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Sample records for intersubtype recombinant genomes

  1. Full-length characterization of A1/D intersubtype recombinant genomes from a therapy-induced HIV type 1 controller during acute infection and his noncontrolling partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Vinner, L.; Therrien, D.

    2008-01-01

    To increase the understanding of mechanisms of HIV control we have genetically and immunologically characterized a full-length HIV-1 isolated from an acute infection in a rare case of undetectable viremia. The subject, a 43-year-old Danish white male (DK1), was diagnosed with acute HIV-1 infection...... and phylogenic trees were constructed and diversity and evolutionary distances were calculated. Intracellular IFN-gamma in CD8(+)CD3(+) T-lymphocyte reactions was investigated by intracellular flow cytometry (IC-FACS). Virus isolates from both patients were A1D intersubtype recombinants showing 98% sequence...

  2. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  3. Emergence of new forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 intersubtype recombinants in central Myanmar.

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    Motomura, K; Kusagawa, S; Kato, K; Nohtomi, K; Lwin, H H; Tun, K M; Thwe, M; Oo, K Y; Lwin, S; Kyaw, O; Zaw, M; Nagai, Y; Takebe, Y

    2000-11-20

    We have previously shown that HIV-1 env subtypes B' (a Thai-B cluster within subtype B) and E (CRF01_AE) are distributed in Yangon, the capital city of Myanmar. However, HIV strains from the rest of country have not yet been genetically characterized. In the present study, we determined env (C2/V3) and gag (p17) subtypes of 25 specimens from central Myanmar (Mandalay). Phylogenetic analyses identified 5 subtype C (20%), in addition to 10 CRF01_AE (40%) and 4 subtype B' (16%). Interestingly, the remaining six specimens (24%) showed discordance between gag and env subtypes; three gag subtype B'/env subtype C, one gag subtype B'/env subtype E, one gag subtype C/env subtype B', and one gag subtype C/env subtype E. These discordant specimens were found frequently among injecting drug users (4 of 12, 33%) and female commercial sex workers (2 of 8, 25%) engaging in high-risk behaviors. The recombinant nature of these HIV-1 strains was verified in three specimens, indicating the presence of new forms of HIV-1 intersubtype C/B' and C/B'/E recombinants with different recombination breakpoints. The data suggest that multiple subtypes of B', C, and CRF01_AE are cocirculating in central Myanmar, leading to the evolution of new forms of intersubtype recombinants among the risk populations exhibiting one of the highest HIV infection rates in the region.

  4. Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Neto Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40 CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG of six phylogenetically related HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype recombinants (five from this study and one from other published sequences representing CRF46_BF1. Methods Initially, we selected 36 samples from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA integrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36-blood samples by five overlapping PCR fragments followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap (HXB2 position 9347-9365; LTR region. Five of these isolates formed a rigid cluster in phylogentic trees from different subclade F1 fragment regions, which we can now designate as CRF46_BF1. According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0.56% of the HIV-1 circulating strains in São Paulo. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study. Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to

  5. Analysis of HIV-1 intersubtype recombination breakpoints suggests region with high pairing probability may be a more fundamental factor than sequence similarity affecting HIV-1 recombination.

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    Jia, Lei; Li, Lin; Gui, Tao; Liu, Siyang; Li, Hanping; Han, Jingwan; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Jingyun

    2016-09-21

    With increasing data on HIV-1, a more relevant molecular model describing mechanism details of HIV-1 genetic recombination usually requires upgrades. Currently an incomplete structural understanding of the copy choice mechanism along with several other issues in the field that lack elucidation led us to perform an analysis of the correlation between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarity to further explore structural mechanisms. Near full length sequences of URFs from Asia, Europe, and Africa (one sequence/patient), and representative sequences of worldwide CRFs were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database. Their recombination patterns were analyzed by jpHMM in detail. Then the relationships between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarities were investigated. Pearson correlation test showed that all URF groups and the CRF group exhibit the same breakpoint distribution pattern. Additionally, the Wilcoxon two-sample test indicated a significant and inexplicable limitation of recombination in regions with high pairing probability. These regions have been found to be strongly conserved across distinct biological states (i.e., strong intersubtype similarity), and genetic similarity has been determined to be a very important factor promoting recombination. Thus, the results revealed an unexpected disagreement between intersubtype similarity and breakpoint distribution, which were further confirmed by genetic similarity analysis. Our analysis reveals a critical conflict between results from natural HIV-1 isolates and those from HIV-1-based assay vectors in which genetic similarity has been shown to be a very critical factor promoting recombination. These results indicate the region with high-pairing probabilities may be a more fundamental factor affecting HIV-1 recombination than sequence similarity in natural HIV-1 infections. Our

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Jilin Province, Northeastern China: Emergence of a New CRF07_BC Transmission Cluster and Intersubtype Recombinants

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    Ning, Chuanyi; Feng, Yi; Xie, Cunxin; He, Xiang; Takebe, Yutaka; Sun, Liuyan; Guo, Qi; Xing, Hui; Kalish, Marcia L.; Shao, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected persons living in the Jilin province of northeastern China. Methods Plasma samples from 189 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between June 2010 and August 2011 from all nine cities of Jilin province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of gag P17–P24 and env C2–C4 gene regions were amplified using a multiplex RT-PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. Results Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/CFR distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (58.1%), CRF07_BC (13.2%), subtype B’ (13.2%), recombinant viruses (8.1%), subtype B (3.7%), CRF02_AG (2.9%), subtype C (0.7%). In addition to finding CRF01_AE strains from previously reported transmission clusters 1, 4 and 5, a new transmission cluster was described within the CRF07_BC radiation. Among 11 different recombinants identified, 10 contained portions of gene regions from the CRF01_AE lineage. CRF02_AG was found to form a transmission cluster of 4 in local Jilin residents. Conclusions Our study presents a molecular epidemiologic investigation describing the complex structure of HIV-1 strains co-circulating in Jilin province. The results highlight the critical importance of continuous monitoring of HIV-infections, along with detailed socio-demographic data, in order to design appropriate prevention measures to limit the spread of new HIV infections. PMID:25356726

  7. Mitigating Mitochondrial Genome Erosion Without Recombination.

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    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Kokko, Hanna; Christie, Joshua R

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes uniparentally, often without recombination among genetically divergent organelles. While this asymmetric inheritance maintains the efficacy of purifying selection at the level of the cell, the absence of recombination could also make the genome susceptible to Muller's ratchet. How mitochondria escape this irreversible defect accumulation is a fundamental unsolved question. Occasional paternal leakage could in principle promote recombination, but it would also compromise the purifying selection benefits of uniparental inheritance. We assess this tradeoff using a stochastic population-genetic model. In the absence of recombination, uniparental inheritance of freely-segregating genomes mitigates mutational erosion, while paternal leakage exacerbates the ratchet effect. Mitochondrial fusion-fission cycles ensure independent genome segregation, improving purifying selection. Paternal leakage provides opportunity for recombination to slow down the mutation accumulation, but always at a cost of increased steady-state mutation load. Our findings indicate that random segregation of mitochondrial genomes under uniparental inheritance can effectively combat the mutational meltdown, and that homologous recombination under paternal leakage might not be needed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

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    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  9. Recombination analysis based on the complete genome of bocavirus

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    Chen Shengxia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bocavirus include bovine parvovirus, minute virus of canine, porcine bocavirus, gorilla bocavirus, and Human bocaviruses 1-4 (HBoVs. Although recent reports showed that recombination happened in bocavirus, no systematical study investigated the recombination of bocavirus. The present study performed the phylogenetic and recombination analysis of bocavirus over the complete genomes available in GenBank. Results confirmed that recombination existed among bocavirus, including the likely inter-genotype recombination between HBoV1 and HBoV4, and intra-genotype recombination among HBoV2 variants. Moreover, it is the first report revealing the recombination that occurred between minute viruses of canine.

  10. Recombination-Driven Genome Evolution and Stability of Bacterial Species.

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    Dixit, Purushottam D; Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    While bacteria divide clonally, horizontal gene transfer followed by homologous recombination is now recognized as an important contributor to their evolution. However, the details of how the competition between clonality and recombination shapes genome diversity remains poorly understood. Using a computational model, we find two principal regimes in bacterial evolution and identify two composite parameters that dictate the evolutionary fate of bacterial species. In the divergent regime, characterized by either a low recombination frequency or strict barriers to recombination, cohesion due to recombination is not sufficient to overcome the mutational drift. As a consequence, the divergence between pairs of genomes in the population steadily increases in the course of their evolution. The species lacks genetic coherence with sexually isolated clonal subpopulations continuously formed and dissolved. In contrast, in the metastable regime, characterized by a high recombination frequency combined with low barriers to recombination, genomes continuously recombine with the rest of the population. The population remains genetically cohesive and temporally stable. Notably, the transition between these two regimes can be affected by relatively small changes in evolutionary parameters. Using the Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) data, we classify a number of bacterial species to be either the divergent or the metastable type. Generalizations of our framework to include selection, ecologically structured populations, and horizontal gene transfer of nonhomologous regions are discussed as well. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. The evolutionary value of recombination is constrained by genome modularity.

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    Darren P Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism promoting biological adaptation. Using engineered recombinants of the small single-stranded DNA plant virus, Maize streak virus (MSV, we experimentally demonstrate that fragments of genetic material only function optimally if they reside within genomes similar to those in which they evolved. The degree of similarity necessary for optimal functionality is correlated with the complexity of intragenomic interaction networks within which genome fragments must function. There is a striking correlation between our experimental results and the types of MSV recombinants that are detectable in nature, indicating that obligatory maintenance of intragenome interaction networks strongly constrains the evolutionary value of recombination for this virus and probably for genomes in general.

  12. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

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    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  13. RTEL1 maintains genomic stability by suppressing homologous recombination.

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    Barber, Louise J; Youds, Jillian L; Ward, Jordan D; McIlwraith, Michael J; O'Neil, Nigel J; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Martin, Julie S; Collis, Spencer J; Cantor, Sharon B; Auclair, Melissa; Tissenbaum, Heidi; West, Stephen C; Rose, Ann M; Boulton, Simon J

    2008-10-17

    Homologous recombination (HR) is an important conserved process for DNA repair and ensures maintenance of genome integrity. Inappropriate HR causes gross chromosomal rearrangements and tumorigenesis in mammals. In yeast, the Srs2 helicase eliminates inappropriate recombination events, but the functional equivalent of Srs2 in higher eukaryotes has been elusive. Here, we identify C. elegans RTEL-1 as a functional analog of Srs2 and describe its vertebrate counterpart, RTEL1, which is required for genome stability and tumor avoidance. We find that rtel-1 mutant worms and RTEL1-depleted human cells share characteristic phenotypes with yeast srs2 mutants: lethality upon deletion of the sgs1/BLM homolog, hyperrecombination, and DNA damage sensitivity. In vitro, purified human RTEL1 antagonizes HR by promoting the disassembly of D loop recombination intermediates in a reaction dependent upon ATP hydrolysis. We propose that loss of HR control after deregulation of RTEL1 may be a critical event that drives genome instability and cancer.

  14. Genome-wide recombination rate variation in a recombination map of cotton.

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    Shen, Chao; Li, Ximei; Zhang, Ruiting; Lin, Zhongxu

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species' genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions. Recombination rates significantly varied between A-subgenome (At) (range = 1.60 to 3.26 centimorgan/megabase [cM/Mb]) and D-subgenome (Dt) (range = 2.17 to 4.97 cM/Mb), which explained why the genetic maps of At and Dt are similar but the physical map of Dt is only half that of At. The translocation regions between A02 and A03 and between A04 and A05, and the inversion regions on A10, D10, A07 and D07 indicated relatively high recombination rates in the distal regions of the chromosomes. Recombination rates were positively correlated with the densities of genes, markers and the distance from the centromere, and negatively correlated with transposable elements (TEs). The gene ontology (GO) categories showed that genes in high recombination regions may tend to response to environmental stimuli, and genes in low recombination regions are related to mitosis and meiosis, which suggested that they may provide the primary driving force in adaptive evolution and assure the stability of basic cell cycle in a rapidly changing environment. Global knowledge of recombination rates will facilitate genetics and breeding in cotton.

  15. A Distinct Class of Genome Rearrangements Driven by Heterologous Recombination.

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    León-Ortiz, Ana María; Panier, Stephanie; Sarek, Grzegorz; Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Patel, Harshil; Campbell, Peter J; Boulton, Simon J

    2018-01-18

    Erroneous DNA repair by heterologous recombination (Ht-REC) is a potential threat to genome stability, but evidence supporting its prevalence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that recombination is possible between heterologous sequences and that it is a source of chromosomal alterations in mitotic and meiotic cells. Mechanistically, we find that the RTEL1 and HIM-6/BLM helicases and the BRCA1 homolog BRC-1 counteract Ht-REC in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas mismatch repair does not. Instead, MSH-2/6 drives Ht-REC events in rtel-1 and brc-1 mutants and excessive crossovers in rtel-1 mutant meioses. Loss of vertebrate Rtel1 also causes a variety of unusually large and complex structural variations, including chromothripsis, breakage-fusion-bridge events, and tandem duplications with distant intra-chromosomal insertions, whose structure are consistent with a role for RTEL1 in preventing Ht-REC during break-induced replication. Our data establish Ht-REC as an unappreciated source of genome instability that underpins a novel class of complex genome rearrangements that likely arise during replication stress. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial phylogenetic reconstruction from whole genomes is robust to recombination but demographic inference is not.

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    Hedge, Jessica; Wilson, Daniel J

    2014-11-25

    Phylogenetic inference in bacterial genomics is fundamental to understanding problems such as population history, antimicrobial resistance, and transmission dynamics. The field has been plagued by an apparent state of contradiction since the distorting effects of recombination on phylogeny were discovered more than a decade ago. Researchers persist with detailed phylogenetic analyses while simultaneously acknowledging that recombination seriously misleads inference of population dynamics and selection. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that phylogenetic tree topologies based on whole genomes robustly reconstruct the clonal frame topology but that branch lengths are badly skewed. Surprisingly, removing recombining sites can exacerbate branch length distortion caused by recombination. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is a popular approach for understanding the relatedness of bacteria in a population from differences in their genome sequences. However, bacteria frequently exchange regions of their genomes by a process called homologous recombination, which violates a fundamental assumption of phylogenetic methods. Since many researchers continue to use phylogenetics for recombining bacteria, it is important to understand how recombination affects the conclusions drawn from these analyses. We find that whole-genome sequences afford great accuracy in reconstructing evolutionary relationships despite concerns surrounding the presence of recombination, but the branch lengths of the phylogenetic tree are indeed badly distorted. Surprisingly, methods to reduce the impact of recombination on branch lengths can exacerbate the problem. Copyright © 2014 Hedge and Wilson.

  17. Fine-scale maps of recombination rates and hotspots in the mouse genome.

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    Brunschwig, Hadassa; Levi, Liat; Ben-David, Eyal; Williams, Robert W; Yakir, Benjamin; Shifman, Sagiv

    2012-07-01

    Recombination events are not uniformly distributed and often cluster in narrow regions known as recombination hotspots. Several studies using different approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of recombination hotspot regulation. Population genetic data have been used to map and quantify hotspots in the human genome. Genetic variation in recombination rates and hotspots usage have been explored in human pedigrees, mouse intercrosses, and by sperm typing. These studies pointed to the central role of the PRDM9 gene in hotspot modulation. In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome resequencing and genotyping studies of mouse inbred strains to estimate recombination rates across the mouse genome and identified 47,068 historical hotspots--an average of over 2477 per chromosome. We show by simulation that inbred mouse strains can be used to identify positions of historical hotspots. Recombination hotspots were found to be enriched for the predicted binding sequences for different alleles of the PRDM9 protein. Recombination rates were on average lower near transcription start sites (TSS). Comparing the inferred historical recombination hotspots with the recent genome-wide mapping of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mouse sperm revealed a significant overlap, especially toward the telomeres. Our results suggest that inbred strains can be used to characterize and study the dynamics of historical recombination hotspots. They also strengthen previous findings on mouse recombination hotspots, and specifically the impact of sequence variants in Prdm9.

  18. Genome-wide recombination dynamics are associated with phenotypic variation in maize.

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    Pan, Qingchun; Li, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Tong, Hao; Xu, Shutu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Weiya; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic recombination is a major driver of genetic diversity, species evolution, and agricultural improvement. Thus, an understanding of the genetic recombination landscape across the maize (Zea mays) genome will provide insight and tools for further study of maize evolution and improvement. Here, we used c. 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms to precisely map recombination events in 12 artificial maize segregating populations. We observed substantial variation in the recombination frequency and distribution along the ten maize chromosomes among the 12 populations and identified 143 recombination hot regions. Recombination breakpoints were partitioned into intragenic and intergenic events. Interestingly, an increase in the number of genes containing recombination events was accompanied by a decrease in the number of recombination events per gene. This kept the overall number of intragenic recombination events nearly invariable in a given population, suggesting that the recombination variation observed among populations was largely attributed to intergenic recombination. However, significant associations between intragenic recombination events and variation in gene expression and agronomic traits were observed, suggesting potential roles for intragenic recombination in plant phenotypic diversity. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the maize recombination landscape, and show an association between recombination, gene expression and phenotypic variation, which may enhance crop genetic improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Genetic recombination is directed away from functional genomic elements in mice.

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    Brick, Kevin; Smagulova, Fatima; Khil, Pavel; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Petukhova, Galina V

    2012-05-13

    Genetic recombination occurs during meiosis, the key developmental programme of gametogenesis. Recombination in mammals has been recently linked to the activity of a histone H3 methyltransferase, PR domain containing 9 (PRDM9), the product of the only known speciation-associated gene in mammals. PRDM9 is thought to determine the preferred recombination sites--recombination hotspots--through sequence-specific binding of its highly polymorphic multi-Zn-finger domain. Nevertheless, Prdm9 knockout mice are proficient at initiating recombination. Here we map and analyse the genome-wide distribution of recombination initiation sites in Prdm9 knockout mice and in two mouse strains with different Prdm9 alleles and their F(1) hybrid. We show that PRDM9 determines the positions of practically all hotspots in the mouse genome, with the exception of the pseudo-autosomal region (PAR)--the only area of the genome that undergoes recombination in 100% of cells. Surprisingly, hotspots are still observed in Prdm9 knockout mice, and as in wild type, these hotspots are found at H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation marks. However, in the absence of PRDM9, most recombination is initiated at promoters and at other sites of PRDM9-independent H3K4 trimethylation. Such sites are rarely targeted in wild-type mice, indicating an unexpected role of the PRDM9 protein in sequestering the recombination machinery away from gene-promoter regions and other functional genomic elements.

  20. PCR artifact in testing for homologous recombination in genomic editing in zebrafish.

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    Minho Won

    Full Text Available We report a PCR-induced artifact in testing for homologous recombination in zebrafish. We attempted to replace the lnx2a gene with a donor cassette, mediated by a TALEN induced double stranded cut. The donor construct was flanked with homology arms of about 1 kb at the 5' and 3' ends. Injected embryos (G0 were raised and outcrossed to wild type fish. A fraction of the progeny appeared to have undergone the desired homologous recombination, as tested by PCR using primer pairs extending from genomic DNA outside the homology region to a site within the donor cassette. However, Southern blots revealed that no recombination had taken place. We conclude that recombination happened during PCR in vitro between the donor integrated elsewhere in the genome and the lnx2a locus. We conclude that PCR alone may be insufficient to verify homologous recombination in genome editing experiments in zebrafish.

  1. ARG-walker: inference of individual specific strengths of meiotic recombination hotspots by population genomics analysis.

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    Chen, Hao; Yang, Peng; Guo, Jing; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination hotspots play important roles in various aspects of genomics, but the underlying mechanisms for regulating the locations and strengths of recombination hotspots are not yet fully revealed. Most existing algorithms for estimating recombination rates from sequence polymorphism data can only output average recombination rates of a population, although there is evidence for the heterogeneity in recombination rates among individuals. For genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of recombination hotspots, an efficient algorithm that estimates the individualized strengths of recombination hotspots is highly desirable. In this work, we propose a novel graph mining algorithm named ARG-walker, based on random walks on ancestral recombination graphs (ARG), to estimate individual-specific recombination hotspot strengths. Extensive simulations demonstrate that ARG-walker is able to distinguish the hot allele of a recombination hotspot from the cold allele. Integrated with output of ARG-walker, we performed GWAS on the phased haplotype data of the 22 autosome chromosomes of the HapMap Asian population samples of Chinese and Japanese (JPT+CHB). Significant cis-regulatory signals have been detected, which is corroborated by the enrichment of the well-known 13-mer motif CCNCCNTNNCCNC of PRDM9 protein. Moreover, two new DNA motifs have been identified in the flanking regions of the significantly associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), which are likely to be new cis-regulatory elements of meiotic recombination hotspots of the human genome. Our results on both simulated and real data suggest that ARG-walker is a promising new method for estimating the individual recombination variations. In the future, it could be used to uncover the mechanisms of recombination regulation and human diseases related with recombination hotspots.

  2. Genetic recombination pathways and their application for genome modification of human embryonic stem cells.

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    Nieminen, Mikko; Tuuri, Timo; Savilahti, Harri

    2010-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from early human embryo and retain a potential to differentiate into all adult cell types. They provide vast opportunities in cell replacement therapies and are expected to become significant tools in drug discovery as well as in the studies of cellular and developmental functions of human genes. The progress in applying different types of DNA recombination reactions for genome modification in a variety of eukaryotic cell types has provided means to utilize recombination-based strategies also in human embryonic stem cells. Homologous recombination-based methods, particularly those utilizing extended homologous regions and those employing zinc finger nucleases to boost genomic integration, have shown their usefulness in efficient genome modification. Site-specific recombination systems are potent genome modifiers, and they can be used to integrate DNA into loci that contain an appropriate recombination signal sequence, either naturally occurring or suitably pre-engineered. Non-homologous recombination can be used to generate random integrations in genomes relatively effortlessly, albeit with a moderate efficiency and precision. DNA transposition-based strategies offer substantially more efficient random strategies and provide means to generate single-copy insertions, thus potentiating the generation of genome-wide insertion libraries applicable in genetic screens. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombination and its impact on the genome of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp Nasonia.

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    Oliver Niehuis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous meiotic recombination occurs in most sexually reproducing organisms, yet its evolutionary advantages are elusive. Previous research explored recombination in the honeybee, a eusocial hymenopteran with an exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate. A comparable study in a non-social member of the Hymenoptera that would disentangle the impact of sociality from Hymenoptera-specific features such as haplodiploidy on the evolution of the high genome-wide recombination rate in social Hymenoptera is missing. Utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between two Nasonia parasitoid wasp genomes, we developed a SNP genotyping microarray to infer a high-density linkage map for Nasonia. The map comprises 1,255 markers with an average distance of 0.3 cM. The mapped markers enabled us to arrange 265 scaffolds of the Nasonia genome assembly 1.0 on the linkage map, representing 63.6% of the assembled N. vitripennis genome. We estimated a genome-wide recombination rate of 1.4-1.5 cM/Mb for Nasonia, which is less than one tenth of the rate reported for the honeybee. The local recombination rate in Nasonia is positively correlated with the distance to the center of the linkage groups, GC content, and the proportion of simple repeats. In contrast to the honeybee genome, gene density in the parasitoid wasp genome is positively associated with the recombination rate; regions of low recombination are characterized by fewer genes with larger introns and by a greater distance between genes. Finally, we found that genes in regions of the genome with a low recombination frequency tend to have a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, likely due to the accumulation of slightly deleterious non-synonymous substitutions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recombination reduces interference between linked sites and thereby facilitates adaptive evolution and the purging of deleterious mutations. Our results imply

  4. Genome-Wide Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating fine-scale recombination maps of Drosophila from population genomic data is a challenging problem, in particular because of the high background recombination rate. In this paper, a new computational method is developed to address this challenge. Through an extensive simulation study, it is demonstrated that the method allows more accurate inference, and exhibits greater robustness to the effects of natural selection and noise, compared to a well-used previous method developed for studying fine-scale recombination rate variation in the human genome. As an application, a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation data is performed for two Drosophila melanogaster populations, one from North America (Raleigh, USA) and the other from Africa (Gikongoro, Rwanda). It is shown that fine-scale recombination rate variation is widespread throughout the D. melanogaster genome, across all chromosomes and in both populations. At the fine-scale, a conservative, systematic search for evidence of recombination hotspots suggests the existence of a handful of putative hotspots each with at least a tenfold increase in intensity over the background rate. A wavelet analysis is carried out to compare the estimated recombination maps in the two populations and to quantify the extent to which recombination rates are conserved. In general, similarity is observed at very broad scales, but substantial differences are seen at fine scales. The average recombination rate of the X chromosome appears to be higher than that of the autosomes in both populations, and this pattern is much more pronounced in the African population than the North American population. The correlation between various genomic features—including recombination rates, diversity, divergence, GC content, gene content, and sequence quality—is examined using the wavelet analysis, and it is shown that the most notable difference between D. melanogaster and humans is in the correlation between recombination and

  5. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Extreme Recombination Frequencies Shape Genome Variation and Evolution in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Glémin, Sylvain; Webster, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental cellular process, with important consequences for evolution and genome integrity. However, we know little about how recombination rates vary across the genomes of most species and the molecular and evolutionary determinants of this variation. The honeybee, Apis mellifera, has extremely high rates of meiotic recombination, although the evolutionary causes and consequences of this are unclear. Here we use patterns of linkage disequilibrium in whole genome resequencing data from 30 diploid honeybees to construct a fine-scale map of rates of crossing over in the genome. We find that, in contrast to vertebrate genomes, the recombination landscape is not strongly punctate. Crossover rates strongly correlate with levels of genetic variation, but not divergence, which indicates a pervasive impact of selection on the genome. Germ-line methylated genes have reduced crossover rate, which could indicate a role of methylation in suppressing recombination. Controlling for the effects of methylation, we do not infer a strong association between gene expression patterns and recombination. The site frequency spectrum is strongly skewed from neutral expectations in honeybees: rare variants are dominated by AT-biased mutations, whereas GC-biased mutations are found at higher frequencies, indicative of a major influence of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), which we infer to generate an allele fixation bias 5 – 50 times the genomic average estimated in humans. We uncover further evidence that this repair bias specifically affects transitions and favours fixation of CpG sites. Recombination, via gBGC, therefore appears to have profound consequences on genome evolution in honeybees and interferes with the process of natural selection. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the forces driving molecular evolution. PMID:25902173

  7. Genetics of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate Evolution in Mice from an Isolated Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-08-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable quantitative trait that evolves despite the fundamentally conserved role that recombination plays in meiosis. Differences in recombination rate can alter the landscape of the genome and the genetic diversity of populations. Yet our understanding of the genetic basis of recombination rate evolution in nature remains limited. We used wild house mice ( Mus musculus domesticus ) from Gough Island (GI), which diverged recently from their mainland counterparts, to characterize the genetics of recombination rate evolution. We quantified genome-wide autosomal recombination rates by immunofluorescence cytology in spermatocytes from 240 F 2 males generated from intercrosses between GI-derived mice and the wild-derived inbred strain WSB/EiJ. We identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for inter-F 2 variation in this trait, the strongest of which had effects that opposed the direction of the parental trait differences. Candidate genes and mutations for these QTL were identified by overlapping the detected intervals with whole-genome sequencing data and publicly available transcriptomic profiles from spermatocytes. Combined with existing studies, our findings suggest that genome-wide recombination rate divergence is not directional and its evolution within and between subspecies proceeds from distinct genetic loci. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Regions of homozygosity in the porcine genome: consequence of demography and the recombination landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirte Bosse

    Full Text Available Inbreeding has long been recognized as a primary cause of fitness reduction in both wild and domesticated populations. Consanguineous matings cause inheritance of haplotypes that are identical by descent (IBD and result in homozygous stretches along the genome of the offspring. Size and position of regions of homozygosity (ROHs are expected to correlate with genomic features such as GC content and recombination rate, but also direction of selection. Thus, ROHs should be non-randomly distributed across the genome. Therefore, demographic history may not fully predict the effects of inbreeding. The porcine genome has a relatively heterogeneous distribution of recombination rate, making Sus scrofa an excellent model to study the influence of both recombination landscape and demography on genomic variation. This study utilizes next-generation sequencing data for the analysis of genomic ROH patterns, using a comparative sliding window approach. We present an in-depth study of genomic variation based on three different parameters: nucleotide diversity outside ROHs, the number of ROHs in the genome, and the average ROH size. We identified an abundance of ROHs in all genomes of multiple pigs from commercial breeds and wild populations from Eurasia. Size and number of ROHs are in agreement with known demography of the populations, with population bottlenecks highly increasing ROH occurrence. Nucleotide diversity outside ROHs is high in populations derived from a large ancient population, regardless of current population size. In addition, we show an unequal genomic ROH distribution, with strong correlations of ROH size and abundance with recombination rate and GC content. Global gene content does not correlate with ROH frequency, but some ROH hotspots do contain positive selected genes in commercial lines and wild populations. This study highlights the importance of the influence of demography and recombination on homozygosity in the genome to understand

  9. Stability of Genome Composition and Recombination between Homoeologous Chromosomes in Festulolium (Festuca × Lolium) Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Šimoníková, Denisa; Ghesquière, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 2 (2017), s. 106-114 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Festulolium * Genome composition * Genomic in situ hybridization * Grass hybrids * Homoeologous recombination * Lolium × Festuca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2016

  10. A photoactivatable Cre-loxP recombination system for optogenetic genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Fuun; Okazaki, Risako; Yazawa, Masayuki; Sato, Moritoshi

    2016-12-01

    Genome engineering techniques represented by the Cre-loxP recombination system have been used extensively for biomedical research. However, powerful and useful techniques for genome engineering that have high spatiotemporal precision remain elusive. Here we develop a highly efficient photoactivatable Cre recombinase (PA-Cre) to optogenetically control genome engineering in vivo. PA-Cre is based on the reassembly of split Cre fragments by light-inducible dimerization of the Magnet system. PA-Cre enables sharp induction (up to 320-fold) of DNA recombination and is efficiently activated even by low-intensity illumination (∼0.04 W m -2 ) or short periods of pulsed illumination (∼30 s). We demonstrate that PA-Cre allows for efficient DNA recombination in an internal organ of living mice through noninvasive external illumination using a LED light source. The present PA-Cre provides a powerful tool to greatly facilitate optogenetic genome engineering in vivo.

  11. Low levels of LTR retrotransposon deletion by ectopic recombination in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2015-02-01

    Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., genomes. However, no studies have addressed DNA loss from salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes.

  12. Overexpressed of RAD51 suppresses recombination defects: a possible mechanism to reverse genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2009-10-15

    RAD51, a key protein in the homologous recombinational DNA repair (HRR) pathway, is the major strand-transferase required for mitotic recombination. An important early step in HRR is the formation of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) coated by RPA (a ss-DNA binding protein). Displacement of RPA by RAD51 is highly regulated and facilitated by a number of different proteins known as the 'recombination mediators'. To assist these recombination mediators, a second group of proteins also is required and we are defining these proteins here as 'recombination co-mediators'. Defects in either recombination mediators or comediators, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, lead to impaired HRR that can genetically be complemented for (i.e. suppressed) by overexpression of RAD51. Defects in HRR have long been known to contribute to genomic instability leading to tumor development. Since genomic instability also slows cell growth, precancerous cells presumably require genomic restabilization to gain a growth advantage. RAD51 is overexpressed in many tumors, and therefore, we hypothesize that the complementing ability of elevated levels of RAD51 in tumors with initial HRR defects limits genomic instability during carcinogenic progression. Of particular interest, this model may also help explain the high frequency of TP53 mutations in human cancers, since wild-type p53 represses RAD51.

  13. Near Full-Length Identification of a Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C Recombinant in Northern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Heng; Chen, Xin; Liang, Yue-Bo; Pang, Wei; Qin, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Chiyu; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-08-01

    The Myanmar-China border appears to be the "hot spot" region for the occurrence of HIV-1 recombination. The majority of the previous analyses of HIV-1 recombination were based on partial genomic sequences, which obviously cannot reflect the reality of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in this area well. Here, we present a near full-length characterization of a novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant isolated from a long-distance truck driver in Northern Myanmar. It is the first description of a near full-length genomic sequence in Myanmar since 2003, and might be one of the most complicated HIV-1 chimeras ever detected in Myanmar, containing four CRF01_AE, six B segments, and five C segments separated by 14 breakpoints throughout its genome. The discovery and characterization of this new CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant indicate that intersubtype recombination is ongoing in Myanmar, continuously generating new forms of HIV-1. More work based on near full-length sequence analyses is urgently needed to better understand the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in these regions.

  14. The Impact of Recombination Hotspots on Genome Evolution of a Fungal Plant Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Daniel; Lendenmann, Mark H; Stewart, Ethan; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    Recombination has an impact on genome evolution by maintaining chromosomal integrity, affecting the efficacy of selection, and increasing genetic variability in populations. Recombination rates are a key determinant of the coevolutionary dynamics between hosts and their pathogens. Historic recombination events created devastating new pathogens, but the impact of ongoing recombination in sexual pathogens is poorly understood. Many fungal pathogens of plants undergo regular sexual cycles, and sex is considered to be a major factor contributing to virulence. We generated a recombination map at kilobase-scale resolution for the haploid plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. To account for intraspecific variation in recombination rates, we constructed genetic maps from two independent crosses. We localized a total of 10,287 crossover events in 441 progeny and found that recombination rates were highly heterogeneous within and among chromosomes. Recombination rates on large chromosomes were inversely correlated with chromosome length. Short accessory chromosomes often lacked evidence for crossovers between parental chromosomes. Recombination was concentrated in narrow hotspots that were preferentially located close to telomeres. Hotspots were only partially conserved between the two crosses, suggesting that hotspots are short-lived and may vary according to genomic background. Genes located in hotspot regions were enriched in genes encoding secreted proteins. Population resequencing showed that chromosomal regions with high recombination rates were strongly correlated with regions of low linkage disequilibrium. Hence, genes in pathogen recombination hotspots are likely to evolve faster in natural populations and may represent a greater threat to the host. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Somatic DNA recombination yielding circular DNA and deletion of a genomic region in embryonic brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Chijiiwa, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Hideo; Sakoda, Saburo; Tani, Kenzaburo; Suzuki, Tomokazu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a mouse genomic region is identified that undergoes DNA rearrangement and yields circular DNA in brain during embryogenesis. External region-directed inverse polymerase chain reaction on circular DNA extracted from late embryonic brain tissue repeatedly detected DNA of this region containing recombination joints. Wide-range genomic PCR and digestion-circularization PCR analysis showed this region underwent recombination accompanied with deletion of intervening sequences, including the circularized regions. This region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to C1 on mouse chromosome 16, where no gene and no physiological DNA rearrangement had been identified. DNA sequence in the region has segmental homology to an orthologous region on human chromosome 3q.13. These observations demonstrated somatic DNA recombination yielding genomic deletions in brain during embryogenesis

  16. RECG maintains plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing extensive recombination between short dispersed repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Odahara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of plastid and mitochondrial genome stability is crucial for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Recently, we have reported that RECA1 maintains mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing gross rearrangements induced by aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats in the moss Physcomitrella patens. In this study, we studied a newly identified P. patens homolog of bacterial RecG helicase, RECG, some of which is localized in both plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids. RECG partially complements recG deficiency in Escherichia coli cells. A knockout (KO mutation of RECG caused characteristic phenotypes including growth delay and developmental and mitochondrial defects, which are similar to those of the RECA1 KO mutant. The RECG KO cells showed heterogeneity in these phenotypes. Analyses of RECG KO plants showed that mitochondrial genome was destabilized due to a recombination between 8-79 bp repeats and the pattern of the recombination partly differed from that observed in the RECA1 KO mutants. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA instability was greater in severe phenotypic RECG KO cells than that in mild phenotypic ones. This result suggests that mitochondrial genomic instability is responsible for the defective phenotypes of RECG KO plants. Some of the induced recombination caused efficient genomic rearrangements in RECG KO mitochondria. Such loci were sometimes associated with a decrease in the levels of normal mtDNA and significant decrease in the number of transcripts derived from the loci. In addition, the RECG KO mutation caused remarkable plastid abnormalities and induced recombination between short repeats (12-63 bp in the plastid DNA. These results suggest that RECG plays a role in the maintenance of both plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing aberrant recombination between dispersed short repeats; this role is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial functions.

  17. Genome engineering for improved recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Shubhashree; Sharma, Ashish K; Mukherjee, Krishna J

    2014-12-19

    A metabolic engineering perspective which views recombinant protein expression as a multistep pathway allows us to move beyond vector design and identify the downstream rate limiting steps in expression. In E.coli these are typically at the translational level and the supply of precursors in the form of energy, amino acids and nucleotides. Further recombinant protein production triggers a global cellular stress response which feedback inhibits both growth and product formation. Countering this requires a system level analysis followed by a rational host cell engineering to sustain expression for longer time periods. Another strategy to increase protein yields could be to divert the metabolic flux away from biomass formation and towards recombinant protein production. This would require a growth stoppage mechanism which does not affect the metabolic activity of the cell or the transcriptional or translational efficiencies. Finally cells have to be designed for efficient export to prevent buildup of proteins inside the cytoplasm and also simplify downstream processing. The rational and the high throughput strategies that can be used for the construction of such improved host cell platforms for recombinant protein expression is the focus of this review.

  18. Interplay of recombination and selection in the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Deborah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, which causes several severe and debilitating diseases in humans. This study uses comparative genomic analyses of 12 complete published C. trachomatis genomes to assess the contribution of recombination and selection in this pathogen and to understand the major evolutionary forces acting on the genome of this bacterium. Results The conserved core genes of C. trachomatis are a large proportion of the pan-genome: we identified 836 core genes in C. trachomatis out of a range of 874-927 total genes in each genome. The ratio of recombination events compared to mutation (ρ/θ was 0.07 based on ancestral reconstructions using the ClonalFrame tool, but recombination had a significant effect on genetic diversification (r/m = 0.71. The distance-dependent decay of linkage disequilibrium also indicated that C. trachomatis populations behaved intermediately between sexual and clonal extremes. Fifty-five genes were identified as having a history of recombination and 92 were under positive selection based on statistical tests. Twenty-three genes showed evidence of being under both positive selection and recombination, which included genes with a known role in virulence and pathogencity (e.g., ompA, pmps, tarp. Analysis of inter-clade recombination flux indicated non-uniform currents of recombination between clades, which suggests the possibility of spatial population structure in C. trachomatis infections. Conclusions C. trachomatis is the archetype of a bacterial species where recombination is relatively frequent yet gene gains by horizontal gene transfer (HGT and losses (by deletion are rare. Gene conversion occurs at sites across the whole C. trachomatis genome but may be more often fixed in genes that are under diversifying selection. Furthermore, genome sequencing will reveal patterns of serotype specific gene exchange and selection that will generate important

  19. MODEST: a web-based design tool for oligonucleotide-mediated genome engineering and recombineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Klausen, Michael Schantz; Anderson, Mads Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Recombineering and multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) offer the possibility to rapidly modify multiple genomic or plasmid sites at high efficiencies. This enables efficient creation of genetic variants including both single mutants with specifically targeted modifications as well......, which confers the corresponding genetic change, is performed manually. To address these challenges, we have developed the MAGE Oligo Design Tool (MODEST). This web-based tool allows designing of MAGE oligos for (i) tuning translation rates by modifying the ribosomal binding site, (ii) generating...

