poblaciones provenientes de los EE.UU. y Holanda. Aquí investigamos la asociación entre el SNP TNFA -376A y el desarrollo de EM en una población de pacientes argentinos con EM. El genotipo A/G fue encontrado en 4.4% de los pacientes (n=90 y en 4.8% de los controles sanos (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; intervalo de confianza: 0.23-3.84. En consecuencia, no encontramos diferencias en las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas entre los sujetos enfermos y los controles sanos en Argentina.

  2. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  3. factores psicosociales asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Varela Arévalo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas [SPA] ilegales en jóvenes y los factores psicosociales de riesgo y de protección asociados. Participaron 763 estudiantes (46,5% hombres y 52,4% mujeres de una universidad privada de Cali, quienes diligenciaron el cuestionario de factores de riesgo y protección para el consumo de drogas. Los resultados muestran que la marihuana fue la droga de mayor consumo; y que existe una fuerte asociación entre el consumo de las cuatro SPA ilegales (marihuana, opiáceos, cocaína y éxtasis y los factores psicosociales de riesgo y/o protección, principalmente, las habilidades de autocontrol, los preconceptos y valoración de las SPA, la relación con personas consumidoras y los comportamientos perturbadores.

  4. Multi-factor authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  5. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  7. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  8. WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  9. On braid monodromy factorizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, V M; Kulikov, Vik S

    2003-01-01

    We introduce and develop a language of semigroups over the braid groups to study the braid monodromy factorizations (bmf's) of plane algebraic curves and other related objects. As an application, we give a new proof of Orevkov's theorem on the realization of bmf's over a disc by algebraic curves and show that the complexity of such a realization cannot be bounded in terms of the types of factors of the bmf. We also prove that the type of a bmf distinguishes Hurwitz curves with singularities of inseparable type up to H-isotopy and J-holomorphic cuspidal curves in CP 2 up to symplectic isotopy

  10. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  11. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  12. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  13. Factor analysis and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Penel, C.; Bazin, J.P.; Berche, C.

    1976-01-01

    The goal of factor analysis is usually to achieve reduction of a large set of data, extracting essential features without previous hypothesis. Due to the development of computerized systems, the use of largest sampling, the possibility of sequential data acquisition and the increase of dynamic studies, the problem of data compression can be encountered now in routine. Thus, results obtained for compression of scintigraphic images were first presented. Then possibilities given by factor analysis for scan processing were discussed. At last, use of this analysis for multidimensional studies and specially dynamic studies were considered for compression and processing [fr

  14. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  15. Factorizations and physical representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzen, M; Khanna, F C; Mann, A; Zak, J

    2006-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the decomposition of M into prime numbers. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (Zak J 1970 Phys. Today 23 51), and related representations termed q 1 q 2 representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter representation each quantum number varies in a subspace that is associated with one of the prime numbers that make up M

  16. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  17. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  18. Prevalencia y factores asociados a la ideación e intento suicida en adolescentes de educación media superior de la República Mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Pérez- Amezcua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar prevalencias y factores asociados a la ideación e intento suicida en estudiantes adolescentes de México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal en 12424 adolescentes de escuelas públicas en 2007. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística para obtener razones de momios (RM con intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC 95%. Resultados. 47% reportó al menos un síntoma de ideación; 9% refirieron antecedente de intento. Los factores asociados a la conducta suicida fueron: poca confianza en la comunicación hacia los padres (RM=1.30, RM=1.54; abuso sexual (RM=1.92, RM=1.57, sintomatología depresiva (RM=5.36, RM=1.51, consumo de tabaco (RM=1.30, RM=2.57, alcohol (RM=1.60, RM=1.31 y, para las mujeres, haber tenido relaciones sexuales (RM=1.28, RM=1.65. Conclusión. Casi la mitad de los(as estudiantes del nivel medio superior presentaron al menos un síntoma de ideación. Para disminuir esta problemática se deben considerar los factores asociados: el consumo de sustancias adictivas, género, antecedentes de abuso sexual y depresión.Objective. To identify the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal ideation and intent in adolescent students in Mexico. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 12 424 students from public schools in 2007. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals. Results. A total of 47% of the students reported at least one suicidal ideation symptom and 9% reported an antecedent of suicidal intent. Factors associated with suicide ideation and intent include low confidence in communication with parents (OR=1.30; OR=1.54, sexual abuse (OR=1.92; OR=1.57, depressive symptoms (OR=5.36; OR=1.51, tobacco use (OR=1.30; OR=2.57, alcohol use (OR=1.60; OR=1.31 and, for women, having had sexual relations (OR=1.28; OR=1.65. Conclusions. Roughly 50% of high school students had at least one symptom of suicidal ideation. To lessen this

  19. Environmental factors and leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, L

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the association between environmental hazards and the development of various types of leukaemia are reviewed. Regarding acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-documented risk factor. According to several recent studies exposure to strong electromagnetic fields may be suspected to be of etiologic importance for ANLL. There is evidence that occupational handling of benzene is a risk factor and other organic solvents may also be leukaemogenic. Occupational exposure to petrol products has been proposed to be a risk factor although the hazardous substances have not yet been defined. Results of cytogenetic studies in ANLL suggest that exposure to certain environmental agents may be associated with relatively specific clonal chromosome aberrations. Exposure in utero to ionizing radiation has been proposed to be a risk factor for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Unlike ANLL there seems at present to be little evidence that ALL is related to exposure to some chemicals. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) may follow exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation whereas such exposure seems to be of insignificant importance for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). According to some studies an abnormally high incidence of CLL may be found among farmers in the USA. These results have not been confirmed in Scandinavian studies. There seems to be little evidence that CML or CLL are related to occupational handling of some chemicals. 35 references.

  20. Hyperglycemia: a prothrombotic factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemkes, B. A.; Hermanides, J.; DeVries, J. H.; Holleman, F.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a high risk of atherothrombotic events. What is more, venous thrombosis has also been found to occur more frequently in this patient group. This prothrombotic condition in diabetes is underpinned by laboratory findings of elevated coagulation factors and

  1. Thermal disadvantage factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, K.M.S.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described where reactor cell flux and the disadvantage factor are calculated by using diffusion theory in the moderator and integral transport in the fuel. The method is efficient (noniterative) and provides results that agree well with Monte Carlo, P 5 and ABH results

  2. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 23

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Systemic phosphate homeostasis is maintained through several hormonal mechanisms which involve fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), α-klotho, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. FGF-23 is known to be the major regulator of phosphate balance (Mirams et al., 2004). FGF-23 is a phosphaturic hormone, which is.

  4. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  5. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  6. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  7. Prognostic factors in oligodendrogliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1997-01-01

    An outcome analysis was performed on 96 patients with pure cerebral oligodendrogliomas operated in the 30-year period 1962 to 1991. The most important predictive prognostic factors were youth and no neurological deficit, demonstrated as a median survival for the group younger than 20 years of 17...

  8. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  9. Factores socioacadémicos, estilo de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo de médicos internos de pregrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Padierna-Luna

    Full Text Available Introducción. El aprendizaje es una actividad compleja, en la que intervienen factores individuales, sociales-culturales y académicos. Objetivo. Describir factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo (promedio de los médicos internos de pregrado (MIP. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta transversal analítica a MIP aplicando tres cuestionarios: datos socioacadémicos, cuestionario CHAEA (estilos de aprendizaje y test de Raven para adultos (nivel intelectual. La muestra incluyó 174 alumnos procedentes de nueve universidades, tres privadas (n = 43; 24,7% y seis públicas (n = 131; 75,29%. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión múltiple para establecer asociaciones entre variables. Resultados y conclusiones. Predominó el género femenino, con el 59,2% (n = 103, frente al masculino, con el 40,8% (n = 71. El promedio de edad fue de 23,63 años, con un rango de 21 a 33. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en el rendimiento previo (8,21 frente a 8,25. Se midió la relación entre los factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje y nivel intelectual con el rendimiento académico, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De los datos socioacadémicos, sólo la edad se relaciona inversamente con el rendimiento, con r = 0,2 y p < 0,001. El estilo de aprendizaje no guarda ninguna relación con el rendimiento. El nivel intelectual se relaciona significativamente con el rendimiento (p < 0,001.

  10. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  11. Electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors, in first approximation, are sensitive to spatial distribution of nucleons and to their current. In second approximation, more precise effects are concerned, whose role is increasing with momentum transfer and participating essentially of short range nuclei description. They concern of course the nucleon-nucleon interaction while approaching each other and keeping their free-state identity, but also mutually polarizing one the other. In this last effect, radial and orbital excitations of nucleon, the nucleon mesonic cloud modification and the nucleon antinucleon pair excitation are included. In this paper, these contributions are discussed while trying to find the important elements for a good description of form factors. Current questions are also discussed. Light nuclei are essentially concerned [fr

  12. Researching organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses feedback and insights from experience (both successful and unsuccessful) with the past and the ongoing organizational factors research. That experience suggests a leading set of ingredients that appear proper for performing regulatory research on organizational processes. By keeping focused upon these proper ingredients, the research will contribute to the regulatory assessments of utility management through the use of improved methods and measures in investigations, inspections, diagnostics, performance indicators, and PRA insights. This paper is organized into (1) an introductory description of what the agency is doing to assess organizational effectiveness, (2) some insights from past and ongoing research, (3) an opinion on a leading set of ingredients to properly research organizational factors, and (4) a summary

  13. On braid monodromy factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France); Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-30

    We introduce and develop a language of semigroups over the braid groups to study the braid monodromy factorizations (bmf's) of plane algebraic curves and other related objects. As an application, we give a new proof of Orevkov's theorem on the realization of bmf's over a disc by algebraic curves and show that the complexity of such a realization cannot be bounded in terms of the types of factors of the bmf. We also prove that the type of a bmf distinguishes Hurwitz curves with singularities of inseparable type up to H-isotopy and J-holomorphic cuspidal curves in CP{sup 2} up to symplectic isotopy.

  14. Factors in Agile Methods Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the process of adopting Agile methods during software developing. This paper illustrates the critical factors in Agile methods adoption in software organizations. To present the success and failure factors, an exploratory study is carried out among the critical factors of success and failure from existing studies. Dimensions and Factors are introduced utilizing success and failure dimensions. The mind map was used to clarify these factors.

  15. FACTORES ASOCIADOS A SÍNDROME DE ASPIRACIÓN MECONIAL EN EL HOSPITAL JOSÉ CAYETANO HEREDIA PIURA-PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson David Purizaca Rosillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los principales factores de riesgo en recién nacidos asociados a la presencia de síndrome de aspiración meconial (SAM. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles realizado en el Hospital José Cayetano Heredia EsSALUD - Piura. La población estuvo conformada por el registro de las historias clínicas de los años 2009-2011. Se definió como caso a los recién nacidos con diagnóstico de SAM y como controles a los 3 recién nacidos siguientes inmediatos al caso que hayan presentado líquido amniótico meconial en el parto. Las variables consideradas fueron las características del líquido meconial, datos del recién nacido (género, peso al nacer, edad gestacional, apgar al minuto y frecuencia cardiaca, datos del parto(tipo de parto, presencia de patología obstétrica y datos de la madre(edad, paridad y grado de instrucción. Se utilizó el OR con un intervalo de confianza del 95% para la medición de riesgo, se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el software SPSS 18.0. Resultados: Las variables con significancia estadística asociados a SAM fueron: presencia de líquido amniótico meconial espeso (OR=12, IC95% 3.91 - 36.83, Apgar 4 (OR=6.18, IC95% 1.34-28.48. Conclusión: Los factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de SAM fueron: líquido meconial espeso, Apgar 4. Se recomienda un mayor registro de todos los datos no sólo del recién nacido, sino también del parto y la madre.

  16. FACTORES ASOCIADOS AL SOBREPESO Y LA OBESIDAD EN ESCOLARES DE 8 A 9 AÑOS DE BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sánchez-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil han aumentado progresivamente en las últimas décadas, especialmente en países del sur de Europa. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la prevalencia de sobrepeso, obesidad y sus determinantes en escolares de 8-9 años de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo de una muestra representativa de 3.262 escolares en 2011. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC siguiendo los criterios establecidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (z-scores. Se estudiaron variables sobre conducta alimentaria, actividad física y uso de nuevas tecnologías mediante 2 cuestionarios. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística, obteniendo odds ratio ajustadas e intervalos de confianza (95%. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue del 24,0% y de obesidad del 12,7%. La obesidad fue significativamente mayor en niños que en niñas (14,8% vs. 10,8%. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas según IMC en el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de práctica de actividad física ni uso de nuevas tecnologías. Los factores asociados a la obesidad en niños fueron asistir a escuela situada en barrios de nivel socioeconómico desfavorable [ORa=1,88 (1,35-2,63], pertenecer a familia inmigrante [ORa=1,57 (1,12- 2,20], no comer en el colegio [ORa=1,76 (1,20-2,59] y hacer alguna comida solo [ORa=1,95 (1,27-3,00]. En niñas fueron pertenecer a familia monoparental [ORa=1,58 (1,06-2,34] y familia inmigrante [ORa=1,53 (1,07-2,18]. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de obesidad infantil en Barcelona es alta. Es más frecuente en niños, siendo los determinantes sociales los factores asociados de mayor relevancia.

  17. Estrés psicosocial y baja resiliencia, un factor de riesgo de hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Almada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónEl estrés psicosocial crónico (EPC fue propuesto como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular (FRC; sin embargo, la complejidad y la falta de medidas objetivas para evaluarlo, unidas al hecho de que no todas las personas reaccionan ante él de igual manera, determinaron que en la actualidad no se cuente con estudios concluyentes al respecto.ObjetivosDeterminar si la baja resiliencia (BR frente al EPC se asocia con hipertensión arterial y daño de órgano blanco en pacientes ambulatorios libres de tratamiento que concurren a realizarse un examen periódico de salud y comprobar si esta asociación tiene relación con el patrón de activación neurohormonal.Material y métodosSe realizó un estudio preliminar, observacional transversal, en el que se enrolaron en forma consecutiva 53 individuos, 32 varones y 21 mujeres. Los pacientes completaron dos cuestionarios: uno para medir EPC y el otro, la Escala de Resiliencia de Connor-Davidson. Quedaron divididos en cuatro grupos: 1, sin EPC y con resiliencia normal (RN; 2, sin EPC y con baja resiliencia (BR; 3, con EPC y RN; 4, con EPC y BR.ResultadosEl porcentaje de hipertensos fue superior en el grupo 4 (p < 0,001, como también el de individuos con incremento de la circunferencia de la cintura (ICC (p = 0,05. Si bien los niveles de noradrenalina, cortisol y ácido vanililmandélico fueron ligeramente superiores en el grupo 4, las diferencias no alcanzaron significación estadística. Para determinar si el EPC unido a BR es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial se empleó un modelo de regresión logística, controlado por confundidores; el odds ratio fue de 10,9 con intervalos de confianza del 95%, inferior de 1,8 y superior de 65,2.ConclusionesDatos preliminares sugieren que individuos con EPC unido a BR tienen un riesgo alto para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial.

  18. Factors of academic procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Kranjec, Eva; Košir, Katja; Komidar, Luka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed ...

  19. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  20. Prognostic factors for medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, Derek; Al Shabanah, Mohamed; Al Shail, Essam; Gray, Alan; Hassounah, Maher; Khafaga, Yasser; Kofide, Amani; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Schultz, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prognostic factors for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients with medulloblastoma, treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital (KFSH) from 1988-1997, were reviewed. Eighty-four percent were children less than 15 years old. From 1988-1994, treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. From 1994-1998, patients entered a single-arm best practice protocol in which, in staged patients, the surgical intent was total resection, standard radiation treatment was defined, and adjuvant chemotherapy was given to a 'high-risk' subset. Results: For 150 patients who completed surgical and radiation treatment, the 5-year survival rate was 58%, compared with 0% for 16 patients who were unable to start or complete radiation treatment. For staged patients, the 5-year survival was M0 + M1, 78% and M2 + M3, 21% (p 14 years and gross cystic/necrotic features in the primary tumor. The size of the primary tumor, the degree of hydrocephalus at diagnosis, the presence of residual tumor in the post-operative CT/MRI, and the functional status of the patient prior to radiation treatment were not significant factors. Conclusions: Stage M0 + M1 was the most powerful favorable prognostic factor. In Saudi Arabia more patients present with advanced disseminated disease, 41% M2 + M3, than in the West, and this impacts adversely on overall survival. Total resection and standard radiation treatment were not sensitive prognostic factors in a treatment environment in which 78% of patients underwent at least 90% tumor resection and 60% received standard radiation treatment. In order to improve the proportion of patients able to complete radiation treatment, consideration should be given to limiting resection when the attainment of total resection is likely to be morbid, and to delaying rather than omitting radiation treatment in the patient severely compromised postoperatively

  1. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  2. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  3. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  4. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  5. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  6. Molecular factors in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Marta; Prendecki, Michał; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects 11% of adults worldwide. This disease most likely has a neurovascular origin. Migraine with aura (MA) and more common form - migraine without aura (MO) – are the two main clinical subtypes of disease. The exact pathomechanism of migraine is still unknown, but it is thought that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in this pathological process. The first genetic studies of migraine were focused on the rare subtype of MA: familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). The genes analysed in familial and sporadic migraine are: MTHFR, KCNK18, HCRTR1, SLC6A4, STX1A, GRIA1 and GRIA3. It is possible that migraine is a multifactorial disease with polygenic influence. Recent studies have shown that the pathomechanisms of migraine involves both factors responsible for immune response and oxidative stress such as: cytokines, tyrosine metabolism, homocysteine; and factors associated with pain transmission and emotions e.g.: serotonin, hypocretin-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, glutamate. The correlations between genetic variants of the HCRTR1 gene, the polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and hypocretin-1, and serotonin were observed. It is known that serotonin inhibits the activity of hypocretin neurons and may affect the appearance of the aura during migraine attack. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of migraine, including genotype-phenotype correlations, may contribute to finding markers important for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27191890

  7. Factores de riesgo para el neonato pequeño para la edad gestacional en un hospital de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eduardo Tejeda-Mariaca

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Identificar factores de riesgo para neonatos a término pequeños para la edad gestacional. Materiales y métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva que utilizó datos del Sistema Informático Materno Perinatal del Hospital María Auxiliadora de Lima, del período 2000 a 2010. Se evaluó la edad materna, paridad, nivel educativo, estado civil, índice de masa corporal pregestacional, número de controles prenatales, presencia de patologías como preeclampsia, eclampsia, infección urinaria y diabetes gestacional como factores de riesgo en pequeños para edad gestacional. El peso para la edad gestacional fue calculado sobre la base de percentiles peruanos. Se calcularon los riesgos relativos crudos (RR y ajustados (RRa con sus intervalos de confianza al 95% usando modelos lineales generalizados log binomial. Resultados. Se incluyeron 64 670 gestantes. La incidencia de pequeños para la edad gestacional fue 7,2%. La preeclampsia (RRa 2,0; IC 95%: 1,86-2,15, eclampsia (RRa 3,22; IC 95%: 2,38-4,35, bajo peso materno (RRa 1,38; IC 95%: 1,23-1,54, nuliparidad (RRa 1,32; IC 95%: 1,23-1,42, edad ≥35 años (RRa 1,16; IC 95%: 1,04-1,29, tener controles prenatales de 0 a 2 (RRa 1,43; IC 95%: 1,32-1,55 y 3 a 5 (RRa 1,22; IC 95%: 1,14-1,32 fueron factores de riesgo para ser pequeños para la edad gestacional. Conclusiones. Es necesario identificar a las gestantes con factores de riesgo como los encontrados para disminuir la condición de pequeños para la edad gestacional. Se debe actuar poniendo énfasis en factores modificables, tales como la frecuencia de sus controles prenatales

