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Sample records for interstitial acochlidian gastropod

  1. Tiny but complex - interactive 3D visualization of the interstitial acochlidian gastropod Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970

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    Heß Martin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesopsammic acochlidians are small, and organ complexity may be strongly reduced (regressive evolution by progenesis, especially in microhedylacean species. The marine interstitial hedylopsacean Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970, however, was suggested as having a complex reproductive system resembling that of much larger, limnic and benthic species. The present study aims to reconstruct the detailed anatomy and true complexity of P. cornuta from serial, semithin histological sections by using modern computer-based 3D visualization with Amira software, and to explain it in an evolutionary context. Results Our results demonstrate considerable discordance with the original species description, which was based solely on paraffin sections. Here, we show that the nervous system of P. cornuta has paired rhinophoral, optic and gastro-oesophageal ganglia, three distinct ganglia on the visceral nerve cord, and a putative osphradial ganglion, while anterior accessory ganglia are absent. The presence of an anal genital cloaca is clearly rejected and the anus, nephropore and gonopore open separately to the exterior; the circulatory and excretory systems are well-differentiated, including a two-chambered heart and a complex kidney with a long, looped nephroduct; the special androdiaulic reproductive system shows two allosperm receptacles, three nidamental glands, a cavity with unknown function, as well as highly complex anterior copulatory organs with two separate glandular and impregnatory systems including a penial stylet that measures approximately a third of the whole length of the preserved specimen. Conclusion In spite of its small body size, the interstitial hermaphroditic P. cornuta shows high complexity regarding all major organ systems; the excretory system is as differentiated as in species of the sister clade, the limnic and much larger Acochlidiidae, and the reproductive system is by far the most elaborated one ever observed

  2. On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia

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    Knebelsberger Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust phylogenetic hypothesis of euthyneuran gastropods, as a basis to reconstructing their evolutionary history, is still hindered by several groups of aberrant, more or less worm-like slugs with unclear phylogenetic relationships. As a traditional "order" in the Opisthobranchia, the Acochlidia have a long history of controversial placements, among others influenced by convergent adaptation to the mainly meiofaunal habitats. The present study includes six out of seven acochlidian families in a comprehensive euthyneuran taxon sampling with special focus on minute, aberrant slugs. Since there is no fossil record of tiny, shell-less gastropods, a molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times within Euthyneura. Results Our multi-locus molecular study confirms Acochlidia in a pulmonate relationship, as sister to Eupulmonata. Previous hypotheses of opisthobranch relations, or of a common origin with other meiofaunal Euthyneura, are clearly rejected. The enigmatic amphibious and insectivorous Aitengidae incerta sedis clusters within Acochlidia, as sister to meiofaunal and brackish Pseudunelidae and limnic Acochlidiidae. Euthyneura, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata as traditionally defined are non-monophyletic. A relaxed molecular clock approach indicates a late Palaeozoic diversification of Euthyneura and a Mesozoic origin of the major euthyneuran diversity, including Acochlidia. Conclusions The present study shows that the inclusion of small, enigmatic groups is necessary to solve deep-level phylogenetic relationships, and underlines that "pulmonate" and "opisthobranch" phylogeny, respectively, cannot be solved independently from each other. Our phylogenetic hypothesis requires reinvestigation of the traditional classification of Euthyneura: morphological synapomorphies of the traditionally defined Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia are evaluated in light of the presented phylogeny, and a redefinition of major groups is

  3. Interstitial nephritis.

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    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  4. Interstitial cystitis

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    ... symptoms get better. Reduce or stop consuming caffeine, chocolate, carbonated beverages, citrus drinks, and foods with a ... rarely done anymore Support Groups Some people may benefit from taking part in interstitial cystitis support groups . ...

  5. Interstitial Cystitis

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    ... relieve symptoms. Diet. Alcohol, tomatoes, spices, carbonated drinks, chocolate, caffeine, citrus fruits and drinks, pickled foods, artificial ... at scheduled times and using relaxation techniques. Physical therapy. People who have interstitial cystitis may have painful ...