  20. An att site-based recombination reporter system for genome engineering and synthetic DNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael J; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Val, Marie-Eve; Mazel, Didier

    2017-07-14

    Direct manipulation of the genome is a widespread technique for genetic studies and synthetic biology applications. The tyrosine and serine site-specific recombination systems of bacteriophages HK022 and ΦC31 are widely used for stable directional exchange and relocation of DNA sequences, making them valuable tools in these contexts. We have developed site-specific recombination tools that allow the direct selection of recombination events by embedding the attB site from each system within the β-lactamase resistance coding sequence (bla). The HK and ΦC31 tools were developed by placing the attB sites from each system into the signal peptide cleavage site coding sequence of bla. All possible open reading frames (ORFs) were inserted and tested for recombination efficiency and bla activity. Efficient recombination was observed for all tested ORFs (3 for HK, 6 for ΦC31) as shown through a cointegrate formation assay. The bla gene with the embedded attB site was functional for eight of the nine constructs tested. The HK/ΦC31 att-bla system offers a simple way to directly select recombination events, thus enhancing the use of site-specific recombination systems for carrying out precise, large-scale DNA manipulation, and adding useful tools to the genetics toolbox. We further show the power and flexibility of bla to be used as a reporter for recombination.

  1. Virulence evolution of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis by recombination in the core and accessory genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Joseph

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a naturally transformable, facultative pathogen colonizing the human nasopharynx. Here, we analyze on a genome-wide level the impact of recombination on gene-complement diversity and virulence evolution in N. meningitidis. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays (mCGH and multilocus sequence typing (MLST of 29 meningococcal isolates with computational comparison of a subset of seven meningococcal genome sequences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lateral gene transfer of minimal mobile elements as well as prophages are major forces shaping meningococcal population structure. Extensive gene content comparison revealed novel associations of virulence with genetic elements besides the recently discovered meningococcal disease associated (MDA island. In particular, we identified an association of virulence with a recently described canonical genomic island termed IHT-E and a differential distribution of genes encoding RTX toxin- and two-partner secretion systems among hyperinvasive and non-hyperinvasive lineages. By computationally screening also the core genome for signs of recombination, we provided evidence that about 40% of the meningococcal core genes are affected by recombination primarily within metabolic genes as well as genes involved in DNA replication and repair. By comparison with the results of previous mCGH studies, our data indicated that genetic structuring as revealed by mCGH is stable over time and highly similar for isolates from different geographic origins. CONCLUSIONS: Recombination comprising lateral transfer of entire genes as well as homologous intragenic recombination has a profound impact on meningococcal population structure and genome composition. Our data support the hypothesis that meningococcal virulence is polygenic in nature and that differences in metabolism might contribute to virulence.

  2. Construction of chromosomal recombination maps of three genomes of lilies (Lilium) based on GISH analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadeem Khan, M.; Shujun Zhou,; Barba Gonzalez, R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal recombination maps were constructed for three genomes of lily (Lilium) using GISH analyses. For this purpose, the backcross (BC) progenies of two diploid (2n = 2x = 24) interspecific hybrids of lily, viz. Longiflorum × Asiatic (LA) and Oriental × Asiatic (OA), were used. Mostly the BC

  3. Meiotic homoeologous recombination-based alien gene introgression in the genomics era of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect h...

  4. Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2014-08-05

    Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges

  5. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  6. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silvia E; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N; Harpending, Henry H; Martin, Darren P; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacterium have been reported. We examined a data set comprising 18 distinct strains from 13 named species for evidence of recombination. Genomic regions common to all strains (accounting for 10% to 22% of the full genomes of all examined species) were aligned and concatenated in the chromosomal order of one mycobacterial reference species. The concatenated sequence was screened for evidence of recombination using a variety of statistical methods, with each proposed event evaluated by comparing maximum-likelihood phylogenies of the recombinant section with the non-recombinant portion of the dataset. Incongruent phylogenies were identified by comparing the site-wise log-likelihoods of each tree using multiple tests. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify genes that may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from non-mycobacterial sources. The most frequent associated lineages (and potential gene transfer partners) in the Mycobacterium lineage-restricted gene trees are other members of suborder Corynebacterinae, but more-distant partners were identified as well. In two examined cases of potentially frequent and habitat-directed transfer (M. abscessus to Segniliparus and M. smegmatis to Streptomyces), observed sequence distances were small and consistent with a hypothesis of transfer, while in a third case (M. vanbaalenii to Streptomyces) distances were larger. The analyses described here indicate that whereas evidence of recombination in core regions within the genus is

  7. [Genomic characteristics and recombination of enterovirus 71 strains isolated in Henan Province between 2008 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Xu, Yu-Ling; Huang, Xue-Yong; Ma, Hong; Chen, Hao-Min; Xu, Bian-Li

    2011-09-01

    To reveal the genetic features and recombination of enterovirus 71 isolates between 2008 and 2010. A total of 5 enterovirus 71 isolates were sequenced completely and phylogenetic analysis and recombination were performed. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP1 regions revealed that the Henan enterovirus 71 between 2008 and 2010 belonged to C4a in subgenotype C4. Bootscan analyses and phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3 genomic regions revealed the recombinations between EV71 genotypes B and C at the 2A-2B junction, and between EV71 genotype B and CA16 strain G-10 at the 3B-3C junction. Henan enterovirus 71 isolates between 2008 and 2010 belonged to C4a in subgenotype C4 which was the predominant virus genotype circulating in mainland China since 2004, a combination of intratypic and intertypic recombination were found in EV71 subgenotype C4.

  8. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2015-03-15

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  9. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Pu, Pei-Hua; Huang, Hao-Jen; Sung, Huang-Mo; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Ming; Huang, Ming-Ban; Osada, Naoki; Gojobori, Takashi; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  10. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence. © FASEB.

  11. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    Aim Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for generation of modified pestiviruses. We have recently reported a full genome amplification strategy for direct recovery of infectious pestivirus (Rasmussen et al., 2008). This comprised rescue of BDV strain “Gifhorn” from a full......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...... was reverse transcribed to cDNA at 50C for 90 minutes using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). Full-length PCR amplification was performed using primers specific for the extreme 5’- and 3’-ends of the viral genomes. A T7 promoter was incorporated in the 5’-primers for direct in vitro...

  12. Testing the effect of paraquat exposure on genomic recombination rates in queens of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Kurt; Phillips, Matthew; Rueppell, Olav

    2018-04-01

    The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees. To test this prediction, we subjected honey bee queens to oxidative stress by paraquat injection and measured the rates of genomic recombination in select genome intervals of offspring produced before and after injection. The evaluation of 26 genome intervals in a total of over 1750 offspring of 11 queens by microsatellite genotyping revealed several significant effects but no overall evidence for a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and increased recombination was found. The results weaken the notion that DNA repair enzymes have a regulatory function in the high rate of meiotic recombination of honey bees, but they do not provide evidence against functional overlap between meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair in honey bees and more mechanistic studies are needed.

  13. Genome characterization of sugarcane yellow leaf virus from China reveals a novel recombinant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hua; Gao, San-Ji; Damaj, Mona B; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Mirkov, T Erik

    2014-06-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a recombinant virus associated with yellow leaf disease, a serious threat to sugarcane in China and worldwide. Among the nine known SCYLV genotypes existing worldwide, COL, HAW, REU, IND, CHN1, CHN2, BRA, CUB and PER, the last five have been reported in China. In this study, the complete genome sequences (5,880 nt) of GZ-GZ18 and HN-CP502 isolates from the Chinese provinces of Guizhou and Hainan, respectively, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, among 29 SCYLV isolates described worldwide, the two Chinese isolates clustered together into an independent clade based on the near-complete genome nucleotide (ORF0-ORF5) or amino acid sequences of individual genes, except for the MP protein (ORF4). We propose that the two isolates represent a novel genotype, CHN3, diverging from other genotypes by 1.7-13.6 % nucleotide differences in ORF0-ORF5, and 2.7-28.1 %, 1.8-20.4 %, 0.5-5.1 % and 2.7-15.9 % amino acid differences in P0 (ORF0), RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) (ORF1+2), CP (coat protein) (ORF3) and RT (readthrough protein) (ORF3+5), respectively. CHN3 was closely related to the BRA, HAW and PER genotypes, differing by 1.7-3.8 % in the near-complete genome nucleotide sequence. Recombination analysis further identified CHN3 as a new recombinant strain, arising from the major parent CHN-HN1 and the minor parent CHN-GD-WY19. Recombination breakpoints were distributed mostly within the RdRp region in CHN3 and the four significant recombinant genotypes, IND, REU, CUB and BRA. Recombination is considered to contribute significantly to the evolution and emergence of such new SCYLV variants.

  14. Using Whole Genome Analysis to Examine Recombination across Diverse Sequence Types of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Driebe

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important clinical pathogen worldwide and understanding this organism's phylogeny and, in particular, the role of recombination, is important both to understand the overall spread of virulent lineages and to characterize outbreaks. To further elucidate the phylogeny of S. aureus, 35 diverse strains were sequenced using whole genome sequencing. In addition, 29 publicly available whole genome sequences were included to create a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based phylogenetic tree encompassing 11 distinct lineages. All strains of a particular sequence type fell into the same clade with clear groupings of the major clonal complexes of CC8, CC5, CC30, CC45 and CC1. Using a novel analysis method, we plotted the homoplasy density and SNP density across the whole genome and found evidence of recombination throughout the entire chromosome, but when we examined individual clonal lineages we found very little recombination. However, when we analyzed three branches of multiple lineages, we saw intermediate and differing levels of recombination between them. These data demonstrate that in S. aureus, recombination occurs across major lineages that subsequently expand in a clonal manner. Estimated mutation rates for the CC8 and CC5 lineages were different from each other. While the CC8 lineage rate was similar to previous studies, the CC5 lineage was 100-fold greater. Fifty known virulence genes were screened in all genomes in silico to determine their distribution across major clades. Thirty-three genes were present variably across clades, most of which were not constrained by ancestry, indicating horizontal gene transfer or gene loss.

  15. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Nobuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shorten the pre-heating time for a recombiner and obtain a uniform temperature distribution for the charged catalyst layer in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: A pre-heating heater is disposed to the outer periphery of a vessel for a recombiner packed with catalysts for recombining hydrogen and oxygen in gases flowing through a radioactive gaseous wastes processing system. Heat pipes for transmitting the heat applied to said container to the catalyst are disposed vertically and horizontally within the container. Different length of the heat pipes are combined. In this way, pre-heating time for the recombiner before the operation start and before the system switching can be shortened and the uniform pre-heating for the inside of the recombiner is also made possible. Further, heater control in the pre-heating can be carried out effectively and with ease. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Recombination-dependent replication and gene conversion homogenize repeat sequences and diversify plastid genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A; Zhang, Jin; Blazier, John C; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    There is a misinterpretation in the literature regarding the variable orientation of the small single copy region of plastid genomes (plastomes). The common phenomenon of small and large single copy inversion, hypothesized to occur through intramolecular recombination between inverted repeats (IR) in a circular, single unit-genome, in fact, more likely occurs through recombination-dependent replication (RDR) of linear plastome templates. If RDR can be primed through both intra- and intermolecular recombination, then this mechanism could not only create inversion isomers of so-called single copy regions, but also an array of alternative sequence arrangements. We used Illumina paired-end and PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequences to characterize repeat structure in the plastome of Monsonia emarginata (Geraniaceae). We used OrgConv and inspected nucleotide alignments to infer ancestral nucleotides and identify gene conversion among repeats and mapped long (>1 kb) SMRT reads against the unit-genome assembly to identify alternative sequence arrangements. Although M. emarginata lacks the canonical IR, we found that large repeats (>1 kilobase; kb) represent ∼22% of the plastome nucleotide content. Among the largest repeats (>2 kb), we identified GC-biased gene conversion and mapping filtered, long SMRT reads to the M. emarginata unit-genome assembly revealed alternative, substoichiometric sequence arrangements. We offer a model based on RDR and gene conversion between long repeated sequences in the M. emarginata plastome and provide support that both intra-and intermolecular recombination between large repeats, particularly in repeat-rich plastomes, varies unit-genome structure while homogenizing the nucleotide sequence of repeats. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  17. LDSplitDB: a database for studies of meiotic recombination hotspots in MHC using human genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Hao; Yang, Peng; Lee, Yew Ti; Wu, Min; Przytycka, Teresa M; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2018-04-20

    Meiotic recombination happens during the process of meiosis when chromosomes inherited from two parents exchange genetic materials to generate chromosomes in the gamete cells. The recombination events tend to occur in narrow genomic regions called recombination hotspots. Its dysregulation could lead to serious human diseases such as birth defects. Although the regulatory mechanism of recombination events is still unclear, DNA sequence polymorphisms have been found to play crucial roles in the regulation of recombination hotspots. To facilitate the studies of the underlying mechanism, we developed a database named LDSplitDB which provides an integrative and interactive data mining and visualization platform for the genome-wide association studies of recombination hotspots. It contains the pre-computed association maps of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region in the 1000 Genomes Project and the HapMap Phase III datasets, and a genome-scale study of the European population from the HapMap Phase II dataset. Besides the recombination profiles, related data of genes, SNPs and different types of epigenetic modifications, which could be associated with meiotic recombination, are provided for comprehensive analysis. To meet the computational requirement of the rapidly increasing population genomics data, we prepared a lookup table of 400 haplotypes for recombination rate estimation using the well-known LDhat algorithm which includes all possible two-locus haplotype configurations. To the best of our knowledge, LDSplitDB is the first large-scale database for the association analysis of human recombination hotspots with DNA sequence polymorphisms. It provides valuable resources for the discovery of the mechanism of meiotic recombination hotspots. The information about MHC in this database could help understand the roles of recombination in human immune system. DATABASE URL: http://histone.scse.ntu.edu.sg/LDSplitDB.

  18. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osumi, Morimichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a recombiner which is capable of converting hydrogen gas into water by use of high-frequency heating at comparatively low temperatures and is safe and cheap in cost. Constitution: Hydrogen gas is introduced from an outer pipeline to the main structure of a recombiner, and when it passes through the vicinity of the central part of the recombiner, it is reacted with copper oxide (CuO 2 ) heated to a temperature more than 300 0 C by a high-frequency heater, and converted gently into water by reduction operation (2H 2 + CuO 2 → Cu + 2H 2 O). The thus prepared water is exhausted through the outer pipeline to a suppression pool. A part of hydrogen gas which has not been converted completely into water by the reaction and is remaining as hydrogen is recovered through exhaust nozzles and again introduced into the main structure of the recombiner. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Generation of meiomaps of genome-wide recombination and chromosome segregation in human oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottolini, Christian S; Capalbo, Antonio; Newnham, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a protocol for the generation of genome-wide maps (meiomaps) of recombination and chromosome segregation for the three products of human female meiosis: the first and second polar bodies (PB1 and PB2) and the corresponding oocyte. PB1 is biopsied and the oocyte is artificially......-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genome-wide by microarray. Informative maternal heterozygous SNPs are phased using a haploid PB2 or oocyte as a reference. A simple algorithm is then used to identify the maternal haplotypes for each chromosome, in all of the products of meiosis for each oocyte. This allows mapping...

  20. SPAR1/RTEL1 maintains genomic stability by suppressing homologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Louise J.; Youds, Jillian L.; Ward, Jordan D.; McIlwraith, Michael J.; O’Neil, Nigel J.; Petalcorin, Mark I.R.; Martin, Julie S.; Collis, Spencer J.; Cantor, Sharon B.; Auclair, Melissa; Tissenbaum, Heidi; West, Stephen C.; Rose, Ann M.; Boulton, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Inappropriate homologous recombination (HR) can cause gross chromosomal rearrangements that in mammalian cells may lead to tumorigenesis. In yeast, the Srs2 protein is an anti-recombinase that eliminates inappropriate recombination events, but the functional equivalent of Srs2 in higher eukaryotes has proven to be elusive. In this work, we identify C. elegans SPAR-1 as a functional analogue of Srs2 and describe its vertebrate counterpart, SPAR1/RTEL1, which is required for genome stability and tumour avoidance. We find that spar-1 mutant worms and SPAR1 knockdown human cells share characteristic phenotypes with yeast srs2 mutants, including inviability upon deletion of the sgs1/BLM homologue, hyper-recombination, and DNA damage sensitivity. In vitro, purified human SPAR1 antagonises HR by promoting the disassembly of D loop recombination intermediates in a reaction dependent upon ATP hydrolysis. We propose that loss of HR control following deregulation of SPAR1/RTEL1 may be a critical event that drives genome instability and cancer. PMID:18957201

  1. Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3′ end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

  2. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saalfrank, H.

    1985-01-01

    Air containing hydrogen can be oxidized by heating in a container called a recombiner, in order to avoid the collection of hydrogen. The container is long and a large number of straight heating bars are arranged in parallel in it and they are flanged to a lid. The heating bars are surrounded by tubes, in order to obtain good heat transfer by a narrow annular gap. (orig.) [de

  3. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Alverson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean, and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt, the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes.

  4. Comparative Genomics of DNA Recombination and Repair in Cyanobacteria: Biotechnological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Veaudor, Théo; Chauvat, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are fascinating photosynthetic prokaryotes that are regarded as the ancestors of the plant chloroplast; the purveyors of oxygen and biomass for the food chain; and promising cell factories for an environmentally friendly production of chemicals. In colonizing most waters and soils of our planet, cyanobacteria are inevitably challenged by environmental stresses that generate DNA damages. Furthermore, many strains engineered for biotechnological purposes can use DNA recombination to stop synthesizing the biotechnological product. Hence, it is important to study DNA recombination and repair in cyanobacteria for both basic and applied research. This review reports what is known in a few widely studied model cyanobacteria and what can be inferred by mining the sequenced genomes of morphologically and physiologically diverse strains. We show that cyanobacteria possess many E. coli-like DNA recombination and repair genes, and possibly other genes not yet identified. E. coli-homolog genes are unevenly distributed in cyanobacteria, in agreement with their wide genome diversity. Many genes are extremely well conserved in cyanobacteria (mutMS, radA, recA, recFO, recG, recN, ruvABC, ssb, and uvrABCD), even in small genomes, suggesting that they encode the core DNA repair process. In addition to these core genes, the marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains harbor recBCD (DNA recombination), umuCD (mutational DNA replication), as well as the key SOS genes lexA (regulation of the SOS system) and sulA (postponing of cell division until completion of DNA reparation). Hence, these strains could possess an E. coli-type SOS system. In contrast, several cyanobacteria endowed with larger genomes lack typical SOS genes. For examples, the two studied Gloeobacter strains lack alkB, lexA, and sulA; and Synechococcus PCC7942 has neither lexA nor recCD. Furthermore, the Synechocystis PCC6803 lexA product does not regulate DNA repair genes. Collectively, these findings

  5. Construction and Use of Recombinant Isogenic Cell Libraries in Functional Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Helle

      While nowadays robotics enable performing whole genome functional screens within a few days, the availability of suitable cellular systems to investigate the function or pathway of choice represents as a major bottleneck. In most applications, it is desirable to use cell lines with stably...... or inactivation of a gene of choice in a constitutive or tetracycline-inducible fashion. We also provide proof-of-principle that this technique can be used for the construction of double recombinant cell lines, which allows for analyses at advanced levels of complexity, e. g. by the construction of double...

  6. Rewiring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transcription circuit: Engineering a recombination-resistant genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Lindesmith, Lisa; Baric, Ralph S.

    2006-08-01

    Live virus vaccines provide significant protection against many detrimental human and animal diseases, but reversion to virulence by mutation and recombination has reduced appeal. Using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a model, we engineered a different transcription regulatory circuit and isolated recombinant viruses. The transcription network allowed for efficient expression of the viral transcripts and proteins, and the recombinant viruses replicated to WT levels. Recombinant genomes were then constructed that contained mixtures of the WT and mutant regulatory circuits, reflecting recombinant viruses that might occur in nature. Although viable viruses could readily be isolated from WT and recombinant genomes containing homogeneous transcription circuits, chimeras that contained mixed regulatory networks were invariantly lethal, because viable chimeric viruses were not isolated. Mechanistically, mixed regulatory circuits promoted inefficient subgenomic transcription from inappropriate start sites, resulting in truncated ORFs and effectively minimize viral structural protein expression. Engineering regulatory transcription circuits of intercommunicating alleles successfully introduces genetic traps into a viral genome that are lethal in RNA recombinant progeny viruses. regulation | systems biology | vaccine design

  7. Changes in the EV-A71 Genome through Recombination and Spontaneous Mutations: Impact on Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiiha Bibi Mandary

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks. We aim to see if the virulence of EV-A71 is contributed solely by the presence of fatal strains or is due to the co-operation of quasispecies within a viral population. The phenomenon of quasispecies within the poliovirus is discussed to reflect viral fitness, virulence and its implications for EV-A71. Ultimately, this review gives an insight into the evolution patterns of EV-A71 by looking into its recombination history and how spontaneous mutations would affect its virulence.

  8. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better prediction of protein yield, demonstrates the effect of the different types of N-glycosylation of protein yield, and can be used to predict potential targets for strain improvement. The model represents a step towards a more complete description of protein production in P. pastoris, which is required for using these models to understand and optimize protein production processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to

  10. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  11. Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination.

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    Sheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million annual infections globally. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD located on different chromosomes. Thus, studying C. amylolentus will shed light on the transition from tetrapolar to bipolar mating systems in the pathogenic Cryptococcus species, as well as its possible link with the origin and evolution of pathogenesis. In this study, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genomes of 2 C. amylolentus isolates, CBS6039 and CBS6273, which are sexual and interfertile. Genome comparison between the 2 C. amylolentus isolates identified the boundaries and the complete gene contents of the P/R and HD MAT loci. Bioinformatic and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq analyses revealed that, similar to those of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species, C. amylolentus has regional centromeres (CENs that are enriched with species-specific transposable and repetitive DNA elements. Additionally, we found that while neither the P/R nor the HD locus is physically closely linked to its centromere in C. amylolentus, and the regions between the MAT loci and their respective centromeres show overall synteny between the 2 genomes, both MAT loci exhibit genetic linkage to their respective centromere during meiosis, suggesting the presence of recombinational suppressors and/or epistatic gene interactions in the MAT-CEN intervening regions. Furthermore, genomic comparisons between C. amylolentus and related pathogenic Cryptococcus species provide evidence that multiple chromosomal

  12. Distribution of recombination hotspots in the human genome--a comparison of computer simulations with real data.

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    Dorota Mackiewicz

    Full Text Available Recombination is the main cause of genetic diversity. Thus, errors in this process can lead to chromosomal abnormalities. Recombination events are confined to narrow chromosome regions called hotspots in which characteristic DNA motifs are found. Genomic analyses have shown that both recombination hotspots and DNA motifs are distributed unevenly along human chromosomes and are much more frequent in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes than in their central parts. Clusters of motifs roughly follow the distribution of recombination hotspots whereas single motifs show a negative correlation with the hotspot distribution. To model the phenomena related to recombination, we carried out computer Monte Carlo simulations of genome evolution. Computer simulations generated uneven distribution of hotspots with their domination in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. They also revealed that purifying selection eliminating defective alleles is strong enough to cause such hotspot distribution. After sufficiently long time of simulations, the structure of chromosomes reached a dynamic equilibrium, in which number and global distribution of both hotspots and defective alleles remained statistically unchanged, while their precise positions were shifted. This resembles the dynamic structure of human and chimpanzee genomes, where hotspots change their exact locations but the global distributions of recombination events are very similar.

  13. Distribution of Recombination Hotspots in the Human Genome – A Comparison of Computer Simulations with Real Data

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    Mackiewicz, Dorota; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro; Moss de Oliveira, Suzana; Cebrat, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Recombination is the main cause of genetic diversity. Thus, errors in this process can lead to chromosomal abnormalities. Recombination events are confined to narrow chromosome regions called hotspots in which characteristic DNA motifs are found. Genomic analyses have shown that both recombination hotspots and DNA motifs are distributed unevenly along human chromosomes and are much more frequent in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes than in their central parts. Clusters of motifs roughly follow the distribution of recombination hotspots whereas single motifs show a negative correlation with the hotspot distribution. To model the phenomena related to recombination, we carried out computer Monte Carlo simulations of genome evolution. Computer simulations generated uneven distribution of hotspots with their domination in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. They also revealed that purifying selection eliminating defective alleles is strong enough to cause such hotspot distribution. After sufficiently long time of simulations, the structure of chromosomes reached a dynamic equilibrium, in which number and global distribution of both hotspots and defective alleles remained statistically unchanged, while their precise positions were shifted. This resembles the dynamic structure of human and chimpanzee genomes, where hotspots change their exact locations but the global distributions of recombination events are very similar. PMID:23776462

  14. First identification of a recombinant form of hepatitis C virus in Austrian patients by full-genome next generation sequencing.

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    Stelzl, Evelyn; Haas, Bernhard; Bauer, Bernd; Zhang, Sherry; Fiss, Ellen H; Hillman, Grantland; Hamilton, Aaron T; Mehta, Rochak; Heil, Marintha L; Marins, Ed G; Santner, Brigitte I; Kessler, Harald H

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) intergenotypic recombinant forms have been reported for various HCV genotypes/subtypes in several countries worldwide. In a recent study, four patients living in Austria had been identified to be possibly infected with a recombinant HCV strain. To clarify results and determine the point of recombination, full-genome next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq v2 300 cycle kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) was performed in the present study. Samples of all of the patients contained the recombinant HCV strain 2k/1b. The point of recombination was found to be within the HCV NS2 gene between nucleotide positions 3189-3200 based on H77 numbering. While three of four patients were male and had migration background from Chechnya (n = 2) and Azerbaijan (n = 1), the forth patient was a female born in Austria. Three of the four patients including the female had intravenous drug abuse as a risk factor for HCV transmission. While sequencing techniques are limited to a few specialized laboratories, a genotyping assay that uses both ends of the HCV genome should be employed to identify patients infected with a recombinant HCV strain. The correct identification of recombinant strains also has an impact considering the tailored choice of anti-HCV treatment.

  15. First identification of a recombinant form of hepatitis C virus in Austrian patients by full-genome next generation sequencing.

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    Evelyn Stelzl

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV intergenotypic recombinant forms have been reported for various HCV genotypes/subtypes in several countries worldwide. In a recent study, four patients living in Austria had been identified to be possibly infected with a recombinant HCV strain. To clarify results and determine the point of recombination, full-genome next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq v2 300 cycle kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA was performed in the present study. Samples of all of the patients contained the recombinant HCV strain 2k/1b. The point of recombination was found to be within the HCV NS2 gene between nucleotide positions 3189-3200 based on H77 numbering. While three of four patients were male and had migration background from Chechnya (n = 2 and Azerbaijan (n = 1, the forth patient was a female born in Austria. Three of the four patients including the female had intravenous drug abuse as a risk factor for HCV transmission. While sequencing techniques are limited to a few specialized laboratories, a genotyping assay that uses both ends of the HCV genome should be employed to identify patients infected with a recombinant HCV strain. The correct identification of recombinant strains also has an impact considering the tailored choice of anti-HCV treatment.

  16. Allelic recombination between distinct genomic locations generates copy number diversity in human β-defensins

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    Bakar, Suhaili Abu; Hollox, Edward J.; Armour, John A. L.

    2009-01-01

    β-Defensins are small secreted antimicrobial and signaling peptides involved in the innate immune response of vertebrates. In humans, a cluster of at least 7 of these genes shows extensive copy number variation, with a diploid copy number commonly ranging between 2 and 7. Using a genetic mapping approach, we show that this cluster is at not 1 but 2 distinct genomic loci ≈5 Mb apart on chromosome band 8p23.1, contradicting the most recent genome assembly. We also demonstrate that the predominant mechanism of change in β-defensin copy number is simple allelic recombination occurring in the interval between the 2 distinct genomic loci for these genes. In 416 meiotic transmissions, we observe 3 events creating a haplotype copy number not found in the parent, equivalent to a germ-line rate of copy number change of ≈0.7% per gamete. This places it among the fastest-changing copy number variants currently known. PMID:19131514

  17. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae) provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Svenja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2011-01-14

    Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes) is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni) and 22,737 bp (P. panini), they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB), which has been described from the chicken mitochondrial genome. As this RFB

  18. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination

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    Bleidorn Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Results Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni and 22,737 bp (P. panini, they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. Conclusions The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB, which has been

  19. Evidence for a Complex Mosaic Genome Pattern in a Full-length Hepatitis C Virus Sequence

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    R.S. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the hepatitis C virus (HCV exhibits a high genetic variability. This remarkable heterogeneity is mainly attributed to the gradual accumulation of mutational changes, whereas the contribution of recombination events to the evolution of HCV remains controversial so far. While performing phylogenetic analyses including a large number of sequences deposited in the GenBank, we encountered a full-length HCV sequence (AY651061 that showed evidence for inter-subtype recombination and was, therefore, subjected to a detailed analysis of its molecular structure. The obtained results indicated that AY651061 does not represent a “simple” HCV 1c isolate, but a complex 1a/1c mosaic genome, showing five putative breakpoints in the core to NS3 regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a mosaic HCV full- length sequence with multiple breakpoints. The molecular structure of AY651061 is reminiscent of complex homologous recombinant variants occurring among other members of the flaviviridae family, e.g. GB virus C, dengue virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Our finding of a mosaic HCV sequence may have important implications for many fields of current HCV research which merit careful consideration.

  20. Natural Selection and Recombination Rate Variation Shape Nucleotide Polymorphism Across the Genomes of Three Related Populus Species.

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    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2016-03-01

    A central aim of evolutionary genomics is to identify the relative roles that various evolutionary forces have played in generating and shaping genetic variation within and among species. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data to characterize and compare genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism, site frequency spectrum, and population-scaled recombination rates in three species of Populus: Populus tremula, P. tremuloides, and P. trichocarpa. We find that P. tremuloides has the highest level of genome-wide variation, skewed allele frequencies, and population-scaled recombination rates, whereas P. trichocarpa harbors the lowest. Our findings highlight multiple lines of evidence suggesting that natural selection, due to both purifying and positive selection, has widely shaped patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at linked neutral sites in all three species. Differences in effective population sizes and rates of recombination largely explain the disparate magnitudes and signatures of linked selection that we observe among species. The present work provides the first phylogenetic comparative study on a genome-wide scale in forest trees. This information will also improve our ability to understand how various evolutionary forces have interacted to influence genome evolution among related species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Mitotic evolution of Plasmodium falciparum shows a stable core genome but recombination in antigen families.

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    Selina E R Bopp

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites elude eradication attempts both within the human host and across nations. At the individual level, parasites evade the host immune responses through antigenic variation. At the global level, parasites escape drug pressure through single nucleotide variants and gene copy amplification events conferring drug resistance. Despite their importance to global health, the rates at which these genomic alterations emerge have not been determined. We studied the complete genomes of different Plasmodium falciparum clones that had been propagated asexually over one year in the presence and absence of drug pressure. A combination of whole-genome microarray analysis and next-generation deep resequencing (totaling 14 terabases revealed a stable core genome with only 38 novel single nucleotide variants appearing in seventeen evolved clones (avg. 5.4 per clone. In clones exposed to atovaquone, we found cytochrome b mutations as well as an amplification event encompassing the P. falciparum multidrug resistance associated protein (mrp1 on chromosome 1. We observed 18 large-scale (>1 kb on average deletions of telomere-proximal regions encoding multigene families, involved in immune evasion (9.5×10(-6 structural variants per base pair per generation. Six of these deletions were associated with chromosomal crossovers generated during mitosis. We found only minor differences in rates between genetically distinct strains and between parasites cultured in the presence or absence of drug. Using these derived mutation rates for P. falciparum (1.0-9.7×10(-9 mutations per base pair per generation, we can now model the frequency at which drug or immune resistance alleles will emerge under a well-defined set of assumptions. Further, the detection of mitotic recombination events in var gene families illustrates how multigene families can arise and change over time in P. falciparum. These results will help improve our understanding of how P. falciparum

  2. Mitotic Evolution of Plasmodium falciparum Shows a Stable Core Genome but Recombination in Antigen Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Selina E. R.; Manary, Micah J.; Bright, A. Taylor; Johnston, Geoffrey L.; Dharia, Neekesh V.; Luna, Fabio L.; McCormack, Susan; Plouffe, David; McNamara, Case W.; Walker, John R.; Fidock, David A.; Denchi, Eros Lazzerini; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria parasites elude eradication attempts both within the human host and across nations. At the individual level, parasites evade the host immune responses through antigenic variation. At the global level, parasites escape drug pressure through single nucleotide variants and gene copy amplification events conferring drug resistance. Despite their importance to global health, the rates at which these genomic alterations emerge have not been determined. We studied the complete genomes of different Plasmodium falciparum clones that had been propagated asexually over one year in the presence and absence of drug pressure. A combination of whole-genome microarray analysis and next-generation deep resequencing (totaling 14 terabases) revealed a stable core genome with only 38 novel single nucleotide variants appearing in seventeen evolved clones (avg. 5.4 per clone). In clones exposed to atovaquone, we found cytochrome b mutations as well as an amplification event encompassing the P. falciparum multidrug resistance associated protein (mrp1) on chromosome 1. We observed 18 large-scale (>1 kb on average) deletions of telomere-proximal regions encoding multigene families, involved in immune evasion (9.5×10−6 structural variants per base pair per generation). Six of these deletions were associated with chromosomal crossovers generated during mitosis. We found only minor differences in rates between genetically distinct strains and between parasites cultured in the presence or absence of drug. Using these derived mutation rates for P. falciparum (1.0–9.7×10−9 mutations per base pair per generation), we can now model the frequency at which drug or immune resistance alleles will emerge under a well-defined set of assumptions. Further, the detection of mitotic recombination events in var gene families illustrates how multigene families can arise and change over time in P. falciparum. These results will help improve our understanding of how P. falciparum evolves to

  3. Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Xu, Chenling; Powell, Daniel L; Durvasula, Arun; Skov, Laurits; Holland, Chris; Blazier, John C; Sankararaman, Sriram; Andolfatto, Peter; Rosenthal, Gil G; Przeworski, Molly

    2018-05-11

    To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the "minor" parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human and archaic admixture. These results support models in which ancestry from the minor parental species is more likely to persist when rapidly uncoupled from alleles that are deleterious in hybrids. Our analyses further indicate that selection on swordtail hybrids stems predominantly from deleterious combinations of epistatically interacting alleles. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Amplifying recombination genome-wide and reshaping crossover landscapes in Brassicas

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    Falque, Matthieu; Trotoux, Gwenn; Eber, Frédérique; Nègre, Sylvie; Gilet, Marie; Huteau, Virginie; Lodé, Maryse; Jousseaume, Thibaut; Dechaumet, Sylvain; Morice, Jérôme; Coriton, Olivier; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Meiotic recombination by crossovers (COs) is tightly regulated, limiting its key role in producing genetic diversity. However, while COs are usually restricted in number and not homogenously distributed along chromosomes, we show here how to disrupt these rules in Brassica species by using allotriploid hybrids (AAC, 2n = 3x = 29), resulting from the cross between the allotetraploid rapeseed (B. napus, AACC, 2n = 4x = 38) and one of its diploid progenitors (B. rapa, AA, 2n = 2x = 20). We produced mapping populations from different genotypes of both diploid AA and triploid AAC hybrids, used as female and/or as male. Each population revealed nearly 3,000 COs that we studied with SNP markers well distributed along the A genome (on average 1 SNP per 1.25 Mbp). Compared to the case of diploids, allotriploid hybrids showed 1.7 to 3.4 times more overall COs depending on the sex of meiosis and the genetic background. Most surprisingly, we found that such a rise was always associated with (i) dramatic changes in the shape of recombination landscapes and (ii) a strong decrease of CO interference. Hybrids carrying an additional C genome exhibited COs all along the A chromosomes, even in the vicinity of centromeres that are deprived of COs in diploids as well as in most studied species. Moreover, in male allotriploid hybrids we found that Class I COs are mostly responsible for the changes of CO rates, landscapes and interference. These results offer the opportunity for geneticists and plant breeders to dramatically enhance the generation of diversity in Brassica species by disrupting the linkage drag coming from limits on number and distribution of COs. PMID:28493942

  5. Mitochondrial genomes reveal recombination in the presumed asexual Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovics, Balázs; van Dam, Peter; Rep, Martijn; de Hoog, G Sybren; J van der Lee, Theo A; Waalwijk, Cees; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2017-09-18

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) contains several phylogenetic lineages. Phylogenetic studies identified two to three major clades within the FOSC. The mitochondrial sequences are highly informative phylogenetic markers, but have been mostly neglected due to technical difficulties. A total of 61 complete mitogenomes of FOSC strains were de novo assembled and annotated. Length variations and intron patterns support the separation of three phylogenetic species. The variable region of the mitogenome that is typical for the genus Fusarium shows two new variants in the FOSC. The variant typical for Fusarium is found in members of all three clades, while variant 2 is found in clades 2 and 3 and variant 3 only in clade 2. The extended set of loci analyzed using a new implementation of the genealogical concordance species recognition method support the identification of three phylogenetic species within the FOSC. Comparative analysis of the mitogenomes in the FOSC revealed ongoing mitochondrial recombination within, but not between phylogenetic species. The recombination indicates the presence of a parasexual cycle in F. oxysporum. The obstacles hindering the usage of the mitogenomes are resolved by using next generation sequencing and selective genome assemblers, such as GRAbB. Complete mitogenome sequences offer a stable basis and reference point for phylogenetic and population genetic studies.

  6. [Improvement of thermal adaptability and fermentation of industrial ethanologenic yeast by genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuying; He, Xiuping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Borun

    2011-07-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important ethanol producer. However, in the process of industrial production of ethanol, both cell growth and fermentation of ethanologenic S. cerevisiae are dramatically affected by environmental stresses, such as thermal stress. In this study, we improved both the thermotolerance and fermentation performance of industrial ethanologenic S. cerevisiae by combined usage of chemical mutagenesis and genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination method. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain T44-2 could grow at 44 degrees C, 3 degrees C higher than that of the original strain CE6. The survival rate of T44-2 was 1.84 and 1.87-fold of that of CE6 when heat shock at 48 degrees C and 52 degrees C for 1 h respectively. At temperature higher than 37 degrees C, recombinant strain T44-2 always gave higher cell growth and ethanol production than those of strain CE6. Meanwhile, from 30 degrees C to 40 degrees C, recombinant strain T44-2 produces 91.2-83.8 g/L of ethanol from 200 g/L of glucose, which indicated that the recombinant strain T44-2 had both thermotolerance and broad thermal adaptability. The work offers a novel method, called genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination, to improve the physiological functions of S. cerevisiae.

  7. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke

    2016-09-10

    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-02-17

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Rare HIV-1 Subtype J Genomes and a New H/U/CRF02_AG Recombinant Genome Suggests an Ancient Origin of HIV-1 in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártolo, Inês; Calado, Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Leitner, Thomas; Taveira, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    Angola has an extremely diverse HIV-1 epidemic fueled in part by the frequent interchange of people with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Republic of Congo (RC). Characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Angola should help to better understand the origin of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant forms and their transmission dynamics. In this study we characterize the first near full-length HIV-1 genomic sequences from HIV-1 infected individuals from Angola. Samples were obtained in 1993 from three HIV-1 infected patients living in Cabinda, Angola. Near full-length genomic sequences were obtained from virus isolates. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree inference and analyses of potential recombination patterns were performed to evaluate the sequence classifications and origins. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses revealed that one virus was a pure subtype J, another mostly subtype J with a small uncertain region, and the final virus was classified as a H/U/CRF02_AG recombinant. Consistent with their epidemiological data, the subtype J sequences were more closely related to each other than to other J sequences previously published. Based on the env gene, taxa from Angola occur throughout the global subtype J phylogeny. HIV-1 subtypes J and H are present in Angola at low levels since at least 1993. Low transmission efficiency and/or high recombination potential may explain their limited epidemic success in Angola and worldwide. The high diversity of rare subtypes in Angola suggests that Angola was part of the early establishment of the HIV-1 pandemic.