  8. Prática de futebol e fatores sociodemográficos associados em adolescentes La práctica de fútbol y factores sociodemográficos asociados en adolescentes Soccer practice and associated sociodemographic factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a associação entre a prática de futebol com fatores sociodemográficos em escolares. A amostra foi composta por 906 estudantes de escolas públicas de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil, com média de 15,11 (DP=2,19 anos de idade. Utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson para o cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%. Dos estudantes investigados, 49,1% não praticavam futebol. Os escolares com maiores probabilidades de não praticar futebol foram os do sexo feminino (RP: 3,28; IC95%: 2,59-4,15 e do ensino médio (RP: 1,45; IC95%: 1,10-1,92. Quase metade dos estudantes não pratica futebol e, independente da faixa etária e nível econômico, em estudantes do sexo feminino e do ensino médio a probabilidade de prática na modalidade é ainda menor.Este estudio evaluó la asociación entre la práctica de fútbol con factores sociodemográficos en los escolares. La muestra está compuesta por 906 estudiantes de escuelas públicas en Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil, con una media de 15,11 (SD = 2,19 años de edad. Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para el cálculo de la tasa de prevalencia (RP y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%. De los estudiantes encuestados, el 49,1% no practica el fútbol. Los niños con más probabilidades de no jugar al fútbol eran mujeres (RP: 3,28, IC95%: 2,59 a 4,15 y de la escuela secundaria (RP: 1,45, IC95%: 1,10 - 1,92. Casi la mitad de los estudiantes no practican el fútbol y sin importar la edad y el nivel económico, las alumnas y los alumnos de la escuela secundaria probablemente a la práctica en el deporte es aún menor.The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between soccer practice and sociodemographic factors in adolescents. The sample consisted of 906 public school students from Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, with a mean age of 15.11 (SD=2.19 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence

  9. Alteração vocal auto-referida em professores: prevalência e fatores associados Alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores: prevalencia y factores asociados Self-reported voice problems among teachers: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cossentino Bruck Marçal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida em professores e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 393 professores do ensino fundamental de Florianópolis, SC, por meio de questionário autoaplicado em 2009. Foi realizada análise multivariável de regressão de Poisson estimando-se as razões de prevalência e intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de alteração vocal foi de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Após o ajuste, permaneceram associados à maior prevalência de alteração vocal ser do sexo feminino e a presença de rinite/sinusite e faringite. CONCLUSÕES: Foi observada elevada prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida entre os professores estudados.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores e identificar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra de 393 profesores de enseñanza fundamental de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil, por medio de cuestionario auto-aplicado en 2009. Se realizó análisis multivariable de regresión de Poisson, estimándose las tasas de prevalencia e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alteración vocal fue de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Posterior al ajuste, permanecieron asociados a la mayor prevalencia de alteración vocal ser del sexo femenino y la presencia de rinitis/sinusitis y faringitis. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó elevada prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida entre los profesores estudiados.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported voice problems and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 393 public elementary and middle school teachers in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, in 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A multivariable Poisson regression model was performed to estimate prevalence ratios and their related 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The

  10. Structuring factoring business: accounting aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article theoretically substantiates the fact that factoring belongs to the main operational activity of a factoring company, and this allowed structuring the factoring business by types of activity. The lack of a unified approach to the classification of factoring (factoring services made it possible to systematize and refine their classification as a basis for developing accounting and analytical support for risk management of factoring business. The authors single out such classification signs as: the right of the reverse claim (reverse, irretrievable, a territorial feature (international, internal, the subject of the factoring contract (real, consensual, the availability of notification of the debtor (conventional, confidential. The structuring of factoring business contributes to the identification of the risks of the economic activities of a factoring company depending on the type of factoring, the development of methodological support for the bookkeeping of factoring transactions in a risk environment, the search for risk management practices and the determination of management effectiveness in general.

  11. Milestones and Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  12. Factor 4 planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bariol-Mathais, Brigitte; Lavoillotte, Philippine; Gall-Sorrentino, Florence; Malez, Marianne; Sanna, Daniela; Marsauche, Maud; Marquet, Sarah; Debergue, Sophie; Aminu, Olufunmi; Bernard, Helene; Marchand, Jean-Michel; Blin, Frederic; Grange, Jerome; Caillierez, Sophie; Muller, Dania; Clement, Bob; Desire, Jean-Charles; Metais, Benedicte; Lannuzel, Philippe; Pezet-Kuhn, Murielle; Pons, Anne; Rivoire-Meley, Benedicte; Tissot, Heloise

    2015-07-01

    Factor 4 is the goal of cutting our greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050. Achieving this objective will necessitate radical changes in our practices, in particular concerning transport and housing; the measures currently implemented, such as positive-energy buildings, low-impact mobility and eco-neighbourhoods, will not be enough to meet this goal. These measures must be conceived in the framework of broad territorial planning that integrates environmental and energy objectives far upstream. To this end, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French network of Urban Planning Agencies (FNAU), pursuing their missions in their respective areas of competence, have joined forces to make infrastructure and land use planning an integral part of the environmental and energy transition process. In 2013, the two organisations signed a partnership agreement and compiled an inventory of practices that are relevant to Factor 4 planning. This work was led by Epures, Saint-etienne urban planning agency, along with FNAU, drawing upon the expertise of a dozen urban planning agencies in precursor territories. This inventory describes the stakes, resources and strengths for each territory, which have led to cross-sectoral territorial planning exercises with ambitious environmental and energy objectives; the importance of evaluation in attaining these goals is emphasised. Current experience, questions and available methodological tools are summarised in this document, to encourage territories and help them design their planning policies along a trajectory to achieve Factor 4 goals. The compilation also aims to be a contribution to the COP21 climate conference

  13. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  14. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  15. Improved Balanced Incomplete Factorization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru, R.; Marín, J.; Mas, J.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2010), s. 2431-2452 ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * incomplete decompositions * approximate inverses * Sherman-Morrison formula * nonsymmetric matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2010

  16. Sleep-inducing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.

  17. "Factor Analysis Using ""R"""

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexander Beaujean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available R (R Development Core Team, 2011 is a very powerful tool to analyze data, that is gaining in popularity due to its costs (its free and flexibility (its open-source. This article gives a general introduction to using R (i.e., loading the program, using functions, importing data. Then, using data from Canivez, Konold, Collins, and Wilson (2009, this article walks the user through how to use the program to conduct factor analysis, from both an exploratory and confirmatory approach.

  18. Factores que influyen en la emesis postaturdimiento en bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el efecto del tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio, la efectividad del aturdimiento, el tipo de categoría comercial y la consistencia del contenido ruminal en la emesis durante el intervalo entre aturdimiento y desangrado en ganado bovino, se seleccionaron 9,446 canales en cuatro plantas procesadoras (P1, P2, P3, P4. El tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio se clasificó en: 1 menor a 3 h (T1; 2 de 3 a 12 h (T2; 3 mayor a 12 h (T3. El aturdimiento se registró como efectivo y no efectivo. La consistencia del contenido ruminal, se clasificó en: acuosa, semi-acuosa y espesa. En P1, se registró el número de cabezas y pulmones contaminados por emesis, y el análisis se realizó mediante X2. Cuando la espera pre-sacrificio fue mayor a 10 h y el aturdimiento no fue efectivo, el riesgo fue 1.73 veces mayor para observar contaminación de la canal. Al aumentar el tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio se incrementó (P<0.05 la emesis, cuando el contenido ruminal era acuoso (62.9 vs 12.5 y 24.6 %. La emesis fue similar (P=0.10; 10.07 % entre machos y hembras. El tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio y la categoría comercial del ganado no influyeron en la emesis post-aturdimiento. Se concluye que el efecto combinado de mayor tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio, aturdimiento no efectivo y consistencia acuosa del contenido ruminal, favorecen la emesis en bovinos durante el intervalo del aturdimiento al desangrado.

  19. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  20. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of 125 I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M r 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M r 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M r 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of 125 I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M r 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin

  1. Frecuentación del servicio de urgencias y factores sociodemográficos Use of emergency medical service and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Braun

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La utilización por parte de la población de los recursos sanitarios se encuentra relacionada con los niveles de salud y con factores socioeconómicos. Los grupos de población con menor nivel socioeconómico tienen una mayor utilización de determinados recursos sanitarios; los servicios de urgencia podrían presentar un uso diferencial entre los distintos grupos de población. El presente estudio pretende identificar diferencias en el uso de los recursos de atención urgente entre grupos con diferentes características socioeconómicas. Material y métodos: Se realiza un estudio poblacional, en el que mediante el agrupamiento de las secciones censales de la ciudad de Santander, según variables sociodemográficas (edad, nivel de formación y nivel de empleo, se establecen áreas de la ciudad con similares características, mediante análisis de clusters. Se identifica el origen de los pacientes que consultan en el Servicio de Urgencias Hospitalarias (SUH del Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, y se calcula la tasa de demanda para cada una de las áreas sociodemográficas. Resultados: El análisis de clusters es capaz de identificar cuatro agrupaciones de diferentes características socioeconómicas que se ajustan a barrios de la ciudad de Santander. Se aprecia una mayor utilización del SUH en los grupos sociales más desfavorecidos y de mayor edad media (odds ratio [OR] = 1,91; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95% 1,73-2,1 de la agrupación 1 con respecto a la 4. La proporción de ingresos es superior en las agrupaciones más favorecidas, mientras que el número de usuarios que realizan visitas repetidas proceden de agrupaciones con menor nivel socioeconómico. Conclusión: La utilización del SUH está condicionada por las características sociodemográficas del área de residencia, identificándose mayor uso entre los grupos de más bajo nivel socioeconómico.Objectives: Health resources utilization is related to health conditions

  2. Fatores associados à cobertura vacinal em adolescentes Factores asociados a la cobertura por vacunas en adolescentes Factors associated to the vaccination covering in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Maria Calixto de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados à condição de estar vacinado entre adolescentes de uma área da Estratégia Saúde da Família de Teresina - PI. MÉTODOS: Estudo de natureza quantitativa e do tipo seccional. A amostra foi constituída por 261 adolescentes e a análise foi realizada por meio da estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: A cobertura vacinal contra rubéola, sarampo e caxumba foi de 5,4%; para a vacina contra difteria e tétano, foi de 22,9%; para a vacina contra hepatite-B: foi 27,2% e 35,2% para a vacina contra febre amarela. CONCLUSÃO: A baixa cobertura vacinal encontrada neste estudo está relacionada: às oportunidades perdidas de vacinação (65,5%; à deficiência de conhecimento sobre as vacinas, a faixa etária maior de 15 anos (Razão da Prevalência (RP = 2,85; Índice de Confiança (IC 95% = 1,63-4,99; o sexo masculino (RP = 2,04; IC95% =1,15-3,62.OBJETIVO: Analizar los factores asociados a la condición de estar vacunado entre adolescentes, en un área de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, en la ciudad de Teresina, en el estado de Piauí. MÉTODOS: Estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa y de tipo seccional. La muestra fue constituida por 261 adolescentes y el análisis fue realizado por medio de la estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: La cobertura por vacuna contra rubéola, sarampión e caxumba fue de 5,4%; para la vacuna contra la difteria y tétano, fue de 22,9%; para la vacuna contra hepatitis-B, fue 27,2% y de 35,2% para la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla. CONCLUSIÓN: La baja cobertura por vacunación encontrada en este estudio está relacionada a: 1 las oportunidades perdidas de vacunación (65,5%; a la deficiencia de conocimiento sobre las vacunas, al intervalo de edad mayor de 15 años [Razón de la Prevalencia (RP = 2,85; Índice de Confianza (IC 95% = 1,63-4,99]; al sexo masculino (RP = 2,04; IC95% =1,15-3,62.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated to the condition of to be vaccinated among

  3. Organizational factors in Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D. J.; Kim, Y. I.; Jeong, C. H.; Kim, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational factors are referred to as the factors that influence the achievement of a goal of an organization. Latent problems of an organization could contribute to causing human errors in such stages as design, operation and maintenance, and furthermore, leading to an severe accident. In order to evaluate an organization from the safety viewpoint, it is necessary to identify the organizational factors in a systematic fashion. In this paper, some efforts to identify the organizational factors in Korean NPPs are presented. The study was performed in the following steps: 1) Reviewing the definitions and range of the organizational factors used by the previous 13 researches, 2) Structuring the organizational factors by screening and collating factors, 3) Analysing the organizational factors that is considered to have contributed to the trip events based on the trip report of Korean NPPs, 4) Suggesting a more reliable taxonomy of organizational factors for event analysis by applying the Onion Structure Model to the selected factors

  4. Factores pronósticos del abandono del tratamiento antituberculoso en una región endémica del Perú Predictive factors for noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment in an endemic region of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Roger Culqui

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores de pronóstico del abandono del tratamiento antituberculoso en la provincia de Ica, Perú. MÉTODOS: Entre 1998 y 2000 se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y testigos (razón numérica de 1:1 en la provincia de Ica. Se identificaron 55 casos de abandono del tratamiento antituberculoso. Los factores evaluados se seleccionaron a partir del modelo del campo de la salud de Lalonde. Las respectivas razones de posibilidades se calcularon por medio de análisis unifactorial y multifactorial. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron como factores pronósticos del abandono del tratamiento anti-tuberculoso los siguientes: considerar insuficiente la información proporcionada por el personal de salud sobre el tratamiento (razón de posibilidades [odds ratio, OR]: 4,20; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,77 a 10,02, considerar inadecuados los horarios para recibir el tratamiento (OR: 9,95; IC95%: 1,97 a 50,21 y consumir drogas ilícitas (OR: 7,15; IC95%: 1,69 a 30,23. CONCLUSIONES: Para mejorar el cumplimiento del régimen antituberculoso es necesario brindar a los pacientes información personalizada sobre la enfermedad y su tratamiento, además de ofrecerles horarios flexibles y apropiados para recibirlo. El consumo de drogas es el factor de riesgo más alto de abandono, por lo que resultan cruciales su identificación y seguimiento.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that predict noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment in the province of Ica, Peru. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2000 a case-control study (1:1 ratio was conducted in the province of Ica, with 55 cases (persons who dropped out of treatment being identified. The factors evaluated were chosen from Lalonde's model of the field of health. The respective odds ratios were calculated by means of univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The following factors were identified as being predictive of noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment: thinking that the

  5. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  6. Activation of 125I-Factor IX and 125I-Factor X: Effect of tissue factor and Factor VII, Factor Xsub(a) and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterud, B.; Rapaport, S.I.

    Activation of Factor IX and Factor X was studied by adding 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X to reaction mixtures and quantitating cleavage products by reduced sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Thrombin failed to activate Factors IX or X; Factor Xsub(a) produced insignificant amounts of cleavage products of both factors. In contrast, the reaction product of tissue factor and Factor VII cleaved large amounts of both Factor IX and Factor X in purified systems and in plasma. In incubation mixtures of plasma containing added 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X, tissue factor and Ca 2+ ions, the percentage of total radioactivity in the heavy chain peak of 125 I-IXsub(a) and the heavy chain of 125 I-Xsub(a) increased at a similar rate. When the tissue factor was diluted, similar curves were obtained for percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor IX and percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor X plotted against tissue factor concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that activation of Factor IX by the tissue factor-Factor VII reaction product represents a physiologically significant step in normal haemostasis. (author)

  7. Factores contribuyentes al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 admitidos en salas de medicina del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia Factors contributing to the development of community-acquired infections in type-2 diabetics admitted to the Cayetano Heredia National Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Guillermo Tapia-Zegarra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio es identificar factores contribuyentes al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 hospitalizados. De tal forma, se siguió el diseño de un estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Consecuentemente, se eligieron en forma aleatoria 105 diabéticos con infección adquirida en la comunidad y 105 diabéticos con patología no infecciosa, obtenidos de los Servicios de Medicina de un hospital universitario, entre 1991 y 1998. Mediante el análisis bivariado y multivariado, se obtuvo la estimación ajustada del valor de odds ratio. Los resultados permitieron, según análisis estratificado por edad y sexo, obtener a neuropatía autonómica como factor contribuyente de infecciones urinarias (OR = 4,07. En el modelo multivariado se aisló a vasculopatía periférica (R²: 0,24 como contribuyente de infección de piel y partes blandas (OR = 6,79. Los intervalos de confianza fueron significativos y de 95% de confiabilidad. En conclusión, vasculopatía periférica y vejiga neurogénica contribuyen al desarrollo de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad en diabéticos tipo 2 hospitalizados.This study aims to identify factors contributing to the development of community-acquired infections in hospitalized type-2 diabetics, using an unmatched case-control design. A total of 105 pairs of diabetic patients with community-acquired infections as compared to non-infectious diseases, respectively, were chosen randomly from the discharge registry of the clinical wards of a teaching hospital from 1991 to 1998. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted with estimation of the adjusted odds ratio. According to stratified analysis controlling for age and sex, autonomic neuropathy proved to be a contributing factor to development of urinary tract infections (OR = 4.07. In the multivariate model, peripheral vasculopathy was isolated (R²: 0.24 as a contributing factor in the development of soft

  8. Factores asociados con la actividad física en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Documentar la práctica de actividades físicas ligeras y pesadas, particularmente de deportes y ejercicios, en mujeres de 12 a 49 años en México, y evaluar su asociación con algunas características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Se estudió una muestra de 2 367 mujeres de 12 a 49 años de edad residentes en México en 1999 mediante el análisis secundario de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de México, 1999 (ENN-99. En esta encuesta se utilizó un esquema de muestreo polietápico, estratificado, por conglomerados que conformó una muestra final de 21 000 hogares de todo el país. Mediante un cuestionario se evaluó el tiempo dedicado a las distintas formas de actividad física y se midió la actividad en equivalentes metabólicos (MET según una escala puntual. Las variables dependientes del estudio fueron el tiempo dedicado a actividades físicas pesadas (las que exigen un gasto de energía equivalente a 5 MET/hora y el dedicado a actividades ligeras o sedentarias (tales como estar sentada en el trabajo o fuera de él, ver televisión, video, cine o teatro y dormir. Las variables independientes fueron la edad, escolaridad, paridad, región del país y área de residencia (urbana o rural, nivel socioeconómico (medido mediante un índice elaborado a partir de las condiciones de la vivienda y la posesión de enseres domésticos y estado marital. Se evaluó la asociación entre las variables independientes y la práctica de deportes y se calcularon las razones de posibilidades brutas con intervalos de confianza de 95%. Para identificar la asociación entre la práctica de deportes y las variables independientes se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística ajustado según el efecto de posibles variables de confusión. Se ajustó también mediante un factor de ponderación la probabilidad de que una mujer fuese seleccionada para la muestra, y para controlar el efecto de diseño producido por la agrupación de

  9. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factorization of Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaš, Peter; Frič, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Categorical approach to probability leads to better understanding of basic notions and constructions in generalized (fuzzy, operational, quantum) probability, where observables—dual notions to generalized random variables (statistical maps)—play a major role. First, to avoid inconsistencies, we introduce three categories L, S, and P, the objects and morphisms of which correspond to basic notions of fuzzy probability theory and operational probability theory, and describe their relationships. To illustrate the advantages of categorical approach, we show that two categorical constructions involving observables (related to the representation of generalized random variables via products, or smearing of sharp observables, respectively) can be described as factorizing a morphism into composition of two morphisms having desired properties. We close with a remark concerning products.

  11. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  12. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  13. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...... regions with function-related, short sequence motifs and molecular recognition features with structural propensities. This review focuses on molecular aspects of TFs, which represent paradigms of ID-related features. Through specific examples, we review how the ID-associated flexibility of TFs enables....... It is furthermore emphasized how classic biochemical concepts like allostery, conformational selection, induced fit, and feedback regulation are undergoing a revival with the appreciation of ID. The review also describes the most recent advances based on computational simulations of ID-based interaction mechanisms...

  14. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  15. Wave friction factor rediscovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    The wave friction factor is commonly expressed as a function of the horizontal water particle semi-excursion ( A wb) at the top of the boundary layer. A wb, in turn, is normally derived from linear wave theory by {{U_{{wb}}/T_{{w}}}}{{2π }} , where U wb is the maximum water particle velocity measured at the top of the boundary layer and T w is the wave period. However, it is shown here that A wb determined in this way deviates drastically from its real value under both linear and non-linear waves. Three equations for smooth, transitional and rough boundary conditions, respectively, are proposed to solve this problem, all three being a function of U wb, T w, and δ, the thickness of the boundary layer. Because these variables can be determined theoretically for any bottom slope and water depth using the deepwater wave conditions, there is no need to physically measure them. Although differing substantially from many modern attempts to define the wave friction factor, the results coincide with equations proposed in the 1960s for either smooth or rough boundary conditions. The findings also confirm that the long-held notion of circular water particle motion down to the bottom in deepwater conditions is erroneous, the motion in fact being circular at the surface and elliptical at depth in both deep and shallow water conditions, with only horizontal motion at the top of the boundary layer. The new equations are incorporated in an updated version (WAVECALC II) of the Excel program published earlier in this journal by Le Roux et al. Geo-Mar Lett 30(5): 549-560, (2010).

  16. [The Steel factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R

    1997-01-01

    Mice bearing mutations at either of two loci, dominant White spotting(W) or Steel(Sl), exhibit development defects in hematopoietic, melanocytic and germ cells. Genetics studies have shown that the SI locus encodes the Steel factor (SF), which is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, the product of the W locus. SF is synthesized in membrane-bound form and can be processed to produce a soluble form. Cell-cell interaction is important in the production of normal blood cells in vivo and in vitro and in the cellular expansion of leukemic cells. We discuss here how SF decreases the requirements in cell interaction for blast colony formation in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and the presence of membrane-bound SF possibly contributes to the density-dependent growth of the AML blasts. We explain that SF is mainly a survival factor for hematopoietic cells, of little proliferative effect, which maintains CD34+ hematopoietic cells in an undifferentiated state. These properties would potentially allow the maintenance of hematopoietic cells in culture for the purpose of marrow purging or gene therapy. The activation of the c-kit signal transduction pathway may play a significant role in the development of many types of non-hematological malignancies by disrupting normal cell-cell interactions and allowing the growth of cancer cell populations. In summary, the properties of the SF indicate it has a role for survival signals during the process of normal differentiation, AML proliferation and in the maintenance of many c-kit+ tumors.

  17. Neutron quality factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q n , or the corresponding new modifying factor, w R ) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q n from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q n will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of open-quotes quality factorclose quotes (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q n ; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q n . Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q n . The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)

  18. Prevalence of self-medication in Brazil and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Fernandes, Maria Eneida Porto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the prevalence and associated factors regarding the use of medicines by self-medication in Brazil. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using data from the PNAUM (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), collected between September 2013 and February 2014 by interviews at the homes of the respondents. All people who reported using any medicines not prescribed by a doctor or dentist were classified as self-medication practitioners. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (Poisson regression) and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated in order to investigate the factors associated with the use of self-medication by medicines. The independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and access to and use of health services. In addition, the most commonly consumed medicines by self-medication were individually identified. The self-medication prevalence in Brazil was 16.1% (95%CI 15.0-17.5), with it being highest in the Northeast region (23.8%; 95%CI 21.6-26.2). Following the adjusted analysis, self-medication was observed to be associated with females, inhabitants from the North, Northeast and Midwest regions and individuals that have had one, or two or more chronic diseases. Analgesics and muscle relaxants were the therapeutic groups most used for self-medication, with dipyrone being the most consumed medicines. In general, most of the medicines used for self-medication were classified as non-prescriptive (65.5%). Self-medication is common practice in Brazil and mainly involves the use of non-prescription medicines; therefore, the users of such should be made aware of the possible risks. Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à utilização de medicamentos por automedicação no Brasil. Este estudo transversal de base populacional foi realizado com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de medicamentos (PNAUM

  19. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  20. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  1. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  2. External Factors, Internal Factors and Self-Directed Learning Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurjannah; Muljono, Pudji; Afendi, Farit M.

    2018-01-01

    There are many factors which affect the level of self-directed learning readiness. This study aims to investigate the relationship between external factors, internal factors and self-directed learning readiness. This study was carried out by using a census method for fourth year students of medical program of Tadulako University. Data were…

  3. Factores de riesgo de caídas en ancianos: revisión sistemática Fatores de risco de quedas em idosos Risk factors for falls in the elderly: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenewton André da Silva Gama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Sistematizar los hallazgos de los estudios de cohorte prospectivos sobre los múltiples factores de riesgo de caídas en ancianos y valorar la calidad metodológica de los mismos. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos en las bases de datos Medline, SciELO y Lilacs. Fueron incluidos estudios con número de sujetos >100, con edad >64 años, de ambos sexos, residentes en la comunidad o en instituciones para ancianos. RESULTADOS: De 726 publicaciones encontradas, 15 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, habiendo sido publicados entre 1988 y 2005. Los estudios presentaron heterogeneidad metodológica. Los principales factores asociados a un aumento del riesgo de caída son: antecedente de caída, alteración de la marcha, incapacidad funcional, deterioro cognitivo, consumo de medicación psicotrópica y exceso de actividad física. A pesar de hallazgos contradictorios, ser del sexo femenino y tener edad avanzada, también pueden ser predictores de caída. CONCLUSIONES: Se identifican algunas carencias metodológicas de los estudios de cohorte prospectivo sobre caídas: carencia de estudios sobre determinantes extrínsecos, necesidad de enmascaramiento del evaluador durante el seguimiento y de un mejor control del seguimiento con menores intervalos entres las recogidas de datos.OBJETIVO: Sistematizar os achados dos estudos de coorte prospectivos sobre os múltiplos fatores de risco de quedas em idosos e avaliar a qualidade metodológica desses estudos. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de estudos nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO e Lilacs. Foram incluídos estudos com número de sujeitos >100, com idade >64 anos, de ambos os sexos, residentes na comunidade ou em instituições para idosos. RESULTADOS: Das 726 publicações encontradas, 15 estudos cumpriram os critérios de inclusão, tendo sido publicados entre 1988 e 2005. Os estudos apresentaram heterogeneidade metodológica. Os principais fatores

  4. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil, 2006 Factores asociados al consumo de frutas y hortalizas en Brasil, 2006 Factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Constante Jaime

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência do consumo de frutas e hortaliças e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 54.369 indivíduos com idade >18 anos, entrevistados pelo sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal, em 2006. Os indicadores do consumo alimentar foram: consumo regular (>5 dias/semana de frutas e hortaliças e consumo adequado (>5 vezes/dia. Calculou-se a prevalência dos indicadores e intervalos de confiança, estratificada por sexo. Para analisar a associação das variáveis sociodemográficas foram calculados odds ratio bruta e ajustada por sexo, idade, escolaridade e estado civil. RESULTADOS: Menos da metade dos indivíduos referiu consumo regular de fruta (44,1% ou hortaliças (43,8%, enquanto 23,9% referiram consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças em conjunto; o consumo adequado foi referido por 7,3% dos entrevistados. O consumo de frutas e hortaliças variou entre as cidades estudadas, foi maior entre as mulheres e aumentou com a idade e escolaridade. CONCLUSÕES: Iniciativas de promoção do consumo de frutas e hortaliças devem atender a população como um todo, especialmente às cidades das regiões Norte e Nordeste, aos jovens, aos homens e aos estratos populacionais com baixa escolaridade.OBJETIVO: Estimar la frecuencia de consumo de frutas y hortalizas y factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiados 54.369 individuos con edad >18 años, entrevistados por el Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas por Pesquisa Telefónica (VIGITEL en las capitales brasileras y Distrito Federal, en 2006. Los indicadores de consumo alimentario fueron: consumo regular (>5 días/semana de frutas y hortalizas y consumo adecuado (>5 veces/día. Se calculó la prevalencia de los indicadores e intervalos de confianza, estratificada por sexo. Para analizar la asociación de las

  5. Electromagnetic Hadronic Form-Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a calculation of the nucleon electromagnetic form-factors as well as the pion and rho to pion transition form-factors in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (Asqtad) sea quarks

  6. R-Factor for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R-Factor) quantifies the effects of raindrop impacts and reflects the amount and rate of runoff associated with the rain. The...

  7. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  8. Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic Achievement in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Thus, it is study investigated the integrated factors determining academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

  9. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  10. Self-shielding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Throughout the last two decades many efforts have been made to estimate the effect of body self-shielding on organ doses from externally incident neutrons and gamma rays. These began with the use of simple geometry phantoms and have culminated in the use of detailed anthropomorphic phantoms. In a recent effort, adjoint Monte Carlo analysis techniques have been used to determine dose and dose equivalent to the active marrow as a function of energy and angle of neutron fluence externally incident on an anthropomorphic phantom. When combined with fluences from actual nuclear devices, these dose-to-fluence factors result in marrow dose values that demonstrate great sensitivity to variations in device type, range, and body orientation. Under a state-of-the-art radiation transport analysis demonstration program for the Japanese cities, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency at the request of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the marrow dose study referred to above is being repeated to obtain spectral distributions within the marrow for externally incident neutrons and gamma rays of arbitrary energy and angle. This is intended to allow radiobiologists and epidemiologists to select and to modify numbers of merit for correlation with health effects and to permit a greater understanding of the relationship between human and laboratory subject dosimetry

  11. Research organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Organizational processes at nuclear power plants should be sufficient to prevent accidents and to protect public health and safety upon the occurrence of an accident. The role of regulatory research is to confirm that agency assessments of organization processes are on a firm technical basis and provide for improvements in the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] programs. A firm technical basis is achieved by reducing uncertainties associated with methods and measures used to assess organization processes. The general objective for regulatory research is to confirm that the agency has a coherent understanding of the organizational processes that are individually necessary and are collectively sufficient for safe operations, methods are available to reliably characterize organizational processes, and measures exist to monitor changes in the key organizational processes. The first specific objective was to develop a method to translate organizational processes into PRAs. The discussion provides feedback and insights from experience with the past and the ongoing organizational factors research. That experience suggests a set of ingredients that appear proper for performing regulatory research on organizational processes. By keeping focused upon these proper ingredients, the research will contribute to the regulatory assessments of utility management through the use of improved methods and measures in investigations, inspections, diagnostics, performance indicators, and PRA insights

  12. BASIC FACTORS OF MARKET CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. Fyliuk

    2013-01-01

    The paper systemizes factors which reinforce trends towards market concentration in all economic systems. These factors include factors related to the general changes in economic environment such as globalization of the world economy, state structural and taxation policies, cycle of economic development and changes in consumer demand. They also include factors related to competition (intensification of competition, companies’ desire to monopolize market and present market structure) and scien...

  13. Identificação de fatores de risco de desnutrição em pacientes internados Identification of malnutrition risk factors in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados ao risco de desnutrição em pacientes internados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado em um hospital geral de São Paulo, em uma amostra de conveniência de 300 pacientes adultos, com idade entre 18 e 64 anos. Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado, constituído por informações antropométricas, clínicas e dietéticas, e os pacientes foram classificados e dicotomizados em desnutridos e não desnutridos. Para a identificação dos fatores associados à desnutrição foi conduzida uma regressão logística múltipla e foram selecionadas as variáveis preditivas. As variáveis foram organizadas segundo o valor de oddsratio (OR, intervalo de confiança (IC 95%, coeficiente de regressão (β e nível descritivo do teste (p. RESULTADOS: A desnutrição ocorreu em 60,7% da amostra, e as variáveis encontradas associadas à desnutrição foram a presença de: perda de peso recente e involuntária, ossatura aparente, redução de apetite, diarreia, ingestão energética inadequada e gênero masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados à desnutrição podem ser levantados no momento da internação e conduzirem a uma avaliação que permita uma adequada terapia de intervenção e recuperação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, performed in a general hospital located in São Paulo, in a convenience sample of 300 adult individuals, aged 18 to 64 years. A structured questionnaire was applied consisting of anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, and the patients were evaluated and dichotomized into malnourished and non-malnourished. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the factors associated with malnutrition. The variables were organized according to the values of odds ratio (OR, confidence interval (95% CI, regression coefficient (β and descriptive level of significance (p

  14. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  15. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  16. Investing in systematic factor premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Kees G.; Slager, Alfred M. H.; Stork, P.A.

    In this paper we investigate and evaluate factor investing in the US and Europe for equities and bonds. We show that factor-based portfolios generally produce comparable or better portfolios than market indices. We expand the analysis to other asset classes and factors, work with other optimisation

  17. Sparse and Robust Factor Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Croux (Christophe); P. Exterkate (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFactor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having

  18. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  19. Cobertura e fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou em São Luís, Maranhão Coverage and factors associated with not performing Pap smear screening tests in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Hiluy Nicolau de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a cobertura, a periodicidade, e identificar fatores associados à não realização do exame preventivo de Papanicolau, 465 mulheres de 25 a 49 anos residentes no município de São Luís foram entrevistadas em 1998. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar pelo método de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. Na análise estatística foram calculados intervalos de confiança de 95% corrigidos pelo desenho do estudo, e os "odds ratio" brutos e ajustados por regressão logística. A cobertura do Papanicolaou pelo menos uma vez na vida foi de 82,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95%, 76,6 - 87,0%, praticamente atingindo a cobertura mínima necessária de 85% para causar impacto epidemiológico na incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino. O intervalo entre a realização dos exames foi curto, pois 65,8% das mulheres repetiram o exame com até um ano. Após o ajuste para fatores de confundimento foram associados à não realização do Papanicolaou: não ter companheiro, ter cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, não ter realizado consulta médica nos três últimos meses e morar em domicílio cujo chefe de família tem ocupação manual não especializada. Ter tido de dois a quatro parceiros sexuais nos três últimos meses foi associado a menor risco de não realização do preventivo. Em capital do Nordeste, a cobertura do exame preventivo de Papanicolaou foi semelhante à relatada em outros estudos nacionais. Entretanto, algumas mulheres realizaram citologias desnecessárias a intervalos curtos, implicando em desperdício de recursos e dificultando o acesso aos grupos mais vulneráveis que apresentaram maiores riscos de não testagem.In 1998, 465 women from 25 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the municipality of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil were interviewed to estimate Pap smear coverage, interval between tests and to identify factors associated with not performing Pap smears. A three-stage household

  20. Factores que influyen en la emesis post-aturdimiento en bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Rincón, Francisco Gerardo; Estrada Angulo, Alfredo; Hernández Bautista, Jorge; Pérez Linares, Cristina; Portillo Loera, Jesús José; Robles Estrada, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto del tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio, la efectividad del aturdimiento, el tipo de categoría comercial y la consistencia del contenido ruminal en la emesis durante el intervalo entre aturdimiento y desangrado en ganado bovino, se seleccionaron 9,446 canales en cuatro plantas procesadoras (P1, P2, P3, P4). El tiempo de espera pre-sacrificio se clasificó en: 1) menor a 3 h (T1); 2) de 3 a 12 h (T2); 3) mayor a 12 h (T3). El aturdimiento se registró como efectivo y no efe...

  1. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  2. Gut transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Expert Group has proposed values for the absorbed fractions (f 1 values) of radionuclides ingested in food and drinking water by members of the public. The f 1 values for adults, which are also taken to apply to children from 1 year of age, are increased from those given in ICRP Publication 30 for occupationally exposed adults for 7 elements out of the 31 considered. Since the publication of the NEA report, further information has become available that is relevant to the choice of f 1 values for polonium and thorium. These data suggest that for the present the f 1 value for polonium currently recommended by ICRP (0.1) should be retained, and that for thorium a reasonable f 1 value is 0.0005. With these exceptions, the NRPB endorses the revisions in f 1 values proposed by the NEA Expert Group for adults and children from 1 year of age. Higher f 1 values are proposed by the NEA expert Group for absorption in the first year of life. For adult values of between 0.01 and 0.5, an increase by a factor of two is assumed, and for adult values of 0.001 or less, absorption by infants is taken to be ten times greater. This approach is consistent with, and extends, that applied to the actinides in ICRP Publication 48 and represents a reasonable interpretation of current evidence. The NRPB therefore endorses the approach proposed by the NEA Expert Group for the calculation of doses to infants. (author)

  3. Factor structure, internal consistency and reliability of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: an exploratory study Estrutura fatorial, consistência interna e confiabilidade do Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL is a self-report measure largely used to evaluate the presence of PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the internal consistency, temporal reliability and factor validity of the Portuguese language version of the PCL used in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 186 participants were recruited. The sample was heterogeneous with regard to occupation, sociodemographic data, mental health history, and exposure to traumatic events. Subjects answered the PCL at two occasions within a 15 days’ interval (range: 5-15 days. RESULTS: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients indicated high internal consistency for the total scale (0.91 and for the theoretical dimensions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV (0.83, 0.81, and 0.80. Temporal reliability (test-retest was high and consistent for different cutoffs. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted and oblique rotation (Promax was applied. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO index (0.911 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ² = 1,381.34, p INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é um transtorno de ansiedade decorrente da exposição a eventos traumáticos. Entre as medidas de avaliação dos sintomas, destaca-se o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL. OBJETIVO: Investigar a consistência interna, a confiabilidade temporal e a validade fatorial da versão do PCL em português, utilizada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 186 indivíduos heterogêneos em relação a ocupação, características sociodemográficas, histórico de saúde mental e exposição a eventos traumáticos. O PCL foi aplicado em dois momentos considerando um intervalo máximo de 15 dias (intervalo: 5-15 dias. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi adequada para a escala

  4. Factors associated with low adherence to medicine treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal

    2016-12-01

    To analyze factors associated with low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil. Analysis of data from Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - Brazilian Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a population-based cross-sectional household survey, based on a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We analyzed the association between low adherence to drug treatment measured by the Brief Medication Questionnaire and demographic, socioeconomic, health, care and prescription factors. We used Poisson regression model to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and p-value (Wald test). The prevalence of low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases was 30.8% (95%CI 28.8-33.0). The highest prevalence of low adherence was associated with individuals: young adults; no education; resident in the Northeast and Midwest Regions of Brazil; paying part of the treatment; poor self-perceived health; three or more diseases; reported limitations caused by a chronic disease; using five drugs or more. Low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil is relevant, and regional and demographic differences and those related to patients' health care and therapy regime require coordinated action between health professionals, researchers, managers and policy makers. Analisar fatores associados à baixa adesão ao tratamento farmacológico de doenças crônicas no Brasil. Análise de dados oriundos da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), inquérito domiciliar de base populacional, de delineamento transversal, baseado em amostra probabilística da população brasileira. Analisou-se a associação entre baixa adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso mensurado pelo Brief Medication Questionnaire e fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde, assist

  5. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  6. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ortega, Jose Maria; Morales Wong, Mario Miguel; Lopez Cuevas, Zoraida; Diaz Valdez, Marilin

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  7. The population factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, G

    1983-01-01

    Reducing population growth is essentil to Egypt's broader efforts to improve facilities, services, and the phsycial quality of life. Although a family planning program has existed since the mid-1950s, the 2.7% annual rate of population growth has not changed in 30 years. Nasser and the other "free officers" who seized power in 1952 became concerned about the adverse effects of the rapidly growing population, but perhaps out of concern with a possible religious backlash, they confined themselves to launching studies and subsidizing several dozen private family planning clinics. From 1962-72, the number of private clinics grew from 28 to 480, and family planning was introduced in government healthclinics in 1965. Such clinics are mainly located in rural areas and are staffed by doctors and other personnel who are not members of the local community and are not very effective at promoting family planning. Local girls and women called Rayadet were recruited to promote the idea to birth control in local communities. By 1970, 12.6% of Egyptians were using reliable contraception. A national survey 12 years later found 34% using contraception, buth the figure seems high. Approximately 60-65% of eligible couples would need to practice birth control for Egypt to reach a less than 1% annuel increase. The Egyptian government hopes to slow population growth to 1% by the year 2000, but major problems of motivation remain especially among the rural poor. Several factors may lead to success of the family planning effort: 1) financial and technical support from international family planning sources has grown rapidley and is likely to remain high; 2) the mortality rate has dropped from 17.8/1000 in 1952 to about half that level, while the rate of natural increase is about the same, suggesting that future reductions in the birth rate will translate to a reduced rate of natural increase, and that parents will be less reluctant to practice faimly planning if there is a greater chance

  8. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  9. Tamaño del efecto y su intervalo de confianza y meta-análisis en Psicología

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes Ribera, Laura

    2016-01-01

    La Práctica Basada en la Evidencia (PBE) se define como “la integración de la mejor evidencia disponible con la experiencia clínica en el contexto de las características, cultura y preferencias del paciente” (American Psychological Association (APA), Presidencial Grupo de Trabajo sobre la Práctica Basada en la Evidencia, 2006, p. 273). Por definición, la PBE se basa en la utilización de la investigación científica en la toma de decisiones en un esfuerzo por producir los mejores servicios pos...