  10. Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of UV-induced mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Yi Yin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs. Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH. In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells stimulate crossovers more than 1000-fold in wild-type cells. In addition, UV stimulates recombination in G1-synchronized cells about 10-fold more efficiently than in G2-synchronized cells. Importantly, at high doses of UV, most conversion events reflect the repair of two sister chromatids that are broken at approximately the same position whereas at low doses, most conversion events reflect the repair of a single broken chromatid. Genome-wide mapping of about 380 unselected crossovers, break-induced replication (BIR events, and gene conversions shows that UV-induced recombination events occur throughout the genome without pronounced hotspots, although the ribosomal RNA gene cluster has a significantly lower frequency of crossovers.

  11. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii’s Sculpin and Siberian Taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome

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    Evgeniy S Balakirev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial (mt genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii’s sculpin Cottus czerskii . A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3% has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027. At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4% has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027 and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050. We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii . Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1, bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase] from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis , submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550. Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information.

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii's Sculpin Cottus czerskii and Siberian Taimen Hucho taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Saveliev, Pavel A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii's sculpin Cottus czerskii . A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3%) has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027). At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4%) has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027) and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050). We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii . Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1), bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase]) from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis , submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550). Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information.

  13. Analyses of a whole-genome inter-clade recombination map of hepatitis delta virus suggest a host polymerase-driven and viral RNA structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for viral RNA recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Yung-Liang Wang, Robert; Lin, Wen-Bin; Lee, Shang-En; Cheng, Ying-Yu; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2017-01-01

    The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV. Our examination of crossover distribution and subsequent mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that ribozyme activity on HDV genome, which is required for viral replication, also contributes to the generation of an inter-clade junction. These data provide circumstantial evidence supporting our contention that HDV RNA recombination occurs via a replication-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, we identify an intrinsic asymmetric bulge on the HDV genome, which appears to promote recombination events in the vicinity. We therefore propose a mammalian RNAP-driven and viral-RNA-structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for HDV genetic recombination. The present findings improve our understanding of the capacities of the host RNAP beyond typical DNA-directed transcription. PMID:28977829

  14. Genetic Diversity of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus during In Vivo Coinfection Parallels Viral Replication and Arises from Recombination Hot Spots within the Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncoman, Carlos A; Hartley, Carol A; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Vaz, Paola K; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Browning, Glenn F; García, Maricarmen; Spatz, Stephen; Devlin, Joanne M

    2017-12-01

    Recombination is a feature of many alphaherpesviruses that infect people and animals. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 ) causes respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in significant production losses in poultry industries worldwide. Natural (field) ILTV recombination is widespread, particularly recombination between attenuated ILTV vaccine strains to create virulent viruses. These virulent recombinants have had a major impact on animal health. Recently, the development of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay for ILTV has helped to understand ILTV recombination in laboratory settings. In this study, we applied this SNP genotyping assay to further examine ILTV recombination in the natural host. Following coinoculation of specific-pathogen-free chickens, we examined the resultant progeny for evidence of viral recombination and characterized the diversity of the recombinants over time. The results showed that ILTV replication and recombination are closely related and that the recombinant viral progeny are most diverse 4 days after coinoculation, which is the peak of viral replication. Further, the locations of recombination breakpoints in a selection of the recombinant progeny, and in field isolates of ILTV from different geographical regions, were examined following full-genome sequencing and used to identify recombination hot spots in the ILTV genome. IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are common causes of disease in people and animals. Recombination enables genome diversification in many different species of alphaherpesviruses, which can lead to the evolution of higher levels of viral virulence. Using the alphaherpesvirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), we performed coinfections in the natural host (chickens) to demonstrate high levels of virus recombination. Higher levels of diversity in the recombinant progeny coincided with the highest levels of virus replication. In the recombinant progeny, and in

  15. Comparative genomic analysis reveals occurrence of genetic recombination in virulent Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and telomeric gene duplications in Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Tang, Kevin; Rowe, Lori A; Li, Na; Roellig, Dawn M; Knipe, Kristine; Frace, Michael; Yang, Chunfu; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-04-18

    Cryptosporidium hominis is a dominant species for human cryptosporidiosis. Within the species, IbA10G2 is the most virulent subtype responsible for all C. hominis-associated outbreaks in Europe and Australia, and is a dominant outbreak subtype in the United States. In recent yearsIaA28R4 is becoming a major new subtype in the United States. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two field specimens from each of the two subtypes and conducted a comparative genomic analysis of the obtained sequences with those from the only fully sequenced Cryptosporidium parvum genome. Altogether, 8.59-9.05 Mb of Cryptosporidium sequences in 45-767 assembled contigs were obtained from the four specimens, representing 94.36-99.47% coverage of the expected genome. These genomes had complete synteny in gene organization and 96.86-97.0% and 99.72-99.83% nucleotide sequence similarities to the published genomes of C. parvum and C. hominis, respectively. Several major insertions and deletions were seen between C. hominis and C. parvum genomes, involving mostly members of multicopy gene families near telomeres. The four C. hominis genomes were highly similar to each other and divergent from the reference IaA25R3 genome in some highly polymorphic regions. Major sequence differences among the four specimens sequenced in this study were in the 5' and 3' ends of chromosome 6 and the gp60 region, largely the result of genetic recombination. The sequence similarity among specimens of the two dominant outbreak subtypes and genetic recombination in chromosome 6, especially around the putative virulence determinant gp60 region, suggest that genetic recombination plays a potential role in the emergence of hyper-transmissible C. hominis subtypes. The high sequence conservation between C. parvum and C. hominis genomes and significant differences in copy numbers of MEDLE family secreted proteins and insulinase-like proteases indicate that telomeric gene duplications could potentially contribute to

  16. New Software for the Fast Estimation of Population Recombination Rates (FastEPRR in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is a very important evolutionary mechanism that mixes parental haplotypes and produces new raw material for organismal evolution. As a result, information on recombination rates is critical for biological research. In this paper, we introduce a new extremely fast open-source software package (FastEPRR that uses machine learning to estimate recombination rate ρ (=4Ner from intraspecific DNA polymorphism data. When ρ>10 and the number of sampled diploid individuals is large enough (≥50, the variance of ρFastEPRR remains slightly smaller than that of ρLDhat. The new estimate ρcomb (calculated by averaging ρFastEPRR and ρLDhat has the smallest variance of all cases. When estimating ρFastEPRR, the finite-site model was employed to analyze cases with a high rate of recurrent mutations, and an additional method is proposed to consider the effect of variable recombination rates within windows. Simulations encompassing a wide range of parameters demonstrate that different evolutionary factors, such as demography and selection, may not increase the false positive rate of recombination hotspots. Overall, accuracy of FastEPRR is similar to the well-known method, LDhat, but requires far less computation time. Genetic maps for each human population (YRI, CEU, and CHB extracted from the 1000 Genomes OMNI data set were obtained in less than 3 d using just a single CPU core. The Pearson Pairwise correlation coefficient between the ρFastEPRR and ρLDhat maps is very high, ranging between 0.929 and 0.987 at a 5-Mb scale. Considering that sample sizes for these kinds of data are increasing dramatically with advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, FastEPRR (freely available at http://www.picb.ac.cn/evolgen/ is expected to become a widely used tool for establishing genetic maps and studying recombination hotspots in the population genomic era.

  17. Generation of Recombinant Polioviruses Harboring RNA Affinity Tags in the 5′ and 3′ Noncoding Regions of Genomic RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, Dylan; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Cruz, Casey; Baggs, Eric; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being intensely studied for more than 50 years, a complete understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle remains elusive. Specifically, only a handful of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in the RNA replication cycle of these viruses. In an effort to isolate and identify additional cellular proteins that function in enteroviral RNA replication, we have generated multiple recombinant polioviruses containing RNA affinity tags within the 3′ or 5′ noncoding region of the genome. These recombinant viruses retained RNA affinity sequences within the genome while remaining viable and infectious over multiple passages in cell culture. Further characterization of these viruses demonstrated that viral protein production and growth kinetics were unchanged or only slightly altered relative to wild type poliovirus. However, attempts to isolate these genetically-tagged viral genomes from infected cells have been hindered by high levels of co-purification of nonspecific proteins and the limited matrix-binding efficiency of RNA affinity sequences. Regardless, these recombinant viruses represent a step toward more thorough characterization of enterovirus ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in RNA replication. PMID:26861382

  18. Near-Full Genome Characterisation of Two Natural Intergenotypic 2k/1b Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus Isolates

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    Victoria L. Demetriou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Few natural intergenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV recombinants have been characterised, and only RF1_2k/1b has demonstrated widespread transmission. The near-full length genome sequences for two cases of 2k/1b recombinants (CYHCV037 and CYHCV093 sampled in Cyprus were obtained using strain-specific RT-PCR amplification and sequencing protocols. Sequence analysis confirmed their similarity with the original RF1_2k/1b strain from St. Petersburg, N687. These two isolates significantly contribute to the sequence data available on this recombinant and confirm its increasing spread among individuals from Eastern Europe, and its association with transmission through intravenous drug use. Phylogenetic analyses reveal clustering of the sequence 3′ to the recombination point, not seen in the topology of the 5′ sequences, implying a more complicated evolutionary history than that held to date. The increasing cases of HCV recombinant strains underline the requirement of their contribution to the standardised rules of HCV classification and nomenclature, molecular epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  19. The Complete Genome Sequence of Herpesvirus Papio 2 (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 16) Shows Evidence of Recombination Events among Various Progenitor Herpesviruses†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D.; Severini, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an “a” sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (γ134.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses. PMID:16414998

  20. The complete genome sequence of herpesvirus papio 2 (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) shows evidence of recombination events among various progenitor herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D; Severini, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an "a" sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (gamma(1)34.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses.

  1. A novel recombinant retrovirus in the genomes of modern birds combines features of avian and mammalian retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzy, Jamie E; Gifford, Robert J; Johnson, Welkin E; Coffin, John M

    2014-03-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent ancestral sequences of modern retroviruses or their extinct relatives. The majority of ERVs cluster alongside exogenous retroviruses into two main groups based on phylogenetic analyses of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Class I includes gammaretroviruses, and class II includes lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, and deltaretroviruses. However, analyses of the transmembrane subunit (TM) of the envelope glycoprotein (env) gene result in a different topology for some retroviruses, suggesting recombination events in which heterologous env sequences have been acquired. We previously demonstrated that the TM sequences of five of the six genera of orthoretroviruses can be divided into three types, each of which infects a distinct set of vertebrate classes. Moreover, these classes do not always overlap the host range of the associated RT classes. Thus, recombination resulting in acquisition of a heterologous env gene could in theory facilitate cross-species transmissions across vertebrate classes, for example, from mammals to reptiles. Here we characterized a family of class II avian ERVs, "TgERV-F," that acquired a mammalian gammaretroviral env sequence. Although TgERV-F clusters near a sister clade to alpharetroviruses, its genome also has some features of betaretroviruses. We offer evidence that this unusual recombinant has circulated among several avian orders and may still have infectious members. In addition to documenting the infection of a nongalliform avian species by a mammalian retrovirus, TgERV-F also underscores the importance of env sequences in reconstructing phylogenies and supports a possible role for env swapping in allowing cross-species transmissions across wide taxonomic distances. Retroviruses can sometimes acquire an envelope gene (env) from a distantly related retrovirus. Since env is a key determinant of host range, such an event affects the host range of the recombinant virus and can lead to the creation

  2. Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2013-07-01

    Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris.

  3. Genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Wei-Yang; Yang, Lan-Yang; Ku, Fei-Chun; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Chin-Jung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wu, Ren-Chin

    2018-05-03

    We investigated whether genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), which include telomeric allelic imbalance (TAI), large-scale transition (LST), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), can predict clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We enrolled patients with OCCC (n = 80) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; n = 92) subjected to primary cytoreductive surgery, most of whom received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Genomic scar signatures based on genome-wide copy number data were determined in all participants and investigated in relation to prognosis. OCCC had significantly lower genomic scar signature scores than HGSC (p < 0.001). Near-triploid OCCC specimens showed higher TAI and LST scores compared with diploid tumors (p < 0.001). While high scores of these genomic scar signatures were significantly associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with HGSC, the opposite was evident for OCCC. Multivariate survival analysis in patients with OCCC identified high LOH scores as the main independent adverse predictor for both cancer-specific (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.22, p = 0.005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.54, p = 0.01). In conclusion, genomic scar signatures associated with HRD predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with OCCC. The LOH score was identified as the strongest prognostic indicator in this patient group. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD are less frequent in OCCC than in HGSC. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD have an adverse prognostic impact in patients with OCCC. LOH score is the strongest adverse prognostic factor in patients with OCCC.

  4. The complete genome sequence of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus reveals evidence of genetic recombination between distinct isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, B; Anjum, Najreen; Patil, Yogesh K; Agarwal, Surekha; Malathi, P; Krishnaveni, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C; Mangrauthia, Satendra K

    2013-12-01

    In this study, complete genome of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) from Andhra Pradesh (AP) was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence was analysed. The RTSV RNA genome consists of 12,171 nt without the poly(A) tail, encoding a putative typical polyprotein of 3,470 amino acids. Furthermore, cleavage sites and sequence motifs of the polyprotein were predicted. Multiple alignment with other RTSV isolates showed a nucleotide sequence identity of 95% to east Indian isolates and 90% to Philippines isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence showed that Indian isolates clustered together, while Vt6 and PhilA isolates of Philippines formed two separate clusters. Twelve recombination events were detected in RNA genome of RTSV using the Recombination Detection Program version 3. Recombination analysis suggested significant role of 5' end and central region of genome in virus evolution. Further, AP and Odisha isolates appeared as important RTSV isolates involved in diversification of this virus in India through recombination phenomenon. The new addition of complete genome of first south Indian isolate provided an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution of RTSV through recombination analysis and phylogenetic relationship.

  5. Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering (no-SCAR) in Escherichia coli, an Easy-to-Use System for Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Christopher R; Prather, Kristala L J

    2017-01-05

    The discovery and development of genome editing systems that leverage the site-specific DNA endonuclease system CRISPR/Cas9 has fundamentally changed the ease and speed of genome editing in many organisms. In eukaryotes, the CRISPR/Cas9 system utilizes a "guide" RNA to enable the Cas9 nuclease to make a double-strand break at a particular genome locus, which is repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair enzymes, often generating random mutations in the process. A specific alteration of the target genome can also be generated by supplying a DNA template in vivo with a desired mutation, which is incorporated by homology-directed repair. However, E. coli lacks robust systems for double-strand break repair. Thus, in contrast to eukaryotes, targeting E. coli chromosomal DNA with Cas9 causes cell death. However, Cas9-mediated killing of bacteria can be exploited to select against cells with a specified genotype within a mixed population. In combination with the well described λ-Red system for recombination in E. coli, we created a highly efficient system for marker-free and scarless genome editing. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

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    Yann Lesecque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC, which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  7. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesecque, Yann; Glémin, Sylvain; Lartillot, Nicolas; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Duret, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan) to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC), which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  8. BRIT1/MCPH1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and maintaining genomic stability in mice.

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    Yulong Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BRIT1 protein (also known as MCPH1 contains 3 BRCT domains which are conserved in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other important molecules involved in DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. BRIT1 mutations or aberrant expression are found in primary microcephaly patients as well as in cancer patients. Recent in vitro studies suggest that BRIT1/MCPH1 functions as a novel key regulator in the DNA damage response pathways. To investigate its physiological role and dissect the underlying mechanisms, we generated BRIT1(-/- mice and identified its essential roles in mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Both BRIT1(-/- mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation. BRIT1(-/- MEFs and T lymphocytes exhibited severe chromatid breaks and reduced RAD51 foci formation after irradiation. Notably, BRIT1(-/- mice were infertile and meiotic homologous recombination was impaired. BRIT1-deficient spermatocytes exhibited a failure of chromosomal synapsis, and meiosis was arrested at late zygotene of prophase I accompanied by apoptosis. In mutant spermatocytes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs were formed, but localization of RAD51 or BRCA2 to meiotic chromosomes was severely impaired. In addition, we found that BRIT1 could bind to RAD51/BRCA2 complexes and that, in the absence of BRIT1, recruitment of RAD51 and BRCA2 to chromatin was reduced while their protein levels were not altered, indicating that BRIT1 is involved in mediating recruitment of RAD51/BRCA2 to the damage site. Collectively, our BRIT1-null mouse model demonstrates that BRIT1 is essential for maintaining genomic stability in vivo to protect the hosts from both programmed and irradiation-induced DNA damages, and its depletion causes a failure in both mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair via impairing RAD51/BRCA2's function and as a result leads to infertility and genomic instability in mice.

  9. mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide.

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    Najla Al-Sweel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR. To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32 specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover- and Mlh1-mlh3-45 (MMR-, crossover+ displayed wild-type endonuclease activities in vitro. Msh2-Msh3, an MSH complex that acts with Mlh1-Mlh3 in MMR, stimulated the endonuclease activity of Mlh1-mlh3-32 but not Mlh1-mlh3-45, suggesting that Mlh1-mlh3-45 is defective in MSH interactions. Whole genome recombination maps were constructed for wild-type and MMR+ crossover-, MMR- crossover+, endonuclease defective and null mlh3 mutants in an S288c/YJM789 hybrid background. Compared to wild-type, all of the mlh3 mutants showed increases in the number of noncrossover events, consistent with recombination intermediates being resolved through alternative recombination pathways. Our observations provide a structure-function map for Mlh3 that reveals the importance of protein-protein interactions in regulating Mlh1-Mlh3's enzymatic activity. They also illustrate how defective meiotic components can alter the fate of meiotic recombination intermediates, providing new insights for how meiotic recombination pathways are regulated.

  10. Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Mugal, Carina F; Suh, Alexander; Nater, Alexander; Burri, Reto; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of the recombination landscape between these species at the scale of 200 kb, but we also identified differences in the local rate of recombination despite their recent divergence (recombination rate in a lineage-specific manner, indicating differences in the extent of linked selection between species. We detected 400-3,085 recombination hotspots per population. Location of hotspots was conserved between species, but the intensity of hotspot activity varied between species. Recombination hotspots were primarily associated with CpG islands (CGIs), regardless of whether CGIs were at promoter regions or away from genes. Recombination hotspots were also associated with specific transposable elements (TEs), but this association appears indirect due to shared preferences of the transposition machinery and the recombination machinery for accessible open chromatin regions. Our results suggest that CGIs are a major determinant of the localization of recombination hotspots, and we propose that both the distribution of TEs and fine-scale variation in recombination rate may be associated with the evolution of the epigenetic landscape. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Whole-genome analysis of genetic recombination of hepatitis delta virus: molecular domain in delta antigen determining trans-activating efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Feng-Ming; Li, Hsin-Pai; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only animal RNA virus that has an unbranched rod-like genome with ribozyme activity and is replicated by host RNA polymerase. HDV RNA recombination was previously demonstrated in patients and in cultured cells by analysis of a region corresponding to the C terminus of the delta antigen (HDAg), the only viral-encoded protein. Here, a whole-genome recombination map of HDV was constructed using an experimental system in which two HDV-1 sequences were co-transfected into cultured cells and the recombinants were analysed by sequencing of cloned reverse transcription-PCR products. Fifty homologous recombinants with 60 crossovers mapping to 22 junctions were identified from 200 analysed clones. Small HDAg chimeras harbouring a junction newly detected in the recombination map were then constructed. The results further indicated that the genome-replication level of HDV was sensitive to the sixth amino acid within the N-terminal 22 aa of HDAg. Therefore, the recombination map established in this study provided a tool for not only understanding HDV RNA recombination, but also elucidating the related mechanisms, such as molecular elements responsible for the trans-activation levels of the small HDAg.

  12. Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trego, Kelly S.; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known ab......-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging....... about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability...

  13. Recombination events and variability among full-length genomes of co-circulating molluscum contagiosum virus subtypes 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bueno, Alberto; Parras-Moltó, Marcos; López-Barrantes, Olivia; Belda, Sylvia; Alejo, Alí

    2017-05-01

    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the Molluscipoxvirus genus and causes a highly prevalent human disease of the skin characterized by the formation of a variable number of lesions that can persist for prolonged periods of time. Two major genotypes, subtype 1 and subtype 2, are recognized, although currently only a single complete genomic sequence corresponding to MCV subtype 1 is available. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we report the complete genomic sequence of four new MCV isolates, including the first one derived from a subtype 2. Comparisons suggest a relatively distant evolutionary split between both MCV subtypes. Further, our data illustrate concurrent circulation of distinct viruses within a population and reveal the existence of recombination events among them. These results help identify a set of MCV genes with potentially relevant roles in molluscum contagiosum epidemiology and pathogenesis.

  14. Variation in Linked Selection and Recombination Drive Genomic Divergence during Allopatric Speciation of European and American Aspens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2016-07-01

    Despite the global economic and ecological importance of forest trees, the genomic basis of differential adaptation and speciation in tree species is still poorly understood. Populus tremula and Populus tremuloides are two of the most widespread tree species in the Northern Hemisphere. Using whole-genome re-sequencing data of 24 P. tremula and 22 P. tremuloides individuals, we find that the two species diverged ∼2.2-3.1 million years ago, coinciding with the severing of the Bering land bridge and the onset of dramatic climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Both species have experienced substantial population expansions following long-term declines after species divergence. We detect widespread and heterogeneous genomic differentiation between species, and in accordance with the expectation of allopatric speciation, coalescent simulations suggest that neutral evolutionary processes can account for most of the observed patterns of genetic differentiation. However, there is an excess of regions exhibiting extreme differentiation relative to those expected under demographic simulations, which is indicative of the action of natural selection. Overall genetic differentiation is negatively associated with recombination rate in both species, providing strong support for a role of linked selection in generating the heterogeneous genomic landscape of differentiation between species. Finally, we identify a number of candidate regions and genes that may have been subject to positive and/or balancing selection during the speciation process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. Copyright © 2014 Reddy et al.

  16. A phylogenetic method to perform genome-wide association studies in microbes that accounts for population structure and recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Collins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS in microbial organisms have the potential to vastly improve the way we understand, manage, and treat infectious diseases. Yet, microbial GWAS methods established thus far remain insufficiently able to capitalise on the growing wealth of bacterial and viral genetic sequence data. Facing clonal population structure and homologous recombination, existing GWAS methods struggle to achieve both the precision necessary to reject spurious findings and the power required to detect associations in microbes. In this paper, we introduce a novel phylogenetic approach that has been tailor-made for microbial GWAS, which is applicable to organisms ranging from purely clonal to frequently recombining, and to both binary and continuous phenotypes. Our approach is robust to the confounding effects of both population structure and recombination, while maintaining high statistical power to detect associations. Thorough testing via application to simulated data provides strong support for the power and specificity of our approach and demonstrates the advantages offered over alternative cluster-based and dimension-reduction methods. Two applications to Neisseria meningitidis illustrate the versatility and potential of our method, confirming previously-identified penicillin resistance loci and resulting in the identification of both well-characterised and novel drivers of invasive disease. Our method is implemented as an open-source R package called treeWAS which is freely available at https://github.com/caitiecollins/treeWAS.

  17. Whole genome analysis of porcine astroviruses detected in Japanese pigs reveals genetic diversity and possible intra-genotypic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mika; Kuroda, Moegi; Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Akagami, Masataka; Haga, Kei; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Toru; Mukono, Itsuro; Ouchi, Yoshinao; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Shirai, Junsuke; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Porcine astroviruses (PoAstVs) are ubiquitous enteric virus of pigs that are distributed in several countries throughout the world. Since PoAstVs are detected in apparent healthy pigs, the clinical significance of infection is unknown. However, AstVs have recently been associated with a severe neurological disorder in animals, including humans, and zoonotic potential has been suggested. To date, little is known about the epidemiology of PoAstVs among the pig population in Japan. In this report, we present an analysis of nearly complete genomes of 36 PoAstVs detected by a metagenomics approach in the feces of Japanese pigs. Based on a phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison, 10, 5, 15, and 6 sequences were classified as PoAstV2, PoAstV3, PoAstV4, and PoAstV5, respectively. Co-infection with two or three strains was found in individual fecal samples from eight pigs. The phylogenetic trees of ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 of PoAstV2 and PoAstV4 showed differences in their topologies. The PoAstV3 and PoAstV5 strains shared high sequence identities within each genotype in all ORFs; however, one PoAstV3 strain and one PoAstV5 strain showed considerable sequence divergence from the other PoAstV3 and PoAstV5 strains, respectively, in ORF2. Recombination analysis using whole genomes revealed evidence of multiple possible intra-genotype recombination events in PoAstV2 and PoAstV4, suggesting that recombination might have contributed to the genetic diversity and played an important role in the evolution of Japanese PoAstVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis of novel human bocavirus reveals genetic recombination between human bocavirus 2 and human bocavirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of human bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on fecal specimens collected from hospitalized children with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. By partial sequence analysis of VP1 gene, an unusual strain of HBoV (CMH-S011-11), was initially identified as HBoV4. The complete genome sequence of CMH-S011-11 was performed and analyzed further to clarify whether it was a recombinant strain or a new HBoV variant. Analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that the coding sequence starting from NS1, NP1 to VP1/VP2 was 4795 nucleotides long. Interestingly, the nucleotide sequence of NS1 gene of CMH-S011-11 was most closely related to the HBoV2 reference strains detected in Pakistan, which contradicted to the initial genotyping result of the partial VP1 region in the previous study. In addition, comparison of NP1 nucleotide sequence of CMH-S011-11 with those of other HBoV1-4 reference strains also revealed a high level of sequence identity with HBoV2. On the other hand, nucleotide sequence of VP1/VP2 gene of CMH-S011-11 was most closely related to those of HBoV4 reference strains detected in Nigeria. The overall full-length sequence analysis revealed that this CMH-S011-11 was grouped within HBoV4 species, but located in a separate branch from other HBoV4 prototype strains. Recombination analysis revealed that CMH-S011-11 was the result of recombination between HBoV2 and HBoV4 strains with the break point located near the start codon of VP2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide SNP genotyping resolves signatures of selection and tetrasomic recombination in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea; 2n=4x=40) is a nutritious food and a good source of vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats. Expansion of genetic and genomic resources for genetic enhancement of cultivated peanut has gained momentum from the sequenced genomes of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. ...

  20. Reference-quality genome sequence of Aegilops tauschii, the source of wheat D genome, shows that recombination shapes genome structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat and an important genetic resource for wheat. A reference-quality sequence for the Ae. tauschii genome was produced with a combination of ordered-clone sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical geno...

  1. Weakly Deleterious Mutations and Low Rates of Recombination Limit the Impact of Natural Selection on Bacterial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-12-15

    Free-living bacteria are usually thought to have large effective population sizes, and so tiny selective differences can drive their evolution. However, because recombination is infrequent, "background selection" against slightly deleterious alleles should reduce the effective population size (Ne) by orders of magnitude. For example, for a well-mixed population with 10(12) individuals and a typical level of homologous recombination (r/m = 3, i.e., nucleotide changes due to recombination [r] occur at 3 times the mutation rate [m]), we predict that Ne is selection should be sufficient to drive evolution if Ne × s is >1, where s is the selection coefficient. We found that this remains approximately correct if background selection is occurring or when population structure is present. Overall, we predict that even for free-living bacteria with enormous populations, natural selection is only a significant force if s is above 10(-7) or so. Because bacteria form huge populations with trillions of individuals, the simplest theoretical prediction is that the better allele at a site would predominate even if its advantage was just 10(-9) per generation. In other words, virtually every nucleotide would be at the local optimum in most individuals. A more sophisticated theory considers that bacterial genomes have millions of sites each and selection events on these many sites could interfere with each other, so that only larger effects would be important. However, bacteria can exchange genetic material, and in principle, this exchange could eliminate the interference between the evolution of the sites. We used simulations to confirm that during multisite evolution with realistic levels of recombination, only larger effects are important. We propose that advantages of less than 10(-7) are effectively neutral. Copyright © 2015 Price and Arkin.

  2. Recombination and evolution of duplicate control regions in the mitochondrial genome of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs at the 3' end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P

  3. Evidence for possible biological advantages of the newly emerging HIV-1 circulating recombinant form from Malaysia - CRF33_01B in comparison to its progenitors - CRF01_AE and subtype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine A; Wang, Bin; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Boadle, Ross; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ng, Kee-Peng; Saksena, Nitin K

    2010-04-01

    In Malaysia, co-circulation of CRF01_AE and subtype B has resulted in the emergence of the second generation derivative; CRF33_01B in approximately 20% of its HIV-1 infected individuals. Our objective was to identify possible biological advantages that CRF33_01B possesses over its progenitors. Biological and molecular comparisons of CRF33_01B against its parental subtypes clearly show that CRF33_01B replicated better in activated whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes, but not monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Also, its acquired fitness was greater than CRF01_AE but not subtype B. Moreover, CRF33_01B has higher rate of apoptotic cell death and syncytia induction compared to subtype B. These adaptive and survival abilities could have been acquired by CRF33_01B due to the incorporation of subtype B fragments into the gag-RT region of its full-length genome. Our studies confirm the previously held belief that HIV-1 strains may harbor enhanced biological fitness upon recombination. We therefore estimate a possible gradual replacement of the current predominance of CRF01_AE, as well as wider dissemination of CRF33_01B, together with the identification of other new CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinants in Malaysia.

  4. Conditional genomic rearrangement by designed meiotic recombination using VDE (PI-SceI) in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2007-10-01

    Meiotic recombination plays critical roles in the acquisition of genetic diversity and has been utilized for conventional breeding of livestock and crops. The frequency of meiotic recombination is normally low, and is extremely low in regions called "recombination cold domains". Here, we describe a new and highly efficient method to modulate yeast meiotic gene rearrangements using VDE (PI-SceI), an intein-encoded endonuclease that causes an efficient unidirectional meiotic gene conversion at its recognition sequence (VRS). We designed universal targeting vectors, by use of which the strain that inserts the VRS at a desired site is acquired. Meiotic induction of the strains provided unidirectional gene conversions and frequent genetic rearrangements of flanking genes with little impact on cell viability. This system thus opens the way for the designed modulation of meiotic gene rearrangements, regardless of recombinational activity of chromosomal domains. Finally, the VDE-VRS system enabled us to conduct meiosis-specific conditional knockout of genes where VDE-initiated gene conversion disrupts the target gene during meiosis, serving as a novel approach to examine the functions of genes during germination of resultant spores.

  5. Analysis of ORF5 and Full-Length Genome Sequences of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates of Genotypes 1 and 2 Retrieved Worldwide Provides Evidence that Recombination Is a Common Phenomenon and May Produce Mosaic Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Valls, G. E.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Tello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrom...

  6. Genome Sequence Analysis of New Isolates of the Winona Strain of Plum pox virus and the First Definitive Evidence of Intrastrain Recombination Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delano; Sanderson, Dan; Varga, Aniko; Sheveleva, Anna; Chirkov, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is genetically diverse with nine different strains identified. Mutations, indel events, and interstrain recombination events are known to contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. This is the first report of intrastrain recombination events that contribute to PPV's genetic diversity. Fourteen isolates of the PPV strain Winona (W) were analyzed including nine new strain W isolates sequenced completely in this study. Isolates of other strains of PPV with more than one isolate with the complete genome sequence available in GenBank were included also in this study for comparison and analysis. Five intrastrain recombination events were detected among the PPV W isolates, one among PPV C strain isolates, and one among PPV M strain isolates. Four (29%) of the PPV W isolates analyzed are recombinants; one of which (P2-1) is a mosaic, with three recombination events identified. A new interstrain recombinant event was identified between a strain M isolate and a strain Rec isolate, a known recombinant. In silico recombination studies and pairwise distance analyses of PPV strain D isolates indicate that a threshold of genetic diversity exists for the detectability of recombination events, in the range of approximately 0.78×10(-2) to 1.33×10(-2) mean pairwise distance. RDP4 analyses indicate that in the case of PPV Rec isolates there may be a recombinant breakpoint distinct from the obvious transition point of strain sequences. Evidence was obtained that indicates that the frequency of PPV recombination is underestimated, which may be true for other RNA viruses where low genetic diversity exists.

  7. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  8. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full-genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2010-01-01

    -Gifhorn genome was generated by long RTPCR and then RNA transcripts derived from this amplicon were used to rescue infectious virus. Here, we have now used this full-genome amplification strategy for efficient and robust amplification of three additional pestivirus strains: the vaccine strain C and the virulent...... Paderborn strain of Classical swine fever virus plus the CP7 strain of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stable single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived....

  9. Adaptation of the Pivotal-Differential Genome Pattern for the Induction of Intergenomic Chromosome Recombination in Hybrids of Synthetic Amphidiploids within Triticeae Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal T. Kwiatek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S. cereale (UUMMRR and triticale (AABBRR where R-genome was pivotal. We observed chromosome recombination events which were induced by both: (1 random chromosome fragmentation and non-homologous chromosome end joining at mitosis of root meristem cells and (2 intergenomic chromosome associations at meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs of F1 hybrids. Reciprocal chromosome translocations were identified in six F1 plants and 15 plants of F2 generation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with DNA clones (pTa-86, pTa-k374, pTa-465, pTa-535, pTa-k566, and pTa-713. We observed signals of pTa-86, pTa-535, and pTa-k566 probes in several chromosome breakpoints. The comparison of the DNA clone sequences distinguished a number of common motifs, which can be considered as characteristics of chromosome breakpoint loci. Immunodetection of synaptonemal complex proteins and genomic in situ hybridization analysis at meiosis of PMCs of F1 hybrids showed, that the homologous pairing of pivotal R—genome chromosomes is crucial for the fertility of F1 hybrids, however, these chromosomes can be also involved in the intergeneric recombination.

  10. X-Chromosome Control of Genome-Scale Recombination Rates in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in recombination are widespread in mammals, but the causes of this pattern are poorly understood. Previously, males from two interfertile subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus , were shown to exhibit a ∼30% difference in their global crossover frequencies. Much of this crossover rate divergence is explained by six autosomal loci and a large-effect locus on the X chromosome. Intriguingly, the allelic effects at this X-linked locus are transgressive, with the allele conferring increased crossover rate being transmitted by the low crossover rate M. m. castaneus parent. Despite the pronounced divergence between males, females from these subspecies exhibit similar crossover rates, raising the question of how recombination is genetically controlled in this sex. Here, I analyze publicly available genotype data from early generations of the Collaborative Cross, an eight-way panel of recombinant inbred strains, to estimate crossover frequencies in female mice with sex-chromosome genotypes of diverse subspecific origins. Consistent with the transgressive influence of the X chromosome in males, I show that females inheriting an M. m. castaneus X possess higher average crossover rates than females lacking the M. m. castaneus X chromosome. The differential inheritance of the X chromosome in males and females provides a simple genetic explanation for sex-limited evolution of this trait. Further, the presence of X-linked and autosomal crossover rate modifiers with antagonistic effects hints at an underlying genetic conflict fueled by selection for distinct crossover rate optima in males and females. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing to Improve Recombinant Protein Production in CHO Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie; Julie la Cour Karottki, Karen; Lee, Jae Seong

    2017-01-01

    and yields. In this chapter, we present our protocol on how to use the genome editing tool Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) to knockout engineering target genes in CHO cells. As an example, we refer to the glutamine synthetase (GS...

  12. Active site electrostatics protect genome integrity by blocking abortive hydrolysis during DNA recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chien-Hui; Rowley, Paul A; Macieszak, Anna; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2009-01-01

    Water, acting as a rogue nucleophile, can disrupt transesterification steps of important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA and RNA. We have unveiled this risk, and identified safeguards instituted against it, during strand cleavage and joining by the tyrosine site-specific recombinase Flp. Strand joining is threatened by a latent Flp endonuclease activity (type I) towards the 3′-phosphotyrosyl intermediate resulting from strand cleavage. This risk is not alleviated by phosphate electrostatics; neutralizing the negative charge on the scissile phosphate through methylphosphonate (MeP) substitution does not stimulate type I endonuclease. Rather, protection derives from the architecture of the recombination synapse and conformational dynamics within it. Strand cleavage is protected against water by active site electrostatics. Replacement of the catalytic Arg-308 of Flp by alanine, along with MeP substitution, elicits a second Flp endonuclease activity (type II) that directly targets the scissile phosphodiester bond in DNA. MeP substitution, combined with appropriate active site mutations, will be useful in revealing anti-hydrolytic mechanisms engendered by systems that mediate DNA relaxation, DNA transposition, site-specific recombination, telomere resolution, RNA splicing and retrohoming of mobile introns. PMID:19440204

  13. Probing the HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking pathway and dimerization by genetic recombination and single virion analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Moore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral replication. Using a cell-fusion-dependent recombination assay, we demonstrate that the two RNAs destined for copackaging into the same virion select each other mostly within the cytoplasm. Moreover, by manipulating the RNA export element in the viral genome, we show that the export pathway taken is important for the ability of RNA molecules derived from two viruses to interact and be copackaged. These results further illustrate that at the point of dimerization the two main cellular export pathways are partially distinct. Lastly, by providing Gag in trans, we have demonstrated that Gag is able to package RNA from either export pathway, irrespective of the transport pathway used by the gag mRNA. These findings provide unique insights into the process of RNA export in general, and more specifically, of HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking.

  14. The complete sequence of the first Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus genome: a natural multiple recombinant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartas, Paola E; Barrera, Gloria P; Belaich, Mariano N; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Villamizar, Laura F

    2015-01-20

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  15. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

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    Paola E. Cuartas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008 has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV. The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs, 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  16. Origin of the CMS gene locus in rapeseed cybrid mitochondria: active and inactive recombination produces the complex CMS gene region in the mitochondrial genomes of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masao; Kikuchi, Rie; Imamura, Jun; Handa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterile) rapeseed is produced by asymmetrical somatic cell fusion between the Brassica napus cv. Westar and the Raphanus sativus Kosena CMS line (Kosena radish). The CMS rapeseed contains a CMS gene, orf125, which is derived from Kosena radish. Our sequence analyses revealed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed originated from recombination between the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region by way of a 63 bp repeat. A precise sequence comparison among the related sequences in CMS rapeseed, Kosena radish and normal rapeseed showed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed consisted of the Kosena orf125/orfB region and the rapeseed nad1C/ccmFN1 region, even though Kosena radish had both the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region in its mitochondrial genome. We also identified three tandem repeat sequences in the regions surrounding orf125, including a 63 bp repeat, which were involved in several recombination events. Interestingly, differences in the recombination activity for each repeat sequence were observed, even though these sequences were located adjacent to each other in the mitochondrial genome. We report results indicating that recombination events within the mitochondrial genomes are regulated at the level of specific repeat sequences depending on the cellular environment.

  17. A newly emerging HIV-1 recombinant lineage (CRF58_01B) disseminating among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Syafina, Nur Ezreen; Prakasa, Malarvelli Soorya; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is primarily characterised by the circulation of HIV-1 group M (main) comprising of 11 subtypes and sub-subtypes (A1, A2, B-D, F1, F2, G, H, J, and K) and to date 55 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In Southeast Asia, active inter-subtype recombination involving three main circulating genotypes--subtype B (including subtype B', the Thai variant of subtype B), CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B--have contributed to the emergence of novel unique recombinant forms. In the present study, we conducted the molecular epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 gag-RT genes among 258 people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2009 and 2011 whereby a novel CRF candidate was recently identified. The near full-length genome sequences obtained from six epidemiologically unlinked individuals showed identical mosaic structures consisting of subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with six unique recombination breakpoints in the gag-RT, pol, and env regions. Among the high-risk population of PWIDs in Malaysia, which was predominantly infected by CRF33_01B (>70%), CRF58_01B circulated at a low but significant prevalence (2.3%, 6/258). Interestingly, the CRF58_01B shared two unique recombination breakpoints with other established CRFs in the region: CRF33_01B, CRF48_01B, and CRF53_01B in the gag gene, and CRF15_01B (from Thailand) in the env gene. Extended Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling analysis showed that CRF58_01B and other recently discovered CRFs were most likely to have originated in Malaysia, and that the recent spread of recombinant lineages in the country had little influence from neighbouring countries. The isolation, genetic characterization, and evolutionary features of CRF58_01B among PWIDs in Malaysia signify the increasingly complex HIV-1 diversity in Southeast Asia that may hold an implication on disease treatment, control, and prevention.