  10. O PAPEL DE DUAS SESSÕES EXTENUANTES COM DIFERENTES INTERVALOS ENTRE AS SESSÕES – 24 e 48 HORAS – E O EFEITO PROTETOR DA CARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bergome Muniz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that a single session of resistance exercise provides to our bodies with an adaptation of shape subsequent exercises do not have the same effect stressful. Objective: To evaluate the repeated bout effect in exercise sessions with different intervals after a week of the first session. Materials and Methods: 14 men (18 to 30 years engaged in strength training for a minimum of 6 months were divided into two groups A and B. The participants performed five sets, maximum repetitions with two minutes of rest between sets at 85% 1RM in biceps curl exercise unilateral Scott on the bench with the non-dominant arm. The second training session was performed 24 h later, for group A, and 48 hours later for group B. Blood samples were collected in pre measures, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h, arm girth measurements, range of motion in flexion and extension, and measures of subjective perception of pain on palpation and by extension, before and after exercise every day of the tests. Results: When the first two exercise sessions were performed with shorter rest intervals (24 hours due to increased pain sensation, maintaining range of motion and reduced activity for longer serum CK higher. Conclusion: Exercises with short intervals (24 hours may modulate the repeated bout effect increasing the values of physiological variables and significant reductions in joint range of motion.

  11. Paleomorphology of the upper part of the Macae formation, Namorado field, Campos basin; Paleomorfologia do intervalo superior da formacao Macae, Campo de Namorado, Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Eduardo Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Tomazelli, Luiz Jose; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo Norberto [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Viana, Adriano Roessler [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Edificio Sede

    2004-07-01

    The Macae Formation (Late Albian-Turonian of the Campos Basin) is represented by a thick column of carbonate sediments whose deposition began soon after the evaporitic phase that marks the beginning of the marine occupation of the basin. The top of this interval is represented by an unconformity (Type I), indicative of a variation in the base level of the basin, on which the turbidities of the basal sequence of the Namorado Field were deposited. For a better understanding of the depositional geometry of these turbidities, the paleogeomorphology analysis demonstrated to be quite efficient. The method of work used for so was a combination among the seismic 3D visualization (VoxelGeo{sup R}), from the characterization of different physical attributes of the seismic signal, and the facies analysis of wells profiles of the referred field. The developed analysis allowed the individualization and the three-dimensional visualization of a sinuous paleochannel in the top of the interval, until then not described in previous interpretations of this depositional system. With the information coming from this study, a better understanding of the genesis of this accumulation can be reached, especially in the part regarding to the units of important economic character, represented by the turbidities deposits and whose occurrences are related with stages of relative lowering of the sea level. (author)

  12. Memoria de trabajo en niños escolarizados: efecto de intervalos de presentación y distractores en la prueba computarizada Memonum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Conde Cotes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación evaluó la memoria de trabajo visual a través de la prueba computarizada Memonum en niños escolarizados. Se evaluaron los efectos de tres tiempos de exposición (1, 4 y 8 segundos y de la presentación de un distractor sobre el desempeño mnemónico en la prueba Memonum en 72 niños pertenecientes a un colegio del área metropolitana de Bucaramanga, Colombia, con edades entre 8 y 11 años de los grados tercero, cuarto y quinto de primaria. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los tiempos de exposición en las variables número de aciertos y aciertos acumulados, demostrandoun mejor desempeño mnemónico en los participantes que presentaron la prueba en el tiempo de 8 segundos en comparación con los niños pertenecientes al grupo de 1 segundo; además, la presencia del distractor demostró una diferencia significativa en los aciertos y aciertos acumulados, considerándose como un estímulo generador de interferencia que perturba la capacidad de almacenamiento de la memoria de trabajo en niños. Adicionalmente, se halló una diferencia significativa en cuanto al uso de la estrategia de repetición mental, indicando que los participantes de los grupos de 4 y 8 segundos leasignaron mayor puntaje que los niños del grupo de 1 segundo. Un amplio tiempo de exposición de estímulos en la prueba Memonum aumenta la capacidad de retención; asimismo, el empleo de un distractor afecta en los participantes la capacidad de almacenamiento y esta, a suvez, aumenta de acuerdo a la progresión escolar, debidoal uso de las estrategias mnemónicas que los niños utilizan para garantizar el recuerdo de las series numéricas.

  13. Agreement between data obtained from repeated interviews with a six-years interval Concordância entre dados obtidos em entrevistas repetidas com seis anos de intervalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare information collected through face-to-face interviews at first time and six years later in a city of Southeastern Brazil. In 1998, 32 mothers (N=32 of children aged 20 to 30 months answered a face-to-face interview with structured questions regarding their children's brushing habits. Six years later this same interview was repeated with the same mothers. Both interviews were compared for overall agreement, kappa and weighted kappa. Overall agreement between both interviews varied from 41 to 96%. Kappa values ranged from 0.00 to 0.65 (very bad to good without any significant differences. The results showed lack of agreement when the same interview is conducted six years later, showing that the recall bias can be a methodological problem of interviews.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a informação coletada em entrevista pessoal num primeiro momento e seis anos depois, em Minas Gerais. Em 1998, 32 mães (N=32 de crianças com idade entre 20 a 30 meses responderam à entrevista pessoal com questões estruturadas sobre os hábitos de escovação das crianças, sendo repetida seis anos depois. As duas entrevistas foram comparadas em concordância geral e em coeficientes kappa e kappa ponderado. A concordância geral entre as entrevistas variou de 41% a 96%. Os valores de kappa variaram de 0,00 a 0,65 (muito ruim a bom, sem diferença significativa. Os resultados mostraram que houve ausência de concordância quando a mesma entrevista foi conduzida seis anos depois, mostrando que o viés de memória pode ser um problema metodológico das entrevistas.

  14. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  15. [Predictive factors of anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, K

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent mental disorders in Europe (12-month prevalence 14%) and impose a high socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is complex with an interaction of biological, environmental and psychosocial factors contributing to the overall disease risk (diathesis-stress model). In this article, risk factors for anxiety disorders will be presented on several levels, e.g. genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, neuronal networks ("brain fear circuit"), psychophysiological factors (e.g. startle response and CO2 sensitivity) and dimensional/subclinical phenotypes of anxiety (e.g. anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition), and critically discussed regarding their potential predictive value. The identification of factors predictive of anxiety disorders will possibly allow for effective preventive measures or early treatment interventions, respectively, and reduce the individual patient's suffering as well as the overall socioeconomic burden of anxiety disorders.

  16. Factor of originality in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ešner, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with exploitation of original attitudes in advertising. The thesis solves answers, what role plays the factor of originality in advertising, when and why firms use that factor, how creators work with it, how consumers perceive the factor and what other elements it generally contains. The bachelor thesis qualifies relationship of advertising and originality, describes and probes practical situations, when originality in advertising can be used as a serious competitive...

  17. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  18. Factores asociados a síndrome de aspiracion meconial en el hospital José Cayetano Heredia. Piura-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson David Purizaca Rosillo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los principales factores de riesgo en recién nacidos asociados a la presencia de síndrome de aspiración meconial (SAM. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles realizado en el Hospital José Cayetano Heredia EsSALUD – Piura. La población estuvo conformada por el registro de las historias clínicas de los años 2009-2011. Se definió como caso a los recién nacidos con diagnóstico de SAM y como controles a los 3 recién nacidos siguientes inmediatos al caso que hayan presentado líquido amniótico meconial en el parto. Las variables consideradas fueron las características del líquido meconial, datos del recién nacido (género, peso al nacer, edad gestacional, apgar al minuto y frecuencia cardiaca, datos del parto(tipo de parto, presencia de patología obstétrica y datos de la madre(edad, paridad y grado de instrucción. Se utilizó el OR con un intervalo de confianza del 95% para la medición de riesgo, se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el software SPSS 18.0. Resultados: Las variables con significancia estadística asociados a SAM fueron: presencia de líquido amniótico meconial espeso (OR=12, IC95% 3.91 - 36.83, Apgar  7 (OR=22.48, IC95% 6.62 - 76.31 y número de partos > 4 (OR=6.18, IC95% 1.34-28.48. Conclusión: Los factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de SAM fueron: líquido meconial espeso, Apgar 4. Se recomienda un mayor registro de todos los datos no sólo del recién nacido, sino también del parto y la madre.

  19. Publicación y factores asociados en docentes universitarios de investigación científica de escuelas de medicina del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pereyra-Elías

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la frecuencia de publicación y sus factores asociados en docentes universitarios de investigación científica de escuelas de Medicina del Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal analítico. Se incluyó a todos los docentes universitarios de los cursos de investigación de las 32 escuelas de medicina del Perú en el año 2011. La búsqueda de publicaciones se realizó mediante Google Scholar, SCOPUS y Medline. Se calculó las razones de prevalencias crudas y ajustadas (RPa con intervalos de confianza al 95% mediante regresión de Poisson simple y múltiple con varianza robusta. Resultados. De los 201 docentes universitarios, 43,8% nunca ha publicado un artículo en una revista, 26,9% publicó un artículo original en una revista indizada en Medline y 16,4% lo hizo en los últimos dos años. Solo 3,0% han sido autores corresponsales en alguna revista indizada no peruana. Los factores asociados con haber publicado un artículo original en Medline durante los dos últimos años es ser menor de 40 años de edad (RPa: 2,97; IC 95%:1,21-7,32, ser profesor en una universidad donde se requiere tesis obligatoria para graduarse (RPa: 8,84; IC 95%: 2,60-30,12 y trabajar para una universidad altamente productiva (RPa: 3,24; IC 95%: 1,03-10,20. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de publicación de los docentes en investigación de las escuelas de medicina del Perú es baja. Los docentes universitarios jóvenes y los que trabajan para universidades científicamente productivas presentaron más probabilidades de publicar en una revista indizada en Medline

  20. Factores ambientales y genéticos asociados a la esquizofrenia paranoide en el área de salud "28 de septiembre"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César Núñez Copo

    Full Text Available Introducción: la esquizofrenia es una enfermedad con una marcada expresividad variable, que sugiere la existencia de factores etiológicos y procesos fisiopatológicos heterogéneos y donde se considera cada vez más la hipótesis de la interacción gen-ambiente como su principal modo de transmisión. Objetivo: determinar los posibles factores ambientales y genéticos asociados con en el debut de la esquizofrenia. Método: se realizó un estudio analítico observacional de casos y controles en el área de salud "28 de Septiembre" del municipio Santiago de Cuba, durante el cuatrimestre enero-abril de 2011, que incluyó 40 casos con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia paranoide seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado por sexo y a 80 controles sin este diagnóstico. Se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado, se calculó la oportunidad relativa (odds ratio y el intervalo de confianza. Resultados: el estado civil soltero resultó significativo al debut y en tres cuartas partes de los casos se constató algún acontecimiento estresante al inicio de la misma. Hubo asociación de los antecedentes familiares de la afección en los casos; se registró un mayor número de familiares de primer grado afectados en ambos grupos, más significativo en el grupo de los casos, lo que explica la agregación familiar de la afección más frecuentemente en las personas que padecen la enfermedad. Conclusiones: existió asociación de los antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad en los pacientes con esquizofrenia paranoide; hubo mayor porcentaje de personas afectadas en familiares de primer grado en ambos grupos; se observó agregación familiar de la enfermedad; los antecedentes prenatales aumentaron el riesgo de la enfermedad y los patrones premórbidos desde la niñez resultaron altamente significativos.

  1. First course in factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comrey, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to foster a basic understanding of factor analytic techniques so that readers can use them in their own research and critically evaluate their use by other researchers. Both the underlying theory and correct application are emphasized. The theory is presented through the mathematical basis of the most common factor analytic models and several methods used in factor analysis. On the application side, considerable attention is given to the extraction problem, the rotation problem, and the interpretation of factor analytic results. Hence, readers are given a background of

  2. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  3. Gene regulation by growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, R.; Gorham, J.; Siegfried, Z.; Leonard, D.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Thompson, M.A.; Lawe, D.; Kouzarides, T.; Vosatka, R.; MacGregor, D.; Jamal, S.; Greenberg, M.E.; Ziff, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    To coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types, cells of higher eukaryotes communicate through the release of growth factors. These peptides interact with specific transmembrane receptors of other cells and thereby generate intracellular messengers. The many changes in cellular physiology and activity that can be induced by growth factors imply that growth factor-induced signals can reach the nucleus and control gene activity. Moreover, current evidence also suggests that unregulated signaling along such pathways can induce aberrant proliferation and the formation of tumors. This paper reviews investigations of growth factor regulation of gene expression conducted by the authors' laboratory

  4. Factorization method of quadratic template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Multiplication of two numbers is a one-way function in mathematics. Any attempt to distribute the outcome to its roots is called factorization. There are many methods such as Fermat's factorization, Dixońs method or quadratic sieve and GNFS, which use sophisticated techniques fast factorization. All the above methods use the same basic formula differing only in its use. This article discusses a newly designed factorization method. Effective implementation of this method in programs is not important, it only represents and clearly defines its properties.

  5. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  6. Reacções cutâneas adversas aos inibidores do receptor do factor de crescimento epidérmico: estudo de 14 doentes Adverse cutaneous reactions to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: a study of 14 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidade Santiago

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O cetuximab e o erlotinib, inibidores do receptor do factor de crescimento epidérmico, provocam frequentemente reacções cutâneas adversas peculiares. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar do ponto de vista clínico-evolutivo as reacções cutâneas adversas e avaliar a sua abordagem terapêutica. METODOLOGIA: Entre março/2005 e setembro/2009 foram seguidos 14 doentes com idade média de 59,6 anos, em tratamento com cetuximab (7 ou erlotinib (7, por neoplasia pulmonar (10 ou colorrectal (4. Retrospectivamente foi avaliado o padrão clínico evolutivo de reacção cutânea, o intervalo entre a introdução do fármaco e o início dos sintomas e a resposta ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Doze doentes apresentaram erupção papulopustulosa predominantemente na face, decote e dorso, em média 13,5 dias após o início do fármaco. Efectuaram tratamento oral com minociclina ou doxiciclina e tópico com metronidazol, peróxido de benzoílo e/ou corticoide. Ocorreu melhoria das lesões em todos os doentes. Cinco doentes, em média oito semanas após o início da terapia, apresentaram granulomas piogénicos periungueais, em quatro casos associados a paroníquia, melhorados com tratamento tópico (antibióticos, corticoides e antissépticos. Observou-se xerose em alguns doentes e, de forma isolada, outros efeitos adversos, como telangiectasias e angiomas, alterações dos cabelos e cílios e nevos melanocíticos eruptivos. Na maioria dos doentes, a terapêutica com o inibidor do receptor do factor de crescimento epidérmico foi mantida. CONCLUSÃO: Com o crescente uso destas terapêuticas-alvo, torna-se obrigatório reconhecer e tratar os seus efeitos cutâneos adversos, assegurando uma intervenção atempada de forma a permitir a manutenção desta terapêuticaBACKGROUND: Cetuximab and erlotinib, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, often cause peculiar adverse cutaneous reactions. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate adverse cutaneous reactions

  7. FACTORING- CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Capital is the main factor of production, business development becomes virtually impossible without taking into account the financial market and the resources it provides to businesses. Any business, regardless of its degree of development, is involving direct contact with financial markets, namely the institutions that mediate mobilization of capital and the services they provide. Understanding the functioning of the financial system, the specific financial mechanisms through which savings are allocated to support capital investments and the costs and risks involved is essential for the development of a solid base for business. In this context, factoring operations can support economic agents, allowing a transfer of commercial receivables from their holder to a factor who commits to their recovery and guarantee such operations even if temporary or permanent insolvency of the debtor . Thus, factoring is a complex technique in at least two aspects, of the debt and the transfer of credit. . Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romania. Maybe because of poor business environment popularize the term is as little known as it was a few years ago the leasing. Present in Romanian legislation since 2002, factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent, providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor, which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part we defined the concept of factoring and international factoring, then I presented the advantages and development of factoring in Romania, and the last part conclusions.

  8. Tabaquismo en médicos y en la población general. Comparación de los resultados del estudio TAMARA y de la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferrante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque se demostró la influencia del médico sobre el paciente fumador para desalentar y controlar la adicción, esta actitud depende en gran medida de la relación del propio médico con el tabaco. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la prevalencia de tabaquismo en médicos del estudio TAMARA (Tabaquismo en médicos de la República Argentina versus la comunicada para la población general en la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo 2005 (ENFR.Se recurrió a la base de datos del estudio TAMARA para estratificar la población de médicos de acuerdo con los intervalos de edad comunicados por la ENFR. De los 6.497 médicos originales del TAMARA, se incluyeron 5.806 en el intervalo de 25 a 64 años, mientras que de la ENFR se utilizaron los datos de 9.658 encuestados de la población general. Se encontraron prevalencias de fumadores similares para los médicos y la población general (32,2% versus 32,4%; p = 0,403; sin embargo, al estratificar por edad se demostró un patrón distinto. La proporción de médicos fumadores fue inferior a la de la población general entre los 25 y los 34 años (30,9% versus 34,6%; p = 0,0004 y entre los 50 y los 64 años (21,3% versus 26,8%; p < 0,0001, mientras que en el grupo de edad intermedia (35- 49 años el porcentaje de médicos fumadores superó la prevalencia de la ENFR (44,4 versus 35,8%; p < 0,0001. Se observó además que este estrato de edad intermedia fue el que tenía menos formación para el manejo del tabaquismo.En conclusión, si bien la prevalencia global del tabaquismo en médicos no es diferente de la correspondiente a la población general, la estratificación por edad mostró que los médicos eran más fumadores entre los 35 y los 49 años. Aunque en los grupos de menor y mayor edad se encontraron menos fumadores entre los médicos, esta diferencia no fue tan marcada como en el grupo intermedio. La alta prevalencia de fumadores entre los médicos podría constituirse en una influencia

  9. Insufficient free-time physical activity and occupational factors in Brazilian public school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas Fernando; Loch, Mathias Roberto; González, Alberto Durán; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2017-07-20

    To evaluate if perceived occupational factors are associated with insufficient free-time physical activity in Brazilian public school teachers. The relationship between insufficient physical activity (work was analyzed in 978 elementary and high school teachers calculating the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) in Poisson regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 71.9%, and this condition was associated independently with the perception of bad or regular balance between personal and professional life (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.01-1.18), perception that standing time affects the work (PR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.01-1.34), low or very low perception of current ability for the physical requirements of work (PR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08-1.35), and temporary employment contract (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03-1.25). The teaching of physical education was associated with lower prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.64-0.95). The perception of adverse working conditions is associated with increased prevalence of insufficient physical activity in teachers and should be considered for the promotion of physical activity in this population. Analisar se fatores ocupacionais percebidos estão associados à atividade física insuficiente no tempo livre em professores de escolas públicas. A relação entre atividade física insuficiente (< 150 minutos/semana) e variáveis relacionadas ao trabalho foi analisada em 978 professores do ensino fundamental e médio mediante o cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) em modelos de regressão de Poisson, ajustados por variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde. A prevalência de atividade física insuficiente foi de 71,9%, e essa condição associou-se de maneira independente com percepção de equilíbrio entre vida pessoal e profissional ruim ou regular (RP = 1,09; IC95% 1,01-1,18), percepção de

  10. Associated factors with mammographic changes in women undergoing breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Ricardo Soares de; Mattos, Jacó Saraiva de Castro; Silva, Anderson Soares da; Mello, Luanes Marques de; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate association of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and epidemiological factors with result of mammogram in women undergoing breast cancer screening. This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained through interviews, anthropometric measurements, and mammography of 600 women aged 40 to 69 years at the Preventive Medicine Department of Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Brazil, in 2014. The results of these examinations in the BI-RADS categories 1 and 2 were grouped and classified in this study as normal mammogram outcome, and those of BI-RADS categories 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, and 5 were grouped and classified as altered mammogram outcome. The statistical analysis included the Student's t-test to compare means, as well as odds ratios (OR), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), to verify an association by means of the multivariate analysis. Of 600 women evaluated, 45% belonged to the age group of 40-49 years-old and 60.2% were classified as BI-RADS category 2. The multivariate analysis showed that women with blood hypertension (OR: 2.64; 95%CI: 1.07-6.49; pde fatores sociodemográficos, antropométricos e epidemiológicos com o resultado das mamografias de mulheres submetidas ao rastreamento. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados obtidos por meio de entrevistas, avaliação antropométrica e mamografia de 600 mulheres entre 40 a 69 anos, atendidas no Departamento de Prevenção do Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, em 2014. Os resultados de tais exames nas categorias BI-RADS 1 e 2 foram agrupados e classificados neste estudo como achado mamográfico normal, e aqueles das categorias BI-RADS 3, 4A, 4B, 4C e 5 como achado mamográfico alterado. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t de Student para comparar as médias, bem como odds ratio (OR), com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%), na verificação de associação por análise multivariada. Das 600 mulheres avaliadas, 45% pertenciam à faixa etária dos 40 a 49

  11. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were ma...

  12. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.V.M.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125 I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  13. Factors of trade in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 518-535 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bilateral trade * factors of trade * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  14. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  15. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  16. Factor analysis of multivariate data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Mahadevan, R.

    A brief introduction to factor analysis is presented. A FORTRAN program, which can perform the Q-mode and R-mode factor analysis and the singular value decomposition of a given data matrix is presented in Appendix B. This computer program, uses...

  17. Pineal factors other than melatonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebels, I.

    Some sheep pineal factors other than melatonin are described. A “nonmelatonin” antigonadotropic activity has been detected by application of the inhibition of compensatory ovarian hypertrophy (COH) in unilaterally ovariectomized adult Charles River CD-1 mice. The factor has been extracted from

  18. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  19. Electromagnetic form factors of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidell, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A vector meson dominance model of the electromagnetic form factors of hadrons is developed which is based on the use of unstable particle propagators. Least-square fits are made to the proton, neutron, pion and kaon form factor data in both the space and time-like regions. A good fit to the low-energy nucleon form factor data is obtained using only rho, ω, and phi dominance, and leads to a determination of the vector meson resonance parameters in good agreement with experiment. The nucleon-vector meson coupling constants obey simple sum rules indicating that there exists no hard core contribution to the form factors within theoretical uncertainties. The prediction for the electromagnetic radii of the proton is in reasonable agreement with recent experiments. The pion and kaon charge form factors as deduced from the nucleon form factors assuming vector meson universality are compared to the data. The pion form factor agrees with the data in both the space and time-like regions. The pion charge radius is in agreement with the recent Dubna result, but the isovector P-wave pion-pion phase shift calculated from the theory disagrees with experiment. A possible contribution to the form factors from a heavy rho meson is also evaluated

  20. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  1. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  2. Factors That Shape Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of design literature discusses the role of the studio and its related pedagogy in the development of design thinking. Scholars in a variety of design disciplines pose a number of factors that potentially affect this development process, but a full understanding of these factors as experienced from a critical pedagogy or student…

  3. Kadison-Kastler stable factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is proven that a pair of continuous finite von Neumann algebra factors are unitarily equivalent if sufficiently close and one satisfies a certain cohomological condition.......It is proven that a pair of continuous finite von Neumann algebra factors are unitarily equivalent if sufficiently close and one satisfies a certain cohomological condition....

  4. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  5. Timomas y miastenia gravis: Supervivencia y factores pronósticos, catorce años de experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Martínez Blanco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un estudio de cohorte analítico para evaluar factores pronósticos en 34 pacientes con timoma y miastenia gravis, a los cuales se les realizó timectomía, entre enero de 1984 y diciembre de 1998, 22 femeninos y 12 masculinos, con un promedio de edad de 49,7 años. De acuerdo con la clasificación clínica de Masaoka, 14 pertenecieron al estadio I, 2 al II, 12 al III y 6 al IV. Histológicamente 17 fueron mixtos, 9 corticales, 5 medulares y 3 carcinomas tímicos bien diferenciados. Según la clasificación de Osserman 5 enfermos se encontraban en el grupo IIa, 23 en el IIb y 6 en el IV. La vía de acceso fue la esternotomía media. Los pacientes con tumores invasivos recibieron radioterapia y poliquimioterapia adyuvante. El índice de remisión de los síntomas miasténicos al año fue de 53,1%. Hubo 3 fallecidos en el período posoperatorio y 7 tardíamente. El timoma cortical y, en general, los tumores invasivos fueron los de peores resultados. Los factores que más se relacionaron con el pronóstico por su influencia sobre el intervalo libre de enfermedad y la supervivencia a largo plazo, fueron el estadio clínico del tumor, el tipo hístico y el tipo de miasteniaThis paper presents an analytical cohort study to evaluate prognostic factors in 34 patients with thymona and myasthemia gravis whom thymectomy from January 1984 to December 1998. Twenty two were females and 12 males aged 49,7 years of age as average. According to Masaoka´s clinical classification, 14 patients were at stage I; two at stage II, 12 at stage III and 6 at stage IV. From the histological viewpoint, 17 were mixed thymona, 9 cortical thymonas, 5 medullar thymonas and 3 well-differentiated thymic carcinomas. According to Osswerman´s classification, 5 patients were included in group IIa, 23 in group IIb and 6 in group IV. The access pathway was median sternotomy. Remission index of myasthemic symptoms after a year was 53.1%. there were 3 deaths in the

  6. Cobertura vacinal e fatores associados ao esquema vacinal básico incompleto aos 12 meses de idade, São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, 2006 Cobertura de vacunación y factores asociados con esquemas incompletos de vacunación básica a los 12 meses de edad, São Luis, Maranhão, Brasil, 2006 Vaccination coverage and factors associated with incomplete basic vaccination schedule in 12-month-old children, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Anielly Lima Cabra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a cobertura vacinal e os fatores associados ao esquema vacinal básico incompleto aos 12 meses de idade, em 427 crianças de 12 a 59 meses, em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, 2006. Trata-se de inquérito domiciliar transversal, de base populacional, com amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Empregou-se regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. A cobertura para o esquema básico completo foi de 71,9% segundo doses aplicadas, 61,8% para doses válidas e 23,6% para doses corretas. As vacinas contra hepatite B e tetravalente apresentaram maiores percentuais de doses aplicadas em datas ou intervalos inferiores aos recomendados. Os percentuais de atraso vacinal foram elevados, exceto para a BCG. Percentuais mais elevados de esquema vacinal básico incompleto foram encontrados em crianças das classes econômicas D e E, do sexo feminino e de chefes de família de cor da pele preta. As desigualdades raciais, de gênero e socioeconômicas representaram barreiras à vacinação completa, indicando necessidade de reforçar as políticas equitativas que eliminem essas desigualdades.El estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la cobertura de vacunación y los factores asociados al esquema incompleto de vacunación básico a los 12 meses de edad, realizado en 427 niños de 12 a 59 meses, en São Luis, Maranhão, Brasil, 2006. Se trata de una encuesta domiciliaria transversal, de base poblacional, con muestreo complejo por conglomerados. Se empleó la regresión de Poisson con un ajuste robusto de variancia. La cobertura para el esquema básico completo fue de un 71,9% según las dosis aplicadas, un 61,8% para dosis válidas y un 23,6% para dosis correctas. Las vacunas contra la hepatitis B y tetravalente presentaron mayores porcentajes de dosis aplicadas en fechas o intervalos inferiores a los recomendados. Los porcentajes de atraso en la vacunación fueron elevados, excepto para la vacuna BCG. Los porcentajes más elevados

  7. Factoring in Factor VIII With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; Samai, Alyana; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-10-01

    There is growing research interest into the etiologies of cryptogenic stroke, in particular as it relates to hypercoagulable states. An elevation in serum levels of the procoagulant factor VIII is recognized as one such culprit of occult cerebral infarctions. It is the objective of the present review to summarize the molecular role of factor VIII in thrombogenesis and its clinical use in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. We also discuss the utility of screening for serum factor VIII levels among patients at risk for, or those who have experienced, ischemic stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Using Bayes factors for multi-factor, biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, A.; Skufca, J. D.; Lao, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-factor/multi-modal authentication systems are becoming the de facto industry standard. Traditional methods typically use rates that are point estimates and lack a good measure of uncertainty. Additionally, multiple factors are typically fused together in an ad hoc manner. To be consistent, as well as to establish and make proper use of uncertainties, we use a Bayesian method that will update our estimates and uncertainties as new information presents itself. Our algorithm compares competing classes (such as genuine vs. imposter) using Bayes Factors (BF). The importance of this approach is that we not only accept or reject one model (class), but compare it to others to make a decision. We show using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve that using BF for determining class will always perform at least as well as the traditional combining of factors, such as a voting algorithm. As the uncertainty decreases, the BF result continues to exceed the traditional methods result.

  9. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  10. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly

  11. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  12. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  13. Variabilidade espacial de fatores de erosão em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Spatial variability of the erosion factors in eutrudox Red Latosol under sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar M. de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar a variabilidade espacial de fatores de erosão em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, foram obtidas amostras do solo em intervalos regulares de 50 m, em forma de grid, totalizando 206 pontos de amostragem. Foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 m para a determinação da composição granulométrica e do conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Os fatores de erosão locais, como erosividade (R, erodibilidade (K, relevo (LS, perda de solo (A, potencial natural de erosão (PNE, risco de erosão (RE e expectativa de erosão (EE, foram avaliados. A variabilidade do solo medida pelo coeficiente de variação registrou-se média para K, alta para o RE e EE e muito alta para A, LS e PNE. As variáveis estudadas apresentaram estrutura de dependência espacial com grau moderado para as variáveis K, A, PNE e RE, e forte para o LS e EE. Mapas obtidos por krigagem foram apresentados para descrição dos padrões de distribuição dos fatores de erosão na paisagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil erosion factors on a Dark Red Oxisol under sugarcane conventional tillage. Soil samples were collected in 206 points, in a depth of 0.0-0.2 m, located in a 50 m regular grid for obtaining the soil texture and organic matter content. The local erosion factors were determined: erosivity (R, erodibility (K, relief (LS, soil erosion (A, natural potential of erosion (PNE, erosion risk (RE and erosion expectation (EE. Geostatistical analysis was performed to measure and model the spatial variability of soil erosion factors. The soil variability was moderate with K, A, and PNE while the soil variability was higher with LS, RE, and EE. K, A, and PNE exhibited moderate spatial dependence, but spatial dependence of LS, RE and EE was strong. Kriging maps were presented for understanding of soil erosion factors distribution patterns within the landscape.

  14. Factor concentrates for the treatment of factor XIII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootenberg, J E

    1998-11-01

    Factor XIII deficiency is a severe autosomal recessive bleeding disorder associated with a characteristic pattern of neonatal hemorrhage and a lifelong bleeding diathesis. Even relatively minor trauma can be followed by prolonged and recurrent bleeding. Intracranial hemorrhage is a frequent complication. With the development of safe and effective factor XIII concentrates, reliable prophylactic treatment is possible. Two plasma-derived, virus-inactivated factor XIII concentrates are currently in production. The first, Fibrogammin P, (Centeon LLC, King of Prussia, PA, USA; and Centeon Pharma GmbH, Marburg, Germany) is marketed in Europe, South America, South Africa, and Japan. It is distributed in the United States under a Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug Application. A second factor XIII concentrate (Bio Products Laboratory, Elstree, UK) is available for use only on a "named patient" compassionate basis in the United Kingdom. Patients with factor XIII deficiency who receive appropriately timed periodic infusions of such factor XIII concentrates are able to live normal lives, free from catastrophic bleeding episodes.

  15. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em adolescentes Prevalencia y factores asociados a la obesidad abdominal en adolescentes Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Romanzini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e sua associação com fatores demográficos, econômicos e estilo de vida em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal conduzido em 644 adolescentes (397 do sexo feminino e 247 do masculino, de 15 a 19 anos. Foram coletadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade, econômicas (nível econômico e comportamentais (atividade física, alimentação, tabagismo e etilismo. A obesidade abdominal (desfecho foi determinada com base em pontos de corte para a circunferência de cintura, específicos ao sexo e à idade. A análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística, estimando-se Odds Ratios (OR brutas e ajustadas, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi de 7,5%. Adolescentes do sexo masculino (OR 2,34; IC95% 1,27-4,32, de nível econômico intermediário (OR 2,89; IC95% 1,35-6,19 e alto (OR 2,98; IC95% 1,31-6,77 e que consumiam bebida alcoólica de forma abusiva (OR 2,12; IC95% 1,10-4,09 apresentaram maior chance de possuírem obesidade abdominal. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi baixa em comparação aos estudos internacionais. Ademais, encontrou-se que o sexo, o nível econômico e o consumo abusivo de álcool se associaram à obesidade abdominal.OBJETIVO: Verificar la prevalencia de obesidad abdominal y su asociación con factores demográficos, económicos y estilo de vida en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal conducido en 644 adolescentes (397 del sexo masculino y 247 del femenino de 15 a 18 años. Se recogieron informaciones demográficas (sexo, edad, económicas (nivel económico y comportamentales (actividad física, alimentación, tabaquismo, alcoholismo. La obesidad abdominal (desfecho fue determinada con base en puntos de corte para la circunferencia de la cintura, específicos al sexo y la edad. El análisis multivariado se realizó mediante regresión logística, estimando

  18. Improved multivariate polynomial factoring algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A new algorithm for factoring multivariate polynomials over the integers based on an algorithm by Wang and Rothschild is described. The new algorithm has improved strategies for dealing with the known problems of the original algorithm, namely, the leading coefficient problem, the bad-zero problem and the occurrence of extraneous factors. It has an algorithm for correctly predetermining leading coefficients of the factors. A new and efficient p-adic algorithm named EEZ is described. Bascially it is a linearly convergent variable-by-variable parallel construction. The improved algorithm is generally faster and requires less store then the original algorithm. Machine examples with comparative timing are included

  19. Quality factors for monoenergetic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, W.G.; Ing, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mean quality factors anti Q(E/sub n/), for the dose resulting from first interactons of monoenergetic neutrons in tissue, have been calculated at energies from thermal to 14.7 MeV. Knowledge of these values, along with kerma factors, allows the calculation of the heavy-particle dose equivalent for any known neutron spectrum in tissue. The partial quality factors for the dose delivered by C, N, and O elastic and inelastic recoils are found to be virtually independent of the scattering angular distributions and are given by simple expressions

  20. Clostridium difficile outbreak in Costa Rica: control actions and associated factors Brote de infección por Clostridium difficile en Costa Rica: medidas de control y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2012-12-01

    las medidas que se tomaron. Se seleccionaron los casos y se incluyeron en un estudio de casos y testigos; se seleccionaron los testigos en los mismos servicios y el mismo periodo que los casos. Las exposiciones evaluadas incluían las afecciones médicas subyacentes y los tratamientos administrados antes de que comenzaran los síntomas. RESULTADOS: La media de la edad en los grupos de los casos y de los testigos fue de 62,3 años y 55,3 años, respectivamente. Las medidas de control incluyeron una campaña de promoción de la higiene de las manos, la desinfección a fondo de las superficies hospitalarias, el aislamiento estricto de los casos, el uso de equipo de protección personal y la restricción del uso de antibióticos. Los riesgos atribuibles ajustados que se asociaron al brote fueron la diabetes (razón de posibilidades [OR]: 3,4; intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95%: 1,5-7,7, la insuficiencia renal crónica (OR: 9,0; IC de 95%: 1,5-53,0 y el uso de ceftazidima (OR: 33,3; IC de 95%: 2,9-385,5 y cefotaxima (OR: 20,4; IC de 95%: 6,9-60,3. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación oportuna de medidas de control redujo la transmisión de la infección y permitió controlar satisfactoriamente el brote. Las afecciones y los factores que se asociaron a la infección por C. difficile fueron similares a los que se encontraron en brotes de esta infección descritos anteriormente.

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...

  2. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  4. Calculation of pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, N.; Amirarjomand, S.

    1975-09-01

    The pion form factor is calculated using the structure function Wsub(2), which incorporates kinematical constraints, threshold behaviour and scaling. The Bloom-Gilman sum rule is used and only the two leading Regge trajectories are taken into account

  5. EAMJ Factors Aug.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-01

    Aug 1, 2009 ... Objective: To bridge the existing gaps by examining the factors associated with attrition. Design: ... Results: In this cohort study, 1353 women were enrolled at delivery and 1188 (88%) ... wage earners with poor social support.

  6. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.

  7. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Garlauskaitė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the aging of the population of Lithuania. After analysis it is concluded in the article that the decline in the birth rate and increase in the number of emigrants compared to immigrants have the greatest impact on aging of the population, so in order to show the aging of the population, a lot of attention should be paid to management of these demographic processes.