  18. A newly emerging HIV-1 recombinant lineage (CRF58_01B disseminating among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhen Chow

    Full Text Available The HIV epidemic is primarily characterised by the circulation of HIV-1 group M (main comprising of 11 subtypes and sub-subtypes (A1, A2, B-D, F1, F2, G, H, J, and K and to date 55 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs. In Southeast Asia, active inter-subtype recombination involving three main circulating genotypes--subtype B (including subtype B', the Thai variant of subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B--have contributed to the emergence of novel unique recombinant forms. In the present study, we conducted the molecular epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 gag-RT genes among 258 people who inject drugs (PWIDs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2009 and 2011 whereby a novel CRF candidate was recently identified. The near full-length genome sequences obtained from six epidemiologically unlinked individuals showed identical mosaic structures consisting of subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with six unique recombination breakpoints in the gag-RT, pol, and env regions. Among the high-risk population of PWIDs in Malaysia, which was predominantly infected by CRF33_01B (>70%, CRF58_01B circulated at a low but significant prevalence (2.3%, 6/258. Interestingly, the CRF58_01B shared two unique recombination breakpoints with other established CRFs in the region: CRF33_01B, CRF48_01B, and CRF53_01B in the gag gene, and CRF15_01B (from Thailand in the env gene. Extended Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling analysis showed that CRF58_01B and other recently discovered CRFs were most likely to have originated in Malaysia, and that the recent spread of recombinant lineages in the country had little influence from neighbouring countries. The isolation, genetic characterization, and evolutionary features of CRF58_01B among PWIDs in Malaysia signify the increasingly complex HIV-1 diversity in Southeast Asia that may hold an implication on disease treatment, control, and prevention.

  19. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of arabidopsis and rice

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    Choudhury Swarup

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA repair and recombination (DRR proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. Results We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. Conclusions The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms.

  20. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay K; Roy, Sujit; Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-07-21

    The DNA repair and recombination (DRR) proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms.

  1. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR

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    Susan D'Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg; however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new “Free-ITR” qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  3. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan; Blouin, Veronique; Broucque, Frederic; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; François, Achille; Perez, Irene C; Le Bec, Christine; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O; Ayuso, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs) can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg); however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new "Free-ITR" qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  4. Whole-genome characterization of Uruguayan strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus reveals extensive recombination between the two major South American lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina; Greif, Gonzalo; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Hernández, Martín; Techera, Claudia; Hernández, Diego; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (Gammacoronavirus, Coronaviridae) is a genetically variable RNA virus that causes one of the most persistent respiratory diseases in poultry. The virus is classified in genotypes and lineages with different epidemiological relevance. Two lineages of the GI genotype (11 and 16) have been widely circulating for decades in South America. GI-11 is an exclusive South American lineage while the GI-16 lineage is distributed in Asia, Europe and South America. Here, we obtained the whole genome of two Uruguayan strains of the GI-11 and GI-16 lineages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The strains here sequenced are the first obtained in South America for the infectious bronchitis virus and provide new insights into the origin, spreading and evolution of viral variants. The complete genome of the GI-11 and GI-16 strains have 27,621 and 27,638 nucleotides, respectively, and possess the same genomic organization. Phylogenetic incongruence analysis reveals that both strains have a mosaic genome that arose by recombination between Euro Asiatic strains of the GI-16 lineage and ancestral South American GI-11 viruses. The recombination occurred in South America and produced two viral variants that have retained the full-length S1 sequences of the parental lineages but are extremely similar in the rest of their genomes. These recombinant virus have been extraordinary successful, persisting in the continent for several years with a notorious wide geographic distribution. Our findings reveal a singular viral dynamics and emphasize the importance of complete genomic characterization to understand the emergence and evolutionary history of viral variants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrative analysis of genomic alterations in triple-negative breast cancer in association with homologous recombination deficiency.

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    Masahito Kawazu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cells do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Currently, apart from poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, there are few effective therapeutic options for this type of cancer. Here, we present comprehensive characterization of the genetic alterations in TNBC performed by high coverage whole genome sequencing together with transcriptome and whole exome sequencing. Silencing of the BRCA1 gene impaired the homologous recombination pathway in a subset of TNBCs, which exhibited similar phenotypes to tumors with BRCA1 mutations; they harbored many structural variations (SVs with relative enrichment for tandem duplication. Clonal analysis suggested that TP53 mutations and methylation of CpG dinucleotides in the BRCA1 promoter were early events of carcinogenesis. SVs were associated with driver oncogenic events such as amplification of MYC, NOTCH2, or NOTCH3 and affected tumor suppressor genes including RB1, PTEN, and KMT2C. Furthermore, we identified putative TGFA enhancer regions. Recurrent SVs that affected the TGFA enhancer region led to enhanced expression of the TGFA oncogene that encodes one of the high affinity ligands for epidermal growth factor receptor. We also identified a variety of oncogenes that could transform 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, suggesting that individual TNBC tumors may undergo a unique driver event that can be targetable. Thus, we revealed several features of TNBC with clinically important implications.

  6. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Endert, P M; Lopez, M T; Patel, S D; Monaco, J J; McDevitt, H O

    1992-01-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes. Images PMID:1360671

  7. Genome characterization of Turkey Rotavirus G strains from the United States identifies potential recombination events with human Rotavirus B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangzhou; Knutson, Todd P; Porter, Robert E; Ciarlet, Max; Mor, Sunil Kumar; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2017-12-01

    Rotavirus G (RVG) strains have been detected in a variety of avian species, but RVG genomes have been published from only a single pigeon and two chicken strains. Two turkey RVG strains were identified and characterized, one in a hatchery with no reported health issues and the other in a hatchery with high embryo/poult mortality. The two turkey RVG strains shared only an 85.3 % nucleotide sequence identity in the VP7 gene while the other genes possessed high nucleotide identity among them (96.3-99.9 %). Low nucleotide percentage identities (31.6-87.3 %) occurred among the pigeon and chicken RVG strains. Interestingly, potential recombination events were detected between our RVG strains and a human RVB strain, in the VP6 and NSP3 segments. The epidemiology of RVG in avian flocks and the pathogenicity of the two different RVG strains should be further investigated to understand the ecology and impact of RVG in commercial poultry flocks.

  8. Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China

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    Long Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1, indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like, lineage 1 (NADC30-like, and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant NADC30-Like Strain, SCnj16, of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Runmin; Xie, Bo; Tian, Yiming; Yang, Xin; Yu, Jifeng

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are characterized by a 131-amino-acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a recombinant NADC30-like PRRSV strain, SCnj16, that exhibits the molecular marker of the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) in NSP2. PMID:29439029

  10. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii’s Sculpin Cottus czerskii and Siberian Taimen Hucho taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Saveliev, Pavel A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii’s sculpin Cottus czerskii. A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3%) has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027). At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4%) has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027) and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050). We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii. Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1), bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase]) from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis, submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550). Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information. PMID:28890653

  11. Recombination pattern reanalysis of some HIV-1 circulating recombination forms suggest the necessity and difficulty of revision.

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    Lei Jia

    Full Text Available Recombination is one of the major mechanisms underlying the generation of HIV-1 variability. Currently 61 circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified. With the development of recombination detection techniques and accumulation of HIV-1 reference stains, more accurate mosaic structures of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs, like CRF04 and CRF06, have undergone repeated analysis and upgrades. Such revisions may also be necessary for other CRFs. Unlike previous studies, whose results are based primarily on a single recombination detection program, the current study was based on multiple recombination analysis, which may have produced more impartial results.Representative references of 3 categories of intersubtype recombinants were selected, including BC recombinants (CRF07 and CRF08, BG recombinants (CRF23 and CRF24, and BF recombinants (CRF38 and CRF44. They were reanalyzed in detail using both the jumping profile hidden Markov model and RDP3.The results indicate that revisions and upgrades are very necessary and the entire re-analysis suggested 2 types of revision: (i length of inserted fragments; and (ii number of inserted fragments. The reanalysis also indicated that determination of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer should be performed with more caution.Results indicated that the involvement of multiple recombination detection programs is very necessary. Additionally, results suggested two major challenges, one involving the difficulty of accurately determining the locations of breakpoints and the second involving identification of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer with greater caution. Both indicate the complexity of HIV-1 recombination. The resolution would depend critically on development of a recombination analysis algorithm, accumulation of HIV-1 stains, and a higher sequencing quality. With the changes in recombination pattern, phylogenetic relationships of some CRFs may also change. All these results may

  12. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Liu, Qiaorong; Qiao, Mingming; Deng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xizhao; Sun, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1) have been continuously isolated in China in recent years. Complete genome sequences of these isolates are important to investigate the prevalence and evolution of Chinese PRRSV 1. Herein, we describe the isolation of a novel PRRSV 1 isolate, denominated HLJB1, in the Heilongjiang province of China. Complete genome sequencing of HLJB1 showed that it shares 90.66% and 58.21% nucleotide identities with PRRSV 1 and 2 prototypic strains Lelystad virus and ATCC VR-2332, respectively. HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates. Whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese PRRSV 1 isolates are clustered in pan-European subtype 1 and can be divided into four subgroups. HLJB1 resides in the subgroup of BJEU06-1-like isolates but is also closely related to the Amervac-like isolates. Additionally, recombination analyses suggested that HLJB1 is a recombinant from the Amervac vaccine and the BJEU06-1 isolate. To our best knowledge, our results provide the first genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains. These findings are also beneficial for studying the origin and evolution of PRRSV 1 in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Complete genome sequences of two avian infectious bronchitis viruses isolated in Egypt: Evidence for genetic drift and genetic recombination in the circulating viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abozeid, Hassanein H; Paldurai, Anandan; Khattar, Sunil K; Afifi, Manal A; El-Kady, Magdy F; El-Deeb, Ayman H; Samal, Siba K

    2017-09-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is highly prevalent in chicken populations and is responsible for severe economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. In this study, we report the complete genome sequences of two IBV field strains, CU/1/2014 and CU/4/2014, isolated from vaccinated chickens in Egypt in 2014. The genome lengths of the strains CU/1/2014 and CU/4/2014 were 27,615 and 27,637 nucleotides, respectively. Both strains have a common genome organization in the order of 5'-UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-UTR-poly(A) tail-3'. Interestingly, strain CU/1/2014 showed a novel 15-nt deletion in the 4b-4c gene junction region. Phylogenetic analysis of the full S1 genes showed that the strains CU/1/2014 and CU/4/2014 belonged to IBV genotypes GI-1 lineage and GI-23 lineage, respectively. The genome of strain CU/1/2014 is closely related to vaccine strain H120 but showed genome-wide point mutations that lead to 27, 14, 11, 1, 1, 2, 2, and 2 amino acid differences between the two strains in 1a, 1b, S, 3a, M, 4b, 4c, and N proteins, respectively, suggesting that strain CU/1/2014 is probably a revertant of the vaccine strain H120 and evolved by accumulation of point mutations. Recombination analysis of strain CU/4/2014 showed evidence for recombination from at least three different IBV strains, namely, the Italian strain 90254/2005 (QX-like strain), 4/91, and H120. These results indicate the continuing evolution of IBV field strains by genetic drift and by genetic recombination leading to outbreaks in the vaccinated chicken populations in Egypt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination is established at the onset of prophase in mammalian males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Baier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of chromosomes during the first meiotic division relies on crossovers established during prophase. Although crossovers are strictly regulated so that at least one occurs per chromosome, individual variation in crossover levels is not uncommon. In an analysis of different inbred strains of male mice, we identified among-strain variation in the number of foci for the crossover-associated protein MLH1. We report studies of strains with "low" (CAST/EiJ, "medium" (C3H/HeJ, and "high" (C57BL/6J genome-wide MLH1 values to define factors responsible for this variation. We utilized immunofluorescence to analyze the number and distribution of proteins that function at different stages in the recombination pathway: RAD51 and DMC1, strand invasion proteins acting shortly after double-strand break (DSB formation, MSH4, part of the complex stabilizing double Holliday junctions, and the Bloom helicase BLM, thought to have anti-crossover activity. For each protein, we identified strain-specific differences that mirrored the results for MLH1; i.e., CAST/EiJ mice had the lowest values, C3H/HeJ mice intermediate values, and C57BL/6J mice the highest values. This indicates that differences in the numbers of DSBs (as identified by RAD51 and DMC1 are translated into differences in the number of crossovers, suggesting that variation in crossover levels is established by the time of DSB formation. However, DSBs per se are unlikely to be the primary determinant, since allelic variation for the DSB-inducing locus Spo11 resulted in differences in the numbers of DSBs but not the number of MLH1 foci. Instead, chromatin conformation appears to be a more important contributor, since analysis of synaptonemal complex length and DNA loop size also identified consistent strain-specific differences; i.e., crossover frequency increased with synaptonemal complex length and was inversely related to chromatin loop size. This indicates a relationship between recombination

  15. Molecular detection of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and newly emerging recombinant lineages in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chook, Jack Bee; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Choo, Martin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-03-01

    A molecular genotyping assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating in Southeast Asia is difficult to design because of the high level of genetic diversity. We developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and three newly described circulating recombinant forms, (CRFs) (CRF53_01B, CRF54_01B, and CRF58_01B). A total of 785 reference genomes were used for subtype-specific primers and TaqMan probes design targeting the gag, pol, and env genes. The performance of this assay was compared and evaluated with direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 180 HIV-infected subjects from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were screened and 171 samples were successfully genotyped, in agreement with the phylogenetic data. The HIV-1 genotype distribution was as follows: subtype B (16.7%); CRF01_AE (52.8%); CRF33_01B (24.4%); CRF53_01B (1.1%); CRF54_01B (0.6%); and CRF01_AE/B unique recombinant forms (4.4%). The overall accuracy of the genotyping assay was over 95.0%, in which the sensitivities for subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B detection were 100%, 100%, and 97.7%, respectively. The specificity of genotyping was 100%, inter-subtype specificities were > 95% and the limit of detection of 10(3) copies/mL for plasma. The newly developed real-time PCR assay offers a rapid and cost-effective alternative for large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance for HIV-1. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Complete genome sequence of two tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Venezuela: evidence of a putative novel species and a novel recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques; Bragard, Claude

    2018-02-01

    At least six begomovirus species have been reported infecting tomato in Venezuela. In this study the complete genomes of two tomato-infecting begomovirus isolates (referred to as Trujillo-427 and Zulia-1084) were cloned and sequenced. Both isolates showed the typical genome organization of New World bipartite begomoviruses, with DNA-A genomic components displaying 88.8% and 90.3% similarity with established begomoviruses, for isolates Trujillo-427 and Zulia-1084, respectively. In accordance to the guidelines for begomovirus species demarcation, the Trujillo-427 isolate represents a putative new species and the name "Tomato wrinkled mosaic virus" is proposed. Meanwhile, Zulia-1084 represents a putative new strain classifiable within species Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, for which a recombinant origin is suggested.

  17. Genomic evolution, recombination, and inter-strain diversity of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from Florida and Hawaii green sea turtles with fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Work, Thierry M.; Fahsbender, Elizabeth; Breitbart, Mya; Adams, Cynthia; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Sanders, Lakyn; Ackermann, Mathias; Cornman, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) is a herpesvirus associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in sea turtles worldwide. Single-locus typing has previously shown differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific strains of this virus, with low variation within each geographic clade. However, a lack of multi-locus genomic sequence data hinders understanding of the rate and mechanisms of ChHV5 evolutionary divergence, as well as how these genomic changes may contribute to differences in disease manifestation. To assess genomic variation in ChHV5 among five Hawaii and three Florida green sea turtles, we used high-throughput short-read sequencing of long-range PCR products amplified from tumor tissue using primers designed from the single available ChHV5 reference genome from a Hawaii green sea turtle. This strategy recovered sequence data from both geographic regions for approximately 75% of the predicted ChHV5 coding sequences. The average nucleotide divergence between geographic populations was 1.5%; most of the substitutions were fixed differences between regions. Protein divergence was generally low (average 0.08%), and ranged between 0 and 5.3%. Several atypical genes originally identified and annotated in the reference genome were confirmed in ChHV5 genomes from both geographic locations. Unambiguous recombination events between geographic regions were identified, and clustering of private alleles suggests the prevalence of recombination in the evolutionary history of ChHV5. This study significantly increased the amount of sequence data available from ChHV5 strains, enabling informed selection of loci for future population genetic and natural history studies, and suggesting the (possibly latent) co-infection of individuals by well-differentiated geographic variants.

  18. Genomic evolution, recombination, and inter-strain diversity of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from Florida and Hawaii green sea turtles with fibropapillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L; Iwanowicz, Luke; Work, Thierry M; Fahsbender, Elizabeth; Breitbart, Mya; Adams, Cynthia; Iwanowicz, Deb; Sanders, Lakyn; Ackermann, Mathias; Cornman, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) is a herpesvirus associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in sea turtles worldwide. Single-locus typing has previously shown differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific strains of this virus, with low variation within each geographic clade. However, a lack of multi-locus genomic sequence data hinders understanding of the rate and mechanisms of ChHV5 evolutionary divergence, as well as how these genomic changes may contribute to differences in disease manifestation. To assess genomic variation in ChHV5 among five Hawaii and three Florida green sea turtles, we used high-throughput short-read sequencing of long-range PCR products amplified from tumor tissue using primers designed from the single available ChHV5 reference genome from a Hawaii green sea turtle. This strategy recovered sequence data from both geographic regions for approximately 75% of the predicted ChHV5 coding sequences. The average nucleotide divergence between geographic populations was 1.5%; most of the substitutions were fixed differences between regions. Protein divergence was generally low (average 0.08%), and ranged between 0 and 5.3%. Several atypical genes originally identified and annotated in the reference genome were confirmed in ChHV5 genomes from both geographic locations. Unambiguous recombination events between geographic regions were identified, and clustering of private alleles suggests the prevalence of recombination in the evolutionary history of ChHV5. This study significantly increased the amount of sequence data available from ChHV5 strains, enabling informed selection of loci for future population genetic and natural history studies, and suggesting the (possibly latent) co-infection of individuals by well-differentiated geographic variants.

  19. Genomic evolution, recombination, and inter-strain diversity of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from Florida and Hawaii green sea turtles with fibropapillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L. Morrison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5 is a herpesvirus associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP in sea turtles worldwide. Single-locus typing has previously shown differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific strains of this virus, with low variation within each geographic clade. However, a lack of multi-locus genomic sequence data hinders understanding of the rate and mechanisms of ChHV5 evolutionary divergence, as well as how these genomic changes may contribute to differences in disease manifestation. To assess genomic variation in ChHV5 among five Hawaii and three Florida green sea turtles, we used high-throughput short-read sequencing of long-range PCR products amplified from tumor tissue using primers designed from the single available ChHV5 reference genome from a Hawaii green sea turtle. This strategy recovered sequence data from both geographic regions for approximately 75% of the predicted ChHV5 coding sequences. The average nucleotide divergence between geographic populations was 1.5%; most of the substitutions were fixed differences between regions. Protein divergence was generally low (average 0.08%, and ranged between 0 and 5.3%. Several atypical genes originally identified and annotated in the reference genome were confirmed in ChHV5 genomes from both geographic locations. Unambiguous recombination events between geographic regions were identified, and clustering of private alleles suggests the prevalence of recombination in the evolutionary history of ChHV5. This study significantly increased the amount of sequence data available from ChHV5 strains, enabling informed selection of loci for future population genetic and natural history studies, and suggesting the (possibly latent co-infection of individuals by well-differentiated geographic variants.

  20. The complete genome sequence of human adenovirus 84, a highly recombinant new Human mastadenovirus D type with a unique fiber gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaján, Győző L; Kajon, Adriana E; Pinto, Alexis Castillo; Bartha, Dániel; Arnberg, Niklas

    2017-10-15

    A novel human adenovirus was isolated from a pediatric case of acute respiratory disease in Panama City, Panama in 2011. The clinical isolate was initially identified as an intertypic recombinant based on hexon and fiber gene sequencing. Based on the analysis of its complete genome sequence, the novel complex recombinant Human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D) strain was classified into a new HAdV type: HAdV-84, and it was designated Adenovirus D human/PAN/P309886/2011/84[P43H17F84]. HAdV-D types possess usually an ocular or gastrointestinal tropism, and respiratory association is scarcely reported. The virus has a novel fiber type, most closely related to, but still clearly distant from that of HAdV-36. The predicted fiber is hypothesised to bind sialic acid with lower affinity compared to HAdV-37. Bioinformatic analysis of the complete genomic sequence of HAdV-84 revealed multiple homologous recombination events and provided deeper insight into HAdV evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  2. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Moon, Robert W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.; Roper, Cally; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Pain, Arnab; Sutherland, Colin J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G.

    2017-01-01

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  3. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97% were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR, one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP, and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL, including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of

  4. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Luo, Jiang-Tao; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Lian-Quan; Yuan, Zhong-Wei; Yan, Ze-Hong; Liu, Ya-Xi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Bao-Long; Liu, Chun-Ji; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2012-08-13

    A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the future study.

  5. The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Billings

    Full Text Available Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999-2000 and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006. Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D. This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope, which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

  6. The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Erik; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Bose, Meera; Bradfield, Andrea; Lei, Esther; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Arroyo, Miguel A.; Kibaya, Rukia M.; Scott, Paul T.; Wasunna, Monique K.; Sawe, Frederick K.; Shaffer, Douglas N.; Birx, Deborah L.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999–2000) and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006). Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G) and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D). This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic. PMID:26287814

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heteroduplex DNA in Mismatch Repair–Deficient Yeast Cells Reveals Novel Properties of Meiotic Recombination Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Emmanuelle; Borde, Valérie; Legendre, Matthieu; Audic, Stéphane; Regnault, Béatrice; Soubigou, Guillaume; Dujon, Bernard; Llorente, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate crossover (CO) recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs). Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR) protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs). First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR–proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans–hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs) during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates. PMID

  8. Genome-wide analysis of heteroduplex DNA in mismatch repair-deficient yeast cells reveals novel properties of meiotic recombination pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs initiate crossover (CO recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs. Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs. First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR-proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans-hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates.

  9. Emergence of recombinant forms in geographic regions with co-circulating HIV subtypes in the dynamic HIV-1 epidemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have reexamined the subtype designations of {approx}10,000 subtype A, B, C, G, and AG, BC, BF recombinant sequences, and compared the results of the new analysis with their published designations. Intersubtype recombinants dominate HIV epidemics in three different geographical regions. The circulating recombinant from (CRF) CRF02-AG, common in West Central Africa, appears to result from a recombination event that occurred early in the divergence between subtypes A and G, although additional more recent recombination events may have contributed to the breakpoint pattern in this recombinant lineage as well. The Chinese recombinant epidemic strains CRF07 and CRF08, in contrast, result from recent recombinations between more contemporary strains. Nevertheless, CRF07 and CRF08 contributed to many subsequent recombination events. The BF recombinant epidemics in two HIV-1 epicenters in South America are not independent and BF epidemics in South America have an unusually high fraction of unique recombinant forms (URFs) that have each been found only once and carry distinctive breakpoints. Taken together, these analyses reveal a complex and dynamic picture of the current HIV-1 epidemic, and suggest a means of grouping and tracking relationships between viruses through preservation of shared breakpints.

  10. Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering (no‐SCAR) in Escherichia coli, an Easy‐to‐Use System for Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Reisch, Christopher R; Jones, Kristala L.

    2018-01-01

    The discovery and development of genome editing systems that leverage the site‐specific DNA endonuclease system CRISPR/Cas9 has fundamentally changed the ease and speed of genome editing in many organisms. In eukaryotes, the CRISPR/Cas9 system utilizes a “guide” RNA to enable the Cas9 nuclease to make a double‐strand break at a particular genome locus, which is repaired by non‐homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair enzymes, often generating random mutations in the process. A specific alteration...

  11. The role of recombination in the emergence of a complex and dynamic HIV epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenstern Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-subtype recombinants dominate the HIV epidemics in three geographical regions. To better understand the role of HIV recombinants in shaping the current HIV epidemic, we here present the results of a large-scale subtyping analysis of 9435 HIV-1 sequences that involve subtypes A, B, C, G, F and the epidemiologically important recombinants derived from three continents. Results The circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG, common in West Central Africa, appears to result from recombination events that occurred early in the divergence between subtypes A and G, followed by additional recent recombination events that contribute to the breakpoint pattern defining the current recombinant lineage. This finding also corrects a recent claim that G is a recombinant and a descendant of CRF02, which was suggested to be a pure subtype. The BC and BF recombinants in China and South America, respectively, are derived from recent recombination between contemporary parental lineages. Shared breakpoints in South America BF recombinants indicate that the HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina and Brazil are not independent. Therefore, the contemporary HIV-1 epidemic has recombinant lineages of both ancient and more recent origins. Conclusions Taken together, we show that these recombinant lineages, which are highly prevalent in the current HIV epidemic, are a mixture of ancient and recent recombination. The HIV pandemic is moving towards having increasing complexity and higher prevalence of recombinant forms, sometimes existing as "families" of related forms. We find that the classification of some CRF designations need to be revised as a consequence of (1 an estimated > 5% error in the original subtype assignments deposited in the Los Alamos sequence database; (2 an increasing number of CRFs are defined while they do not readily fit into groupings for molecular epidemiology and vaccine design; and (3 a dynamic HIV epidemic context.

  12. Co-Circulation and Genomic Recombination of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 during a Large Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyong; Wu, Shimin; Xiong, Ying; Li, Tongya; Wen, Zhou; Yan, Mingzhe; Qin, Kai; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), most of them were children of age 1–3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B–2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A–2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants. PMID:24776922

  13. Co-circulation and genomic recombination of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 during a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, most of them were children of age 1-3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71, 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B-2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A-2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for Cassandra retrotransposon in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-06-04

    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  16. Construction of high-quality recombination maps with low-coverage genomic sequencing for joint linkage analysis in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) is the foremost strategy used for finding genes that control human diseases and agriculturally important traits, but it often reports false positives. In contrast, its complementary method, linkage analysis, provides direct genetic confirmation, but with limite...

  17. Nucleotide variation in the mitochondrial genome provides evidence for dual routes of postglacial recolonization and genetic recombination in the northeastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, B L; Perry, R C; Barron, J L; Marshall, H D

    2012-09-26

    Levels and patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation were examined to investigate the population structure and possible routes of postglacial recolonization of the world's northernmost native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which are found in Labrador, Canada. We analyzed the sequence diversity of a 1960-bp portion of the mitochondrial genome (NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene and part of cytochrome oxidase 1) of 126 fish from 32 lakes distributed throughout seven regions of northeastern Canada. These populations were found to have low levels of mtDNA diversity, a characteristic trait of populations at northern extremes, with significant structuring at the level of the watershed. Upon comparison of northeastern brook trout sequences to the publicly available brook trout whole mitochondrial genome (GenBank AF154850), we infer that the GenBank sequence is from a fish whose mtDNA has recombined with that of Arctic charr (S. alpinus). The haplotype distribution provides evidence of two different postglacial founding groups contributing to present-day brook trout populations in the northernmost part of their range; the evolution of the majority of the haplotypes coincides with the timing of glacier retreat from Labrador. Our results exemplify the strong influence that historical processes such as glaciations have had on shaping the current genetic structure of northern species such as the brook trout.

  18. Pan-cancer analysis of genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggests novel indications for existing cancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, Andrea Marion; Eklund, Aron Charles; Joshi, Tejal

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and triple-negative breast cancers with BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss are highly sensitive to treatment with PARP inhibitors and platinum-based cytotoxic agents and show an accumulation of genomic scars in the form of gross DNA copy number aberrations. Cancers without BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss...... but with accumulation of similar genomic scars also show increased sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Therefore, reliable biomarkers to identify DNA repair-deficient cancers prior to treatment may be useful for directing patients to platinum chemotherapy and possibly PARP inhibitors. Recently, three SNP array...... may be strong candidates for clinical trials with PARP inhibitors or platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens....

  19. Ancient, recurrent phage attacks and recombination shaped dynamic sequence-variable mosaics at the root of phytoplasma genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Jomantiene, Rasa; Zhao, Yan

    2008-08-19

    Mobile genetic elements have impacted biological evolution across all studied organisms, but evidence for a role in evolutionary emergence of an entire phylogenetic clade has not been forthcoming. We suggest that mobile element predation played a formative role in emergence of the phytoplasma clade. Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria that cause numerous diseases in plants. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these transkingdom parasites descended from Gram-positive walled bacteria, but events giving rise to the first phytoplasma have remained unknown. Previously we discovered a unique feature of phytoplasmal genome architecture, genes clustered in sequence-variable mosaics (SVMs), and suggested that such structures formed through recurrent, targeted attacks by mobile elements. In the present study, we discovered that cryptic prophage remnants, originating from phages in the order Caudovirales, formed SVMs and comprised exceptionally large percentages of the chromosomes of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'-related strains OYM and AYWB, occupying nearly all major nonsyntenic sections, and accounting for most of the size difference between the two genomes. The clustered phage remnants formed genomic islands exhibiting distinct DNA physical signatures, such as dinucleotide relative abundance and codon position GC values. Phytoplasma strain-specific genes identified as phage morons were located in hypervariable regions within individual SVMs, indicating that prophage remnants played important roles in generating phytoplasma genetic diversity. Because no SVM-like structures could be identified in genomes of ancestral relatives including Acholeplasma spp., we hypothesize that ancient phage attacks leading to SVM formation occurred after divergence of phytoplasmas from acholeplasmas, triggering evolution of the phytoplasma clade.

  20. Regulation of homologous recombination in eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Ehmsen, Kirk T.; Liu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is required for accurate chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and constitutes a key repair and tolerance pathway for complex DNA damage including DNA double-stranded breaks, interstrand crosslinks, and DNA gaps. In addition, recombination and replication are inextricably linked, as recombination recovers stalled and broken replication forks enabling the evolution of larger genomes/replicons. Defects in recombination lead to genomic instability and ...

  1. Stable integration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector genomes after transduction of murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zongchao; Zhong, Li; Maina, Njeri; Hu, Zhongbo; Li, Xiaomiao; Chouthai, Nitin S; Bischof, Daniela; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A; Slayton, William B; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-03-01

    We previously reported that among single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV) vectors, serotypes 1 through 5, ssAAV1 is the most efficient in transducing murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but viral second-strand DNA synthesis remains a rate-limiting step. Subsequently, using double-stranded, self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, serotypes 7 through 10, we observed that scAAV7 vectors also transduce murine HSCs efficiently. In the present study, we used scAAV1 and scAAV7 shuttle vectors to transduce HSCs in a murine bone marrow serial transplant model in vivo, which allowed examination of the AAV proviral integration pattern in the mouse genome, as well as recovery and nucleotide sequence analyses of AAV-HSC DNA junction fragments. The proviral genomes were stably integrated, and integration sites were localized to different mouse chromosomes. None of the integration sites was found to be in a transcribed gene, or near a cellular oncogene. None of the animals, monitored for up to 1 year, exhibited pathological abnormalities. Thus, AAV proviral integration-induced risk of oncogenesis was not found in our study, which provides functional confirmation of stable transduction of self-renewing multipotential HSCs by scAAV vectors as well as promise for the use of these vectors in the potential treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system.

  2. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  3. Genome-Wide Search for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Important Plant and Flower Traits in Petunia Using an Interspecific Recombinant Inbred Population of Petunia axillaris and Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Guo, Yufang; Yang, Qian; He, Yanhong; Fetouh, Mohammed; Warner, Ryan M; Deng, Zhanao

    2018-05-15

    A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia. An F 7 recombinant inbred population derived between Petunia axillaris and P. exserta was phenotyped for plant height, plant spread, plant size, flower counts, flower diameter, flower length, and days to anthesis, in Florida in two consecutive years. Transgressive segregation was observed for all seven traits in both years. The broad-sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 0.20 (days to anthesis) to 0.62 (flower length). A genome-wide genetic linkage map consisting 368 single nucleotide polymorphism bins and extending over 277 cM was searched to identify QTL for these traits. Nineteen QTL were identified and localized to five linkage groups. Eleven of the loci were identified consistently in both years; several loci explained up to 34.0% and 24.1% of the phenotypic variance for flower length and flower diameter, respectively. Multiple loci controlling different traits are co-localized in four intervals in four linkage groups. These intervals contain desirable alleles that can be introgressed into commercial petunia germplasm to expand the genetic base and improve plant performance and flower characteristics in petunia. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  4. Genome engineering via homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells: an amazingly versatile tool for the study of mammalian biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABINET CHARLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce genetic modifications in the germ line of complex organisms has been a long-standing goal of those who study developmental biology. In this regard, the mouse, a favorite model for the study of the mammals, is unique: indeed not only is it possible since the late seventies, to add genes to the mouse genome like in several other complex organisms but also to perform gene replacement and modification. This has been made possible via two technological breakthroughs: 1 the isolation and culture of embryonic stem cells (ES, which have the unique ability to colonize all the tissues of an host embryo including its germ line; 2 the development of methods allowing homologous recombination between an incoming DNA and its cognate chromosomal sequence (gene ''targeting''. As a result, it has become possible to create mice bearing null mutations in any cloned gene (knock-out mice. Such a possibility has revolutionized the genetic approach of almost all aspects of the biology of the mouse. In recent years, the scope of gene targeting has been widened even more, due to the refinement of the knock-out technology: other types of genetic modifications may now be created, including subtle mutations (point mutations, micro deletions or insertions, etc. and chromosomal rearrangements such as large deletions, duplications and translocations. Finally, methods have been devised which permit the creation of conditional mutations, allowing the study of gene function throughout the life of an animal, when gene inactivation entails embryonic lethality. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods and scenarios used for the programmed modification of mouse genome, and we underline their enormous interest for the study of mammalian biology.

  5. Either non-homologous ends joining or homologous recombination is required to repair double-strand breaks in the genome of macrophage-internalized Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Anna; Szulc, Izabela; Klink, Magdalena; Brzezinska, Marta; Sulowska, Zofia; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is constantly exposed to a multitude of hostile conditions and is confronted by a variety of potentially DNA-damaging assaults in vivo, primarily from host-generated antimicrobial toxic radicals. Exposure to reactive nitrogen species and/or reactive oxygen species causes different types of DNA damage, including oxidation, depurination, methylation and deamination, that can result in single- or double-strand breaks (DSBs). These breaks affect the integrity of the whole genome and, when left unrepaired, can lead to cell death. Here, we investigated the role of the DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous ends joining (NHEJ), in the survival of Mtb inside macrophages. To this end, we constructed Mtb strains defective for HR (ΔrecA), NHEJ [Δ(ku,ligD)], or both DSB repair systems [Δ(ku,ligD,recA)]. Experiments using these strains revealed that either HR or NHEJ is sufficient for the survival and propagation of tubercle bacilli inside macrophages. Inhibition of nitric oxide or superoxide anion production with L-NIL or apocynin, respectively, enabled the Δ(ku,ligD,recA) mutant strain lacking both systems to survive intracellularly. Complementation of the Δ(ku,ligD,recA) mutant with an intact recA or ku-ligD rescued the ability of Mtb to propagate inside macrophages.

  6. Either non-homologous ends joining or homologous recombination is required to repair double-strand breaks in the genome of macrophage-internalized Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzostek

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is constantly exposed to a multitude of hostile conditions and is confronted by a variety of potentially DNA-damaging assaults in vivo, primarily from host-generated antimicrobial toxic radicals. Exposure to reactive nitrogen species and/or reactive oxygen species causes different types of DNA damage, including oxidation, depurination, methylation and deamination, that can result in single- or double-strand breaks (DSBs. These breaks affect the integrity of the whole genome and, when left unrepaired, can lead to cell death. Here, we investigated the role of the DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR and non-homologous ends joining (NHEJ, in the survival of Mtb inside macrophages. To this end, we constructed Mtb strains defective for HR (ΔrecA, NHEJ [Δ(ku,ligD], or both DSB repair systems [Δ(ku,ligD,recA]. Experiments using these strains revealed that either HR or NHEJ is sufficient for the survival and propagation of tubercle bacilli inside macrophages. Inhibition of nitric oxide or superoxide anion production with L-NIL or apocynin, respectively, enabled the Δ(ku,ligD,recA mutant strain lacking both systems to survive intracellularly. Complementation of the Δ(ku,ligD,recA mutant with an intact recA or ku-ligD rescued the ability of Mtb to propagate inside macrophages.

  7. Recombinant Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak , Renaud; Cuesta , Carlos; Younessi , Houman

    2004-01-01

    This research report presents a promising new approach to computation called Recombinant Programming. The novelty of our approach is that it separates the program into two layers of computation: the recombination and the interpretation layer. The recombination layer takes sequences as inputs and allows the programmer to recombine these sequences through the definition of cohesive code units called extensions. The output of such recombination is a mesh that can be used by the interpretation la...

  8. Generation of Modified Pestiviruses by Targeted Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Friis, Martin Barfred; Risager, Peter Christian

    involves targeted modification of viral cDNA genomes, cloned within BACs, by Red/ET recombination-mediated mutagenesis in E.coli DH10B cells. Using recombination-mediated mutagenesis for the targeted design, the work can be expedited and focused in principal on any sequence within the viral genome...

  9. Anisakis simplex complex: ecological significance of recombinant genotypes in an allopatric area of the Adriatic Sea inferred by genome-derived simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Trumbić, Željka; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Hrabar, Jerko; Bušelić, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans. To assess the ecological significance of anisakid genotypes in the Adriatic Sea, an allopatric area for the two above-mentioned species, we analysed data from PCR-RFLP genotyping of the ITS region and the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) mtDNA locus to discern the parental genotype and maternal haplotype of the individuals. Furthermore, using in silico genome-wide screening of the A. simplex database for polymorphic simple sequence repeats or microsatellites in non-coding regions, we randomly selected potentially informative loci that were tested and optimised for multiplex PCR. The first panel of microsatellites developed for Anisakis was shown to be highly polymorphic, sensitive and amplified in both A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. It was used to inspect genetic differentiation of individuals showing mito-nuclear mosaicism which is characteristic for both species. The observed low level of intergroup heterozygosity suggests that existing mosaicism is likely a retention of an ancestral polymorphism rather than a recent recombination event. This is also supported by allopatry of pure A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii in the geographical area under study. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New subtypes and genetic recombination in HIV type 1-infecting patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Acuña, Maribel; Gazzo, Cecilia; Salinas, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Fanny; Valverde, Ada; Romero, Soledad

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is the most frequent strain in Peru. However, there is no available data about the genetic diversity of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) here. A group of 267 patients in the Peruvian National Treatment Program with virologic failure were tested for genotypic evidence of HIV drug resistance at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Peru between March 2008 and December 2010. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and the segments of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), purified, and fully sequenced. Consensus sequences were submitted to the HIVdb Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm Database from Stanford University, and then aligned using Clustal X v.2.0 to generate a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood method. Intrasubtype and intersubtype recombination analyses were performed using the SCUEAL program (Subtype Classification by Evolutionary ALgo-rithms). A total of 245 samples (91%) were successfully genotyped. The analysis obtained from the HIVdb program showed 81.5% resistance cases (n=198). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype B was predominant in the population (98.8%), except for new cases of A, C, and H subtypes (n=4). Of these cases, only subtype C was imported. Likewise, recombination analysis revealed nine intersubtype and 20 intrasubtype recombinant cases. This is the first report of the presence of HIV-1 subtypes C and H in Peru. The introduction of new subtypes and circulating recombinants forms can make it difficult to distinguish resistance profiles in patients and consequently affect future treatment strategies against HIV in this country.