  8. Fatores de risco para diárreia persistente em lactentes Risk factors to persistent diarrhea in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Moura Lins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A diarréia persistente é uma doença multicausal. A análise do risco para o prolongamento do quadro diarréico envolve variáveis ambientais, biológicas e do manejo clínico. OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para a diarréia persistente em crianças hospitalizadas na fase aguda do quadro diarréico. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O estudo foi do tipo caso-controle. A amostra consistiu de 216 crianças menores de 24 meses hospitalizadas por diarréia de início abrupto, no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, PE. O grupo de casos incluiu as crianças com diarréia persistente e o de controles aquelas com diarréia aguda. Foram analisadas variáveis socioeconômicas, biológicas, de morbidade anterior, clínicas e do manejo terapêutico prévio à admissão. Utilizou-se o odds ratio não ajustado e ajustado, com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%, observando-se o nível de significância de 5%. A análise multivariada foi feita através de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: O risco de persistência da diarréia foi maior nas crianças com: disenteria, febre no início do quadro, dieta suspensa e uso de antibiótico à admissão hospitalar. O risco de diarréia persistente foi cerca de três vezes maior para crianças sem geladeira no domicílio e que apresentavam hiperemia perianal ao exame físico na admissão hospitalar, sendo estas as variáveis que apresentaram significância estatística após o ajuste para fatores de confusão. CONCLUSÕES: A melhoria das condições ambientais e o manejo adequado e individualizado da criança hospitalizada por diarréia pode contribuir para a redução da morbidade da doença.BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhea is a multicausal disease. The analysis of risk factors for persistent diarrhea includes environmental and biological variables as well as therapeutical management. AIM: To identify risk factors for persistent diarrhea among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea

  9. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  10. Factorization-algebraization-path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, A.; Wilson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review the method of factorization proposed by Schroedinger of a quantum mechanical second-order linear differential equation into a product of two first-order differential operators, often referred to as ladder operators, as well as the modifications made to Schroedinger's method by Infeld and Hull. They then review the group theoretical treatments proposed by Miller of the Schroedinger-Infeld-Hull factorizations and go on to demonstrate the application of dynamical symmetry to path integral calculations. 30 references

  11. Factors determining UK album success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  12. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    763512/715242 Final Report U VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS U Samuel Rosen Department of Oral Biology For the Period April 1, 1983 - June 30...00 FINAL REPORT VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Sam Rosen, Irving Shklair, E. X. Beck and F. M. Beck Ohio State University Columbus,Oh and...206-212. Johnson CP, Gorss S, Hillman JD (1978). Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans . J Dent Res 57, Special Issue

  13. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.

  15. Clinical Application of Wedge Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Rak; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Sueng Jae

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : In general. The wedge factors which are used clinical practices are ignored of dependency on field sizes and depths. In this present, we investigated systematically the depth and field size dependency to determine the absorbed dose more accurately. Methods : The wedge factors for each wedge filter were measured at various depth (depth of Dmax, 5cm, 10cm, and 15cm) and field sizes (5 X 5cm, 10 X 10cm, 15 X 15cm, 20 X 20 cm) by using 4-,6-, and 10-MV X rays. By convention, wedge factors are determined by taking the ratio of the central axis ionization readings when the wedge filter is in place to those of the open field in same field size and measurement depth. In this present work, we determined the wedge factors for 4-, 6-, and 10-MV X rays from Clinac 600C and 2100C linear accelerators (manufactured by Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). To confirm that the wedge was centered., measurements were done with the two possible wedge position and various collimator orientations. Results : The standard deviations of measured values are within 0.3% and the depth dependence of wedge factor is greater for the lower energies. Especially, the variation of wedge factor is no less than 5% for 4- and 6- MV X rays with more than 45 .deg. wedge filter. But there seems to be a small dependence on field size. Conclusion : The results of this study show a dependence on the point of measurement. There also seems to be a small dependence on field size. And so, we should consider the depth and field size dependence in determining the wedge factors. If one wedge factor were to be used for each wedge filter, it seems that the measurement for a 10cm X 10cm field size at a depth of 10cm would be a reasonable choice

  16. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    POWER FACTOR DEFINITION I Basically , power factor (pf) is a measure of how effectively the plant uses the electricity it purchases from the utility. It...not be made available by the plant. U 24 This video is relatively short, less than fifteen-minutes, and covers the basics on demand, block extenders... ratemaking methodology and test period as used in determining the NC-RS rates. Pending final decision by the FERC, the Federal Government would pay a rate as

  17. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  18. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  20. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  1. Modifying factors for metabolic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1990-01-01

    Studies on factors which influence the metabolic parameter for calculation of radiation doses from intakes of radionuclides are very important for estimation of the doses for the general public, because the present procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection is for occupationally exposed workers and the underlying metabolic and dosimetric models have been developed from studies on adult man and experiments on adult animals and from observations on radionuclides in physico-chemically simple form. Many factors have been reported to influence the metabolic parameters. Among them, the food-chain involvement of radionuclides and the age-dependence in humans and animals are most significant as environmental and physiological factor, respectively. In connection with the age-dependence of dose calculation, the ICRP started a new programme. They organized a Task Group on Age-Dependent Dose-Factors where relevant information on metabolic and biokinetic parameters are presently being reviewed for development of a set of dose factors for the following age-groups: infant, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old, and ICRP Reference Man. The first stage of the work is for age-dependent integrated organ and effective dose factors for radioisotopes of the following elements: hydrogen, carbon, iodine, cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. (author)

  2. Fatores associados à qualidade de vida de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Factors associated with the quality of life of community health agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar a associação dos fatores sociodemográficos, ocupacionais, comportamentos de risco e de saúde com o comprometimento da qualidade de vida dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde do município de Jequié, Bahia. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 316 indivíduos, no qual foi utilizado o WHOQOL-Bref para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Aplicou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson, adotando o intervalo de confiança de 95%. As variáveis associadas ao maior comprometimento do domínio Físico foram sexo, idade, dor e satisfação com a saúde; ao domínio Psicológico foram escolaridade, aspectos psicossociais, tabagismo, dor e satisfação com a saúde; ao domínio Relações Sociais foram sexo, situação conjugal, escolaridade, aspectos psicossociais e satisfação com a saúde; ao domínio Meio Ambiente foram sexo, renda familiar, local de trabalho, aspectos psicossociais e satisfação com a saúde. Espera-se que esse estudo possa subsidiar o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas destinadas à melhoria das condições de vida e trabalho desse grupo de trabalhadores.This study examined the association of socio-demographic, occupational and risk and health behavioral factors with the loss of quality of life for community health agents of the municipality of Jequié in the state of Bahia. It is a cross-sectional study with 316 individuals, in which WHOQOL-Bref was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Poisson regression model was applied adopting the confidence interval of 95%. The variables associated with the largest threat to the Physical domain were gender, age, pain and satisfaction with health. Threats to the Psychological domain were schooling, psycho-social aspects, smoking, pain and satisfaction with health were analyzed. Threats to the Social Relations domain of were sex, marital situation, schooling, psycho-social aspects, and satisfaction with health. Threats to the Environmental domain were sex

  3. Número ideal de filhos como fator de risco para laqueadura tubária Ideal number of children as a risk factor for tubal ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Campos de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre o número ideal de filhos (NIF e a realização da laqueadura. Foi feito um estudo de caso-controle aninhado, com base em uma análise secundária de dados obtidos em um estudo de coorte sobre a saúde reprodutiva de mulheres em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, que teve como sujeitos 3.878 mulheres, das quais 1.012 eram laqueadas (casos. A relação entre NIF e o número de nascidos vivos (NV foi dividida em duas categorias (NIF > NV e NIF ¾ NV. Foram calculados os riscos relativos estimados (odds ratio para a realização de laqueadura e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95% para a relação NIF/NV, estratificando-se para outras dez variáveis. Todas as variáveis preditoras foram incluídas em um modelo de regressão logística para identificar os fatores independentemente associados à esterilização definitiva. Observou-se que o risco de laqueadura foi maior entre as mulheres com NIF The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the association between ideal number of children (INC and female sterilization. A nested case-control study was performed through a secondary analysis of data from a cohort study on the reproductive health of women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 3,878 women were included, 1,012 being sterilized (cases. The relationship between INC and number of live births (LB was divided in two categories (INC > LB and INC ¾ LB. The relative risks of performing tubal ligation were calculated (odds ratio with their respective 95% confidence intervals for the relation INC/LB and all control variables. All predictor variables were included in a logistic regression model in order to identify the factors independently associated with female sterilization. The results showed that the risks of tubal ligation were higher among women with INC < LB, higher age, with partners, higher family income, more than two previous pregnancies, more deliveries, fewer abortions

  4. Prevalencia de hipotiroidismo y su asociación con factores de riesgo cardiometabólicos en mujeres adultas argentinas

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    Lorena Rosalía Belén

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El hipotiroidismo se asocia con factores de riesgo cardiometabólicos (FRC además de la edad y del sexo femenino. El principal objetivo fue conocer la prevalencia de hipotiroidismo y su asociación con FRC en mujeres adultas concurrentes a un Centro de Endocrinología de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.Material y Métodos: Diseño transversal y observacional en muestra no probabilística de 316 mujeres adultas (40 a 65 años, categorizadas en hipotiroideas controladas con tratamiento farmacológico y eutiroideas. Variables: Se estudiaron los siguientes FRC: Índice Masa Corporal (IMC, <25kg/m2 y ≥25,0Kg/m2; circunferencia cintura (CC ≤88cm y >88cm; etapa biológica (premenopausia y posmenopausia, tabaquismo, sedentarismo; perfil lipídico alterado (ColT>200mg/dl; LDL-c>130mg/dl; Tg>150mg/dl; HDL-c<40mg/dl; HTA≥120/80mmHg y glucemia basal aumentada >100mg/dl. Estadística con SPSS 15.0 estableciendo medidas de tendencia central, ANOVA y OR con intervalos de confianza 95% (IC y diferencia de proporciones con valor p<0,05.Resultados: 46,2% hipotiroideas controladas y 53,8% eutiroideas; 64,2% posmenopáusicas; 68% con sobrepeso u obesidad y 45,2% con CC aumentada. La edad fue similar en ambos grupos: 53,3 (DS=6,4 años hipotiroideas y 53,9 (DS=6,6 años eutiroideas. Sedentarismo fue el FRC más prevalente en ambos grupos. Las hipotiroideas presentaron más riesgo de IMC aumentado (OR=0,36 IC95%=0,21-0,59; p=0,0001 y CC alterada (OR=0,53 IC95%=0,34-0,84; p=0,006 que las eutiroideas.Conclusiones: La prevalencia de hipotiroidismo se presentó aproximadamente en la mitad de la muestra. El estado nutricional alterado fue el único FRC asociado significativamente con el hipotiroidismo.

  5. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo Marital violence in Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalence and risk factors

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    R. Tuesca

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.Objective: To determine the prevalence of violence against women of fertile age

  6. Prevalencia de depresión y factores asociados con ella en la población colombiana The prevalence of and factors associated with depression in Colombia

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    Carlos Gómez-Restrepo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la prevalencia del síndrome depresivo y los factores asociados con la depresión en Colombia entre los años 2000 y 2001. MÉTODOS: Para este estudio descriptivo de corte transversal se aplicó una encuesta entre noviembre de 2000 y enero de 2001 a 1 116 adultos de 18 años de edad o más de uno u otro sexo que residían en viviendas particulares seleccionadas mediante un muestreo representativo nacional polietápico, estratificado según el grado de urbanización del área incluida en el muestreo. La depresión se clasificó en breve, subclínica o clínica (leve, moderada o grave en los 30 días y los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Se calcularon las frecuencias simples y estratificadas por la edad y el sexo, y los intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95% de más de 500 variables. La asociación de las variables seleccionadas con episodios depresivos se evaluó mediante un modelo de regresión logística con múltiples variables. RESULTADOS: De las personas estudiadas, 10,0% (IC95%: 9,2 a 10,7 presentaron algún episodio depresivo en los 12 meses previos a la encuesta y 8,5% (IC95%: 7,8 a 9,2 sufrieron alguno durante el último mes. Hubo una mayor proporción de mujeres con depresión en ambos períodos. Más de 50% de los episodios fueron moderados, tanto en hombres como en mujeres, y las mayores prevalencias se encontraron en las personas mayores de 45 años. Los factores asociados con la depresión en el último mes fueron ser mujer, considerar el estado de salud propio como regular o malo, sufrir de dolores o molestias, tener dificultades en las relaciones interpersonales, consumir marihuana o sustancias adictivas, medicamentos estimulantes o calmantes, tener dependencia del alcohol, o estar desempleado con discapacidad. CONCLUSIÓN: La depresión es una afección frecuente en Colombia. Se deben poner en marcha medidas dirigidas a reducir el riesgo de depresión, especialmente en mujeres y en personas mayores de 45 a

  7. Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen; Thrasher, James T.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Yard, Jon T.; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Somma, Rolando D.

    2018-02-06

    Multi-factor authentication using quantum communication ("QC") includes stages for enrollment and identification. For example, a user enrolls for multi-factor authentication that uses QC with a trusted authority. The trusted authority transmits device factor information associated with a user device (such as a hash function) and user factor information associated with the user (such as an encrypted version of a user password). The user device receives and stores the device factor information and user factor information. For multi-factor authentication that uses QC, the user device retrieves its stored device factor information and user factor information, then transmits the user factor information to the trusted authority, which also retrieves its stored device factor information. The user device and trusted authority use the device factor information and user factor information (more specifically, information such as a user password that is the basis of the user factor information) in multi-factor authentication that uses QC.

  8. Rare coagulation disorders: fibrinogen, factor VII and factor XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moerloose, P; Schved, J-F; Nugent, D

    2016-07-01

    Rare coagulation disorders (RCDs) include the inherited deficiencies of fibrinogen, factor (F) II, FV, combined FV and VIII, FVII, FX, combined FVII and X, FXI, FXIII and combined congenital deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors (VKCFDs). Despite their rarity, a deep comprehension of all these disorders is essential to really understand haemostasis. Indeed, even if they share some common features each RCD has some particularity which makes it unique. In this review, we focus on three disorders: fibrinogen, FVII and FXIII. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fatores prognósticos para o parto transvaginal em pacientes com cesárea anterior Prognostic factors for vaginal delivery after cesarian section

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    Luiz Carlos Santos

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os fatores prognósticos para a ultimação do parto por via transpélvica em gestantes com cesárea anterior admitidas em trabalho de parto no CAM-IMIP. Foi realizado um estudo tipo caso-controle, analisando os partos de pacientes com cesárea prévia assistidos no CAM-IMIP no período de janeiro/1991 a dezembro/1994. Foram considerados casos as pacientes com cesárea anterior (n=156 e controles as que tiveram parto transvaginal (n=338. Os critérios de inclusão foram: idade gestacional > 36 semanas, cesárea anterior há pelo menos 1 ano, concepto vivo, trabalho de parto espontâneo e apresentação cefálica fletida. Foram excluídas as gestações de alto risco, os casos de sofrimento fetal anteparto e pacientes com história de parto transpélvico anterior depois da cesárea. A análise estatística foi realizada em Epi-Info 6.0 e Epi-Soft, utilizando-se os testes chi² de associação, teste exato de Fisher e "t" de Student, bem como a odds ratio e seu intervalo de confiança a 95%. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi efetuada para controle das variáveis confundidoras. O percentual de cesáreas no grupo estudado foi de 31,6%. Os fatores maternos que apresentaram associação significativa com o parto transvaginal foram a idade materna 35 anos (OR = 0,54, IC a 95% = 0,36-0,82, a história de parto vaginal anterior (OR = 1,6, IC a 95% = 1,01-2,55 e a indicação da cesárea anterior por doenças da gestação (OR = 3,67, IC a 95% = 1,19-12,02. Fatores como intervalo entre a cesárea anterior e o parto atual, outras indicações de cesárea e o tipo de histerorrafia não apresentaram associação significativa com o parto transpélvico. No modelo de regressão logística múltipla, persistiram como variáveis associadas significativamente ao parto vaginal a idade materna e a história de parto vaginal anterior. Os autores concluíram que sendo a idade materna Objectives: to determine

  10. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  11. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

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    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  12. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  13. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  14. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  15. Epistaxis: Prevailing Factors and Treatment

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    Secchi, Myrian Marajó Dal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The epistaxis is one the most frequent otorhinolaryngologic emergencies in the medical practice. It is a benign affection, but the refractory cases require hospital admission. Objective: To evaluate prevailing factors in patients with epistaxis and treatment. Form of study: Retrospective study. Method: 60 patients with diagnosis of epistaxis were evaluated and they needed hospital admission between 2005 and 2006. Results: The main prevailing factors were: Systemic arterial hypertension 36% (n= 22, trauma 16% (n=10 and coagulopathy 5% (n=3. The treatment was the use of nasal splint: anterior 58% (n=35 and antero-posterior 27% (n=16, the electrocauterization of the identified bloody point 7% (n=4, endoscopic arterial bandage 8% (n=5 in severe epistaxis. For the patients with antero-posterior splint with recurrence of bleeding in the first 24 hours (five patients, after clinical stabilization, an arterial bandage was indicated by endoscopic means; four patients had systemic arterial hypertension and in one patient no prevailing factor was identified. Conclusion: The main associated prevailing factors were systemic arterial hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy. The treatment depends on the type, severity and cause of bleeding, initially the anterior and antero-posterior splint for bleeding control. The early endoscopic arterial bandage is indicated in patients with severe epistaxis and prevailing factors, and prolonged admission and morbidities associated with nasal splint should be avoided.

  16. Security Gaps In Authentication Factor Credentials

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    Neeraj A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication factors refer to user login credentials that a user supplies to an authentication process for it to decide whether to grant or deny access. While two-factor and three-factor authentication generally provides better security than one-factor authentication the aim of this paper is to review security in individual authentication factor credentials that are in use nowadays. These credentials will be discussed in factor categories knowledge factor possession factor and inherence factor. The paper details current security gaps and some novel approaches to diminish the gaps in these authentication factors. We believe that our recommendations will inspire development of better authentication credentials and systems.