  11. JMJD-5/KDM8 regulates H3K36me2 and is required for late steps of homologous recombination and genome integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amendola, Pier Giorgio; Zaghet, Nico; Ramalho, João J

    2017-01-01

    recombination. Loss of jmjd-5 results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and in meiotic defects, and it is associated with aberrant retention of RAD-51 at sites of double strand breaks. Analyses of jmjd-5 genetic interactions with genes required for resolving recombination intermediates (rtel-1...

  12. Oligonucleotide recombination enabled site-specific mutagenesis in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombineering refers to a strategy for engineering DNA sequences using a specialized mode of homologous recombination. This technology can be used for rapidly constructing precise changes in bacterial genome sequences in vivo. Oligo recombination is one type of recombineering that uses ssDNA olig...

  13. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaldo Myrna C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The attenuated Yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2 to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Results Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. Conclusions We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression

  14. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2018-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. Copyright © 2018 Stukenbrock and Dutheil.

  15. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  16. Recombination every day: abundant recombination in a virus during a single multi-cellular host infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Froissart

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral recombination can dramatically impact evolution and epidemiology. In viruses, the recombination rate depends on the frequency of genetic exchange between different viral genomes within an infected host cell and on the frequency at which such co-infections occur. While the recombination rate has been recently evaluated in experimentally co-infected cell cultures for several viruses, direct quantification at the most biologically significant level, that of a host infection, is still lacking. This study fills this gap using the cauliflower mosaic virus as a model. We distributed four neutral markers along the viral genome, and co-inoculated host plants with marker-containing and wild-type viruses. The frequency of recombinant genomes was evaluated 21 d post-inoculation. On average, over 50% of viral genomes recovered after a single host infection were recombinants, clearly indicating that recombination is very frequent in this virus. Estimates of the recombination rate show that all regions of the genome are equally affected by this process. Assuming that ten viral replication cycles occurred during our experiment-based on data on the timing of coat protein detection-the per base and replication cycle recombination rate was on the order of 2 x 10(-5 to 4 x 10(-5. This first determination of a virus recombination rate during a single multi-cellular host infection indicates that recombination is very frequent in the everyday life of this virus.

  17. The sequencing of the complete genome of a Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and of the RNA2 of three Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV) isolates from grapevine reveals the possible recombinant origin of GCMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiaro, M; Yahyaoui, E; Martelli, G P; Elbeaino, T

    2015-02-01

    The complete genome of a Tomato black ring virus isolate (TBRV-Mirs) (RNA1, 7,366 nt and RNA2, 4,640 nt) and the RNA2 sequences (4,437; 4,445; and 4,442 nts) of three Grapevine chrome mosaic virus isolates (GCMV-H6, -H15, and -H27) were determined. All RNAs contained a single open reading frame encoding polyproteins of 254 kDa (p1) and 149 kDa (p2) for TBRV-Mirs RNA1 and RNA2, respectively, and 146 kDa for GCMV RNA2. p1 of TBRV-Mirs showed the highest identity with TBRV-MJ (94 %), Beet ringspot virus (BRSV, 82 %), and Grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV, 66 %), while p2 showed the highest identity with TBRV isolates MJ (89 %) and ED (85 %), followed by BRSV (65 %), GCMV (58 %), and GARSV (57 %). The amino acid identity of RNA2 sequences of four GCMV isolates (three from this study and one from GenBank) ranged from 91 to 98 %, the homing protein being the most variable. The RDP3 program predicted putative intra-species recombination events for GCMV-H6 and recognized GCMV as a putative inter-species recombinant between GARSV and TBRV. In both cases, the recombination events were at the movement protein level.

  18. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Pérez

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV, a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population and a major recombinant strain (86.7%. The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  19. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  20. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  1. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    for assaying recombination using tetrad analysis in a higher eukaryotic system (6). This system enabled the measurement of the frequency and distribution of recombination events at a genome wide level in wild type Arabidopsis (7), construction of genetic linkage maps which include positions for each centromere (8), and modeling of the strength and pattern of interference (9). This proposal extends the use of tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis by using it as the basis for assessing the phenotypes of mutants in genes important for recombination and the regulation of crossover interference and performing a novel genetic screen. In addition to broadening our knowledge of a classic genetic problem - the regulation of recombination by crossover interference - this proposal also provides broader impact by: generating pedagogical tools for use in hands-on classroom experience with genetics, building interdisciplinary collegial partnerships, and creating a platform for participation by junior scientists from underrepresented groups. There are three specific aims: (1) Isolate mutants in Arabidopsis MUS81 homologs using T-DNA and TILLING (2) Characterize recombination levels and interference in mus81 mutants (3) Execute a novel genetic screen, based on tetrad analysis, for genes that regulate meiotic recombination

  2. Recombination Modulates How Selection Affects Linked Sites in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Loewe, Laurence; Goldstein, Steve; Himmel, Tiffany L.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill–Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate. PMID:23152720

  3. Identification of restriction endonuclease with potential ability to cleave the HSV-2 genome: Inherent potential for biosynthetic versus live recombinant microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 are enveloped viruses with a linear dsDNA genome of ~120–200 kb. Genital infection with HSV-2 has been denoted as a major risk factor for acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. Developing biomedical strategies for HSV-2 prevention is thus a central strategy in reducing global HIV-1 prevalence. This paper details the protocol for the isolation of restriction endunucleases (REases with potent activity against the HSV-2 genome and models two biomedical interventions for preventing HSV-2. Methods and Results Using the whole genome of HSV-2, 289 REases and the bioinformatics software Webcutter2; we searched for potential recognition sites by way of genome wide palindromics. REase application in HSV-2 biomedical therapy was modeled concomitantly. Of the 289 enzymes analyzed; 77(26.6% had potential to cleave the HSV-2 genome in > 100 but 400 but Conclusion Viral genome slicing by way of these bacterially- derived R-M enzymatic peptides may have therapeutic potential in HSV-2 infection; a cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission.

  4. Improving recombinant protein purification yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of adequate amounts of recombinant proteins is essential for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. It’s technologically challenging and a limiting factor for tung oil research because analytical reagents such as high qua...

  5. Subtype-Specific Differences in Gag-Protease-Driven Replication Capacity Are Consistent with Intersubtype Differences in HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguoya, Marion W; Mann, Jaclyn K; Chopera, Denis; Gounder, Kamini; Lee, Guinevere Q; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Ball, T Blake; Kimani, Joshua; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brockman, Mark A; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2017-07-01

    There are marked differences in the spread and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes worldwide, and differences in clinical progression have been reported. However, the biological reasons underlying these differences are unknown. Gag-protease is essential for HIV-1 replication, and Gag-protease-driven replication capacity has previously been correlated with disease progression. We show that Gag-protease replication capacity correlates significantly with that of whole isolates ( r = 0.51; P = 0.04), indicating that Gag-protease is a significant contributor to viral replication capacity. Furthermore, we investigated subtype-specific differences in Gag-protease-driven replication capacity using large well-characterized cohorts in Africa and the Americas. Patient-derived Gag-protease sequences were inserted into an HIV-1 NL4-3 backbone, and the replication capacities of the resulting recombinant viruses were measured in an HIV-1-inducible reporter T cell line by flow cytometry. Recombinant viruses expressing subtype C Gag-proteases exhibited substantially lower replication capacities than those expressing subtype B Gag-proteases ( P identified Gag residues 483 and 484, located within the Alix-binding motif involved in virus budding, as major contributors to subtype-specific replicative differences. In East African cohorts, we observed a hierarchy of Gag-protease-driven replication capacities, i.e., subtypes A/C differences in disease progression. We thus hypothesize that the lower Gag-protease-driven replication capacity of subtypes A and C slows disease progression in individuals infected with these subtypes, which in turn leads to greater opportunity for transmission and thus increased prevalence of these subtypes. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 subtypes are unevenly distributed globally, and there are reported differences in their rates of disease progression and epidemic spread. The biological determinants underlying these differences have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that

  6. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  7. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Spectrum Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  9. Integration of heterologous DNA into the genome of Paracoccus denitrificans is mediated by a family of IS1248-related elements and a second type of integrative recombination event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spanning, R J; Reijnders, W N; Stouthamer, A.H.

    All members of the IS1248 family residing in the genome of Paracoccus denitrificans have been isolated by using a set of insertion sequence entrapment vectors. The family consists of five closely related members that integrate the entrapment vectors at distinct sites. One of these, IS1248b, was

  10. Effect of genomic location on horizontal transfer of a recombinant gene cassette between Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere and spermosphere of barley seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengelov, G.; Kristensen, K. J.; Sørensen, Anders Morten Hay

    2001-01-01

    , horizontal transfer of a recombinant gene cassette inserted into the chromosome of a Pseudomonas strutzeri strain, into a mobilizable plasmid (pAGM42), and into a conjugative plasmid (pKJK5) isolated from barley rhizosphere was investigated. Horizontal transfer efficiencies of the gene cassette inserted...... efficiencies were up to 4.36 x 10(-3) transconjugants/(donors x recipients)(1/2). Transfer of chromosomal encoded genes could not be detected in the microcosms by conjugation or transformation. However, transformation did occur by using the same bacterial strains under laboratory conditions. The rhizosphere...

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-18/SLX-4 interacts with SLX-1 and XPF-1 and maintains genomic integrity in the germline by processing recombination intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamune T Saito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is essential for the repair of blocked or collapsed replication forks and for the production of crossovers between homologs that promote accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. Here, we identify HIM-18, an ortholog of MUS312/Slx4, as a critical player required in vivo for processing late HR intermediates in Caenorhabditis elegans. DNA damage sensitivity and an accumulation of HR intermediates (RAD-51 foci during premeiotic entry suggest that HIM-18 is required for HR-mediated repair at stalled replication forks. A reduction in crossover recombination frequencies-accompanied by an increase in HR intermediates during meiosis, germ cell apoptosis, unstable bivalent attachments, and subsequent chromosome nondisjunction-support a role for HIM-18 in converting HR intermediates into crossover products. Such a role is suggested by physical interaction of HIM-18 with the nucleases SLX-1 and XPF-1 and by the synthetic lethality of him-18 with him-6, the C. elegans BLM homolog. We propose that HIM-18 facilitates processing of HR intermediates resulting from replication fork collapse and programmed meiotic DSBs in the C. elegans germline.

  12. A recombination point is conserved in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species and located downstream from the cox2 pseudogene in Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susely F.S. Tada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. mitochondrial cox3/sdh4/pseudo-cox2 gene cluster has previously been identified by heterologous hybridization using a Marchantia polymorpha sdh4 probe. In our present study we used Southern blotting using sdh4 and cox2 probes to show that the sdh4 and cox2 genes are clustered in the mitochondria of potato, soybean and pea. Northern blotting revealed cotranscription of sdh4 and cox2 in potato but not in cauliflower, indicating that these genes are not clustered in cauliflower. A putative recombination point was detected downstream of the cox2 pseudogene (pseudo-cox2 in potato mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. This sequence corresponds to a 32 bp sequence which appears to be well-conserved and is adjacent to the terminals of some mitochondrial genes in Citrullus lanatus, Beta vulgaris and Arabidopsis thaliana and is probably involved in the genic rearrangements. It is possible the potato mtDNA pseudo-cox2 gene was generated by recombination during evolution in the same way as that of several other mitochondrial genes and remains as an inactive partial copy of the functional cox2 which was also detected in potato mtDNA.

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-18/SLX-4 interacts with SLX-1 and XPF-1 and maintains genomic integrity in the germline by processing recombination intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takamune T; Youds, Jillian L; Boulton, Simon J; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2009-11-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the repair of blocked or collapsed replication forks and for the production of crossovers between homologs that promote accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. Here, we identify HIM-18, an ortholog of MUS312/Slx4, as a critical player required in vivo for processing late HR intermediates in Caenorhabditis elegans. DNA damage sensitivity and an accumulation of HR intermediates (RAD-51 foci) during premeiotic entry suggest that HIM-18 is required for HR-mediated repair at stalled replication forks. A reduction in crossover recombination frequencies-accompanied by an increase in HR intermediates during meiosis, germ cell apoptosis, unstable bivalent attachments, and subsequent chromosome nondisjunction-support a role for HIM-18 in converting HR intermediates into crossover products. Such a role is suggested by physical interaction of HIM-18 with the nucleases SLX-1 and XPF-1 and by the synthetic lethality of him-18 with him-6, the C. elegans BLM homolog. We propose that HIM-18 facilitates processing of HR intermediates resulting from replication fork collapse and programmed meiotic DSBs in the C. elegans germline.

  14. Cloning of the genome of a goose parvovirus vaccine strain SYG61v and rescue of infectious virions from recombinant plasmid in embryonated goose eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Meng, Xia; Gong, Jiansen; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-05-01

    The SYG61v is an attenuated goose parvovirus (GPV) that has been used as a vaccine strain in China. The genome of SYG61v was sequenced to attempt to identify the genetic basis for the attenuation of this strain. The entire genome consists of 5102 nucleotides (nts), with four nt deletions compared to that of virulent strain B. The inverted terminal repeats (ITR) are 442 nts in length, of which 360 nts form a stem region, and 43 nts constitute the bubble region. Although mutations were observed throughout the ITR, no mismatch was found in the stem. Alignment with other pathogenic GPV strains (B, 82-0321, 06-0329, and YZ99-5) indicated that there are 10 and 11 amino acid mutations in the Rep1 and VP1 proteins of SYG61v, respectively. The complete genome of SYG61v was cloned into the pBluescript II vector and an infectious plasmid pSYG61v was generated. Infectious progeny virus was successfully rescued through transfection of the plasmid pSYG61v in embryonated goose eggs and yielded viral titers similar to its parental virus, as evaluated by ELD50. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli...... that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red...

  16. Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs through Topological Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Pablo G.; Levine, Arnold J.; Rabadán, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species. Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes. Recently, Topological Data Analysis (TDA) methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations. We implement this framework in a software package, called TARGet, and apply it to several examples, including small migration between different populations, human recombination, and horizontal evolution in finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands. PMID:27532298

  17. A snapshot into the uptake and utilization of potential oligosaccharide prebiotics by probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as accessed by transcriptomics, functional genomics, and recombinant protein characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark

    and lifestyle diseases are currently well documented. Selective utilization, of primarily non-digestible carbohydrates, termed prebiotics, by probiotics has been identified as an attribute of probiotic action, however the molecular mechanisms of prebiotics utilization and in particular the specificities...... of carbohydrate transporters and glycoside hydrolases that confer this remain largely unknown, limiting a robust understanding for the basis of selective utilization of known prebiotics and the discovery and documentation of novel prebiotics. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis was to identify the genes involved...... with uptake and catabolism of potential prebiotics by the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 as model organisms, using DNA whole genome microarrays and by in silico pathway re-construction to identify key genes for further functional analysis by gene...

  18. Recombination in hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

  19. Evidence for RNA recombination between distinct isolates of Pepino mosaic virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B.; Kuzniar, A.; Peters, S.A.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Pospieszny, H.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic recombination plays an important role in the evolution of virus genomes. In this study we analyzed publicly available genomic sequences of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) for recombination events using several bioinformatics tools. The genome-wide analyses not only confirm the presence of

  20. Regulation of Homologous Recombination by SUMOylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    factors such as the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. HR constitutes the main DSB repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and despite being largely considered an error-free process and essential for genome stability, uncontrolled recombination can lead to loss of heterozygosity, translocations......, deletions, and genome rearrangements that can lead to cell death or cancer in humans. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitinlike modifier) has proven to be an important regulator of HR and genome integrity, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these roles are still unclear....... In this study I present new insights for the role of SUMOylation in regulating HR by dissecting the role of SUMO in the interaction between the central HR-mediator protein Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 and the outcome of recombination. This data provides evidence for the importance of SUMO in promoting protein...

  1. Meiotic recombination in human oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Y Cheng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of human trisomies indicate a remarkable relationship between abnormal meiotic recombination and subsequent nondisjunction at maternal meiosis I or II. Specifically, failure to recombine or recombination events located either too near to or too far from the centromere have been linked to the origin of human trisomies. It should be possible to identify these abnormal crossover configurations by using immunofluorescence methodology to directly examine the meiotic recombination process in the human female. Accordingly, we initiated studies of crossover-associated proteins (e.g., MLH1 in human fetal oocytes to analyze their number and distribution on nondisjunction-prone human chromosomes and, more generally, to characterize genome-wide levels of recombination in the human female. Our analyses indicate that the number of MLH1 foci is lower than predicted from genetic linkage analysis, but its localization pattern conforms to that expected for a crossover-associated protein. In studies of individual chromosomes, our observations provide evidence for the presence of "vulnerable" crossover configurations in the fetal oocyte, consistent with the idea that these are subsequently translated into nondisjunctional events in the adult oocyte.

  2. Mitochondrial Recombination and Introgression during Speciation by Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Henault, Mathieu; Charron, Guillaume; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Terrat, Yves; Fiumera, Heather L; Shapiro, B Jesse; Landry, Christian R

    2017-08-01

    Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following interspecies hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria biparentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species. We examined the dynamics of mitochondrial genome transmission and evolution during speciation by hybridization in the natural budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Using population-scale mitochondrial genome sequencing in two endemic North American incipient species SpB and SpC and their hybrid species SpC*, we found that both parental species contributed to the hybrid mitochondrial genome through recombination. We support our findings by showing that mitochondrial recombination between parental types is frequent in experimental crosses that recreate the early step of this speciation event. In these artificial hybrids, we observed that mitochondrial genome recombination enhances phenotypic variation among diploid hybrids, suggesting that it could play a role in the phenotypic differentiation of hybrid species. Like the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome can, therefore, also play a role in hybrid speciation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. FASEB Summer Research Conference. Genetic Recombination and Chromosome Rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.

  4. Recombination rate plasticity: revealing mechanisms by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefick, Stephen; Rushton, Chase

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit ‘plastic’ responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve. Further, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms and molecular processes that contribute to recombination rate plasticity. Here, we review 100 years of experimental work on recombination rate plasticity conducted in Drosophila melanogaster. We categorize this work into four major classes of experimental designs, which we describe via classic studies in D. melanogaster. Based on these studies, we highlight molecular mechanisms that are supported by experimental results and relate these findings to studies in other systems. We synthesize lessons learned from this model system into experimental guidelines for using recent advances in genotyping technologies, to study recombination rate plasticity in non-model organisms. Specifically, we recommend (1) using fine-scale genome-wide markers, (2) collecting time-course data, (3) including crossover distribution measurements, and (4) using mixed effects models to analyse results. To illustrate this approach, we present an application adhering to these guidelines from empirical work we conducted in Drosophila pseudoobscura. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109222

  5. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  6. Ensuring an exit strategy: RTEL1 restricts rogue recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Anne M

    2008-10-17

    Success of homologous recombination-based DNA repair depends not only on recombinases, which promote invasion of the homologous DNA duplex that serves as a template for repair, but also on antirecombinases, which dismantle recombination intermediates to allow completion of repair. In this issue, Barber et al. (2008) identify a previously elusive antirecombinase activity important for maintaining genome stability in animals.

  7. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...... of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment...

  8. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  9. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Sandra D.; Tzeng, W.-P.; Chen, M.-H.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the replicative transcript maintained the 5'-proximal nonstructural (NS) ORF (which contained the replicase, making it RNA replication competent), had a deletion in the 3'-proximal structural protein (SP) ORF, and maintained the 3' end of the genome, including the putative 3' cis-acting elements (CSE), while the nonreplicative transcript consisted of the 3' half of the genome including the SP-ORF and 3' CSE. Cotransfection yielded plaque-forming virus that synthesized the standard genomic and subgenomic RNAs and thus was generated by RNA-RNA recombination. Using transcripts tagged with a 3'-terminal deletion, it was found that recombinants contained the 3' end derived from the replicative strand, indicating a cis-preference for initiation of negative-strand synthesis. In cotransfections in which the replicative transcript lacked the 3' CSE, recombination occurred, albeit at lower efficiency, indicating that initiation in trans from the NS-ORF can occur. The 3' CSE was sufficient as a nonreplicative transcript, showing that it can serve as a promoter for negative-strand RNA synthesis. While deletion mutagenesis showed that the presence of the junction untranslated region (J-UTR) between the ORFs appeared to be necessary on both transcripts for recombination in this region of the genome, analysis with transcripts tagged with restriction sites showed that the J-UTR was not a hot spot for recombination compared to neighboring regions in both ORFs. Sequence analysis of recombinants revealed that both precise (homologous) and imprecise recombination (aberrant, homologous resulting in duplications) occurred; however, imprecise recombination only involved the J-UTR or the 3' end of the NS-ORF and the J-UTR (maintaining the NS-ORF), indicating

  10. Recombination rate variation in mice from an isolated island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J; Gray, Melissa M; Parmenter, Michelle D; Broman, Karl W; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-01-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. Despite the major impact of recombination rate on patterns of genetic diversity and the efficacy of selection, natural variation in this phenotype remains poorly characterized. We present a comparison of genetic maps, sampling 1212 meioses, from a unique population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that recently colonized remote Gough Island. Crosses to a mainland reference strain (WSB/EiJ) reveal pervasive variation in recombination rate among Gough Island mice, including subchromosomal intervals spanning up to 28% of the genome. In spite of this high level of polymorphism, the genomewide recombination rate does not significantly vary. In general, we find that recombination rate varies more when measured in smaller genomic intervals. Using the current standard genetic map of the laboratory mouse to polarize intervals with divergent recombination rates, we infer that the majority of evolutionary change occurred in one of the two tested lines of Gough Island mice. Our results confirm that natural populations harbour a high level of recombination rate polymorphism and highlight the disparities in recombination rate evolution across genomic scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  12. A molecular recombination map of Antirrhinum majus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Andrew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic recombination maps provide important frameworks for comparative genomics, identifying gene functions, assembling genome sequences and for breeding. The molecular recombination map currently available for the model eudicot Antirrhinum majus is the result of a cross with Antirrhinum molle, limiting its usefulness within A. majus. Results We created a molecular linkage map of A. majus based on segregation of markers in the F2 population of two inbred lab strains of A. majus. The resulting map consisted of over 300 markers in eight linkage groups, which could be aligned with a classical recombination map and the A. majus karyotype. The distribution of recombination frequencies and distorted transmission of parental alleles differed from those of a previous inter-species hybrid. The differences varied in magnitude and direction between chromosomes, suggesting that they had multiple causes. The map, which covered an estimated of 95% of the genome with an average interval of 2 cM, was used to analyze the distribution of a newly discovered family of MITE transposons and tested for its utility in positioning seven mutations that affect aspects of plant size. Conclusions The current map has an estimated interval of 1.28 Mb between markers. It shows a lower level of transmission ratio distortion and a longer length than the previous inter-species map, making it potentially more useful. The molecular recombination map further indicates that the IDLE MITE transposons are distributed throughout the genome and are relatively stable. The map proved effective in mapping classical morphological mutations of A. majus.

  13. Variation in Recombination Rate and Its Genetic Determinism in Sheep Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Morgane; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Sarry, Julien; Drouilhet, Laurence; Fabre, Stéphane; Moreno, Carole R; Servin, Bertrand

    2017-10-01

    Recombination is a complex biological process that results from a cascade of multiple events during meiosis. Understanding the genetic determinism of recombination can help to understand if and how these events are interacting. To tackle this question, we studied the patterns of recombination in sheep, using multiple approaches and data sets. We constructed male recombination maps in a dairy breed from the south of France (the Lacaune breed) at a fine scale by combining meiotic recombination rates from a large pedigree genotyped with a 50K SNP array and historical recombination rates from a sample of unrelated individuals genotyped with a 600K SNP array. This analysis revealed recombination patterns in sheep similar to other mammals but also genome regions that have likely been affected by directional and diversifying selection. We estimated the average recombination rate of Lacaune sheep at 1.5 cM/Mb, identified ∼50,000 crossover hotspots on the genome, and found a high correlation between historical and meiotic recombination rate estimates. A genome-wide association study revealed two major loci affecting interindividual variation in recombination rate in Lacaune, including the RNF212 and HEI10 genes and possibly two other loci of smaller effects including the KCNJ15 and FSHR genes. The comparison of these new results to those obtained previously in a distantly related population of domestic sheep (the Soay) revealed that Soay and Lacaune males have a very similar distribution of recombination along the genome. The two data sets were thus combined to create more precise male meiotic recombination maps in Sheep. However, despite their similar recombination maps, Soay and Lacaune males were found to exhibit different heritabilities and QTL effects for interindividual variation in genome-wide recombination rates. This highlights the robustness of recombination patterns to underlying variation in their genetic determinism. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society

  14. Productive Homologous and Non-homologous Recombination of Hepatitis C Virus in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.; Gottwein, Judith M.; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important mechanism for increasing diversity of RNA viruses, and constitutes a viral escape mechanism to host immune responses and to treatment with antiviral compounds. Although rare, epidemiologically important hepatitis C virus (HCV) recombinants have been reported. In addition, recombination is an important regulatory mechanism of cytopathogenicity for the related pestiviruses. Here we describe recombination of HCV RNA in cell culture leading to production of infectious virus. Initially, hepatoma cells were co-transfected with a replicating JFH1ΔE1E2 genome (genotype 2a) lacking functional envelope genes and strain J6 (2a), which has functional envelope genes but does not replicate in culture. After an initial decrease in the number of HCV positive cells, infection spread after 13–36 days. Sequencing of recovered viruses revealed non-homologous recombinants with J6 sequence from the 5′ end to the NS2–NS3 region followed by JFH1 sequence from Core to the 3′ end. These recombinants carried duplicated sequence of up to 2400 nucleotides. HCV replication was not required for recombination, as recombinants were observed in most experiments even when two replication incompetent genomes were co-transfected. Reverse genetic studies verified the viability of representative recombinants. After serial passage, subsequent recombination events reducing or eliminating the duplicated region were observed for some but not all recombinants. Furthermore, we found that inter-genotypic recombination could occur, but at a lower frequency than intra-genotypic recombination. Productive recombination of attenuated HCV genomes depended on expression of all HCV proteins and tolerated duplicated sequence. In general, no strong site specificity was observed. Non-homologous recombination was observed in most cases, while few homologous events were identified. A better understanding of HCV recombination could help identification of natural recombinants

  15. Photoionization and Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  16. High-Resolution Patterns of Meiotic Recombination across the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Michael; Perfetto, Stephen P.; Klitz, William; Nelson, George; Carrington, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Definitive characteristics of meiotic recombination events over large (i.e., >1 Mb) segments of the human genome remain obscure, yet they are essential for establishing the haplotypic structure of the genome and for efficient mapping of complex traits. We present a high-resolution map of recombination at the kilobase level across a 3.3-Mb interval encompassing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Genotyping of 20,031 single sperm from 12 individuals resulted in the identification and fine mapping of 325 recombinant chromosomes within genomic intervals as small as 7 kb. Several principal characteristics of recombination in this region were observed: (1) rates of recombination can differ significantly between individuals; (2) intense hot spots of recombination occur at least every 0.8 Mb but are not necessarily evenly spaced; (3) distribution in the location of recombination events can differ significantly among individuals; (4) between hot spots, low levels of recombination occur fairly evenly across 100-kb segments, suggesting the presence of warm spots of recombination; and (5) specific sequence motifs associate significantly with recombination distribution. These data provide a plausible model for recombination patterns of the human genome overall. PMID:12297984

  17. Induction of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchta, H.; Swoboda, P.; Hohn, B.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of different factors on frequencies of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants was analyzed using a disrupted β-glucuronidase marker gene. Recombination frequencies were enhanced several fold by DNA damaging agents like UV-light or MMS (methyl methanesulfonate). Applying 3-methoxybenzamide (3-MB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP), an enzyme that is postulated to be involved in DNA repair, enhanced homologous recombination frequencies strongly. These findings indicate that homologous recombination is involved in DNA repair and can (at least partially) compensate for other DNA repair pathways. Indications that recombination in plants can be induced by environmental stress factors that are not likely to be involved in DNA metabolism were also found; Arabidopsis plants growing in a medium containing 0.1 M NaCl exhibited elevated recombination frequencies. The possible general effects of ‘environmental’ challenges on genome flexibility are discussed. (author)

  18. Dual-In/Out strategy for genes integration into bacterial chromosome: a novel approach to step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with predesigned genome structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biryukova Irina V

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern producer strains with metabolically engineered pathways poses special problems that often require manipulating many genes and expressing them individually at different levels or under separate regulatory controls. The construction of plasmid-less marker-less strains has many advantages for the further practical exploitation of these bacteria in industry. Such producer strains are usually constructed by sequential chromosome modifications including deletions and integration of genetic material. For these purposes complex methods based on in vitro and in vivo recombination processes have been developed. Results Here, we describe the new scheme of insertion of the foreign DNA for step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with chromosome structure designed in advance. This strategy, entitled as Dual-In/Out, based on the initial Red-driven insertion of artificial φ80-attB sites into desired points of the chromosome followed by two site-specific recombination processes: first, the φ80 system is used for integration of the recombinant DNA based on selective marker-carrier conditionally-replicated plasmid with φ80-attP-site, and second, the λ system is used for excision of inserted vector part, including the plasmid ori-replication and the marker, flanked by λ-attL/R-sites. Conclusion The developed Dual-In/Out strategy is a rather straightforward, but convenient combination of previously developed recombination methods: phages site-specific and general Red/ET-mediated. This new approach allows us to detail the design of future recombinant marker-less strains, carrying, in particular, rather large artificial insertions that could be difficult to introduce by usually used PCR-based Recombineering procedure. The developed strategy is simple and could be particularly useful for construction of strains for the biotechnological industry.

  19. A trans-Complementing Recombination Trap Demonstrates a Low Propensity of Flaviviruses for Intermolecular Recombination▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, Christian; Berger, Angelika; Mandl, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Intermolecular recombination between the genomes of closely related RNA viruses can result in the emergence of novel strains with altered pathogenic potential and antigenicity. Although recombination between flavivirus genomes has never been demonstrated experimentally, the potential risk of generating undesirable recombinants has nevertheless been a matter of concern and controversy with respect to the development of live flavivirus vaccines. As an experimental system for investigating the ability of flavivirus genomes to recombine, we developed a “recombination trap,” which was designed to allow the products of rare recombination events to be selected and amplified. To do this, we established reciprocal packaging systems consisting of pairs of self-replicating subgenomic RNAs (replicons) derived from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) that could complement each other in trans and thus be propagated together in cell culture over multiple passages. Any infectious viruses with intact, full-length genomes that were generated by recombination of the two replicons would be selected and enriched by end point dilution passage, as was demonstrated in a spiking experiment in which a small amount of wild-type virus was mixed with the packaged replicons. Using the recombination trap and the JEV system, we detected two aberrant recombination events, both of which yielded unnatural genomes containing duplications. Infectious clones of both of these genomes yielded viruses with impaired growth properties. Despite the fact that the replicon pairs shared approximately 600 nucleotides of identical sequence where a precise homologous crossover event would have yielded a wild-type genome, this was not observed in any of these systems, and the TBEV and WNV systems did not yield any viable recombinant genomes at all. Our results show that intergenomic recombination can occur in the structural region of flaviviruses

  20. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  2. Recombination: the good, the bad and the variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Jessica; Feulner, Philine G D; Johnston, Susan E; Santure, Anna W; Smadja, Carole M

    2017-12-19

    Recombination, the process by which DNA strands are broken and repaired, producing new combinations of alleles, occurs in nearly all multicellular organisms and has important implications for many evolutionary processes. The effects of recombination can be good , as it can facilitate adaptation, but also bad when it breaks apart beneficial combinations of alleles, and recombination is highly variable between taxa, species, individuals and across the genome. Understanding how and why recombination rate varies is a major challenge in biology. Most theoretical and empirical work has been devoted to understanding the role of recombination in the evolution of sex-comparing between sexual and asexual species or populations. How recombination rate evolves and what impact this has on evolutionary processes within sexually reproducing organisms has received much less attention. This Theme Issue focusses on how and why recombination rate varies in sexual species, and aims to coalesce knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing recombination with our understanding of the evolutionary processes driving variation in recombination within and between species. By integrating these fields, we can identify important knowledge gaps and areas for future research, and pave the way for a more comprehensive understanding of how and why recombination rate varies. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. [Construction and expression of a recombinant adenovirus with LZP3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-dang; Zhang, Fu-chun; Sun, Mei-yu; Li, Yi-jie; Ma, Zheng-hai

    2007-08-01

    To explore a new immunocontraceptive vaccine and construct an attenuated recombinant adenoviral vaccine against Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3(LZP3). LZP3 gene was subcloned into the shuttle vector pShuttle-CMV, and then a two-step transformation procedure was employed to construct a recombinant adenoviral plasmid with LZP3, which was digested with Pac I and transfected into HEK293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus particles. Finally, HeLa cells were infected by the recombinant adenovirus. LZP3 gene was detected from the recombinant virus by PCR, and its transcription and expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Recombinant adenovirus vector pAd-LZP3 with LZP3 gene was constructed by homologous recombination in E.coli, and a recombinant adenovirus was obtained by transfecting HEK293 cells with pAd-LZP3. PCR test indicated that LZP3 gene was successfully integrated into the adenoviral genome, and the titer of the recombinant adenovirus reached 1.2x10(10) pfu/L. The transcription and expression of LZP3 gene in the infected HeLa cells were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The recombinant adenovirus RAd-LZP3 can be successfully expressed in the infected HeLa cells, which lays the foundation for further researches into immunizing animals with RAd-LZP3.

  4. Recombination of cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  5. Recombination Processes and Nonlinear Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, Sergey; Rybko, Alexander; Kalinina, Anastasia; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are known to exchange genetic information by horizontal gene transfer. Since the frequency of homologous recombination depends on the similarity between the recombining segments, several studies examined whether this could lead to the emergence of subspecies. Most of them simulated fixed-size Wright-Fisher populations, in which the genetic drift should be taken into account. Here, we use nonlinear Markov processes to describe a bacterial population evolving under mutation and recombination. We consider a population structure as a probability measure on the space of genomes. This approach implies the infinite population size limit, and thus, the genetic drift is not assumed. We prove that under these conditions, the emergence of subspecies is impossible.

  6. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  9. Serendipitous identification of natural intergenotypic recombinants of hepatitis C in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been reported. Diagnostically recombinants represent an intriguing challenge. Hepatitis C genotype is defined by interrogation of the sequence composition of the 5\\' untranslated region [5\\'UTR]. Occasionally, ambiguous specimens require further investigation of the genome, usually by interrogation of the NS5B region. The original purpose of this study was to confirm the existence of a suspected mixed genotype infection of genotypes 2 and 4 by clonal analysis at the NS5B region of the genome in two specimens from two separate individuals. This initial identification of genotype was based on analysis of the 5\\'UTR of the genome by reverse line probe hybridisation [RLPH]. RESULTS: The original diagnosis of a mixed genotype infection was not confirmed by clonal analysis of the NS5B region of the genome. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both specimens were natural intergenotypic recombinant forms of HCV. The recombination was between genotypes 2k and 1b for both specimens. The recombination break point was identified as occurring within the NS2 region of the genome. CONCLUSION: The viral recombinants identified here resemble the recombinant form originally identified in Russia. The RLPH pattern observed in this study may be a signature indicative of this particular type of intergenotype recombinant of hepatitis C meriting clonal analysis of NS2.

  10. Epigenetic functions enriched in transcription factors binding to mouse recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jie

    2012-06-21

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is a fundamental problem in genomics, with wide applications in genome-wide association studies, birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. In mammalian genomes, recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a 13-mer motif enriched in hotspots is identified as a candidate cis-regulatory element of human recombination hotspots; moreover, a zinc finger protein, PRDM9, binds to this motif and is associated with variation of recombination phenotype in human and mouse genomes, thus is a trans-acting regulator of recombination hotspots. However, this pair of cis and trans-regulators covers only a fraction of hotspots, thus other regulators of recombination hotspots remain to be discovered. In this paper, we propose an approach to predicting additional trans-regulators from DNA-binding proteins by comparing their enrichment of binding sites in hotspots. Applying this approach on newly mapped mouse hotspots genome-wide, we confirmed that PRDM9 is a major trans-regulator of hotspots. In addition, a list of top candidate trans-regulators of mouse hotspots is reported. Using GO analysis we observed that the top genes are enriched with function of histone modification, highlighting the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of recombination hotspots.

  11. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  12. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  13. Recombination of Globally Circulating Varicella-Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Kundu, Samit; Atkinson, Claire; Brown, Julianne; Haque, Tanzina; Hussaini, Yusuf; MacMahon, Eithne; Molyneaux, Pamela; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sengupta, Nitu; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.; Underhill, Gillian S.; Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie; Breuer, Judith; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus, which during primary infection typically causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Later in life, the virus may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ; also known as shingles). To prevent these diseases, a live-attenuated heterogeneous vaccine preparation, vOka, is used routinely in many countries worldwide. Recent studies of another alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, demonstrate that live-attenuated vaccine strains can recombine in vivo, creating virulent progeny. These findings raised concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines under conditions that favor recombination. To investigate whether VZV may undergo recombination, which is a prerequisite for VZV vaccination to create such conditions, we here analyzed 115 complete VZV genomes. Our results demonstrate that recombination occurs frequently for VZV. It thus seems that VZV is fully capable of recombination if given the opportunity, which may have important implications for continued VZV vaccination. Although no interclade vaccine-wild-type recombinant strains were found, intraclade recombinants were frequently detected in clade 2, which harbors the vaccine strains, suggesting that the vaccine strains have already been involved in recombination events, either in vivo or in vitro during passages in cell culture. Finally, previous partial and complete genomic studies have described strains that do not cluster phylogenetically to any of the five established clades. The additional VZV strains sequenced here, in combination with those previously published, have enabled us to formally define a novel sixth VZV clade. IMPORTANCE Although genetic recombination has been demonstrated to frequently occur for other human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, only a few ancient and isolated recent recombination events have hitherto been demonstrated for VZV. In the

  14. Evidence of recombination in intrapatient populations of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentandreu, Vicente; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, María Alma; Valero, Ana; Gosalbes, María José; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2008-09-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. HCV is characterized by a high level of genetic heterogeneity. Although homologous recombination has been demonstrated in many members of the family Flaviviridae, to which HCV belongs, there are only a few studies reporting recombination on natural populations of HCV, suggesting that these events are rare in vivo. Furthermore, these few studies have focused on recombination between different HCV genotypes/subtypes but there are no reports on the extent of intra-genotype or intra-subtype recombination between viral strains infecting the same patient. Given the important implications of recombination for RNA virus evolution, our aim in this study has been to assess the existence and eventually the frequency of intragenic recombination on HCV. For this, we retrospectively have analyzed two regions of the HCV genome (NS5A and E1-E2) in samples from two different groups: (i) patients infected only with HCV (either treated with interferon plus ribavirin or treatment naïve), and (ii) HCV-HIV co-infected patients (with and without treatment against HIV). The complete data set comprised 17712 sequences from 136 serum samples derived from 111 patients. Recombination analyses were performed using 6 different methods implemented in the program RDP3. Recombination events were considered when detected by at least 3 of the 6 methods used and were identified in 10.7% of the amplified samples, distributed throughout all the groups described and the two genomic regions studied. The resulting recombination events were further verified by detailed phylogenetic analyses. The complete experimental procedure was applied to an artificial mixture of relatively closely viral populations and the ensuing analyses failed to reveal artifactual recombination. From these results we conclude that recombination should be considered as a potentially

  15. SequenceLDhot: detecting recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnhead, Paul

    2006-12-15

    There is much local variation in recombination rates across the human genome--with the majority of recombination occurring in recombination hotspots--short regions of around approximately 2 kb in length that have much higher recombination rates than neighbouring regions. Knowledge of this local variation is important, e.g. in the design and analysis of association studies for disease genes. Population genetic data, such as that generated by the HapMap project, can be used to infer the location of these hotspots. We present a new, efficient and powerful method for detecting recombination hotspots from population data. We compare our method with four current methods for detecting hotspots. It is orders of magnitude quicker, and has greater power, than two related approaches. It appears to be more powerful than HotspotFisher, though less accurate at inferring the precise positions of the hotspot. It was also more powerful than LDhot in some situations: particularly for weaker hotspots (10-40 times the background rate) when SNP density is lower (maths.lancs.ac.uk/~fearnhea/Hotspot.

  16. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolutionary advantage via common action of recombination and neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2013-11-01

    We investigate evolution models with recombination and neutrality. We consider the Crow-Kimura (parallel) mutation-selection model with the neutral fitness landscape, in which there is a central peak with high fitness A, and some of 1-point mutants have the same high fitness A, while the fitness of other sequences is 0. We find that the effect of recombination and neutrality depends on the concrete version of both neutrality and recombination. We consider three versions of neutrality: (a) all the nearest neighbor sequences of the peak sequence have the same high fitness A; (b) all the l-point mutations in a piece of genome of length l≥1 are neutral; (c) the neutral sequences are randomly distributed among the nearest neighbors of the peak sequences. We also consider three versions of recombination: (I) the simple horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of one nucleotide; (II) the exchange of a piece of genome of length l, HGT-l; (III) two-point crossover recombination (2CR). For the case of (a), the 2CR gives a rather strong contribution to the mean fitness, much stronger than that of HGT for a large genome length L. For the random distribution of neutral sequences there is a critical degree of neutrality νc, and for μmutations affect the mean-field-like and fluctuation-like factors similarly. Consequently, recombination can accelerate the non-mean-field (fluctuation) type dynamics without considerably affecting the mean-field-like factors.

  18. Novel canine circovirus strains from Thailand: Evidence for genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piewbang, Chutchai; Jo, Wendy K; Puff, Christina; van der Vries, Erhard; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kruppa, Jochen; Jung, Klaus; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Ludlow, Martin; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2018-05-14

    Canine circoviruses (CanineCV's), belonging to the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family, were detected by next generation sequencing in samples from Thai dogs with respiratory symptoms. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of nearly complete CanineCV genomes suggested that natural recombination had occurred among different lineages of CanineCV's. Similarity plot and bootscaning analyses indicated that American and Chinese viruses had served as major and minor parental viruses, respectively. Positions of recombination breakpoints were estimated using maximum-likelihood frameworks with statistical significant testing. The putative recombination event was located in the Replicase gene, intersecting with open reading frame-3. Analysis of nucleotide changes confirmed the origin of the recombination event. This is the first description of naturally occurring recombinant CanineCV's that have resulted in the circulation of newly emerging CanineCV lineages.

  19. Looking for the optimal rate of recombination for evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.

    2018-01-01

    We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of evolution with selection. We are looking for situations where the recombination increases the mean fitness of the population, and there is an optimal recombination rate. We found two fitness landscapes supporting such nonmonotonic behavior of the mean fitness versus the recombination rate. The first case is related to the evolution near the error threshold on a neutral-network-like fitness landscape, for moderate genome lengths and large population. The more realistic case is the second one, in which we consider the evolutionary dynamics of a finite population on a rugged fitness landscape (the smooth fitness landscape plus some random contributions to the fitness). We also give the solution to the horizontal gene transfer model in the case of asymmetric mutations. To obtain nonmonotonic behavior for both mutation and recombination, we need a specially designed (ideal) fitness landscape.

  20. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  2. Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchaud, Eric; Rochat, Tatiana; Habib, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    genome accounting for similar to 80% of the genes in each genome. The pan-genome seems nevertheless "open" according to the scaling exponent of a power-law fitted on the rate of new gene discovery when genomes are added one-by-one. Recombination is a key component of the evolutionary process...... of recombination and mutations to nucleotide-level differentiation (r/m) was estimated to similar to 13. Within CC-ST10, evolutionary distances computed on non-recombined regions and comparisons between 22 isolates sampled up to 27 years apart suggest a most recent common ancestor in the second half...

  3. Detection and frequency of recombination in tomato-infecting begomoviruses of South and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Mathura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato-infecting begomoviruses are widely distributed across the world and cause diseases of high economic impact on wide range of agriculturally important crops. Though recombination plays a pivotal role in diversification and evolution of these viruses, it is currently unknown whether there are differences in the number and quality of recombination events amongst different tomato-infecting begomovirus species. To examine this we sought to characterize the recombination events, estimate the frequency of recombination, and map recombination hotspots in tomato-infecting begomoviruses of South and Southeast Asia. Results Different methods used for recombination breakpoint analysis provided strong evidence for presence of recombination events in majority of the sequences analyzed. However, there was a clear evidence for absence or low Recombination events in viruses reported from North India. In addition, we provide evidence for non-random distribution of recombination events with the highest frequency of recombination being mapped in the portion of the N-terminal portion of Rep. Conclusion The variable recombination observed in these viruses signified that all begomoviruses are not equally prone to recombination. Distribution of recombination hotspots was found to be reliant on the relatedness of the genomic region involved in the exchange. Overall the frequency of phylogenetic violations and number of recombination events decreased with increasing parental sequence diversity. These findings provide valuable new information for understanding the diversity and evolution of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Asia.

  4. Linkage mapping reveals strong chiasma interference in Sockeye salmon: Implications for interpreting genomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Waples, Ryan K; Allendorf, Fred W

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is fundamental for generating new genetic variation and for securing proper disjunction. Further, recombination plays an essential role during the rediploidization process of polyploid-origin genomes because crossovers between pairs of homeologous chromosomes retain duplicat...

  5. Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43 is one of five currently circulating human coronaviruses responsible for respiratory infections. Like all coronaviruses, it is characterized by its genome’s high plasticity. The objectives of the current study were to detect genetically distinct genotypes and eventually recombinant genotypes in samples collected in Lower Normandy between 2001 and 2013. To this end, we sequenced complete nsp12, S, and N genes of 15 molecular isolates of HCoV-OC43 from clinical samples and compared them to available data from the USA, Belgium, and Hong-Kong. A new cluster E was invariably detected from nsp12, S, and N data while the analysis of nsp12 and N genes revealed the existence of new F and G clusters respectively. The association of these different clusters of genes in our specimens led to the description of thirteen genetically distinct genotypes, among which eight recombinant viruses were discovered. Identification of these recombinant viruses, together with temporal analysis and tMRCA estimation, provides important information for understanding the dynamics of the evolution of these epidemic coronaviruses.

  6. The potential of shifting recombination hotspots to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Battagin, Mara; Johnston, Susan E; Gorjanc, Gregor; Hickey, John M

    2017-07-04

    This study uses simulation to explore and quantify the potential effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. We simulated three scenarios that differed in the locations of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) and recombination hotspots in the genome. In scenario 1, QTN were randomly distributed along the chromosomes and recombination was restricted to occur within specific genomic regions (i.e. recombination hotspots). In the other two scenarios, both QTN and recombination hotspots were located in specific regions, but differed in whether the QTN occurred outside of (scenario 2) or inside (scenario 3) recombination hotspots. We split each chromosome into 250, 500 or 1000 regions per chromosome of which 10% were recombination hotspots and/or contained QTN. The breeding program was run for 21 generations of selection, after which recombination hotspot regions were kept the same or were shifted to adjacent regions for a further 80 generations of selection. We evaluated the effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain, genetic variance and genic variance. Our results show that shifting recombination hotspots reduced the decline of genetic and genic variance by releasing standing allelic variation in the form of new allele combinations. This in turn resulted in larger increases in genetic gain. However, the benefit of shifting recombination hotspots for increased genetic gain was only observed when QTN were initially outside recombination hotspots. If QTN were initially inside recombination hotspots then shifting them decreased genetic gain. Shifting recombination hotspots to regions of the genome where recombination had not occurred for 21 generations of selection (i.e. recombination deserts) released more of the standing allelic variation available in each generation and thus increased genetic gain. However, whether and how much increase in genetic gain was achieved by shifting recombination hotspots depended

  7. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage λ to Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage λ and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on λ and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  8. Two novel porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) recombinants from a natural recombinant and distinct subtypes of PEDV variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Li, Shuangjie; Zhou, Rongyun; Zhu, Meiqin; He, Shan; Ye, Mengxue; Huang, Yucheng; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Cong; Xia, Pengpeng; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2017-10-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes devastating impact on global pig-breeding industry and current vaccines have become not effective against the circulating PEDV variants since 2011. During the up-to-date investigation of PEDV prevalence in Fujian China 2016, PEDV was identified in vaccinated pig farms suffering severe diarrhea while other common diarrhea-associated pathogens were not detected. Complete genomes of two PEDV representatives (XM1-2 and XM2-4) were determined. Genomic comparison showed that these two viruses share the highest nucleotide identities (99.10% and 98.79%) with the 2011 ZMDZY strain, but only 96.65% and 96.50% nucleotide identities with the attenuated CV777 strain. Amino acid alignment of spike (S) proteins indicated that they have the similar mutation, insertion and deletion pattern as other Chinese PEDV variants but also contain several unique substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 2016 PEDV variants belong to the cluster of recombination strains but form a new branch. Recombination detection suggested that both XM1-2 and XM2-4 are inter-subgroup recombinants with breakpoints within ORF1b. Remarkably, the natural recombinant HNQX-3 isolate serves as a parental virus for both natural recombinants identified in this study. This up-to-date investigation provides the direct evidence that natural recombinants may serve as parental viruses to generate recombined PEDV progenies that are probably associated with the vaccination failure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2010-09-01

    The non-replicating poxviral vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is currently a leading candidate for development of novel recombinant vaccines against globally important diseases. The 1980s technology for making recombinant MVA (and other poxviruses) is powerful and robust, but relies on rare recombination events in poxviral-infected cells. In the 21st century, it has become possible to apply bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to poxviruses, as first demonstrated by B. Moss' lab in 2002 for vaccinia virus. A similar BAC clone of MVA was subsequently derived, but while recombination-mediated genetic engineering for rapid production was used of deletion mutants, an alternative method was required for efficient insertion of transgenes. Furthermore "markerless" viruses, which carry no trace of the selectable marker used for their isolation, are increasingly required for clinical trials, and the viruses derived via the new method contained the BAC sequence in their genomic DNA. Two methods are adapted to MVA-BAC to provide more rapid generation of markerless recombinants in weeks rather than months. "En passant" recombineering is applied to the insertion of a transgene expression cassette and the removal of the selectable marker in bacteria; and a self-excising variant of MVA-BAC is constructed, in which the BAC cassette region is rapidly and efficiently lost from the viral genome following rescue of the BAC into infectious virus. These methods greatly facilitate and accelerate production of recombinant MVA, including markerless constructs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Creating Porcine Biomedical Models Through Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B. Schook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomics provide genetic information from humans and other mammals (mouse, rat, dog and primates traditionally used as models as well as new candidates (pigs and cattle. In addition, linked enabling technologies, such as transgenesis and animal cloning, provide innovative ways to design and perform experiments to dissect complex biological systems. Exploitation of genomic information overcomes the traditional need to choose naturally occurring models. Thus, investigators can utilize emerging genomic knowledge and tools to create relevant animal models. This approach is referred to as reverse genetics. In contrast to ‘forward genetics’, in which gene(s responsible for a particular phenotype are identified by positional cloning (phenotype to genotype, the ‘reverse genetics’ approach determines the function of a gene and predicts the phenotype of a cell, tissue, or organism (genotype to phenotype. The convergence of classical and reverse genetics, along with genomics, provides a working definition of a ‘genetic model’ organism (3. The recent construction of phenotypic maps defining quantitative trait loci (QTL in various domesticated species provides insights into how allelic variations contribute to phenotypic diversity. Targeted chromosomal regions are characterized by the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC contigs to isolate and characterize genes contributing towards phenotypic variation. Recombineering provides a powerful methodology to harvest genetic information responsible for phenotype. Linking recombineering with gene-targeted homologous recombination, coupled with nuclear transfer (NT technology can provide ‘clones’ of genetically modified animals.

  11. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  12. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  13. Hadron correlations from recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Quark recombination is a successful model to describe the hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma. Jet-like dihadron correlations measured at RHIC provide a challenge for this picture. We discuss how correlations between hadrons can arise from correlations between partons before hadronization. An enhancement of correlations through the recombination process, similar to the enhancement of elliptic flow is found. Hot spots from completely or partially quenched jets are a likely source of such parton correlations.

  14. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Woerner, August E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; McManus, Kimberly F.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Wall, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471–475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10–15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  15. Choreography of recombination proteins during the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    Genome integrity is frequently challenged by DNA lesions from both endogenous and exogenous sources. A single DNA double-strand break (DSB) is lethal if unrepaired and may lead to loss of heterozygosity, mutations, deletions, genomic rearrangements and chromosome loss if repaired improperly. Such...... research. Here we review the cell biological response to DSBs in mitotically growing cells with an emphasis on homologous recombination pathways in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mammalian cells....

  16. Multiplex Genome Editing in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2018-01-01

    Lambda Red recombineering is an easy and efficient method for generating genetic modifications in Escherichia coli. For gene deletions, lambda Red recombineering is combined with the use of selectable markers, which are removed through the action of, e.g., flippase (Flp) recombinase. This PCR......-based engineering method has also been applied to a number of other bacteria. In this chapter, we describe a recently developed one plasmid-based method as well as the use of a strain with genomically integrated recombineering genes, which significantly speeds up the engineering of strains with multiple genomic...

  17. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.; Coll, Francesc; Bergval, Indra; Anthony, Richard M.; Warren, Rob; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Glynn, Judith R.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis Barbosa; Campino, Susana; Dheda, Keertan; Grandjean, Louis; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David; Panaiotov, Stefan; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Sheen, Patricia; de Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Viveiros, Miguel; Hibberd, Martin L.; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.

    2016-01-01

    . tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified

  18. Cattle Sex-Specific Recombination and Genetic Control from a Large Pedigree Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Shen, Botong; Padhi, Abinash; Sun, Chuanyu; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Liu, George E; Da, Yang; Wiggans, George R

    2015-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half a million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of 2,516 Mb (986 kb/cM in males and 1,085 kb/cM in females). The male map is 10% longer than the female map and the sex difference is most pronounced in the subtelomeric regions. We identified 1,792 male and 1,885 female putative recombination hotspots, with 720 hotspots shared between sexes. These hotspots encompass 3% of the genome but account for 25% of the genome-wide recombination events in both sexes. During the past forty years, males showed a decreasing trend in recombination rate that coincided with the artificial selection for milk production. Sex-specific GWAS analyses identified PRDM9 and CPLX1 to have significant effects on genome-wide recombination rate in both sexes. Two novel loci, NEK9 and REC114, were associated with recombination rate in both sexes, whereas three loci, MSH4, SMC3 and CEP55, affected recombination rate in females only. Among the multiple PRDM9 paralogues on the bovine genome, our GWAS of recombination hotspot usage together with linkage analysis identified the PRDM9 paralogue on chromosome 1 to be associated in the U.S. Holstein data. Given the largest sample size ever reported for such studies, our results reveal new insights into the understanding of cattle and mammalian recombination.

  19. Early death after feline infectious peritonitis virus challenge due to recombinant vaccinia virus immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennema, H; de Groot, R J; Harbour, D A; Dalderup, M; Gruffydd-Jones, T; Horzinek, M C; Spaan, W J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the fusogenic spike protein of the coronavirus causing feline infectious peritonitis was recombined into the genome of vaccinia virus. The recombinant induced spike-protein-specific, in vitro neutralizing antibodies in mice. When kittens were immunized with the recombinant, low titers of neutralizing antibodies were obtained. After challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus, these animals succumbed earlier than did the control group immunized with wild-type vaccinia virus (early death syndrome). Images PMID:2154621

  20. Meiotic recombination hotspots - a comparative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover. Meiotic recombination has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and is an important tool during crop breeding. Crossovers initiate from programmed DNA double-stranded breaks that are processed to form single-stranded DNA, which can invade a homologous chromosome. Strand invasion events mature into double Holliday junctions that can be resolved as crossovers. Extensive variation in the frequency of meiotic recombination occurs along chromosomes and is typically focused in narrow hotspots, observed both at the level of DNA breaks and final crossovers. We review methodologies to profile hotspots at different steps of the meiotic recombination pathway that have been used in different eukaryote species. We then discuss what these studies have revealed concerning specification of hotspot locations and activity and the contributions of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Understanding hotspots is important for interpreting patterns of genetic variation in populations and how eukaryotic genomes evolve. In addition, manipulation of hotspots will allow us to accelerate crop breeding, where meiotic recombination distributions can be limiting. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fungal genomics: forensic evidence of sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R

    2005-07-12

    The genome sequence of the 'asexual' human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus suggests it has the capability to undergo mating and meiosis. That this organism engages in clandestine sexual activity is also suggested by observations of two equally distributed complementary mating types in nature, the expression of mating type genes and evidence of recent genome recombination events.

  2. Gene evolutionary trajectories and GC patterns driven by recombination in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombination occurring during meiosis is critical for creating genetic variation and plays an essential role in plant evolution. In addition to creating novel gene combinations, recombination can affect genome structure through altering GC patterns. In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, another in...

  3. SUMOylation of Rad52-Rad59 synergistically change the outcome of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Sonia; Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintenance of genome stability through double-strand break (DSB) repair, but at the same time HR can lead to loss of heterozygosity and uncontrolled recombination can be genotoxic. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin...

  4. Immunogenicity of recombinant feline infectious peritonitis virus spike protein in mice and kittens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Vennema, H.; Groot, R. de; Harbour, D.A.; Dalderup, M.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.; Spaan, W.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the fusogenic spike protein of the coronavirus causing feline infectious peritonitis (FIVP) was recombined into the genome of vaccinia virus, strain WR. The recombinant induced spike protein specific, in vitro neutralizing antibodies in mkice. When kittens were immunized with the

  5. Insights into the Functions of a Prophage Recombination Directionality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Ansaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombination directionality factors (RDFs, or excisionases, are essential players of prophage excisive recombination. Despite the essentially catalytic role of the integrase in both integrative and excisive recombination, RDFs are required to direct the reaction towards excision and to prevent re-integration of the prophage genome when entering a lytic cycle. KplE1, HK620 and numerous (prophages that integrate at the same site in enterobacteria genomes (such as the argW tRNA gene all share a highly conserved recombination module. This module comprises the attL and attR recombination sites and the RDF and integrase genes. The KplE1 RDF was named TorI after its initial identification as a negative regulator of the tor operon. However, it was characterized as an essential factor of excisive recombination. In this study, we designed an extensive random mutagenesis protocol of the torI gene and identified key residues involved in both functions of the TorI protein. We show that, in addition to TorI-TorR protein-protein interaction, TorI interacts in solution with the IntS integrase. Moreover, in vitro, TorR and IntS appear to compete for TorI binding. Finally, our mutagenesis results suggest that the C-terminal part of the TorI protein is dedicated to protein-protein interactions with both proteins TorR and IntS.

  6. Genetic recombination is targeted towards gene promoter regions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auton, Adam; Rui Li, Ying; Kidd, Jeffrey; Oliveira, Kyle; Nadel, Julie; Holloway, J Kim; Hayward, Jessica J; Cohen, Paula E; Greally, John M; Wang, Jun; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the H3K4 trimethylase, PRDM9, as the gene responsible for recombination hotspot localization has provided considerable insight into the mechanisms by which recombination is initiated in mammals. However, uniquely amongst mammals, canids appear to lack a functional version of PRDM9 and may therefore provide a model for understanding recombination that occurs in the absence of PRDM9, and thus how PRDM9 functions to shape the recombination landscape. We have constructed a fine-scale genetic map from patterns of linkage disequilibrium assessed using high-throughput sequence data from 51 free-ranging dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. While broad-scale properties of recombination appear similar to other mammalian species, our fine-scale estimates indicate that canine highly elevated recombination rates are observed in the vicinity of CpG rich regions including gene promoter regions, but show little association with H3K4 trimethylation marks identified in spermatocytes. By comparison to genomic data from the Andean fox, Lycalopex culpaeus, we show that biased gene conversion is a plausible mechanism by which the high CpG content of the dog genome could have occurred.

  7. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  8. Why Do Sex Chromosomes Stop Recombining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnikas, Suvi; Sigeman, Hanna; Abbott, Jessica K; Hansson, Bengt

    2018-04-28

    It is commonly assumed that sex chromosomes evolve recombination suppression because selection favours linkage between sex-determining and sexually antagonistic genes. However, although the role of sexual antagonism during sex chromosome evolution has attained strong support from theory, experimental and observational evidence is rare or equivocal. Here, we highlight alternative, often neglected, hypotheses for recombination suppression on sex chromosomes, which invoke meiotic drive, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift, respectively. We contrast the hypotheses, the situations when they are likely to be of importance, and outline why it is surprisingly difficult to test them. Lastly, we discuss future research directions (including modelling, population genomics, comparative approaches, and experiments) to disentangle the different hypotheses of sex chromosome evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast Dissemination of New HIV-1 CRF02/A1 Recombinants in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available A number of HIV-1 subtypes are identified in Pakistan by characterization of partial viral gene sequences. Little is known whether new recombinants are generated and how they disseminate since whole genome sequences for these viruses have not been characterized. Near full-length genome (NFLG sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes or next generation sequencing from 34 HIV-1-infected individuals in Pakistan. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were 16 subtype As, one subtype C, and 17 A/G recombinants. Further analysis showed that all 16 subtype A1 sequences (47%, together with the vast majority of sequences from Pakistan from other studies, formed a tight subcluster (A1a within the subtype A1 clade, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. More in-depth analysis of 17 A/G NFLG sequences showed that five shared similar recombination breakpoints as in CRF02 (15% but were phylogenetically distinct from the prototype CRF02 by forming a tight subcluster (CRF02a while 12 (38% were new recombinants between CRF02a and A1a or a divergent A1b viruses. Unique recombination patterns among the majority of the newly characterized recombinants indicated ongoing recombination. Interestingly, recombination breakpoints in these CRF02/A1 recombinants were similar to those in prototype CRF02 viruses, indicating that recombination at these sites more likely generate variable recombinant viruses. The dominance and fast dissemination of new CRF02a/A1 recombinants over prototype CRF02 suggest that these recombinant have more adapted and may become major epidemic strains in Pakistan.

  10. Fast Dissemination of New HIV-1 CRF02/A1 Recombinants in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Hora, Bhavna; DeMarco, Todd; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Ahmed, Manzoor; Sanchez, Ana M.; Su, Chang; Carter, Meredith; Stone, Mars; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Busch, Michael P.; Denny, Thomas N.; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A number of HIV-1 subtypes are identified in Pakistan by characterization of partial viral gene sequences. Little is known whether new recombinants are generated and how they disseminate since whole genome sequences for these viruses have not been characterized. Near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes or next generation sequencing from 34 HIV-1-infected individuals in Pakistan. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were 16 subtype As, one subtype C, and 17 A/G recombinants. Further analysis showed that all 16 subtype A1 sequences (47%), together with the vast majority of sequences from Pakistan from other studies, formed a tight subcluster (A1a) within the subtype A1 clade, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. More in-depth analysis of 17 A/G NFLG sequences showed that five shared similar recombination breakpoints as in CRF02 (15%) but were phylogenetically distinct from the prototype CRF02 by forming a tight subcluster (CRF02a) while 12 (38%) were new recombinants between CRF02a and A1a or a divergent A1b viruses. Unique recombination patterns among the majority of the newly characterized recombinants indicated ongoing recombination. Interestingly, recombination breakpoints in these CRF02/A1 recombinants were similar to those in prototype CRF02 viruses, indicating that recombination at these sites more likely generate variable recombinant viruses. The dominance and fast dissemination of new CRF02a/A1 recombinants over prototype CRF02 suggest that these recombinant have more adapted and may become major epidemic strains in Pakistan. PMID:27973597

  11. UVC-mutagenesis in acetogens: resistance to methanol, ethanol, acetone, or n-butanol in recombinants with tailored genomes as the step in engineering of commercial biocatalysts for continuous CO₂/H₂ blend fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael; Gak, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Time- and cost-efficient six-step UVC-mutagenesis was developed and validated to generate acetogen mutants with preliminary reduced genomes to prevent product inhibition in the to-be-engineered commercial biocatalysts. Genome reduction was performed via elimination of pta, ack, spo0A, spo0J and some pro-phage genes. UVC-mutants such as Clostridium sp. MT1784RG, Clostridium sp. MT653RG, Clostridium sp. MT896RG, and Clostridium sp. MT1962RG (all 4 share 97 % DNA homology with Clostridium ljungdahlii ATCC 55383) were selected based on resistance to methanol (3 M), ethanol (3.6 M), acetone (2.5 M), or n-butanol (0.688 M), respectively. As a part of the biocatalyst engineering algorithm, genome reduction step was associated with integration of attTn7 recognition sequence to the chromosomes of each of the above strains to prepare the defined integration sites for future integration of multi-copy synthetic operons encoding biosynthesis of methanol, ethanol, acetone or n-butanol. Reduced genome mutants had cell duplication times decreased compared to the same for the respective parental strains. All groups of mutants had decreased share of palmitic (C16:0) and increased share of oleic (C18:1) acids along with detection of isopropylstearate (C20) compared to the parental strains. Mutants resistant to acetone and n-butanol also had monounsaturated fatty acid (C20:1) not found in parental strains. Cyclopropane fatty acid (C21) was identified only in n-butanol resistant mutants.

  12. Recombinational repair: workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard-Flanders, P.

    1983-01-01

    Recombinational repair may or may not be synonymous with postreplication repair. Considerable progress has been made in the study of the relevant enzymes, particularly those from bacteria. In this workshop we focus on the recombination enzyme RecA protein. What structural changes take place in the protein and in DNA during repair. How does homologous pairing take place. How is ATP hydrolysis coupled to the stand exchange reaction and the formation of heteroduplx DNA. Turning to another enzyme needed for certain kinds of bacterial recombination, we will ask whether the purified recB protein and recC protein complement each other and are sufficient for exonuclease V activity. In higher cells, we would like to know whether sister exchanges, which occur in bacteria after uv irradiation, are also seen in animal cells

  13. Variation in recombination frequency and distribution across eukaryotes: patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Philine G. D.; Johnston, Susan E.; Santure, Anna W.; Smadja, Carole M.

    2017-01-01

    Recombination, the exchange of DNA between maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis, is an essential feature of sexual reproduction in nearly all multicellular organisms. While the role of recombination in the evolution of sex has received theoretical and empirical attention, less is known about how recombination rate itself evolves and what influence this has on evolutionary processes within sexually reproducing organisms. Here, we explore the patterns of, and processes governing recombination in eukaryotes. We summarize patterns of variation, integrating current knowledge with an analysis of linkage map data in 353 organisms. We then discuss proximate and ultimate processes governing recombination rate variation and consider how these influence evolutionary processes. Genome-wide recombination rates (cM/Mb) can vary more than tenfold across eukaryotes, and there is large variation in the distribution of recombination events across closely related taxa, populations and individuals. We discuss how variation in rate and distribution relates to genome architecture, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, sex, environmental perturbations and variable selective pressures. There has been great progress in determining the molecular mechanisms governing recombination, and with the continued development of new modelling and empirical approaches, there is now also great opportunity to further our understanding of how and why recombination rate varies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109219

  14. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lian

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV.

  15. Polyglutamine Disease Modeling: Epitope Based Screen for Homologous Recombination using CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mahru C; O'Brien, Robert N; Zhang, Ningzhe; Patra, Biranchi N; De La Cruz, Michael; Ray, Animesh; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported the genetic correction of Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells using traditional homologous recombination (HR) approaches. To extend this work, we have adopted a CRISPR-based genome editing approach to improve the efficiency of recombination in order to generate allelic isogenic HD models in human cells. Incorporation of a rapid antibody-based screening approach to measure recombination provides a powerful method to determine relative efficiency of genome editing for modeling polyglutamine diseases or understanding factors that modulate CRISPR/Cas9 HR.

  16. Parton recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1978-08-01

    Low P/sub T/ meson production in hadronic collisions is described in the framework of the parton model. The recombination of quark and antiquark is suggested as the dominant mechanism in the large x region. Phenomenological evidences for the mechanism are given. The application to meson initiated reactions yields the quark distribution in mesons. 21 references

  17. A Naturally Occurring Recombinant Enterovirus Expresses a Torovirus Deubiquitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Pengcheng; Misra, Saurav; Hause, Ben; Fang, Ying

    2017-07-15

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species G [EVG]) (EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic EVG strain (PEV9 UKG/410/73). Remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3C pro cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends, was found in the 2C/3A junction region of the viral genome. This insertion encodes a predicted protease with 54 to 68% amino acid identity to torovirus (ToV) papain-like protease (PLP) (ToV-PLP). Structural homology modeling predicts that this protease adopts a fold and a catalytic site characteristic of minimal PLP catalytic domains. This structure is similar to those of core catalytic domains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protease and coronavirus PLPs, which act as deubiquitinating and deISGylating (interferon [IFN]-stimulated gene 15 [ISG15]-removing) enzymes on host cell substrates. Importantly, the recombinant ToV-PLP protein derived from this novel enterovirus also showed strong deubiquitination and deISGylation activities and demonstrated the ability to suppress IFN-β expression. Using reverse genetics, we generated a ToV-PLP knockout recombinant virus. Compared to the wild-type virus, the ToV-PLP knockout mutant virus showed impaired growth and induced higher expression levels of innate immune genes in infected cells. These results suggest that ToV-PLP functions as an innate immune antagonist; enterovirus G may therefore gain fitness through the acquisition of ToV-PLP from a recombination event. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses comprise a highly diversified group of viruses. Genetic recombination has been considered a driving force for viral evolution; however, recombination between viruses from two different orders is a rare event. In this study, we

  18. Within-host dynamics of the emergence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus recombinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cica Urbino

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi, and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection-a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our

  19. Recombinational DSBs-intersected genes converge on specific disease- and adaptability-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Yanming; Wang, Baijing; Gao, Feng

    2018-05-03

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model species powerful for studying the recombination of eukaryotes. Although many recombination studies have been performed for this species by experimental methods, the population genomic study based on bioinformatics analyses is urgently needed to greatly increase the range and accuracy of recombination detection. Here, we carry out the population genomic analysis of recombination in S. cerevisiae to reveal the potential rules between recombination and evolution in eukaryotes. By population genomic analysis, we discover significantly more and longer recombination events in clinical strains, which indicates that adverse environmental conditions create an obviously wider range of genetic combination in response to the selective pressure. Based on the analysis of recombinational DSBs-intersected genes (RDIGs), we find that RDIGs significantly converge on specific disease- and adaptability-related pathways, indicating that recombination plays a biologically key role in the repair of DSBs related to diseases and environmental adaptability, especially the human neurological disorders (NDs). By evolutionary analysis of RDIGs, we find that the RDIGs highly prevailing in populations of yeast tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, indicating the accurate repair of DSBs in these RDIGs is critical to ensure the eukaryotic survival or fitness. fgao@tju.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Rask, Thomas Salhøj

    2014-01-01

    falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 class on the infected erythrocyte surface. Recombination clearly generates var diversity, but the nature and control of the genetic exchanges involved remain unclear. By experimental and bioinformatic identification of recombination events and genome...... of recombination during DNA replication in P. falciparum sexual stages, and that these DSS-regulated genetic exchanges generate functional and diverse P. falciparum adhesion antigens. DSS-induced recombination may represent a common mechanism for optimizing the evolvability of virulence gene families in pathogens....

  1. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, Daniel O.; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded

  2. FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific recombination in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they h...

  3. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd, it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2 genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  4. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  5. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Ylä-Pelto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  6. Population Demographic History Can Cause the Appearance of Recombination Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Henry R.; Cutler, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevailing view among geneticists suggests that recombination hotspots exist ubiquitously across the human genome, there is only limited experimental evidence from a few genomic regions to support the generality of this claim. A small number of true recombination hotspots are well supported experimentally, but the vast majority of hotspots have been identified on the basis of population genetic inferences from the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) seen in the human population. These inferences are made assuming a particular model of human history, and one of the assumptions of that model is that the effective population size of humans has remained constant throughout our history. Our results show that relaxation of the constant population size assumption can create LD and variation patterns that are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to human populations without any need to invoke localized hotspots of recombination. In other words, apparent recombination hotspots could be an artifact of variable population size over time. Several lines of evidence suggest that the vast majority of hotspots identified on the basis of LD information are unlikely to have elevated recombination rates. PMID:22560089

  7. A novel computational method identifies intra- and inter-species recombination events in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sanguinetti

    Full Text Available Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have determined an explosion in the number of sequenced bacterial genomes. Comparative sequence analysis frequently reveals evidences of homologous recombination occurring with different mechanisms and rates in different species, but the large-scale use of computational methods to identify recombination events is hampered by their high computational costs. Here, we propose a new method to identify recombination events in large datasets of whole genome sequences. Using a filtering procedure of the gene conservation profiles of a test genome against a panel of strains, this algorithm identifies sets of contiguous genes acquired by homologous recombination. The locations of the recombination breakpoints are determined using a statistical test that is able to account for the differences in the natural rate of evolution between different genes. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of 75 genomes of Staphylococcus aureus and 50 genomes comprising different streptococcal species, and was able to detect intra-species recombination events in S. aureus and in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Furthermore, we found evidences of an inter-species exchange of genetic material between S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis, a closely related commensal species that colonizes the same ecological niche. The method has been implemented in an R package, Reco, which is freely available from supplementary material, and provides a rapid screening tool to investigate recombination on a genome-wide scale from sequence data.

  8. Manipulating or superseding host recombination functions: a dilemma that shapes phage evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Marie Bobay

    Full Text Available Phages, like many parasites, tend to have small genomes and may encode autonomous functions or manipulate those of their hosts'. Recombination functions are essential for phage replication and diversification. They are also nearly ubiquitous in bacteria. The E. coli genome encodes many copies of an octamer (Chi motif that upon recognition by RecBCD favors repair of double strand breaks by homologous recombination. This might allow self from non-self discrimination because RecBCD degrades DNA lacking Chi. Bacteriophage Lambda, an E. coli parasite, lacks Chi motifs, but escapes degradation by inhibiting RecBCD and encoding its own autonomous recombination machinery. We found that only half of 275 lambdoid genomes encode recombinases, the remaining relying on the host's machinery. Unexpectedly, we found that some lambdoid phages contain extremely high numbers of Chi motifs concentrated between the phage origin of replication and the packaging site. This suggests a tight association between replication, packaging and RecBCD-mediated recombination in these phages. Indeed, phages lacking recombinases strongly over-represent Chi motifs. Conversely, phages encoding recombinases and inhibiting host recombination machinery select for the absence of Chi motifs. Host and phage recombinases use different mechanisms and the latter are more tolerant to sequence divergence. Accordingly, we show that phages encoding their own recombination machinery have more mosaic genomes resulting from recent recombination events and have more diverse gene repertoires, i.e. larger pan genomes. We discuss the costs and benefits of superseding or manipulating host recombination functions and how this decision shapes phage genome structure and evolvability.

  9. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  10. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  11. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  12. Family genome browser: visualizing genomes with pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Liran; Liu, Yongzhuang; Wang, Yongtian; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Wang, Yadong

    2015-07-15

    Families with inherited diseases are widely used in Mendelian/complex disease studies. Owing to the advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, family genome sequencing becomes more and more prevalent. Visualizing family genomes can greatly facilitate human genetics studies and personalized medicine. However, due to the complex genetic relationships and high similarities among genomes of consanguineous family members, family genomes are difficult to be visualized in traditional genome visualization framework. How to visualize the family genome variants and their functions with integrated pedigree information remains a critical challenge. We developed the Family Genome Browser (FGB) to provide comprehensive analysis and visualization for family genomes. The FGB can visualize family genomes in both individual level and variant level effectively, through integrating genome data with pedigree information. Family genome analysis, including determination of parental origin of the variants, detection of de novo mutations, identification of potential recombination events and identical-by-decent segments, etc., can be performed flexibly. Diverse annotations for the family genome variants, such as dbSNP memberships, linkage disequilibriums, genes, variant effects, potential phenotypes, etc., are illustrated as well. Moreover, the FGB can automatically search de novo mutations and compound heterozygous variants for a selected individual, and guide investigators to find high-risk genes with flexible navigation options. These features enable users to investigate and understand family genomes intuitively and systematically. The FGB is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/FGB/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Recombination epoch revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons. 18 references

  14. Dielectronic recombination theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGattuta, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections (σ DR ) and rate coefficients (α DR ) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of σ DR have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of α DR have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of σ DR . While the measurements of σ DR for δn ≠ 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of δn = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain

  15. A simple and rapid approach to develop recombinant avian herpesvirus vectored vaccines using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na; Zhang, Yaoyao; Pedrera, Miriam; Chang, Pengxiang; Baigent, Susan; Moffat, Katy; Shen, Zhiqiang; Nair, Venugopal; Yao, Yongxiu

    2018-01-29

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as live vaccine against Marek's disease (MD) worldwide for more than 40 years either alone or in combination with other serotypes. HVT is also widely used as a vector platform for generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) using conventional recombination methods or recombineering tools on cloned viral genomes. In the present study, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing as a rapid and efficient method of generating HVT recombinants expressing VP2 protein of IBDV. This approach offers an efficient method to introduce other viral antigens into the HVT genome for rapid development of recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of uv-irradiation on genetic recombination of Simian virus 40 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, A.; Margot, A.; Sarasin, A.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic recombination in monkey kidney cells has been studied using Simian virus 40 (SV40) as a molecular probe. Control or uv-irradiated cells have been co-infected with two thermosensitive mutants of SV40, tsA58 and tsA30. Recombination between the two viral genomes gives rise to a wild type virus phenotype, able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 41 0 C, which was taken as a measure of the recombination activity of the host cells. Results show that recombination takes place at a low frequency when viruses are not uv-irradiated. Irradiation of one or both viruses increases drastically recombination frequency. Pretreatment of the host cells with uv-light or mitomycin C 24 hours before being infected does not increase recombination frequency measured in our experimental conditions. 23 references, 5 tables

  17. High-throughput measurement of recombination rates and genetic interference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoux, Xavier; Bourge, Mickael; Dumas, Fabrice; Martin, Olivier C; Falque, Matthieu

    2018-06-01

    Allelic recombination owing to meiotic crossovers is a major driver of genome evolution, as well as a key player for the selection of high-performing genotypes in economically important species. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and low-cost method to measure recombination rates and crossover patterning (including interference) in large populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombination and interference were analysed by flow cytometry, which allows time-consuming steps such as tetrad microdissection or spore growth to be avoided. Moreover, our method can also be used to compare recombination in wild-type vs. mutant individuals or in different environmental conditions, even if the changes in recombination rates are small. Furthermore, meiotic mutants often present recombination and/or pairing defects affecting spore viability but our method does not involve growth steps and thus avoids filtering out non-viable spores. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Wright, Kevin M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jenkins, Jerry [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Shu, Shengqiang [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Yuan, Yao-Wu [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wessler, Susan R. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Willis, John H. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Rokhsar, Daniel S. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  19. FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific recombination in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Pei Long

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they have not yet been established for use in the manipulation of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. In this study, we achieved site-specific excision of a target gene at predefined chromosomal sites in the silkworm using a FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system. We first constructed two stable transgenic target silkworm strains that both contain a single copy of the transgene construct comprising a target gene expression cassette flanked by FRT sites. Using pre-blastoderm microinjection of a FLP recombinase helper expression vector, 32 G3 site-specific recombinant transgenic individuals were isolated from five of 143 broods. The average frequency of FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific excision in the two target strains genome was approximately 3.5%. This study shows that it is feasible to achieve site-specific recombination in silkworms using the FLP/FRT system. We conclude that the FLP/FRT system is a useful tool for genome manipulation in the silkworm. Furthermore, this is the first reported use of the FLP/FRT system for the genetic manipulation of a lepidopteran genome and thus provides a useful reference for the establishment of genome manipulation technologies in other lepidopteran species.