  17. Factores asociados a la infección tuberculosa latente en los contactos de pacientes afectados

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    Miquel Alsedà

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Una vez obtenidas unas cifras aceptables en la identificación y el tratamiento de los enfermos tuberculosos, se plantea una intervención para evitar la aparición de nuevos casos. Las personas con una infección tuberculosa latente (ITL reciente tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar una enfermedad tuberculosa. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la prevalencia de ITL y sus factores asociados en los contactos de pacientes tuberculosos. Métodos: Se estudiaron los contactos de estos pacientes examinados en el Centro de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis de Lleida en el período 1991-1997. Se recogieron factores asociados con el caso índice (demográficos, radiográficos, bacteriológicos y terapéuticos y el resultado de la prueba de la tuberculina en los contactos y sus datos demográficos. También se recogieron datos del caso índice relacionados con la infección por el VIH, el uso de drogas por vía parenteral y el consumo excesivo de alcohol. Como medida de asociación, se calcularon las odds ratio (OR crudas y ajustadas (ORa. Resultados: La prevalencia global de ITL en los contactos fue del 36,1% (780 de 2.161. En el análisis multivariante se detectó una mayor frecuencia de ITL en los contactos mayores de 14 años (ORa = 3,34; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 2,51-4,45, en los convivientes (ORa = 1,96; IC del 95%, 1,59-2,42, en los contactos de caso índice con una localización pulmonar de la enfermedad (ORa = 1,54; IC del 95%, 1,01-2,35, en los de caso índice con baciloscopia positiva en las muestras respiratorias (ORa = 1,51; IC del 95%, 1,15-1,99, en los de caso índice con patrón de cavitaciones en la radiografía de tórax (ORa = 1,27; IC del 95%, 1,01-1,61 y en los de casos índice con demora en el inicio del tratamiento (ORa = 1,31; IC del 95%, 1,05-1,62. Conclusiones: La prevalencia global de ITL en los contactos de enfermos tuberculosos es elevada. Entre los factores estudiados, la demora en el

  18. Prevalencia y factores asociados al VIH en habitante de calle de la ciudad de Medellín Colombia / Prevalence and factors associated with hiv among the street dwellers of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedsy Berbesí

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de VIH y explorar su relación con características sociales y demográficas de habitantes de calle de la ciudad de Medellín en el año 2014. Metodología: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-transversal para determinar la seroprevalencia de VIH y se exploraron factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la infección por VIH en habitantes de calle de la ciudad de Medellín en el año 2014. El procesamiento de datos fue realizado en el software SPSS 21.0. Los análisis incluyeron descripción univariada y bivariada, se utilizó la prueba estadística de Chi cuadrado; razón de prevalencia (RP intervalos de confianza del 95% asumiendo un nivel de significación estadística menor del 5%. Resultados: se encuestaron 184 habitantes de calle, el 80% eran hombres, con un promedio de edad de 40 (DE 11,4 años. Se identificó una prevalencia de VIH del 8,2%; para los hombres esta prevalencia fue de 6,1% y para las mujeres fue de 16,2%. Las mujeres tuvieron tres veces el riesgo de VIH comparado con los hombres y las personas casadas y en unión libre cinco veces el riesgo de tener VIH comparado con los solteros, separados y divorciados. Conclusión: la prevalencia mayor del 5% en la población habitante de calle, muestra que la infección por VIH en Colombia está concentrada en poblaciones clave (alta prevalencia y vulnerables y se requieren acciones focalizadas hacia grupos específicos. / ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV and describe the social and demographic characteristics of street dwellers Medellin in 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study where the authors determined the seroprevalence of HIV and explored the social and demographic factors associated with HIV infection among street dwellers of the city of Medellin in 2014. The data were processed using the SPSS 21.0 software. Analyses included univariate and bivariate descriptions, and the statistical Chi

  19. Factors related to dental health in 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in pupils Factors related to dental health in 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Smyth

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to the prevalence of caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a representative sample (n = 1217 of the population of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Galiza (northwest Spain. Independent variables were measured through a questionnaire, and dependent variables were determined through oral examination. Multiple and logistic regression were applied. Results: The decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth/decayed, filled primary teeth (DMFT-dft value in the sample was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67-1.98, the DMFT value was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37-1.67, and the prevalence of caries was 61% (95% CI, 57.7-64.5. The prevalence of caries was directly related to a low frequency of brushing, greater use of toothpaste, and a higher consumption of sweets. The prevalence of caries was higher in rural than in urban areas. In contrast, the higher the mother's level of education and the greater the subject's knowledge of dental health, the lower the prevalence of caries. Conclusions: The main goals of dental health programmes should be to achieve quality brushing every day in children, to reduce the consumption of sweets, and to increase knowledge of dental health.Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la prevalencia de caries en escolares de 12 años. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra (n = 1.217 de escolares de 12 años de Galicia. Las variables independientes se midieron mediante un cuestionario y las dependientes, a través de exploración bucal. En el análisis estadístico se aplicaron regresión logística y regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: El índice CAO-co en la muestra fue 1,83 (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,67-1,98, el índice CAO 1,53 (IC del 95%, 1,37-1,67, mientras que la prevalencia de caries se situó en el 61% (IC del 95%, 57,7-64,5. La prevalencia de caries estuvo directamente asociada a

  20. Success factors in technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Universities in the U.S. have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This paper describes goals and philosophy of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper also relates the critical factors for susscessful technology transfer, particularly relating to new business formation. These critical factors include the quality of the technology, the quality of the management, the quality of the investor, the passion for success, and the image of the company. Descriptions of three different levels of investment are also given and the most successful level of investment for starting a new company is reviewed. Licensing to large companies is also briefly reviewed, as this type of licensing requires some different strategies than that of licensing to start-up companies. High quality critical factors and intelligent investment create rewards for the parties and successful ventures.

  1. Critical factors for EIA implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jasmine; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has...... not been cumulated and analysed comprehensively according to the stages of the EIA process. This paper contributes to the critical review of the literature on EIA implementation and effectiveness by cumulating mainly empirical findings in an implementation theoretical perspective. It focuses on the links...... between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages...

  2. Factors Driving Business Intelligence Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Skyrius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.

  3. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  4. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Self-government’s factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Tokarski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Local self-governments are reliable business partners. Such belief, confirmed by long-term experience, results in eager collaboration between financial institutions and these entities. Contrary to its name, local self-governments do not constitute the main beneficiaries of the self-government’s factoring. The enterprises which perform investments commissioned by a local commune, district or province are the principal recipients. Such firms may utilise it independently if they have signed contracts with the proper authority and conduct sale with deferred payment, or they may be forced to utilise factoring when they submit their bids in self-government’s tenders within which a refinance guarantee is required. The main aim of the article is to present the mechanism and features of the self-government’s factoring, as well as the benefits which the entities involved enjoy.

  6. Organizational Factors and Intrapreneurial Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Antonieta Lizote

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial competencies of coordinators of undergraduate courses in two community universities in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The organizational factors studied were: management support, freedom at work, rewards, and time available and organizational limitations. Eight entrepreneurial competencies were considered; five included in an achievement set, and three in a planning set. The method was quantitative and descriptive, adopting a structured questionnaire as the data collection tool. Factor analysis, canonical analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results revealed a positive relationship between the constructs. The most relevant competencies were organizational limitations or uncertainty about tasks, and freedom at work, which indicates the importance having clarity about rules and decisions that should exist both at the level of performance expected of the coordinator, and the freedom that they must feel in their work.

  7. Factores socioacadémicos, estilo de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo de médicos internos de pregrado Socioacademic factors, style of learning, intellectual level and their relationship with the previous academic yield of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Padierna-Luna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El aprendizaje es una actividad compleja, en la que intervienen factores individuales, sociales-culturales y académicos. Objetivo. Describir factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo (promedio de los médicos internos de pregrado (MIP. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta transversal analítica a MIP aplicando tres cuestionarios: datos socioacadémicos, cuestionario CHAEA (estilos de aprendizaje y test de Raven para adultos (nivel intelectual. La muestra incluyó 174 alumnos procedentes de nueve universidades, tres privadas (n = 43; 24,7% y seis públicas (n = 131; 75,29%. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión múltiple para establecer asociaciones entre variables. Resultados y conclusiones. Predominó el género femenino, con el 59,2% (n = 103, frente al masculino, con el 40,8% (n = 71. El promedio de edad fue de 23,63 años, con un rango de 21 a 33. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en el rendimiento previo (8,21 frente a 8,25. Se midió la relación entre los factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje y nivel intelectual con el rendimiento académico, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De los datos socioacadémicos, sólo la edad se relaciona inversamente con el rendimiento, con r = 0,2 y p Introduction. The learning is a complex activity, in that takes part individual factors, social and academic factors, among others. Aim. To describe socioacademic factors, styles of learning (SL, intellectual level (IL and its relation with previous academic yield (academic average of the Pre-degree interns (PDI. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional and analytic survey to PDI was applied with three questionnaires: socioacademic data, adult questionnaire CHAEA (SL and test Raven (IL. The sample included 174 students coming from nine universities, three private (n = 43; 24.7% and six public (n = 131; 75.29%. It was used

  8. Prognostic factors in Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserman, Igor; Bahar, Irit; McAllum, Penny; Srinivasan, Sathish; Elbaz, Uri; Slomovic, Allan R; Rootman, David S

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prognostic factors influencing visual prognosis and length of treatment after acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Forty-two AK eyes of 41 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 were included. A diagnosis of AK was made on the basis of culture results with a corresponding clinical presentation. We calculated the prognostic effect of the various factors on final visual acuity and the length of treatment. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for the simultaneous effects of the various prognostic factors. Mean follow-up was 19.7 ± 21.0 months. Sixty-four percent of cases had > 1 identified risk factor for AK, the most common risk factor being contact lens wear (92.9% of eyes). At presentation, median best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200 (20/30 to Hand Motion [HM]) that improved after treatment to 20/50 (20/20 to Counting Fingers [CF]). Infection acquired by swimming or related to contact lenses had significantly better final BCVA (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). Neuritis and pseudodendrites were also associated with better final BCVA (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). Having had an epithelial defect on presentation and having been treated with topical steroid were associated with worse final best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.04). Multivariate regression analysis found a good initial visual acuity (p = 0.002), infections related to swimming (p = 0.01), the absence of an epithelial defect (p = 0.03), having been treated with chlorhexidine (p = 0.05), and not having receive steroids (p = 0.003) to significantly forecast a good final BCVA. We identified several prognostic factors that can help clinicians evaluate the expected visual damage of the AK infection and thus tailor treatment accordingly. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  9. The selection of occupancy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An estimate of the proportion of time that an area is occupied by radiation workers is often used in radiological protection to permit relaxation of exposure rate limits above those for continuous occupation. This proportion is known as an occupancy factor and is used most frequently in X-ray facilities. The strategy for controlling the external exposure of radiation workers must be decided before occupancy factors are selected for the design of the radiation protection facilities. When shielding has to be designed the occupancy factor effects the design objectives and permits increased exposure rates at the shield surface. It is useful to note that the selection of occupancy factors with due regard to the expected spatial variation of the exposure rate can help to reduce the range of the worker's radiation exposure because field gradients are usually steeper close to the shield. When other hazards, such as internal exposure, and other constraints, such as cost of the space consumed, are added, the selection of the optimum set of occupancy factors is more difficult. Two zone occupancy factors are discussed in this paper and proposals are made for a strategy to be used when there is more than one hazard and the designer has to meet constraints imposed by limitations of the facilities available. An important feature of the strategy is the avoidance of high radiation exposure to small groups of workers. The errors involved in assessment of the actual dose received by the radiation worker must be taken into account and in particular the selection of the higher exposure rate limits must be made with attention to the accident potential

  10. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  11. Factores asociados al asma en los niños y adolescentes de la zona rural de Navarra (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsaso Elizalde-Beiras

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivos: Conocer los factores asociados al asma y síntomas relacionados con asma en la población infantil y adolescente en la zona rural de Navarra (España a través de la validación del cuestionario ISAAC. Participantes y métodos: Estudio transversal mediante la realización del cuestionario ISAAC y variables adicionales por 797 niños y adolescentes, a través del cual se obtuvieron datos de prevalencia sobre síntomas de asma y factores asociados sin realizar ninguna prueba diagnóstica adicional. Emplazamiento: Marco de atención primaria. A través de las zonas básicas de salud se hizo la selección de la muestra y en los centros educativos de dichas zonas se realizó el cuestionario. Mediciones y resultados: El análisis estadístico se hizo a través de regresión logística, chi cuadrado e intervalo de confianza al 95%. La prevalencia asma referida es del 11,7% en niños y del 13,4% en adolescentes. En cuanto a los factores relacionados, según los valores de OR destacan: OR = 9,5 entre sibilancias y asma, y OR = 3,5 entre rinitis recientes y asma. Respecto a las sibilancias recientes, hallamos un OR = 11,5 entre despertares y sibilancias recientes, y un OR = 3,4 entre rinitis recientes y sibilancias recientes. Conclusiones: El asma referida es una enfermedad prevalente ligeramente superior en la adolescencia y la población femenina de los escolares de la zona rural. Rinitis y otros síntomas de asma están relacionados con el asma y con las sibilancias, así como la utilización de los servicios de urgencias en el caso del asma y la bronquitis con las sibilancias. Abstract: Objectives: To determine the factors associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children and adolescents in rural areas of Navarre (Spain. Participants and methods: A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire, as well as additional variables, was conducted on 797

  12. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  13. General introduction and recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  15. Efficiency factors in Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1980-04-01

    Asymptotic approximation to the Mie efficiency factors for extinction, absorption and radiation pressure, derived from complex angular momentum theory and averaged over Δβ approximately π (β = size parameter), are given and compared with the exact results. For complex refractive indices N = n + i kappa with 1.1 -2 - 10 -3 % between β = 10 and β = 1000, and computing time is reduced by a factor of order β, so that the Mie formulae can advantageously by replaced by the asymptotic ones in most applications. (Author) [pt

  16. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  17. Effectiveness of human factors simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-01-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  18. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  19. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  20. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  1. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  2. Factores de risco em implantologia

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Inês Silveira e Luz Nunes de

    2015-01-01

    A Implantologia tem ganho popularidade na medicina dentária pelos resultados previsíveis em reabilitações de áreas edêntulas, permitindo minimizar as consequências funcionais, fonéticas e estéticas que advém da perda de dentes através de uma solução fixa que satizfaz os pacientes. Esta é uma revisão da literatura existente sobre factores de risco, fracassos e complicações inerentes ao tratamento com implantes dentários. Categorizam-se os factores de risco em implantologia co...

  3. Factores predictores del inicio y consolidación del consumo de tabaco en adolescentes Analysis of factors related to smoking initiation and continued smoking in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Caballero-Hidalgo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar los factores que determinan la adquisición y posterior consolidación del consumo de tabaco en los jóvenes adolescentes. Material y método: Estudio longitudinal de 3 años de duración (2000-2002 sobre jóvenes estudiantes de enseñanza obligatoria, con una edad al inicio del estudio de 13-14 años. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante encuesta individual, cuyo ámbito de estudio era la isla de Gran Canaria, con una muestra final de 745 individuos. Se estimaron modelos de elección binaria condicional de efectos fijos para datos longitudinales, para determinar la probabilidad de probar por primera vez el tabaco («modelo de inicio», así como sobre la probabilidad de ser fumador ocasional o habitual («modelo de experimentación». Resultados: En el último año, el 57% de los adolescentes encuestados ha tenido contacto con el tabaco alguna vez, un 25% más que en el primer año, algunos de ellos (el 9% de forma diaria. En el «modelo de inicio» los determinantes del consumo de tabaco son el interés por el colegio (odds ratio [OR] = 0,27; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 0,08-0,87, y OR = 0,14; IC del 95%, 0,03-0,58 para los que manifestaron bastante y mucho interés por el colegio, respectivamente, el consumo de tabaco por parte del mejor amigo (OR = 7,44; IC del 95%, 2,59-21,4, el consumo de alcohol (OR = 11,82; IC del 95%, 4,96-28,2, y OR = 15,42; IC del 95%, 4,68-50,7 para los que beben alcohol de manera ocasional o frecuente, respectivamente, y el dinero disponible (euros semanales (OR = 1,13; IC del 95%, 1,07-1,19. Para el «modelo de experimentación», el consumo de tabaco por parte del mejor amigo (OR = 7,01; IC del 95%, 2,96-16,5, el consumo de alcohol (OR = 5,71; IC del 95%, 1,98-16,4, y OR = 5,22; IC del 95%, 1,56-17,5 para los que beben alcohol de manera ocasional o frecuente, respectivamente y los años que lleva como fumador (OR = 1,44; IC del 95%, 1,11-1,86. Conclusiones: El estudio destaca

  4. Enfermedad periodontal: ¿es factor de riesgo para parto pretérmino, bajo peso al nacer o preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castaldi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar si la enfermedad periodontal (EP constituye un factor de riesgo de parto pretérmino, bajo peso al nacer o preeclampsia y si hay alguna relación entre las formas clínicas de la EP y los resultados obstétricos mencionados. MÉTODOS: Estudio analítico, transversal y prospectivo de todas las mujeres que tuvieron su parto en el Hospital Dr. José Penna, de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina, entre el 1.º de febrero y el 18 de julio de 2003 y entre el 1.º de marzo y el 31 de mayo de 2004. A las mujeres que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (ser mayor de 18 años, tener al menos 18 dientes, no ser diabética y que los hijos hubieran sobrevivido al parto se les practicó un examen odontológico en busca de hemorragia al sondaje, movilidad dentaria o inflamación gingival y se realizaron mediciones clínicas de la pérdida de inserción. Se calcularon las razones de posibilidades (odds ratios, RP con sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95% y se ajustaron los resultados por las variables "ser fumadora" y "tener anemia". RESULTADOS: Se registraron 2 003 nacimientos, correspondientes a 1 982 partos. Se excluyeron 420 (21,2% mujeres por no cumplir los criterios de inclusión o por no poder realizárseles el diagnóstico odontológico previsto. De las 1 562 mujeres evaluadas, 809 (51,8% presentaban alguna de las afecciones buscadas; de ellas, 274 (17,5% padecían EP grave y 535 (34,3% tenían gingivitis. En total, 149 (9,5% partos fueron pretérmino, en 161 (10,3% nacieron niños con bajo peso y en 157 (10,0% se presentaron casos de preeclampsia. No se observó asociación alguna entre la EP y el parto pretérmino (RP = 1,06; IC95%: 0,74 a 1,50, el bajo peso al nacer (RP = 1,05; IC95%: 0,74 a 1,47 y la preeclampsia (RP = 0,99; IC95%: 0,70 a 1,40. El riesgo de dar a luz un niño con bajo peso al nacer en el subgrupo de fumadoras de más de 10 cigarrillos diarios fue mayor en las que tenían enfermedad periodontal grave que

  5. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e fatores associados em escolares de área urbana de Chilpancingo, Guerrero, México, 2004 Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and associated factors in school children from urban area in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e respectivos fatores associados em escolares mexicanos. O estudo teve delineamento transversal e amostra composta por 700 escolares. As prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade foram calculadas segundo sexo e idade, e as medidas de associação (odds ratios estimadas por pontos e por intervalos, utilizando-se a regressão logística multivariada. Para o conjunto de escolares, as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade foram 28,1% e 13,7%, respectivamente. Os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso foram: "número de anos de escolaridade da mãe"; "hábito de comer enquanto estuda ou assiste à TV"; "escores de freqüência de consumo de alimentos de risco > 12 pontos"; "atividades sedentárias > 1,6 horas/dia" e "peso ao nascer > 2.890 gramas". Os fatores de risco para a obesidade foram semelhantes àqueles detectados para o sobrepeso. Maior freqüência de atividades esportivas foi identificada como fator de proteção para ambos os desfechos. A detecção dos principais fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade indica o direcionamento de intervenções para a prevenção de doenças crônicas nessa população, cujos fatores de risco já podem ser identificados a partir da infância.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity among Mexican schoolchildren, identifying factors associated with the outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample consisting of 700 schoolchildren. Prevalence rates were calculated according to age and gender, and odds ratios were estimated by point and intervals, using multivariate logistic regression. Overweight and obesity prevalence were 28.1% and 13.7%, respectively. Risk factors for overweight were: mother's schooling (in years; eating while studying or watching TV; scores for risk food items > 12 points; sedentary activities > 1.6 hours/day, and birth weight > 2,890 grams. Obesity risk factors were similar to

  6. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  9. Factor VII-activating protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Gram, Jørgen B; Sand, Niels Peter R

    2017-01-01

    : Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) may regulate development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated sex differences in FSAP measures and examined the association between FSAP and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a middle-aged population. Participants were randomly selected citizens...