  20. Recent and historical recombination in the admixed Norwegian Red cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grove Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the

  1. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  2. A New Metazoan Recombination Rate Record and Consistently High Recombination Rates in the Honey Bee Genus Apis Accompanied by Frequent Inversions but Not Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan; Miller, Katelyn; Fouks, Bertrand; Rubio Correa, Sara; Collazo, Juan; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Tingek, Salim; Koeniger, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) far exceed the commonly observed 1–2 meiotic recombination events per chromosome and exhibit the highest Metazoan recombination rate (20 cM/Mb) described thus far. However, the reasons for this exceptional rate of recombination are not sufficiently understood. In a comparative study, we report on the newly constructed genomic linkage maps of Apis florea and Apis dorsata that represent the two honey bee lineages without recombination rate estimates so far. Each linkage map was generated de novo, based on SNP genotypes of haploid male offspring of a single female. The A. florea map spans 4,782 cM with 1,279 markers in 16 linkage groups. The A. dorsata map is 5,762 cM long and contains 1,189 markers in 16 linkage groups. Respectively, these map sizes result in average recombination rate estimates of 20.8 and 25.1 cM/Mb. Synteny analyses indicate that frequent intra-chromosomal rearrangements but no translocations among chromosomes accompany the high rates of recombination during the independent evolution of the three major honey bee lineages. Our results imply a common cause for the evolution of very high recombination rates in Apis. Our findings also suggest that frequent homologous recombination during meiosis might increase ectopic recombination and rearrangements within but not between chromosomes. It remains to be investigated whether the resulting inversions may have been important in the evolutionary differentiation between honey bee species. PMID:28173114

  3. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Kini, R Manjunatha; Pospelov, Alexey S; Vonk, Freek J; Henkel, Christiaan V; Richardson, Michael K

    2016-12-01

    Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy-very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  4. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald M. I. Kerkkamp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy—very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  5. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  6. Plasmid transfer by conjugation as a possible route of horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important component of evolution and adaptation of bacterial species. Xylella fastidiosa has the ability to incorporate exogenous DNA into its genome by homologous recombination at relatively high rates. This genetic recombination is believed to play a role in adaptati...

  7. Characterization of recombination features and the genetic basis in multiple cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Seroussi, Eyal; Liu, George E; Ma, Li

    2018-04-27

    Crossover generated by meiotic recombination is a fundamental event that facilitates meiosis and sexual reproduction. Comparative studies have shown wide variation in recombination rate among species, but the characterization of recombination features between cattle breeds has not yet been performed. Cattle populations in North America count millions, and the dairy industry has genotyped millions of individuals with pedigree information that provide a unique opportunity to study breed-level variations in recombination. Based on large pedigrees of Jersey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss cattle with genotype data, we identified over 3.4 million maternal and paternal crossover events from 161,309 three-generation families. We constructed six breed- and sex-specific genome-wide recombination maps using 58,982 autosomal SNPs for two sexes in the three dairy cattle breeds. A comparative analysis of the six recombination maps revealed similar global recombination patterns between cattle breeds but with significant differences between sexes. We confirmed that male recombination map is 10% longer than the female map in all three cattle breeds, consistent with previously reported results in Holstein cattle. When comparing recombination hotspot regions between cattle breeds, we found that 30% and 10% of the hotspots were shared between breeds in males and females, respectively, with each breed exhibiting some breed-specific hotspots. Finally, our multiple-breed GWAS found that SNPs in eight loci affected recombination rate and that the PRDM9 gene associated with hotspot usage in multiple cattle breeds, indicating a shared genetic basis for recombination across dairy cattle breeds. Collectively, our results generated breed- and sex-specific recombination maps for multiple cattle breeds, provided a comprehensive characterization and comparison of recombination patterns between breeds, and expanded our understanding of the breed-level variations in recombination features within an

  8. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen E Kiwelu

    Full Text Available The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR of 38 (28-50 sequences per subject. Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84% subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60% subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69% to 36 (82% over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  9. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  10. Structural Variation Shapes the Landscape of Recombination in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew P; Gatti, Daniel M; Najarian, Maya L; Keane, Thomas M; Galante, Raymond J; Pack, Allan I; Mott, Richard; Churchill, Gary A; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential feature of sexual reproduction that ensures faithful segregation of chromosomes and redistributes genetic variants in populations. Multiparent populations such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse stock accumulate large numbers of crossover (CO) events between founder haplotypes, and thus present a unique opportunity to study the role of genetic variation in shaping the recombination landscape. We obtained high-density genotype data from [Formula: see text] DO mice, and localized 2.2 million CO events to intervals with a median size of 28 kb. The resulting sex-averaged genetic map of the DO population is highly concordant with large-scale (order 10 Mb) features of previously reported genetic maps for mouse. To examine fine-scale (order 10 kb) patterns of recombination in the DO, we overlaid putative recombination hotspots onto our CO intervals. We found that CO intervals are enriched in hotspots compared to the genomic background. However, as many as [Formula: see text] of CO intervals do not overlap any putative hotspots, suggesting that our understanding of hotspots is incomplete. We also identified coldspots encompassing 329 Mb, or [Formula: see text] of observable genome, in which there is little or no recombination. In contrast to hotspots, which are a few kilobases in size, and widely scattered throughout the genome, coldspots have a median size of 2.1 Mb and are spatially clustered. Coldspots are strongly associated with copy-number variant (CNV) regions, especially multi-allelic clusters, identified from whole-genome sequencing of 228 DO mice. Genes in these regions have reduced expression, and epigenetic features of closed chromatin in male germ cells, which suggests that CNVs may repress recombination by altering chromatin structure in meiosis. Our findings demonstrate how multiparent populations, by bridging the gap between large-scale and fine-scale genetic mapping, can reveal new features of the recombination

  11. Recombinant Innovation and Endogenous Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Frenken; Luis R. Izquierdo; Paolo Zeppini

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create “short-cuts” which reduce switching costs allowing agents to escape a technological lock-in. As a result, recombinant innovations speed up technological progress allowing transitions that are impossible with only branching ...

  12. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  13. Specific modifications of histone tails, but not DNA methylation, mirror the temporal variation of mammalian recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Yi, Soojin V

    2014-10-16

    Recombination clusters nonuniformly across mammalian genomes at discrete genomic loci referred to as recombination hotspots. Despite their ubiquitous presence, individual hotspots rapidly lose their activities, and the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying such frequent hotspot turnovers (the so-called "recombination hotspot paradox") remain unresolved. Even though some sequence motifs are significantly associated with hotspots, multiple lines of evidence indicate that factors other than underlying sequences, such as epigenetic modifications, may affect the evolution of recombination hotspots. Thus, identifying epigenetic factors that covary with recombination at fine-scale is a promising step for this important research area. It was previously reported that recombination rates correlate with indirect measures of DNA methylation in the human genome. Here, we analyze experimentally determined DNA methylation and histone modification of human sperms, and show that the correlation between DNA methylation and recombination in long-range windows does not hold with respect to the spatial and temporal variation of recombination at hotspots. On the other hand, two histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) overlap extensively with recombination hotspots. Similar trends were observed in mice. These results indicate that specific histone modifications rather than DNA methylation are associated with the rapid evolution of recombination hotspots. Furthermore, many human recombination hotspots occupy "bivalent" chromatin regions that harbor both active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) marks. This may explain why human recombination hotspots tend to occur in nongenic regions, in contrast to yeast and Arabidopsis hotspots that are characterized by generally active chromatins. Our results highlight the dynamic epigenetic underpinnings of recombination hotspot evolution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  14. Recombination in diverse maize is stable, predictable, and associated with genetic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Bradbury, Peter J; Elshire, Robert J; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Acharya, Charlotte B; Mitchell, Sharon E; Li, Chunhui; Li, Yongxiang; Buckler, Edward S

    2015-03-24

    Among the fundamental evolutionary forces, recombination arguably has the largest impact on the practical work of plant breeders. Varying over 1,000-fold across the maize genome, the local meiotic recombination rate limits the resolving power of quantitative trait mapping and the precision of favorable allele introgression. The consequences of low recombination also theoretically extend to the species-wide scale by decreasing the power of selection relative to genetic drift, and thereby hindering the purging of deleterious mutations. In this study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify 136,000 recombination breakpoints at high resolution within US and Chinese maize nested association mapping populations. We find that the pattern of cross-overs is highly predictable on the broad scale, following the distribution of gene density and CpG methylation. Several large inversions also suppress recombination in distinct regions of several families. We also identify recombination hotspots ranging in size from 1 kb to 30 kb. We find these hotspots to be historically stable and, compared with similar regions with low recombination, to have strongly differentiated patterns of DNA methylation and GC content. We also provide evidence for the historical action of GC-biased gene conversion in recombination hotspots. Finally, using genomic evolutionary rate profiling (GERP) to identify putative deleterious polymorphisms, we find evidence for reduced genetic load in hotspot regions, a phenomenon that may have considerable practical importance for breeding programs worldwide.

  15. Expression of recombinant Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eFrenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with human-like post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  16. On the relict recombination lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtejn, I.N.; Bernshtejn, D.N.; Dubrovich, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate numerical calculation of intensities and profiles of hydrogen recombination lines of cosmological origin is made. Relie radiation distortions stipulated by recombination quantum release at the irrevocable recombination are investigated. Mean number calculation is given for guantums educing for one irrevocably-lost electron. The account is taken of the educed quantums interraction with matter. The main quantum-matter interrraction mechanisms are considered: electronic blow broadening; free-free, free-bound, bound-bound absorptions Recombination dynamics is investigated depending on hydrogen density and total density of all the matter kinds in the Universe

  17. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  18. gmos: Rapid Detection of Genome Mosaicism over Short Evolutionary Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet-Lošo, Mirjana; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes. The program first computes local alignments between query and subject genomes and then reconstructs the query mosaic structure by choosing the best local alignment for each query region. To accomplish the analysis quickly, the program mostly relies on pairwise alignments and constructs multiple sequence alignments over short overlapping subject regions only when necessary. This fine-tuned implementation achieves an efficiency comparable to an alignment-free tool. The program performs well for simulated and real data sets of closely related genomes and can be used for fast recombination detection; for instance, when a new prokaryotic pathogen is discovered. As an example, gmos was used to detect genome mosaicism in a pathogenic Enterococcus faecium strain compared to seven closely related genomes. The analysis took less than two minutes on a single 2.1 GHz processor. The output is available in fasta format and can be visualized using an accessory program, gmosDraw (freely available with gmos).

  19. Detecting Recombination Hotspots from Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Stevison, Laurie S

    2016-08-09

    With recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, it has become increasingly easy to use whole-genome sequencing of unrelated individuals to assay patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. One type of analysis that is commonly performed is to estimate local recombination rates and identify recombination hotspots from patterns of LD. One method for detecting recombination hotspots, LDhot, has been used in a handful of species to further our understanding of the basic biology of recombination. For the most part, the effectiveness of this method (e.g., power and false positive rate) is unknown. In this study, we run extensive simulations to compare the effectiveness of three different implementations of LDhot. We find large differences in the power and false positive rates of these different approaches, as well as a strong sensitivity to the window size used (with smaller window sizes leading to more accurate estimation of hotspot locations). We also compared our LDhot simulation results with comparable simulation results obtained from a Bayesian maximum-likelihood approach for identifying hotspots. Surprisingly, we found that the latter computationally intensive approach had substantially lower power over the parameter values considered in our simulations. Copyright © 2016 Wall and Stevison.

  20. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  1. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël O. Warmerdam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5 as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability.

  2. Mechanisms and impact of genetic recombination in the evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaguza, Chrispin; Cornick, Jennifer E; Everett, Dean B

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a highly recombinogenic bacterium responsible for a high burden of human disease globally. Genetic recombination, a process in which exogenous DNA is acquired and incorporated into its genome, is a key evolutionary mechanism employed by the pneumococcus to rapidly adapt to selective pressures. The rate at which the pneumococcus acquires genetic variation through recombination is much higher than the rate at which the organism acquires variation through spontaneous mutations. This higher rate of variation allows the pneumococcus to circumvent the host innate and adaptive immune responses, escape clinical interventions, including antibiotic therapy and vaccine introduction. The rapid influx of whole genome sequence (WGS) data and the advent of novel analysis methods and powerful computational tools for population genetics and evolution studies has transformed our understanding of how genetic recombination drives pneumococcal adaptation and evolution. Here we discuss how genetic recombination has impacted upon the evolution of the pneumococcus.

  3. Recombination at DNA replication fork barriers is not universal and is differentially regulated by Swi1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, David W; Ramayah, Soshila; Jaendling, Alessa; McFarlane, Ramsay J

    2009-03-24

    DNA replication stress has been implicated in the etiology of genetic diseases, including cancers. It has been proposed that genomic sites that inhibit or slow DNA replication fork progression possess recombination hotspot activity and can form potential fragile sites. Here we used the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to demonstrate that hotspot activity is not a universal feature of replication fork barriers (RFBs), and we propose that most sites within the genome that form RFBs do not have recombination hotspot activity under nonstressed conditions. We further demonstrate that Swi1, the TIMELESS homologue, differentially controls the recombination potential of RFBs, switching between being a suppressor and an activator of recombination in a site-specific fashion.

  4. Recombination activating activity of XRCC1 analogous genes in X-ray sensitive and resistant CHO cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubnitchaya-Labudova, O.; Hoefer, M.; Portele, A.; Vacata, V.; Rink, H.; Lubec, G.

    1997-01-01

    The XRCC1 gene (X-ray repair cross complementing) complements the DNA repair deficiency of the radiation sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell line EM9 but the mechanism of the correction is not elucidated yet. XRCC1 shows substantial homology to the RAG2 gene (recombination activating gene) and we therefore tried to answer the question, whether structural similarities (sequence of a putative recombination activating domain, aa 332-362 for XRCC1 and aa 286-316 in RAG2) would reflect similar functions of the homologous, putative recombination activating domain. PCR experiments revealed that no sequence homologous to the structural part of human XRCC1 was present in cDNA of CHO. Differential display demonstrated two putative recombination activating in the parental CHO line AA8 and one in the radiosensitive mutant EM9. Southern blot experiments showed the presence of several genes with partial homology to human XRCC1. Recombination studies consisted of expressing amplified target domains within chimeric proteins in recA - bacteria and subsequent detection of recombination events by sequencing the recombinant plasmids. Recombination experiments demonstrated recombination activating activity of all putative recombination activating domains amplified from AA8 and EM9 genomes as reflected by deletions within the inserts of the recombinant plasmids. The recombination activating activity of XRCC1 analogues could explain a mechanism responsible for the correction of the DNA repair defect in EM9. (author)

  5. Dissection of Recombination Attributes for Multiple Maize Populations Using a Common SNP Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is a vital characteristic for quantitative trait loci mapping and breeding to enhance the yield potential of maize. However, recombination characteristics in globally used segregating populations have never been evaluated at similar genetic marker densities. This study aimed to divulge the characteristics of recombination events, recombinant chromosomal segments, and recombination frequency for four dissimilar populations. These populations were doubled haploid (DH, recombination inbred line (RIL, intermated B73xMo17 (IBM, and multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC, using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip to provide markers. Our results revealed that the average number of recombination events was 16, 41, 72, and 86 per line in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Accordingly, the average length of recombinant chromosomal segments was 84.8, 47.3, 29.2, and 20.4 Mb in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Furtherly, the recombination frequency varied in different genomic regions and population types [DH (0–12.7 cM/Mb, RIL (0–15.5 cM/Mb, IBM (0–24.1 cM/Mb, MAGIC (0–42.3 cM/Mb]. Utilizing different sub-sets of lines, the recombination bin number and size were analyzed in each population. Additionally, different sub-sets of markers and lines were employed to estimate the recombination bin number and size via formulas for relationship in these populations. The relationship between recombination events and recombination bin length was also examined. Our results contribute to determining the most suitable number of genetic markers, lines in each population, and population type for successful mapping and breeding.

  6. Genomic individuality and its biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J

    1996-06-01

    It is a widely accepted fundamental concept that all somatic genomes of a human individual are identical to each other. The theoretical basis of this concept is that all of these somatic genomes are the descendants of the genome of a single fertilized cell as well as the simple replicated products of asexual reproduction, thus not forming any new recombined genomes. The question here is whether such a concept might only represent one side of somatic genome biology and, even worse, whether it has perhaps already led to a very prevalent misconception that within the organism body, there exists no variability among individual somatic genomes. A hypothesis, called genomic individuality, is proposed, simply saying that every individual somatic genome, perhaps with rare exceptions, has its own unique or individual 'genetic identity' or 'fingerprint', which is characterized by its distinctive sequences or patterns of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules, or both. Thus, no two somatic genomes can be identical to each other in every or all aspects, and consequently, there must be a great deal of genomic variation present within the body of any multicellular organism. The concept or hypothesis of genomic individuality would not only provide a more complete understanding of genome biology, but also suggest a new insight into the studies of the biology of cells and organisms.

  7. Dissociative recombination of dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiersen, K.; Heber, O.; Jensen, M.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Andersen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of doubly-charged positive ions has been studied at the heavy ion storage ring ASTRID. Low-energy electrons were scattered on the dication of the N 2 molecule, and the absolute cross section was measured in the energy range of 10 -4 -50 eV. From the measured cross section, a thermal rate coefficient of 5.8x10 -7 cm 3 s -1 at 300 K was extracted. Furthermore, we present new results on the CO 2+ DR rate, and a summary and comparison of measured DR rate coefficients for both the singly and doubly-charged ions of CO, CO 2 , and N 2 is presented

  8. Correlation between pairing initiation sites, recombination nodules and meiotic recombination in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, D; Moreau, P J; Huynh, A D; Slezec, A M

    1992-09-01

    The decrease of meiotic exchanges (crossing over and conversion) in two mutants of Sordaria macrospora correlated strongly with a reduction of chiasmata and of both types of "recombination nodules." Serial section reconstruction electron microscopy was used to compare the synapsis pattern of meiotic prophase I in wild type and mutants. First, synapsis occurred but the number of synaptonemal complex initiation sites was reduced in both mutants. Second, this reduction was accompanied by, or resulted in, modifications of the pattern of synapsis. Genetic and synaptonemal complex maps were compared in three regions along one chromosome arm divided into well marked intervals. Reciprocal exchange frequencies and number of recombination nodules correlated in wild type in the three analyzed intervals, but disparity was found between the location of recombination nodules and exchanges in the mutants. Despite the twofold exchange decrease, sections of the genome such as the short arm of chromosome 2 and telomere regions were sheltered from nodule decrease and from pairing modifications. This indicated a certain amount of diversity in the control of these features and suggested that exchange frequency was dependent not only on the amount of effective pairing but also on the localization of the pairing sites, as revealed by the synaptonemal complex progression in the mutants.

  9. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as w...

  10. Hadron Correlations and Parton Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Parton recombination has been found to be an extremely useful model to understand hadron production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. It is particularly important to explore its connections with hard processes. This article reviews some of the aspects of the quark recombination model and places particular emphasis on hadron correlations.

  11. The genomes and comparative genomics of Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riipinen, Katja-Anneli; Forsman, Päivi; Alatossava, Tapani

    2011-07-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages are a great source of genetic diversity. Here, the genome sequences of Lb. delbrueckii phages LL-Ku, c5 and JCL1032 were analyzed in detail, and the genetic diversity of Lb. delbrueckii phages belonging to different taxonomic groups was explored. The lytic isometric group b phages LL-Ku (31,080 bp) and c5 (31,841 bp) showed a minimum nucleotide sequence identity of 90% over about three-fourths of their genomes. The genomic locations of their lysis modules were unique, and the genomes featured several putative overlapping transcription units of genes. LL-Ku and c5 virions displayed peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity associated with a ~36-kDa protein similar in size to the endolysin. Unexpectedly, the 49,433-bp genome of the prolate phage JCL1032 (temperate, group c) revealed a conserved gene order within its structural genes. Lb. delbrueckii phages representing groups a (a phage LL-H), b and c possessed only limited protein sequence homology. Genomic comparison of LL-Ku and c5 suggested that diversification of Lb. delbrueckii phages is mainly due to insertions, deletions and recombination. For the first time, the complete genome sequences of group b and c Lb. delbrueckii phages are reported.

  12. Extreme genomes

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Edward F

    2000-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thermoplasma acidophilum, an acid- and heat-loving archaeon, has recently been reported. Comparative genomic analysis of this 'extremophile' is providing new insights into the metabolic machinery, ecology and evolution of thermophilic archaea.

  13. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  14. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  15. Recombining overlapping BACs into a single larger BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC clones containing entire mammalian genes including all the transcribed region and long range controlling elements are very useful for functional analysis. Sequenced BACs are available for most of the human and mouse genomes and in many cases these contain intact genes. However, large genes often span more than one BAC, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here we describe a system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone by homologous recombination. Results The method was used to link a 61-kb insert carrying the final 5 exons of the human CFTR gene onto a 160-kb BAC carrying the first 22 exons. Two rounds of homologous recombination were carried out in the EL350 strain of bacteria which can be induced for the Red genes. In the first round, the inserts of the two overlapping BACs were subcloned into modified BAC vectors using homologous recombination. In the second round, the BAC to be added was linearised with the very rare-cutting enzyme I-PpoI and electroporated into recombination efficient EL350 bacteria carrying the other BAC. Recombined BACs were identified by antibiotic selection and PCR screening and 10% of clones contained the correctly recombined 220-kb BAC. Conclusion The system can be used to link the inserts from any overlapping BAC or PAC clones. The original orientation of the inserts is not important and desired regions of the inserts can be selected. The size limit for the fragments recombined may be larger than the 61 kb used here and multiple BACs in a contig could be combined by alternating use of the two pBACLink vectors. This system should be of use to many investigators wishing to carry out functional analysis on large mammalian genes which are not available in single BAC clones.

  16. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  17. A selectable and excisable marker system for the rapid creation of recombinant poxviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Rintoul

    Full Text Available Genetic manipulation of poxvirus genomes through attenuation, or insertion of therapeutic genes has led to a number of vector candidates for the treatment of a variety of human diseases. The development of recombinant poxviruses often involves the genomic insertion of a selectable marker for purification and selection purposes. The use of marker genes however inevitably results in a vector that contains unwanted genetic information of no therapeutic value.Here we describe an improved strategy that allows for the creation of marker-free recombinant poxviruses of any species. The Selectable and Excisable Marker (SEM system incorporates a unique fusion marker gene for the efficient selection of poxvirus recombinants and the Cre/loxP system to facilitate the subsequent removal of the marker. We have defined and characterized this new methodological tool by insertion of a foreign gene into vaccinia virus, with the subsequent removal of the selectable marker. We then analyzed the importance of loxP orientation during Cre recombination, and show that the SEM system can be used to introduce site-specific deletions or inversions into the viral genome. Finally, we demonstrate that the SEM strategy is amenable to other poxviruses, as demonstrated here with the creation of an ectromelia virus recombinant lacking the EVM002 gene.The system described here thus provides a faster, simpler and more efficient means to create clinic-ready recombinant poxviruses for therapeutic gene therapy applications.

  18. Homologous recombination is a force in the evolution of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaowen; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yingbo; Hou, Jinlong; Zhang, Liguo; Wang, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the causative agent of canine distemper (CD) that is a highly contagious, lethal, multisystemic viral disease of receptive carnivores. The prevalence of CDV is a major concern in susceptible animals. Presently, it is unclear whether intragenic recombination can contribute to gene mutations and segment reassortment in the virus. In this study, 25 full-length CDV genome sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and recombinational analyses. The results of phylogenetic analysis, intragenic recombination, and nucleotide selection pressure indicated that mutation and recombination occurred in the six individual genes segment (H, F, P, N, L, M) of the CDV genome. The analysis also revealed pronounced genetic diversity in the CDV genome according to the geographically distinct lineages (genotypes), namely Asia-1, Asia-2, Asia-3, Europe, America-1, and America-2. The six recombination events were detected using SimPlot and RDP programs. The analysis of selection pressure demonstrated that a majority of the nucleotides in the CDV individual gene were under negative selection. Collectively, these data suggested that homologous recombination acts as a key force driving the genetic diversity and evolution of canine distemper virus.

  19. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the role of the viral polymerase in enterovirus recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Evans, David J

    2016-08-19

    Genetic recombination in single-strand, positive-sense RNA viruses is a poorly understand mechanism responsible for generating extensive genetic change and novel phenotypes. By moving a critical cis-acting replication element (CRE) from the polyprotein coding region to the 3' non-coding region we have further developed a cell-based assay (the 3'CRE-REP assay) to yield recombinants throughout the non-structural coding region of poliovirus from dually transfected cells. We have additionally developed a defined biochemical assay in which the only protein present is the poliovirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which recapitulates the strand transfer events of the recombination process. We have used both assays to investigate the role of the polymerase fidelity and nucleotide turnover rates in recombination. Our results, of both poliovirus intertypic and intratypic recombination in the CRE-REP assay and using a range of polymerase variants in the biochemical assay, demonstrate that RdRp fidelity is a fundamental determinant of recombination frequency. High fidelity polymerases exhibit reduced recombination and low fidelity polymerases exhibit increased recombination in both assays. These studies provide the basis for the analysis of poliovirus recombination throughout the non-structural region of the virus genome and provide a defined biochemical assay to further dissect this important evolutionary process. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  1. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  2. Productive homologous and non-homologous recombination of hepatitis C virus in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Galli, Andrea; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, recombination is an important regulatory mechanism of cytopathogenicity for the related pestiviruses. Here we describe recombination of HCV RNA in cell culture leading to production of infectious virus. Initially, hepatoma cells were co-transfected with a replicating JFH1ΔE1E2 genome (genotype 2a......) lacking functional envelope genes and strain J6 (2a), which has functional envelope genes but does not replicate in culture. After an initial decrease in the number of HCV positive cells, infection spread after 13-36 days. Sequencing of recovered viruses revealed non-homologous recombinants with J6...

  3. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Warmerdam, Daniël O.; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, René H.

    2016-01-01

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of b...

  4. Identification of a recombinant Muscovy Duck parvovirus (MDPV) in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Zhou, Zongqing; Huang, Yu; Yu, Ruisong; Dong, Shijuan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2014-12-05

    The full-length genome of strain SAAS-SHNH, a MDPV isolated from Muscovy Duck in Shanghai, has been sequenced and shown to share 93.7% nucleotide identity with MDPV strain FM (NC_006147). Two putative genetic recombination events were identified as occurring within the 419-610 nt and 3113-4241 nt regions of the SAAS-SHNH genome which, for the first time, provide evidence of recombination between MDPVs and GPVs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced genetic distance and high replication levels increase the RNA recombination rate of hepatitis delta virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Iang, Shan-Bei; Chao, Mei

    2015-01-02

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization of a novel Muscovy duck parvovirus isolate: evidence of recombination between classical MDPV and goose parvovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixian; Huang, Yu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-11-09

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy's disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic losses in waterfowl industry. In contrast to GPV, the complete genomic sequence data of MDPV isolates are still limited and their phylogenetic relationships largely remain unknown. In this study, the entire genome of a pathogenic MDPV strain ZW, which was isolated from a deceased Muscovy duckling in 2006 in China, was cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of other classical MDPV and GPV strains. The genome of strain ZW comprises of 5071 nucleotides; this genome was shorter than that of the pathogenic MDPV strain YY (5075 nt). All the four deleted nucleotides produced in strain ZW are located at the base-pairing positions in the palindromic stem of inverted terminal repeats (ITR) without influencing the formation of a hairpin structure. Recombination analysis revealed that strain ZW originated from genetic recombination between the classical MDPV and GPV strain. The YY strain of MDPV acts as the major parent, whereas the virulent strains YZ99-6 and B and the vaccine strain SYG61v of GPV act as the minor parents in varying degrees. Two recombination sites were detected in strain ZW, with the small recombination site surrounding the P9 promoter, and the large recombination site situated in the middle of the VP3 gene. The SYG61V strain is a vaccine strain used for preventing goose parvoviral disease. This strain was found to be solely involved in the recombination event detected in the P9 promoter region. Phylogenetic analyses between strain ZW and other classical strains of MDPV and GPV were performed. The results supported the in silico recombination analysis conclusion. MDPV Strain ZW is a novel recombinant parvovirus, and the bulk of its genome originates from the classical MDPV strain. Two virulent strains and a vaccine strain of GPV were involved in the

  7. Homologous Recombination between Genetically Divergent Campylobacter fetus Lineages Supports Host-Associated Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720

  8. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  9. The remarkable frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onafuwa-Nuga, Adewunmi; Telesnitsky, Alice

    2009-09-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results from a combination of point mutations and genetic recombination, and rates of both processes are unusually high. This review focuses on the mechanisms and outcomes of HIV-1 genetic recombination and on the parameters that make recombination so remarkably frequent. Experimental work has demonstrated that the process that leads to recombination--a copy choice mechanism involving the migration of reverse transcriptase between viral RNA templates--occurs several times on average during every round of HIV-1 DNA synthesis. Key biological factors that lead to high recombination rates for all retroviruses are the recombination-prone nature of their reverse transcription machinery and their pseudodiploid RNA genomes. However, HIV-1 genes recombine even more frequently than do those of many other retroviruses. This reflects the way in which HIV-1 selects genomic RNAs for coencapsidation as well as cell-to-cell transmission properties that lead to unusually frequent associations between distinct viral genotypes. HIV-1 faces strong and changeable selective conditions during replication within patients. The mode of HIV-1 persistence as integrated proviruses and strong selection for defective proviruses in vivo provide conditions for archiving alleles, which can be resuscitated years after initial provirus establishment. Recombination can facilitate drug resistance and may allow superinfecting HIV-1 strains to evade preexisting immune responses, thus adding to challenges in vaccine development. These properties converge to provide HIV-1 with the means, motive, and opportunity to recombine its genetic material at an unprecedented high rate and to allow genetic recombination to serve as one of the highest barriers to HIV-1 eradication.

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Huang, Wen; Mackay, Trudy F C; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  11. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M Hunter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  12. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  13. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jerry P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors.

  14. Oxygen-hydrogen recombination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichiro; Takejima, Masaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid reduction in the performance of catalyst used for an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner in the off gas processing system of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: A thermometer is provided for the detection of temperature in an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner. A cooling pipe is provided in the recombiner and cooling medium is introduced externally. The cooling medium may be water or air. In accordance with the detection value from the thermometer, ON-OFF control is carried out for a valve to control the flow rate of the cooling medium thereby rendering the temperature in the recombiner to a predetermined value. This can prevent the catalyst from being exposed to high temperature and avoid the reduction in the performance of the catalyst. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  16. Hydrogen recombiner development at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewit, W.A.; Koroll, G.W.; Loesel Sitar, J.; Graham, W.R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic recombiners have been developed at AECL for the purpose of hydrogen removal in post-accident nuclear containment buildings. The recombiners are based on a particular catalyst designed by AECL which has extraordinary resistance to fouling from water and water vapour and a large thermodynamic range of operation. The catalysts were developed, originally, for the purpose of heavy water manufacturing by way of a catalytic exchange process. Application of these catalyst materials in recombiners for containment applications began in the late 1980's. The first application was a passive recombiner, qualified for use in control of radiolytic hydrogen in the headspace of a pool-type experimental reactor of AECL design in 1988. The passive, or natural convection recombiner concept has continued development to commercial stage for application in power reactor containments. This paper reviews the AECL recombiner development, describes the current model and shows results from tests of full-scale recombiners in the Large Scale Vented Combustion Test Facility at AECL-WL. The AECL recombiner is designed for compactness and ease of engineering into containment. The design is a simple, open-ended rectangular enclosure with catalyst elements arranged inside to promote optimum convective flow driven by heat of recombination at the catalyst surface. Self start, as evidenced by catalyst heating and initiation of flow, is achieved in less than 1% hydrogen, with available oxygen, at room temperature and 100% relative humidity. This low temperature start-up in condensing atmospheres is viewed as the most challenging condition for wet-proofing effectiveness. Cold start-up is a vital performance requirement in containments, such as CANDU, where engineered air-cooling systems are operating and where long-term hydrogen control is required, after containment atmospheres have cooled. Once started, the removal capacity scales linearly with the inlet cross-section area and the partial

  17. Review of Parton Recombination Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2006-01-01

    Parton recombination models have been very successful in explaining data taken at RHIC on hadron spectra and emission patterns in Au+Au collisions at transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c, which have exhibited features which could not be understood in the framework of basic perturbative QCD. In this article I will review the current status on recombination models and outline which future challenges need to be addressed by this class of models

  18. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    L?vgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  19. Analysis of the mycoplasma genome by recombinant DNA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Frydenberg, Jane; Christiansen, G

    1984-01-01

    A library of DNA fragments from Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 has been made in the vector pBR325. Analysis in Escherichia coli minicells of randomly picked clones from this library demonstrated that many plasmids can promote synthesis of mycoplasma protein in the E. coli genetic background. Screening....... The DNA sequence of 16S rRNA and the surrounding control regions has been determined....

  20. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  1. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  2. A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Yin; Chen, Carton W; Huang, Chih-Hung

    2018-04-17

    Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a linear plasmid and a linear chromosome. A chromosomal segment inserted in an artificially constructed plasmid allows homologous recombination between the two replicons at the homology. Depending on the design, the recombination may result in two recombinant replicons or a single recombinant chromosome with the loss of the recombinant plasmid that lacks a replication origin. The efficiency of such targeted recombination ranges from 9 to 83% depending on the locations of the homology (and thus the size of the chromosomal arm exchanged), essentially eliminating the necessity of selection. The targeted recombination is useful for the efficient engineering of the Streptomyces genome for large-scale deletion, addition, and shuffling.

  3. Transformation of natural genetic variation into Haemophilus influenzae genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chang Mell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria are able to efficiently bind and take up double-stranded DNA fragments, and the resulting natural transformation shapes bacterial genomes, transmits antibiotic resistance, and allows escape from immune surveillance. The genomes of many competent pathogens show evidence of extensive historical recombination between lineages, but the actual recombination events have not been well characterized. We used DNA from a clinical isolate of Haemophilus influenzae to transform competent cells of a laboratory strain. To identify which of the ~40,000 polymorphic differences had recombined into the genomes of four transformed clones, their genomes and their donor and recipient parents were deep sequenced to high coverage. Each clone was found to contain ~1000 donor polymorphisms in 3-6 contiguous runs (8.1±4.5 kb in length that collectively comprised ~1-3% of each transformed chromosome. Seven donor-specific insertions and deletions were also acquired as parts of larger donor segments, but the presence of other structural variation flanking 12 of 32 recombination breakpoints suggested that these often disrupt the progress of recombination events. This is the first genome-wide analysis of chromosomes directly transformed with DNA from a divergent genotype, connecting experimental studies of transformation with the high levels of natural genetic variation found in isolates of the same species.

  4. Transcription as a Threat to Genome Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Hélène; Aguilera, Andrés

    2016-06-02

    Genomes undergo different types of sporadic alterations, including DNA damage, point mutations, and genome rearrangements, that constitute the basis for evolution. However, these changes may occur at high levels as a result of cell pathology and trigger genome instability, a hallmark of cancer and a number of genetic diseases. In the last two decades, evidence has accumulated that transcription constitutes an important natural source of DNA metabolic errors that can compromise the integrity of the genome. Transcription can create the conditions for high levels of mutations and recombination by its ability to open the DNA structure and remodel chromatin, making it more accessible to DNA insulting agents, and by its ability to become a barrier to DNA replication. Here we review the molecular basis of such events from a mechanistic perspective with particular emphasis on the role of transcription as a genome instability determinant.

  5. Experimental evidence that RNA recombination occurs in the Japanese encephalitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, C.-K.; Chen, W.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the lack of a proofreading function and error-repairing ability of genomic RNA, accumulated mutations are known to be a force driving viral evolution in the genus Flavivirus, including the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus. Based on sequencing data, RNA recombination was recently postulated to be another factor associated with genomic variations in these viruses. We herein provide experimental evidence to demonstrate the occurrence of RNA recombination in the JE virus using two local pure clones (T1P1-S1 and CJN-S1) respectively derived from the local strains, T1P1 and CJN. Based on results from a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay on the C/preM junction comprising a fragment of 868 nucleotides (nt 10-877), the recombinant progeny virus was primarily formed in BHK-21 cells that had been co-infected with the two clones used in this study. Nine of 20 recombinant forms of the JE virus had a crossover in the nt 123-323 region. Sequencing data derived from these recombinants revealed that no nucleotide deletion or insertion occurred in this region favoring crossovers, indicating that precisely, not aberrantly, homologous recombination was involved. With site-directed mutagenesis, three stem-loop secondary structures were destabilized and re-stabilized in sequence, leading to changes in the frequency of recombination. This suggests that the conformation, not the free energy, of the secondary structure is important in modulating RNA recombination of the virus. It was concluded that because RNA recombination generates genetic diversity in the JE virus, this must be considered particularly in studies of viral evolution, epidemiology, and possible vaccine safety.

  6. Variation in human recombination rates and its genetic determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Fledel-Alon

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role of crossing-over in the pairing and segregation of chromosomes during human meiosis, the rates and placements of events vary markedly among individuals. Characterizing this variation and identifying its determinants are essential steps in our understanding of the human recombination process and its evolution.Using three large sets of European-American pedigrees, we examined variation in five recombination phenotypes that capture distinct aspects of crossing-over patterns. We found that the mean recombination rate in males and females and the historical hotspot usage are significantly heritable and are uncorrelated with one another. We then conducted a genome-wide association study in order to identify loci that influence them. We replicated associations of RNF212 with the mean rate in males and in females as well as the association of Inversion 17q21.31 with the female mean rate. We also replicated the association of PRDM9 with historical hotspot usage, finding that it explains most of the genetic variance in this phenotype. In addition, we identified a set of new candidate regions for further validation.These findings suggest that variation at broad and fine scales is largely separable and that, beyond three known loci, there is no evidence for common variation with large effects on recombination phenotypes.

  7. Recombination facilitates neofunctionalization of duplicate genes via originalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ren

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently originalization was proposed to be an effective way of duplicate-gene preservation, in which recombination provokes the high frequency of original (or wild-type allele on both duplicated loci. Because the high frequency of wild-type allele might drive the arising and accumulating of advantageous mutation, it is hypothesized that recombination might enlarge the probability of neofunctionalization (Pneo of duplicate genes. In this article this hypothesis has been tested theoretically. Results Results show that through originalization recombination might not only shorten mean time to neofunctionalizaiton, but also enlarge Pneo. Conclusions Therefore, recombination might facilitate neofunctionalization via originalization. Several extensive applications of these results on genomic evolution have been discussed: 1. Time to nonfunctionalization can be much longer than a few million generations expected before; 2. Homogenization on duplicated loci results from not only gene conversion, but also originalization; 3. Although the rate of advantageous mutation is much small compared with that of degenerative mutation, Pneo cannot be expected to be small.

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 1-derived recombinant and amplicon vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraefel, Cornel; Marconi, Peggy; Epstein, Alberto L

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen whose lifestyle is based on a long-term dual interaction with the infected host, being able to establish both lytic and latent infections. The virus genome is a 153 kbp double-stranded DNA molecule encoding more than 80 genes. The interest of HSV-1 as gene transfer vector stems from its ability to infect many different cell types, both quiescent and proliferating cells, the very high packaging capacity of the virus capsid, the outstanding neurotropic adaptations that this virus has evolved, and the fact that it never integrates into the cellular chromosomes, thus avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Two types of vectors can be derived from HSV-1, recombinant vectors and amplicon vectors, and different methodologies have been developed to prepare large stocks of each type of vector. This chapter summarizes (1) the two approaches most commonly used to prepare recombinant vectors through homologous recombination, either in eukaryotic cells or in bacteria, and (2) the two methodologies currently used to generate helper-free amplicon vectors, either using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach or a Cre/loxP site-specific recombination strategy.

  9. Pressure for Pattern-Specific Intertypic Recombination between Sabin Polioviruses: Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Ekaterina; Laassri, Majid; Zagorodnyaya, Tatiana; Petrovskaya, Svetlana; Rodionova, Elvira; Cherkasova, Elena; Gmyl, Anatoly; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatyana P; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Agol, Vadim I; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2017-11-22

    Complete genomic sequences of a non-redundant set of 70 recombinants between three serotypes of attenuated Sabin polioviruses as well as location (based on partial sequencing) of crossover sites of 28 additional recombinants were determined and compared with the previously published data. It is demonstrated that the genomes of Sabin viruses contain distinct strain-specific segments that are eliminated by recombination. The presumed low fitness of these segments could be linked to mutations acquired upon derivation of the vaccine strains and/or may have been present in wild-type parents of Sabin viruses. These "weak" segments contribute to the propensity of these viruses to recombine with each other and with other enteroviruses as well as determine the choice of crossover sites. The knowledge of location of such segments opens additional possibilities for the design of more genetically stable and/or more attenuated variants, i.e., candidates for new oral polio vaccines. The results also suggest that the genome of wild polioviruses, and, by generalization, of other RNA viruses, may harbor hidden low-fitness segments that can be readily eliminated only by recombination.

  10. Pressure for Pattern-Specific Intertypic Recombination between Sabin Polioviruses: Evolutionary Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Korotkova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complete genomic sequences of a non-redundant set of 70 recombinants between three serotypes of attenuated Sabin polioviruses as well as location (based on partial sequencing of crossover sites of 28 additional recombinants were determined and compared with the previously published data. It is demonstrated that the genomes of Sabin viruses contain distinct strain-specific segments that are eliminated by recombination. The presumed low fitness of these segments could be linked to mutations acquired upon derivation of the vaccine strains and/or may have been present in wild-type parents of Sabin viruses. These “weak” segments contribute to the propensity of these viruses to recombine with each other and with other enteroviruses as well as determine the choice of crossover sites. The knowledge of location of such segments opens additional possibilities for the design of more genetically stable and/or more attenuated variants, i.e., candidates for new oral polio vaccines. The results also suggest that the genome of wild polioviruses, and, by generalization, of other RNA viruses, may harbor hidden low-fitness segments that can be readily eliminated only by recombination.

  11. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cell nucleus (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), and. (3) traits governed ... tively good embryonic development but very poor development of membranes and ... Human homologies for the type of situation described above are naturally ..... imprint; (b) New modifications of the paternal genome in germ cells of each ...

  12. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  13. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  14. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  15. Minimal Contribution of APOBEC3-Induced G-to-A Hypermutation to HIV-1 Recombination and Genetic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Burdick, Ryan C; Gorelick, Robert J; Keele, Brandon F; Hu, Wei-Shau; Pathak, Vinay K

    2016-05-01

    Although the predominant effect of host restriction APOBEC3 proteins on HIV-1 infection is to block viral replication, they might inadvertently increase retroviral genetic variation by inducing G-to-A hypermutation. Numerous studies have disagreed on the contribution of hypermutation to viral genetic diversity and evolution. Confounding factors contributing to the debate include the extent of lethal (stop codon) and sublethal hypermutation induced by different APOBEC3 proteins, the inability to distinguish between G-to-A mutations induced by APOBEC3 proteins and error-prone viral replication, the potential impact of hypermutation on the frequency of retroviral recombination, and the extent to which viral recombination occurs in vivo, which can reassort mutations in hypermutated genomes. Here, we determined the effects of hypermutation on the HIV-1 recombination rate and its contribution to genetic variation through recombination to generate progeny genomes containing portions of hypermutated genomes without lethal mutations. We found that hypermutation did not significantly affect the rate of recombination, and recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes only increased the viral mutation rate by 3.9 × 10-5 mutations/bp/replication cycle in heterozygous virions, which is similar to the HIV-1 mutation rate. Since copackaging of hypermutated and wild-type genomes occurs very rarely in vivo, recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes does not significantly contribute to the genetic variation of replicating HIV-1. We also analyzed previously reported hypermutated sequences from infected patients and determined that the frequency of sublethal mutagenesis for A3G and A3F is negligible (4 × 10-21 and1 × 10-11, respectively) and its contribution to viral mutations is far below mutations generated during error-prone reverse transcription. Taken together, we conclude that the contribution of APOBEC3-induced hypermutation to HIV-1 genetic

  16. Frequency and genetic characterization of V(DD)J recombinants in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briney, Bryan S; Willis, Jordan R; Hicar, Mark D; Thomas, James W; Crowe, James E

    2012-09-01

    Antibody heavy-chain recombination that results in the incorporation of multiple diversity (D) genes, although uncommon, contributes substantially to the diversity of the human antibody repertoire. Such recombination allows the generation of heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) regions of extreme length and enables junctional regions that, because of the nucleotide bias of N-addition regions, are difficult to produce through normal V(D)J recombination. Although this non-classical recombination process has been observed infrequently, comprehensive analysis of the frequency and genetic characteristics of such events in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire has not been possible because of the rarity of such recombinants and the limitations of traditional sequencing technologies. Here, through the use of high-throughput sequencing of the normal human peripheral blood antibody repertoire, we analysed the frequency and genetic characteristics of V(DD)J recombinants. We found that these recombinations were present in approximately 1 in 800 circulating B cells, and that the frequency was severely reduced in memory cell subsets. We also found that V(DD)J recombination can occur across the spectrum of diversity genes, indicating that virtually all recombination signal sequences that flank diversity genes are amenable to V(DD)J recombination. Finally, we observed a repertoire bias in the diversity gene repertoire at the upstream (5') position, and discovered that this bias was primarily attributable to the order of diversity genes in the genomic locus. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The 8p23 inversion polymorphism determines local recombination heterogeneity across human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joao M; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M

    2014-04-01

    For decades, chromosomal inversions have been regarded as fascinating evolutionary elements as they are expected to suppress recombination between chromosomes with opposite orientations, leading to the accumulation of genetic differences between the two configurations over time. Here, making use of publicly available population genotype data for the largest polymorphic inversion in the human genome (8p23-inv), we assessed whether this inhibitory effect of inversion rearrangements led to significant differences in the recombination landscape of two homologous DNA segments, with opposite orientation. Our analysis revealed that the accumulation of genetic differentiation is positively correlated with the variation in recombination profiles. The observed recombination dissimilarity between inversion types is consistent across all populations analyzed and surpasses the effects of geographic structure, suggesting that both structures (orientations) have been evolving independently over an extended period of time, despite being subjected to the very same demographic history. Aside this mainly independent evolution, we also identified a short segment (350 kb, inversion) in the central region of the inversion where the genetic divergence between the two structural haplotypes is diminished. Although it is difficult to demonstrate it, this could be due to gene flow (possibly via double-crossing over events), which is consistent with the higher recombination rates surrounding this segment. This study demonstrates for the first time that chromosomal inversions influence the recombination landscape at a fine-scale and highlights the role of these rearrangements as drivers of genome evolution.

  18. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann; Becher, Paul

    2017-04-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5' terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5′ terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. PMID:28338950

  20. B chromosomes are associated with redistribution of genetic recombination towards lower recombination chromosomal regions in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, John; Phillips, Dylan; Thomas, Ann; Gasior, Dagmara; Evans, Caron; Powell, Wayne; King, Julie; King, Ian; Jenkins, Glyn; Armstead, Ian

    2018-04-09

    Supernumerary 'B' chromosomes are non-essential components of the genome present in a range of plant and animal species-including many grasses. Within diploid and polyploid ryegrass and fescue species, including the forage grass perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), the presence of B chromosomes has been reported as influencing both chromosome pairing and chiasma frequencies. In this study, the effects of the presence/absence of B chromosomes on genetic recombination has been investigated through generating DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) marker genetic maps for six perennial ryegrass diploid populations, the pollen parents of which contained either two B or zero B chromosomes. Through genetic and cytological analyses of these progeny and their parents, we have identified that, while overall cytological estimates of chiasma frequencies were significantly lower in pollen mother cells with two B chromosomes as compared with zero B chromosomes, the recombination frequencies within some marker intervals were actually increased, particularly for marker intervals in lower recombination regions of chromosomes, namely pericentromeric regions. Thus, in perennial ryegrass, the presence of two B chromosomes redistributed patterns of meiotic recombination in pollen mother cells in ways which could increase the range of allelic variation available to plant breeders.

  1. How hot are drosophila hotspots? examining recombination rate variation and associations with nucleotide diversity, divergence, and maternal age in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Manzano-Winkler

    Full Text Available Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10-100x the background rate called "hotspots." Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample.

  2. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  3. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  4. Evolved Lactococcus lactis Strains for Enhanced Expression of Recombinant Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Linares, Daniel; Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The production of complex multidomain (membrane) proteins is a major hurdle in structural genomics and a generic approach for optimizing membrane protein expression is still lacking. We have devised a selection method to isolate mutant strains with improved functional expression of recombinant

  5. FBH1 influences DNA replication fork stability and homologous recombination through ubiquitylation of RAD51

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Wai Kit; Payne, Miranda J; Beli, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Unscheduled homologous recombination (HR) can lead to genomic instability, which greatly increases the threat of neoplastic transformation in humans. The F-box DNA helicase 1 (FBH1) is a 3'-5' DNA helicase with a putative function as a negative regulator of HR. It is the only known DNA helicase t...

  6. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...

  7. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, D E

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years. This review (i) provides an updated overview of the technology that exists for assembling recombinant vaccinia virus strains, (ii) discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, (iii) outlines the areas of outgoing research directed towards overcoming the limitations of current techniques, and (iv) provides some insight (i.e., speculation) about probable future refinements in the use of vaccinia virus as a vector. PMID:2187593

  8. PRDM9 and Its Role in Genetic Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, Kenneth; Petkov, Petko M

    2018-04-01

    PRDM9 is a zinc finger protein that binds DNA at specific locations in the genome where it trimethylates histone H3 at lysines 4 and 36 at surrounding nucleosomes. During meiosis in many species, including humans and mice where PRDM9 has been most intensely studied, these actions determine the location of recombination hotspots, where genetic recombination occurs. In addition, PRDM9 facilitates the association of hotspots with the chromosome axis, the site of the programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that give rise to genetic exchange between chromosomes. In the absence of PRDM9 DSBs are not properly repaired. Collectively, these actions determine patterns of genetic linkage and the possibilities for chromosome reorganization over successive generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of Recombinant Ebola Viruses Using Reverse Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Reverse genetics systems encompass a wide array of tools aimed at recapitulating some or all of the virus life cycle. In their most complete form, full-length clone systems allow us to use plasmid-encoded versions of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components to initiate the transcription and replication of a plasmid-encoded version of the complete viral genome, thereby initiating the complete virus life cycle and resulting in infectious virus. As such this approach is ideal for the generation of tailor-made recombinant filoviruses, which can be used to study virus biology. In addition, the generation of tagged and particularly fluorescent or luminescent viruses can be applied as tools for both diagnostic applications and for screening to identify novel countermeasures. Here we describe the generation and basic characterization of recombinant Ebola viruses rescued from cloned cDNA using a T7-driven system.

  10. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  11. A role for recombination junctions in the segregation of mitochondrial DNA in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshon, D; Zweifel, S G; Freeman-Cook, L L; Lorimer, H E; Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1995-06-16

    In S. cerevisiae, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules, in spite of their high copy number, segregate as if there were a small number of heritable units. The rapid segregation of mitochondrial genomes can be analyzed using mtDNA deletion variants. These small, amplified genomes segregate preferentially from mixed zygotes relative to wild-type mtDNA. This segregation advantage is abolished by mutations in a gene, MGT1, that encodes a recombination junction-resolving enzyme. We show here that resolvase deficiency causes a larger proportion of molecules to be linked together by recombination junctions, resulting in the aggregation of mtDNA into a small number of cytological structures. This change in mtDNA structure can account for the increased mitotic loss of mtDNA and the altered pattern of mtDNA segregation from zygotes. We propose that the level of unresolved recombination junctions influences the number of heritable units of mtDNA.

  12. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  13. Electric hydrogen recombiner special tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.

    1975-12-01

    Westinghouse has produced an electric hydrogen recombiner to control hydrogen levels in reactor containments following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The recombiner underwent extensive testing for NRC qualification (see WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4). As a result, WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been accepted by the NRC for reference in applications not committed to IEEE-323-1974. Supplement 5 and the next supplement will demonstrate conformance to IEEE-323-1974. This supplement describes additional tests, beyond those necessary to qualify the system, which will be referenced in supplement 6. Each test has demonstrated a considerable margin of safety over required performance. Concurrently, the test results increased the fund of technical information on the electric hydrogen recombiner

  14. High-resolution recombination patterns in a region of human chromosome 21 measured by sperm typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tiemann-Boege

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, classical crossover studies and linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis of genomic regions suggested that human meiotic crossovers may not be randomly distributed along chromosomes but are focused instead in "hot spots." Recent sperm typing studies provided data at very high resolution and accuracy that defined the physical limits of a number of hot spots. The data were also used to test whether patterns of LD can predict hot spot locations. These sperm typing studies focused on several small regions of the genome already known or suspected of containing a hot spot based on the presence of LD breakdown or previous experimental evidence of hot spot activity. Comparable data on target regions not specifically chosen using these two criteria is lacking but is needed to make an unbiased test of whether LD data alone can accurately predict active hot spots. We used sperm typing to estimate recombination in 17 almost contiguous ~5 kb intervals spanning 103 kb of human Chromosome 21. We found two intervals that contained new hot spots. The comparison of our data with recombination rates predicted by statistical analyses of LD showed that, overall, the two datasets corresponded well, except for one predicted hot spot that showed little crossing over. This study doubles the experimental data on recombination in men at the highest resolution and accuracy and supports the emerging genome-wide picture that recombination is localized in small regions separated by cold areas. Detailed study of one of the new hot spots revealed a sperm donor with a decrease in recombination intensity at the canonical recombination site but an increase in crossover activity nearby. This unique finding suggests that the position and intensity of hot spots may evolve by means of a concerted mechanism that maintains the overall recombination intensity in the region.

  15. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mms1 channels repair of perturbed replication into Rhp51 independent homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup-Hansen, Rasmus; Mizuno, Ken'Ichi; Miyabe, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    -like protein, Rtt101/Cul8, a potential paralog of Cullin 4. We performed epistasis analysis between ¿mms1 and mutants of pathways with known functions in genome integrity, and measured the recruitment of homologous recombination proteins to blocked replication forks and recombination frequencies. We show that......-specific replication fork barrier and that, in a ¿mms1 strain, Rad22(Rad52) and RPA recruitment to blocked forks are reduced, whereas Rhp51 recruitment is unaffected. In addition, Mms1 appears to specifically promote chromosomal rearrangements in a recombination assay. These observations suggest that Mms1 acts...... is particularly important when a single strand break is converted into a double strand break during replication. Genetic data connect Mms1 to a Mus81 and Rad22(Rad52) dependent, but Rhp51 independent, branch of homologous recombination. This is supported by results demonstrating that Mms1 is recruited to a site...

  16. Targeted in vivo inhibition of specific protein-protein interactions using recombinant antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Zábrady

    Full Text Available With the growing availability of genomic sequence information, there is an increasing need for gene function analysis. Antibody-mediated "silencing" represents an intriguing alternative for the precise inhibition of a particular function of biomolecules. Here, we describe a method for selecting recombinant antibodies with a specific purpose in mind, which is to inhibit intrinsic protein-protein interactions in the cytosol of plant cells. Experimental procedures were designed for conveniently evaluating desired properties of recombinant antibodies in consecutive steps. Our selection method was successfully used to develop a recombinant antibody inhibiting the interaction of ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 3 with such of its upstream interaction partners as the receiver domain of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT HISTIDINE KINASE 1. The specific down-regulation of the cytokinin signaling pathway in vivo demonstrates the validity of our approach. This selection method can serve as a prototype for developing unique recombinant antibodies able to interfere with virtually any biomolecule in the living cell.

  17. [Recombinant OspC identification and antigenicity detection from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2003-10-01

    To recombine OspC gene from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 of China and expressed it in E. coli for early diagnosis of Lyme disease. The OspC gene was amplified from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 strain by polymerase chain reaction and recombined with plasmid PET-11D. The recombinant plasmid PET-11D-OspC was identified with PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing. The antigenicity was verified with Western Blot. OspC gene was cloned correctly into vector PET-11D. The resultant sequence was definitely different from the published sequence. The recombinant OspC seemed to have had strong antigenicity. The findings laid basis for the studies on early diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  18. Finding trans-regulatory genes and protein complexes modulating meiotic recombination hotspots of human, mouse and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-11

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is one of the most fundamental problems in genomics, with wide applications in genome wide association studies (GWAS), birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. Recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a zinc finger protein PRDM9 was reported to regulate recombination hotspots in human and mouse genomes. In addition, a 13-mer motif contained in the binding sites of PRDM9 is found to be enriched in human hotspots. However, this 13-mer motif only covers a fraction of hotspots, indicating that PRDM9 is not the only regulator of recombination hotspots. Therefore, the challenge of discovering other regulators of recombination hotspots becomes significant. Furthermore, recombination is a complex process. Hence, multiple proteins acting as machinery, rather than individual proteins, are more likely to carry out this process in a precise and stable manner. Therefore, the extension of the prediction of individual trans-regulators to protein complexes is also highly desired. In this paper, we introduce a pipeline to identify genes and protein complexes associated with recombination hotspots. First, we prioritize proteins associated with hotspots based on their preference of binding to hotspots and coldspots. Second, using the above identified genes as seeds, we apply the Random Walk with Restart algorithm (RWR) to propagate their influences to other proteins in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Hence, many proteins without DNA-binding information will also be assigned a score to implicate their roles in recombination hotspots. Third, we construct sub-PPI networks induced by top genes ranked by RWR for various species (e.g., yeast, human and mouse) and detect protein complexes in those sub-PPI networks. The GO term analysis show that our prioritizing methods and the RWR algorithm are capable of identifying novel genes associated with

  19. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Julian Bujarski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RNA recombination is one of the driving forces of genetic variability in (+-strand RNA viruses. Various types of RNA-RNA crossovers were described including crosses between the same or different viral RNAs or between viral and cellular RNAs. Likewise, a variety of molecular mechanisms are known to support RNA recombination, such as replicative events (based on internal or end-to-end replicase switchings along with nonreplicative joining among RNA fragments of viral and/or cellular origin. Such mechanisms as RNA decay or RNA interference are responsible for RNA fragmentation and trans-esterification reactions which are likely accountable for ligation of RNA fragments. Numerous host factors were found to affect the profiles of viral RNA recombinants and significant differences in recombination frequency were observed among various RNA viruses. Comparative analyses of viral sequences allowed for the development of evolutionary models in order to explain adaptive phenotypic changes and co-evolving sites. Many questions remain to be answered by forthcoming RNA recombination research. (i How various factors modulate the ability of viral replicase to switch templates, (ii What is the intracellular location of RNA-RNA template switchings, (iii Mechanisms and factors responsible for non-replicative RNA recombination, (iv Mechanisms of integration of RNA viral sequences with cellular genomic DNA, and (v What is the role of RNA splicing and ribozyme activity. From an evolutionary stand point, it is not known how RNA viruses parasitize new host species via recombination, nor is it obvious what the contribution of RNA recombination is among other RNA modification pathways. We do not understand why the frequency of RNA recombination varies so much among RNA viruses and the status of RNA recombination as a form of sex is not well documented.

  20. Comparison of poliovirus recombinants: accumulation of point mutations provides further advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Samoilovich, Elena; Kahelin, Heidi; Hiekka, Anna-Kaisa; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2009-08-01

    The roles of recombination and accumulation of point mutations in the origin of new poliovirus (PV) characteristics have been hypothesized, but it is not known which are essential to evolution. We studied phenotypic differences between recombinant PV strains isolated from successive stool specimens of an oral PV vaccine recipient. The studied strains included three PV2/PV1 recombinants with increasing numbers of mutations in the VP1 gene, two of the three with an amino acid change I-->T in the DE-loop of VP1, their putative PV1 parent and strains Sabin 1 and 2. Growth of these viruses was examined in three cell lines: colorectal adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma and HeLa. The main observation was a higher growth rate between 4 and 6 h post-infection of the two recombinants with the I-->T substitution. All recombinants grew at a higher rate than parental strains in the exponential phase of the replication cycle. In a temperature sensitivity test, the I-->T-substituted recombinants replicated equally well at an elevated temperature. Complete genome sequencing of the three recombinants revealed 12 (3), 19 (3) and 27 (3) nucleotide (amino acid) differences from Sabin. Mutations were located in regions defining attenuation, temperature sensitivity, antigenicity and the cis-acting replicating element. The recombination site was in the 5' end of 3D. In a competition assay, the most mutated recombinant beat parental Sabin in all three cell lines, strongly suggesting that this virus has an advantage. Two independent intertypic recombinants, PV3/PV1 and PV3/PV2, also showed similar growth advantages, but they also contained several point mutations. Thus, our data defend the hypothesis that accumulation of certain advantageous mutations plays a key role in gaining increased fitness.

  1. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Jozef J

    2013-01-01

    RNA recombination is one of the driving forces of genetic variability in (+)-strand RNA viruses. Various types of RNA-RNA crossovers were described including crosses between the same or different viral RNAs or between viral and cellular RNAs. Likewise, a variety of molecular mechanisms are known to support RNA recombination, such as replicative events (based on internal or end-to-end replicase switchings) along with non-replicative joining among RNA fragments of viral and/or cellular origin. Such mechanisms as RNA decay or RNA interference are responsible for RNA fragmentation and trans-esterification reactions which are likely accountable for ligation of RNA fragments. Numerous host factors were found to affect the profiles of viral RNA recombinants and significant differences in recombination frequency were observed among various RNA viruses. Comparative analyses of viral sequences allowed for the development of evolutionary models in order to explain adaptive phenotypic changes and co-evolving sites. Many questions remain to be answered by forthcoming RNA recombination research. (1) How various factors modulate the ability of viral replicase to switch templates, (2) What is the intracellular location of RNA-RNA template switchings, (3) Mechanisms and factors responsible for non-replicative RNA recombination, (4) Mechanisms of integration of RNA viral sequences with cellular genomic DNA, and (5) What is the role of RNA splicing and ribozyme activity. From an evolutionary stand point, it is not known how RNA viruses parasitize new host species via recombination, nor is it obvious what the contribution of RNA recombination is among other RNA modification pathways. We do not understand why the frequency of RNA recombination varies so much among RNA viruses and the status of RNA recombination as a form of sex is not well documented.

  2. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5' Untranslated Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species' C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5' UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5' UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5' UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5' UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5' UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5' UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages.

  3. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5’ Untranslated Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species’ C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5’ UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5’ UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5’ UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5’ UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5’ UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5’ UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages. PMID:26562151

  4. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Reinhard, Carsten; Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Underwood, Charles J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Yelina, Nataliya E; Griffin, Catherine; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Henderson, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity.

  5. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  6. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Harris, Simon R.; Cornick, Jennifer E.; Yang, Marie; Bricio-Moreno, Laura; Kamng’ona, Arox W.; French, Neil; Heyderman, Robert S.; Kadioglu, Aras; Everett, Dean B.; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions. PMID:27677790

  7. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispin Chaguza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency. Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.

  8. The consequences of sequence erosion in the evolution of recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Schwarz, Theresa; Striedner, Yasmin; Heissl, Angelika

    2017-12-19

    Meiosis is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) introduced in the DNA by a highly controlled process that is repaired by recombination. In many organisms, recombination occurs at specific and narrow regions of the genome, known as recombination hotspots, which overlap with regions enriched for DSBs. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that conversions and mutations resulting from the repair of DSBs lead to a rapid sequence evolution at recombination hotspots eroding target sites for DSBs. We still do not fully understand the effect of this erosion in the recombination activity, but evidence has shown that the binding of trans -acting factors like PRDM9 is affected. PRDM9 is a meiosis-specific, multi-domain protein that recognizes DNA target motifs by its zinc finger domain and directs DSBs to these target sites. Here we discuss the changes in affinity of PRDM9 to eroded recognition sequences, and explain how these changes in affinity of PRDM9 can affect recombination, leading sometimes to sterility in the context of hybrid crosses. We also present experimental data showing that DNA methylation reduces PRDM9 binding in vitro Finally, we discuss PRDM9-independent hotspots, posing the question how these hotspots evolve and change with sequence erosion.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Recurrent DNA inversion rearrangements in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, Margarita; Morales, Lucía; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that reiterated sequences in the human genome are targets for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), which facilitates genomic rearrangements. We have used a PCR-based approach to identify breakpoint regions of rearranged structures in the human genome...... to human genomic variation is discussed........ In particular, we have identified intrachromosomal identical repeats that are located in reverse orientation, which may lead to chromosomal inversions. A bioinformatic workflow pathway to select appropriate regions for analysis was developed. Three such regions overlapping with known human genes, located...

  10. Recombination between Homeologous Chromosomes in Lager Yeasts leads to Loss of Function of the Hybrid GPH1 Gene.

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, URSULA

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED Yeasts used in the production of lagers contain complex allopolyploid genomes, resulting from the fusion of two different yeast species closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. Recombination between the homoeologous chromosomes has generated a number of hybrid chromosomes. These recombination events provide potential for adaptive evolution through the loss or gain of gene function. We have examined the genotypic and phenotypic effects of one of the c...

  11. Production and recombination of gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiraliev, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Nonlinear Markov process of parton production has been considered. The Kolmogorov equation is applied for the evolution equation based on the approximation of independent gluons production in every decay act. We introduced a 'crossing' parameter and used the combination relations to obtain nonlinear recombination equation for the evolution of gluon structure function. (author)

  12. Recombinator of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, J.; Klein, O.; Scholtz, G.; Schmidt, P.; Olaussson, A.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements are proposed for the well known reactors for the catalytic recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, which should permit this being used in contiuous operation in nuclear reactors (BWRs). The improvements concern the geometric arrangement of gas-inlet and -outlet pipes, the inclination of the axis of the catalyst container and the introduction of remote operation. (UWI) [de

  13. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  14. Live recombinant BHV/BRSV vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keil, G.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention refers to synthetic Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus genes. Also the invention relates to live attenuated Bovine Herpesvirus recombinants carrying such synthetic genes. Furthermore, the invention relates to vaccines based on these live attenuated recombinants, for the

  15. Hadron production at RHIC: recombination of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We discuss quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. It has been shown that the quark recombination model can explain essential features of hadron production measured in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  16. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  17. Graded Recombination Layers for Multijunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Koleilat, Ghada I.; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron

  18. Recombinant innovation and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.R.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  19. [Immune Response of Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus rPRV-VP2 Expressing VP2 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus in Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengfei; Pan, Xinlong; Han, Qiao; Yang, Xingwu; Zhu, Qianlei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Hongying

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a combined live vaccine that will be used to prevent against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection, the VP2 gene of PPV was inserted into the transfer vector plasmid pG to produce the recombinant plasmid pGVP2. The plasmid pGVP2 and the genome of PRV HB98 attenuated vaccine were transfected by using lipofectamine into swine testis cells for the homologous recombination. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was purified by selection of green fluorescence plaques for five cycles. 6-week-old female Kunming mice were immunized intramuscularly with attenuated PRV parent HB98 strain, commercial inactivated vaccine against PPV, recombinant virus, DMEM culture solution. The injections were repeated with an equivalent dose after 2 weeks in all of the groups, and then challenged with the virulent PRV NY strain at 7 weeks after the first immunization. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was successfully generated, and the recombinant virus could effectively elicite anti-PPV and PRV antibody and significant cellular immune response as indicated by anti-PPV ELISA and HI, PRV-neutralizing assay and flow cytometry. The challenge assay indicated that recombinant virus could protect the mice against the virulent PRV challenge. These results demonstrated that the recombinant virus can be a candidate recombinant vaccine strain for the prevention of PRV and PPV.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gossypium hirsutum and evolutionary analysis of higher plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Cao, Dandan; Li, Shuangshuang; Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species.

  1. Applications of recombinant antibodies in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Angelika; Torrance, Lesley

    2002-09-01

    Summary Advances in molecular biology have made it possible to produce antibody fragments comprising the binding domains of antibody molecules in diverse heterologous systems, such as Escherichia coli, insect cells, or plants. Antibody fragments specific for a wide range of antigens, including plant pathogens, have been obtained by cloning V-genes from lymphoid tissue, or by selection from large naive phage display libraries, thus avoiding the need for immunization. The antibody fragments have been expressed as fusion proteins to create different functional molecules, and fully recombinant assays have been devised to detect plant viruses. The defined binding properties and unlimited cheap supply of antibody fusion proteins make them useful components of standardized immunoassays. The expression of antibody fragments in plants was shown to confer resistance to several plant pathogens. However, the antibodies usually only slowed the progress of infection and durable 'plantibody' resistance has yet to be demonstrated. In future, it is anticipated that antibody fragments from large libraries will be essential tools in high-throughput approaches to post-genomics research, such as the assignment of gene function, characterization of spatio-temporal patterns of protein expression, and elucidation of protein-protein interactions.

  2. Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.

    1978-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)

  3. Multimedia Presentations on the Human Genome: Implementation and Assessment of a Teaching Program for the Introduction to Genome Science Using a Poster and Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kei; Yahata, Saiko; Muroi, Kaori; Kawakami, Masahiro; Tomoda, Mari; Miyaki, Koichi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Kato, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    Genome science, including topics such as gene recombination, cloning, genetic tests, and gene therapy, is now an established part of our daily lives; thus we need to learn genome science to better equip ourselves for the present day. Learning from topics directly related to the human has been suggested to be more effective than learning from…

  4. gmos: Rapid Detection of Genome Mosaicism over Short Evolutionary Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Domazet-Lošo

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure, a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes. The program first computes local alignments between query and subject genomes and then reconstructs the query mosaic structure by choosing the best local alignment for each query region. To accomplish the analysis quickly, the program mostly relies on pairwise alignments and constructs multiple sequence alignments over short overlapping subject regions only when necessary. This fine-tuned implementation achieves an efficiency comparable to an alignment-free tool. The program performs well for simulated and real data sets of closely related genomes and can be used for fast recombination detection; for instance, when a new prokaryotic pathogen is discovered. As an example, gmos was used to detect genome mosaicism in a pathogenic Enterococcus faecium strain compared to seven closely related genomes. The analysis took less than two minutes on a single 2.1 GHz processor. The output is available in fasta format and can be visualized using an accessory program, gmosDraw (freely available with gmos.

  5. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  6. Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the old world human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melé, Marta; Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Pitchappan, R M; Arunkumar, G; Parida, Laxmi; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    The information left by recombination in our genomes can be used to make inferences on our recent evolutionary history. Specifically, the number of past recombination events in a population sample is a function of its effective population size (Ne). We have applied a method, Identifying Recombination in Sequences (IRiS), to detect specific past recombination events in 30 Old World populations to infer their Ne. We have found that sub-Saharan African populations have an Ne that is approximately four times greater than those of non-African populations and that outside of Africa, South Asian populations had the largest Ne. We also observe that the patterns of recombinational diversity of these populations correlate with distance out of Africa if that distance is measured along a path crossing South Arabia. No such correlation is found through a Sinai route, suggesting that anatomically modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait rather than through present Egypt.

  7. The effect of a single recombination event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Jensen, Thomas Mailund; Wiuf, Carsten

    We investigate the variance in how visible a single recombination event is in a SNP data set as a function of the type of recombination event and its age. Data is simulated under the coalescent with recombination and inference is by the popular composite likelihood methods. The major determinant...

  8. Identification and genetic characterization of unique HIV-1 A1/C recombinant strain in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoki, Andrew M; Rakgole, Johnny N; Selabe, Gloria; Mphahlele, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    HIV isolates from South Africa are predominantly subtype C. Sporadic isolation of non-C strains has been reported mainly in cosmopolitan cities. HIV isolate j51 was recovered from a rural South African heterosexual female aged 51 years. Near full length amplification of the genome was attempted using PCR with primers targeting overlapping segments of the HIV genome. Analysis of 5593 bp (gag to vpu) at a bootstrap value greater than 70% found that all but the vpu gene was HIV-1 subtype A1. The vpu gene was assigned HIV-1 subtype C. The recombination breaking point was estimated at position 6035+/- 15 bp with reference to the beginning of the HXB2 reference strain. Isolate j51 revealed a unique genome constellation to previously reported recombinant strains with parental A/C backbones from South Africa though a common recombination with subtype C within the vpu gene. Identification of recombinant strains supports continued surveillance of HIV genetic diversity.

  9. Replicative age induces mitotic recombination in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek L Lindstrom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations contribute to the development of age-associated disease. In earlier work, we found that, at high frequency, aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid cells produce daughters without mitochondrial DNA, leading to loss of respiration competence and increased loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the nuclear genome. Here we used the recently developed Mother Enrichment Program to ask whether aging cells that maintain the ability to produce respiration-competent daughters also experience increased genomic instability. We discovered that this population exhibits a distinct genomic instability phenotype that primarily affects the repeated ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA array. As diploid cells passed their median replicative life span, recombination rates between rDNA arrays on homologous chromosomes progressively increased, resulting in mutational events that generated LOH at >300 contiguous open reading frames on the right arm of chromosome XII. We show that, while these recombination events were dependent on the replication fork block protein Fob1, the aging process that underlies this phenotype is Fob1-independent. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this aging process is not driven by mechanisms that modulate rDNA recombination in young cells, including loss of cohesion within the rDNA array or loss of Sir2 function. Instead, we suggest that the age-associated increase in rDNA recombination is a response to increasing DNA replication stress generated in aging cells.

  10. Effects of Demographic History on the Detection of Recombination Hotspots from Linkage Disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapper, Amy L; Payseur, Bret A

    2018-02-01

    In some species, meiotic recombination is concentrated in small genomic regions. These "recombination hotspots" leave signatures in fine-scale patterns of linkage disequilibrium, raising the prospect that the genomic landscape of hotspots can be characterized from sequence variation. This approach has led to the inference that hotspots evolve rapidly in some species, but are conserved in others. Historic demographic events, such as population bottlenecks, are known to affect patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genome, violating population genetic assumptions of this approach. Although such events are prevalent, demographic history is generally ignored when making inferences about the evolution of recombination hotspots. To determine the effect of demography on the detection of recombination hotspots, we use the coalescent to simulate haplotypes with a known recombination landscape. We measure the ability of popular linkage disequilibrium-based programs to detect hotspots across a range of demographic histories, including population bottlenecks, hidden population structure, population expansions, and population contractions. We find that demographic events have the potential to greatly reduce the power and increase the false positive rate of hotspot discovery. Neither the power nor the false positive rate of hotspot detection can be predicted without also knowing the demographic history of the sample. Our results suggest that ignoring demographic history likely overestimates the power to detect hotspots and therefore underestimates the degree of hotspot sharing between species. We suggest strategies for incorporating demographic history into population genetic inferences about recombination hotspots. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iraqui

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

  12. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  13. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es. Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3% rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing, and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and

  14. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Therese; Ragu, Sandrine; Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S

    2016-05-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  15. A recombination hotspot in a schizophrenia-associated region of GABRB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Kin Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a major disorder with complex genetic mechanisms. Earlier, population genetic studies revealed the occurrence of strong positive selection in the GABRB2 gene encoding the beta(2 subunit of GABA(A receptors, within a segment of 3,551 bp harboring twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and containing schizophrenia-associated SNPs and haplotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the possible occurrence of recombination in this 'S1-S29' segment was assessed. The occurrence of hotspot recombination was indicated by high resolution recombination rate estimation, haplotype diversity, abundance of rare haplotypes, recurrent mutations and torsos in haplotype networks, and experimental haplotyping of somatic and sperm DNA. The sub-segment distribution of relative recombination strength, measured by the ratio of haplotype diversity (H(d over mutation rate (theta, was indicative of a human specific Alu-Yi6 insertion serving as a central recombining sequence facilitating homologous recombination. Local anomalous DNA conformation attributable to the Alu-Yi6 element, as suggested by enhanced DNase I sensitivity and obstruction to DNA sequencing, could be a contributing factor of the increased sequence diversity. Linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis yielded prominent low LD points that supported ongoing recombination. LD contrast revealed significant dissimilarity between control and schizophrenic cohorts. Among the large array of inferred haplotypes, H26 and H73 were identified to be protective, and H19 and H81 risk-conferring, toward the development of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The co-occurrence of hotspot recombination and positive selection in the S1-S29 segment of GABRB2 has provided a plausible contribution to the molecular genetics mechanisms for schizophrenia. The present findings therefore suggest that genome regions characterized by the co-occurrence of positive selection and

  16. Evidence of recombination and positive selection in cetacean papillomaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Rivera, Rebecca; Nollens, Hendrik H.; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy N.; Stolen, Megan; Burchell, Jennifer; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small DNA viruses that have been associated with increased epithelial proliferation. Over one hundred PV types have been identified in humans; however, only three have been identified in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to date. Using rolling circle amplification and degenerate PCR, we identified four novel PV genomes of bottlenose dolphins. TtPV4, TtPV5 and TtPV6 were identified in genital lesions while TtPV7 was identified in normal genital mucosa. Bayesian analysis of the full-length L1 genes found that TtPV4 and TtPV7 group within the Upsilonpapillomavirus genus while TtPV5 and TtPV6 group with Omikronpapillomavirus. However, analysis of the E1 gene did not distinguish these genera, implying that these genes may not share a common history, consistent with recombination. Recombination analyses identified several probable events. Signals of positive selection were found mostly in the E1 and E2 genes. Recombination and diversifying selection pressures constitute important driving forces of cetacean PV evolution.

  17. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, I.P.; Leite, L.C.C. [Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-07

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  18. Genetic recombination is associated with intrinsic disorder in plant proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yruela, Inmaculada; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2013-11-09

    Intrinsically disordered proteins, found in all living organisms, are essential for basic cellular functions and complement the function of ordered proteins. It has been shown that protein disorder is linked to the G + C content of the genome. Furthermore, recent investigations have suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of the plant nucleus adds disordered segments to open reading frames alike, and these segments are not necessarily conserved among orthologous genes. In the present work the distribution of intrinsically disordered proteins along the chromosomes of several representative plants was analyzed. The reported results support a non-random distribution of disordered proteins along the chromosomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, two model eudicot and monocot plant species, respectively. In fact, for most chromosomes positive correlations between the frequency of disordered segments of 30+ amino acids and both recombination rates and G + C content were observed. These analyses demonstrate that the presence of disordered segments among plant proteins is associated with the rates of genetic recombination of their encoding genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that high recombination rates, as well as chromosomal rearrangements, could induce disordered segments in proteins during evolution.

  19. Genetic Tools and Techniques for Recombinant Expression in Thermophilic Bacillaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind B. Drejer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are the most prominent bacterial hosts for recombinant protein production by far, additional species are being explored as alternatives for production of difficult-to-express proteins. In particular, for thermostable proteins, there is a need for hosts able to properly synthesize, fold, and excrete these in high yields, and thermophilic Bacillaceae represent one potentially interesting group of microorganisms for such purposes. A number of thermophilic Bacillaceae including B. methanolicus, B. coagulans, B. smithii, B. licheniformis, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, G. kaustophilus, and G. stearothermophilus are investigated concerning physiology, genomics, genetic tools, and technologies, altogether paving the way for their utilization as hosts for recombinant production of thermostable and other difficult-to-express proteins. Moreover, recent successful deployments of CRISPR/Cas9 in several of these species have accelerated the progress in their metabolic engineering, which should increase their attractiveness for future industrial-scale production of proteins. This review describes the biology of thermophilic Bacillaceae and in particular focuses on genetic tools and methods enabling use of these organisms as hosts for recombinant protein production.

  20. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.