  10. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  11. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  12. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  13. Field factors for asymmetric collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.R.; Butler, A.P.H.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years manufacturers have been supplying linear accelerators with either a single pair or a dual pair of collimators. The use of a model to relate off-axis field factors to on-axis field factors obviates the need for repeat measurements whenever the asymmetric collimators are employed. We have investigated the variation of collimator scatter Sc, with distance of the central ray x from the central axis for a variety of non square field sizes. Collimator scatter was measured by in-air measurements with a build-up cap. The Primaty-Off-Centre-Ratio (POCR) was measured in-air by scanning orthogonally across the beam with an ionization chamber. The result of the investigation is the useful prediction of off-axis field factors for a range of rectangular asymmetric fields using the simple product of the on-axis field factor and the POCR in air. The effect of asymmetry on the quality of the beam and hence the percent depth dose will be discussed. (author)

  14. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  15. Elevated plasma factor VIII enhances venous thrombus formation in rabbits: contribution of factor XI, von Willebrand factor and tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Iwakiri, Takashi; Okuyama, Nozomi; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Inoue, Osamu; Harada, Aya; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shima, Midori; Asada, Yujiro

    2013-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factor VIII (FVIII) are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate how elevated FVIII levels affect venous thrombus formation and propagation in vivo. We examined rabbit plasma FVIII activity, plasma thrombin generation, whole blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity before and one hour after an intravenous infusion of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII). Venous thrombus induced by the endothelial denudation of rabbit jugular veins was histologically assessed. Thrombus propagation was evaluated as indocyanine green fluorescence intensity. Argatroban, a thrombin inhibitor, and neutralised antibodies for tissue factor (TF), factor XI (FXI), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were infused before or after thrombus induction to investigate their effects on venous thrombus formation or propagation. Recombinant FVIII (100 IU/kg) increased rabbit plasma FVIII activity two-fold and significantly enhanced whole blood coagulation and total plasma thrombin generation, but did not affect initial thrombin generation time, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity. The rFVIII infusion also increased the size of venous thrombus 1 hour after thrombus induction. Argatroban and the antibodies for TF, FXI or VWF inhibited such enhanced thrombus formation and all except TF suppressed thrombus propagation. In conclusion, elevated plasma FVIII levels enhance venous thrombus formation and propagation. Excess thrombin generation by FXI and VWF-mediated FVIII recruitment appear to contribute to the growth of FVIII-driven venous thrombus.

  16. 2011 Critical Success Factors Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Critical Success Factors Report is the North Carolina Community College System's major accountability document. This annual performance report serves to inform colleges and the public on the performance of North Carolina's 58 community colleges. In 1993, the State Board of Community Colleges began monitoring performance data on specific…

  17. 2012 Critical Success Factors Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Success Factors Report is the North Carolina Community College System's major accountability document. This annual performance report is based on data compiled from the previous year and serves to inform colleges and the public on the performance of North Carolina's 58 community colleges. In 1993, the State Board of Community Colleges…

  18. The factorization method and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, N.A.; Drigo Filho, E.

    1988-01-01

    Applying the factorization method, we generalize the harmonic - oscillator and the Coulomb potentials, both in arbitrary dimensions. We also show that this method allows the determination of the superpotentials and the supersymmetric partners associated with each of those systems. (author) [pt

  19. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  20. Introduction to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derfuss, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the main aspects of human factors engineering are discussed. The following topics are considered: Integration into the design process; Identification and application of human-centered design requirements; Design of error-tolerant systems; Iterative process consisting of evaluations and feedback loops; Participation of operators/users; Utilization of an interdisciplinary design/ evaluation team; Documentation of the complete HFE-process: traceability

  1. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  2. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  3. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  4. Vandalism: Environmental and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2003-01-01

    To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…

  5. Factor Analysis for Clustered Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, N. T.; Muthen, B. O.

    1992-01-01

    A two-level model for factor analysis is defined, and formulas for a scoring algorithm for this model are derived. A simple noniterative method based on decomposition of total sums of the squares and cross-products is discussed and illustrated with simulated data and data from the Second International Mathematics Study. (SLD)

  6. Efficient networks for quantum factoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A K-bit number can be factored in time of order K 3 using a machine capable of storing 5K+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor close-quote s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72K 3 elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396K 3 laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  8. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  9. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  10. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    and the mobile technology. In this chapter, we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobility, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness and simplicity. Eventually...

  11. Time dependent view factor methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence

  12. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  13. Transforming Rubrics Using Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryla, Ed; Shelley, Gary; Trainor, William

    2012-01-01

    Student learning and program effectiveness is often assessed using rubrics. While much time and effort may go into their creation, it is equally important to assess how effective and efficient the rubrics actually are in terms of measuring competencies over a number of criteria. This study demonstrates the use of common factor analysis to identify…

  14. Human Factor in Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akdogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available herapeutic relationship is a professional relationship that has been structured based on theoretical props. This relationship is a complicated, wide and unique relationship which develops between two people, where both sides' personality and attitudes inevitably interfere. Therapist-client relationship experienced through transference and counter transference, especially in psychodynamic approaches, is accepted as the main aspect of therapeutic process. However, the approaches without dynamic/deterministic tendency also take therapist-client relationship into account seriously and stress uniqueness of interaction between two people. Being a person and a human naturally sometimes may negatively influence the relationship between the therapist and client and result in a relationship going out of the theoretical frame at times. As effective components of a therapeutic process, the factors that stem from being human include the unique personalities of the therapist and the client, their values and their attitude either made consciously or subconsciously. Literature has shown that the human-related factors are too effective to be denied in therapeutic relationship process. Ethical and theoretical knowledge can be inefficient to prevent the negative effects of these factors in therapeutic process at which point a deep insight and supervision would have a critical role in continuing an acceptable therapeutic relationship. This review is focused on the reflection of some therapeutic factors resulting from being human and development of counter transference onto the therapeutic process.

  15. Shot-noise Fano factor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajdl, K.; Lánský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2015), č. článku 052135. ISSN 2470-0045 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : response functions * limit-theorems * spike trains * variability Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2015

  16. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  17. Noncompliance with drug therapy of glaucoma: a review about intervening factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemar Nemésio Brandão Vilela de Castro

    2009-09-01

    better evaluation of these 12 raised factors.O glaucoma é definido como uma neuropatia óptica, caracterizada por perda de campo visual e lesão do nervo óptico, sendo considerado como a segunda causa de cegueira no mundo, podendo ser evitada pelo uso de colírios antiglaucomatosos. A falta de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso pode culminar com perda da visão. O objetivo do trabalho foi revisar dados da literatura a respeito de possíveis fatores intervenientes para a não adesão à terapêutica medicamentosa e relatar taxas de não adesão estimadas. Foi realizada uma revisão sistematizada sobre o assunto, abrangendo o período de janeiro a junho de 2006. Foram pesquisados artigos em dois bancos de dados, o da National Library of Medicine (PUBMED e o de Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS, utilizando-se as seguintes palavras-chave: glaucoma, adesão do paciente, não adesão do paciente, tratamento e colírios. Foram levantados 199 artigos no PUBMED, nas línguas inglesa e francesa. Não foram encontrados artigos no LILACS. A partir dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 27 artigos, sendo 25 originais e duas revisões. Foram averiguados 12 possíveis fatores intervenientes para não adesão, bem como estimativas de taxas de não cooperação ao tratamento. As taxas de não adesão variaram de 4,6% a 59%. Dois fatores, 'esquecimento' e 'intervalo inadequado entre as doses', foram associados ao não-cumprimento da terapêutica medicamentosa. Raça, custo do tratamento, efeitos adversos, número de doses instiladas, doenças coexistentes e número de colírios utilizados tiveram resultados contraditórios, não podendo afirmar-se que os mesmos contribuíram para a não adesão. Idade, sexo, nível de escolaridade e perda de campo visual não foram associados à não adesão. Os pacientes glaucomatosos tenderam a descumprir o tratamento medicamentoso. A ampla variação nas taxas de não adesão pode ter sido

  18. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  19. Organizational factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, Bernhard

    2000-01-01

    The overall picture of factors which contributed to the event presents a panorama of a NPP where organizational and managerial characteristics were intricately intertwined and emerged as crucial for a general deterioration of the plant's capabilities to continually correct its deficiencies and optimize its operations. In the following author shall attempt to first cover various important efforts to modeling organizational factors relevant to safety. The second part of my presentation will offer an attempt towards an integrative model. The third part concludes with an agenda for research and practice. Most of the twelve different approaches above attempt to consider safety relevant organizational factors by way of pragmatic classifications. Together with their sub-categories we can count close to 160 different factors on various levels of abstraction. This is tantamount to say that most approaches lack systematic theoretical underpinnings. Thus then arises the question whether we need to develop a generic model, which promises to encompass these three major approaches altogether. Practical issues emerge particularly in the domain of organizational development, i.e. the goal oriented efforts to change the structures and the functioning of nuclear operations in such a way that the desired outputs in terms safety and reliability result in a sustained fashion. Again, these practical concerns are intimately related to developments and advances in theory and methodology. Only a close cooperation among scientists from various disciplines and of practitioners holds the promise of adequately understanding and use of organizational factors in future improving the safety record of nuclear industry worldwide. (S.Y.)

  20. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  1. Factoring SözleşmesiFactoring Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR,  REMZİ

    2013-01-01

    man tekniğidir. Bir başka ifadeyle, factoring, firmaların satışlarından doğan vadeli alacaklarını factore peşin bedel ile satmaları işlemidir4. Hukuki anlamda mal satımı ve/veya hizmet arzı ile uğraşan firma- ların bu satışları sonucu doğan veya doğacak alacaklarını devralarak tahsilini üstlenen, bu alacaklara karşı peşin ödemelerde bulunarak finansman sağlayan, aynı anda firmalara idari, ticari ve mali konu- larda verilen hizmetler karşılığı faiz, komisyon ve ücrete hak kaza- nan kişi ve...

  2. Eigenstates of coupling factor and loss factor of piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    A short history of piezoelectricity is given and its occurence in nature described. The physical background of piezoelectric loss is discussed together with how material coefficients like susceptibilities can be used to describe the relation between canonical variables and to determine the dissipation of energy. The piezoelectric coupling factor, the applications of the eigencoupling state, elastic and piezoelectric digenstates are dealt with. The composition of the measurement system is described and experimental values of ceramics given. (C.F.)

  3. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  4. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  5. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  6. Pion transition form factor in k{sub T} factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hsiang-nan [Academica Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Physics; Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Phyiscs; National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Physics; National Cheng-Chi Univ, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Applied Physics; Mishima, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    It has been pointed out that the recent BaBar data on the {pi}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {gamma} transition form factor F{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) at low (high) momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} indicate an asymptotic (flat) pion distribution amplitude. These seemingly contradictory observations can be reconciled in the k{sub T} factorization theorem: the increase of the measured Q{sup 2}FF{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} is explained by convoluting a k{sub T} dependent hard kernel with a flat pion distribution amplitude, k{sub T} being a parton transverse momentum. The low Q{sup 2} data are accommodated by including the resummation of {alpha}{sub s} ln{sup 2}x, x being a parton momentum fraction, which provides a stronger suppression at the endpoints of x. The next-to-leading-order correction to the pion transition form factor is found to be less than 20% in the considered range of Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  7. Factores asociados con la actividad física en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Factors associated with physical activity among Mexican women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Documentar la práctica de actividades físicas ligeras y pesadas, particularmente de deportes y ejercicios, en mujeres de 12 a 49 años en México, y evaluar su asociación con algunas características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Se estudió una muestra de 2 367 mujeres de 12 a 49 años de edad residentes en México en 1999 mediante el análisis secundario de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de México, 1999 (ENN-99. En esta encuesta se utilizó un esquema de muestreo polietápico, estratificado, por conglomerados que conformó una muestra final de 21 000 hogares de todo el país. Mediante un cuestionario se evaluó el tiempo dedicado a las distintas formas de actividad física y se midió la actividad en equivalentes metabólicos (MET según una escala puntual. Las variables dependientes del estudio fueron el tiempo dedicado a actividades físicas pesadas (las que exigen un gasto de energía equivalente a 5 MET/hora y el dedicado a actividades ligeras o sedentarias (tales como estar sentada en el trabajo o fuera de él, ver televisión, video, cine o teatro y dormir. Las variables independientes fueron la edad, escolaridad, paridad, región del país y área de residencia (urbana o rural, nivel socioeconómico (medido mediante un índice elaborado a partir de las condiciones de la vivienda y la posesión de enseres domésticos y estado marital. Se evaluó la asociación entre las variables independientes y la práctica de deportes y se calcularon las razones de posibilidades brutas con intervalos de confianza de 95%. Para identificar la asociación entre la práctica de deportes y las variables independientes se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística ajustado según el efecto de posibles variables de confusión. Se ajustó también mediante un factor de ponderación la probabilidad de que una mujer fuese seleccionada para la muestra, y para controlar el efecto de diseño producido por la agrupación de

  8. Sobrevida e fatores prognósticos de pacientes com câncer de próstata clinicamente localizado Sobrevida y factores pronósticos de pacientes con cáncer de próstata clínicamente localizado Survival and prognostic factors of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn Migowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a sobrevida e os fatores prognósticos clínicos (pré-tratamento de pacientes com adenocarcinoma de próstata localizado. MÉTODOS: Coorte hospitalar composta por 258 pacientes do Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, de 1990 a 1999. As funções de sobrevida em cinco e dez anos foram calculadas empregando-se o estimador de Kaplan-Meier, tomando-se como início da observação a data do diagnóstico histológico e como eventos os óbitos por câncer de próstata. Para avaliação dos fatores prognósticos pré-tratamento foram calculadas hazard ratios (HR e intervalos com 95% de confiança, seguindo-se o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. O pressuposto desses riscos foi avaliado pela análise dos resíduos de Schoenfeld e a influência de valores aberrantes pelos resíduos martingale e escore. RESULTADOS: Dos 258 pacientes estudados, 46 foram a óbito durante o período de seguimento.A sobrevida específica por câncer de próstata foi de 88% em cinco anos e de 71% em dez. A classificação de Gleason maior que 6, PSA maior que 40ng/ml, estádio B2 e cor da pele branca foram marcadores independentes de pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÕES: A classificação de Gleason, o toque retal e o valor do PSA possuem grande poder preditivo e devem ser utilizados na estratificação de risco pré-tratamento dos pacientes com câncer de próstata localizado.OBJETIVO: Estimar la sobrevida y los factores pronósticos clínicos (pre-tratamiento de pacientes con adenocarcinoma de próstata localizado. MÉTODOS: Cohorte hospitalaria compuesta por 258 pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cáncer, Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil, de 1990 a 1999. Las funciones de sobrevida en cinco y diez años fueron calculadas empleándose el estimador de Kaplan-Meier, tomándose como inicio de la observación la data del diagnóstico histológico y como eventos los óbitos por cáncer de próstata. Para evaluación de los factores pronósticos pre

  9. Fatores considerados pela população como mais importantes para manutenção da saúde Factores considerados por la población como más importantes para el mantenimiento de la salud Factors considered important for health maintenance by the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinholes Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores que adultos e idosos consideram como mais importantes para manutenção da saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 4.060 adultos e 4.003 idosos residentes em áreas de abrangência de 240 unidades básicas de saúde das regiões Sul e Nordeste, em 2005. Um cartão com figuras e frases referentes a sete fatores relacionados com o risco de doenças e agravos não transmissíveis era mostrado aos indivíduos para que indicassem o fator mais relevante para a saúde. Os fatores eram: manter uma alimentação saudável, fazer exercício físico regularmente, não tomar bebidas alcoólicas em excesso, realizar consultas médicas regularmente, não fumar, manter o peso ideal e controlar ou evitar o estresse. As análises foram ajustadas por regressão de Poisson com cálculo de razões de prevalência ajustadas, intervalos com 95% de confiança, e valores de significância usando os Testes de Wald para heterogeneidade e tendência linear. RESULTADOS: Os fatores mais freqüentemente indicados pelos adultos foram: alimentação saudável (33,8%, realizar exercício físico (21,4% e não fumar (13,9%. Entre os idosos, os fatores mais relatados foram: alimentação saudável (36,7%, não fumar (17,7% e consultar o médico regularmente (14,2%. Foram observadas diferenças entre os fatores citados conforme a região geográfica, variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria de adultos e idosos, de ambas regiões, reconhece e indica a necessidade de manter uma alimentação saudável e de não fumar como medidas mais importantes para manutenção da saúde. Estratégias de educação em saúde devem considerar essas características dos indivíduos para estimular medidas específicas a serem adotadas para cada segmento populacional.OBJETIVO: Analizar los factores que adultos y ancianos consideran como más importantes para mantenimiento de la salud. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal

  10. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor VII deficiency Factor VII deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor VII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies ...

  11. [Factor XIII deficiency in burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, H; Zellner, P R; Möller, I

    1977-08-01

    In 34 patients with severe burn injuries platelets, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and factor XIII were measured daily. Half of the patients were administered 15 000 IE of heparin per 24 hours. In the first 4 days there was a rapid fall of factor XIII to a value of approximately 30%. Values remained very low during the whole observation period of up to 20 days. However, in patients treated with heparin, values tended to be 10--15% higher. After an initial decline on the tenth day, the platelets had risen to the lowest normal level. Platelets were identical in both groups. The causes for the changes in these haemostasis parameters, their significance, and possible consequences of therapy are discussed.

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Therapeutic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of the now half-dozen major psychotherapeutic approaches tend to claim the superiority of their different approaches-known widely by their acronyms: CBT for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, DBT for Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, MBT for Mentalization-Based Therapy, TFP for Transference- Focused Psychotherapy, and so on. The data thus far support the utility of each method, but do not show clear-cut superiority of any one method. A large percentage of BPD patients eventually improve or even recover, but these favorable results appear to derive from a multiplicity of factors. These include the personality traits of both patient and therapist, the unpredictable life events over time, the socioeconomic and cultural background of the patient, and the placebo effect of simply being in treatment. These latter factors constitute the contextual model, which operates alongside the medical model, each playing a role in eventual outcome. The contextual model will be discussed extensively in a separate article.

  13. Determining Factors of Subsidiary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben

    (the depth of activities) and level of integration in the internal MNC-network. Birkinshaw and Hood (1998a) have in their seminal paper proposed a model where subsidiary development is determined by three factors: Headquarter assignment, dynamism of local business environment and subsidiary initiatives......Subsidiary development is a multi-dimensional construct that cannot be captured just by looking at subsidiary roles, activities, etc. Three distinct dimensions of subsidiary development are identified and these are: scope of subsidiary (the breadth of activities), level of subsidiary competence....... This paper is the first to conduct a statistical test of this model on a large-sample data set including data of more than 2.100 subsidiaries located in seven different countries in Europe. The effect of the three determining factors on subsidiary development is tested simultaneously in a LISREL model....

  14. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  15. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick Sawyer

    1998-01-01

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright

  16. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  17. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  19. Critical factors to bioenergy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Hektor, B.; Rakos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to bioenergy technology implementation have received increased attention in recent years. This paper contributes to the identification and analysis of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy market growth, here labelled c ritical factors . It presents a framework for the analysis of both existing and projected bioenergy market potential, using economic concepts and models from transaction cost theory and industrial organization. The framework can be used for assessments of the potential for market growth of different bioenergy systems by decision makers in administration and industry. The following critical factors are identified: Integration with other economic activity, Scale effects on bioenergy markets, Competition in bioenergy markets, Competition with other business, National policy, Local policy and local opinion. The framework is demonstrated with five cases of real bioenergy markets: Pellet residential heating in USA, bioenergy power in USA, pellet residential heating in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. Different applications of the framework are discussed

  20. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,; Mrs. Durga Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC) using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is ...