  6. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

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    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P

  7. Interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardino, P.T.; Bretas, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors now have 20 years of experience with modern techniques of brachytherapy. The large number of patients treated in medical centers around the world and the widespread use of this type of radiotherapy have provided us with substantial information about the indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and complications, as well as the results of these techniques. Although the focus of this review is the experience at Baylor using the combined technique of gold seed implantation plus external beam irradiation, the alternative forms of brachytherapy will be described and compared. The authors' intention is to provide the busy clinician with a succinct and informative review indicating the status of modern interstitial radiotherapy and describing day-to-day approach and results

  8. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  9. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future

  10. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

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    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  12. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  13. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebeica, Tiberiu; Voicu, Cristiana; Patterson, James W.; Mangarov, Hristo; Lotti, T.; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Jacopo; França, Katlein; Batashki, Atanas; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes, which appeared in the last 7-8 years. Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of

  14. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

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    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  15. Review of intersex in gastropods and other molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other....... This includes examples like transformation of the reproductive and genital tracts in gastropods and cephalopods, spermatogenesis in the female ovary and oocyte development in male testis (ovo-testis).  ......Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other...... signs of endocrine disruption causing sex reversal, characterized as intersex, have been reported for marine molluscs. Intersex can more generally be defined as disturbance of the phenotypic sex characters and different types of intersex have been recorded for both female and male molluscs...

  16. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

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    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  17. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A.; Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  18. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  19. Carbonate biomineralization in terrestrial gastropods: environmental vs. physiological constraints

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    Mierzwa, D.; Stolarski, J.

    2009-04-01

    Preservational potential of shells of terrestrial gastropods allows to use them as valuable (paleo)climatic proxies. Despite of the fact, that the elements incorporated in their skeleton derive almost entirely from their diet, details of the ion uptake routes have not been studied in details. This work is a first step in the investigations of element uptake and biomineralization processes in pulmonate gastropod Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac, 1821). Although phenotypic plasticity in the shell characters of the species appears to be mainly genetic in nature, some differences seem to correlate with availability of ions used in biomineralization. For example, shells of individuals living in marginal parts of flood plains (environment extreme for the species and generally depleted in calcium) have weakened structure and faded color pattern, whereas individuals from the lime substrata form typically developed, pigmented shells with several cross-lamellar layers. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of shells from different environments are visualized by SEM and AFM imaging techniques and some biogeochemical properties are characterized by spectroscopic and fluorescence methods. Further experiments are required to elucidate the ion/trace elements transfer between the substratum, nutrients, organism, and the shell.

  20. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

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    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  1. Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum

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    Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2016-09-01

    Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.

  2. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

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    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  3. Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel'son, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport

  4. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquez, Moises; Uribe, Juan Esteban; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2012-01-01

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  5. Chemical characterization of terrestrial gastropods of Brazilian mangroves by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mélo, Julyanne T.B.; Pereira Neto, Alberto; França, Elvis J. de; Silva, Bruno F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    In environmental studies, the application of multielement analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersion - EDXRF is interesting due to the rapidity in the analysis and preservation of the sample. In the work, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were quantified in gastropods of the species Littoraria anguliferae Melampus coffea of mangroves located in tourist regions of Itamaracá, Pernambuco, and Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by EDXRF at a pressure lower than 30 Pa, detection time of 840 seconds in a Shimadzu EDX-720 model spectrometer. To guarantee the quality of the analytical procedure, reference materials SRM 2976 - Musseltissue and SRM 1547 - Peachleaves were analyzed. In both locations, the mass fractions of Mg and P were similar for L. anguliferae. For Zn, the average mass fraction of more than 3,000 mg kg -1 of the Barra de Guaratiba animals was considerably higher than that obtained in the Itamaracá mangrove. The M. coffea species also presented a considerably higher accumulation of Zn (approximately 4500 mg kg -1 ) when compared to the mass fraction obtained in the Pernambuco mangrove. For Sr, there was a higher concentration in the Itamaracá mangrove (400mg kg -1 for L. anguliferae 180 mg kg -1 for M. coffea) compared to that obtained in Barra de Guaratiba. The analytical technique of EDXRF was successfully employed for the evaluation of both molluscan species as biomonitoring of the environmental quality of mangroves

  6. Substrate attributes determine gait in a terrestrial gastropod.

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    McKee, Amberle; Voltzow, Janice; Pernet, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Some terrestrial gastropods are able to move using two gaits: adhesive crawling, where the entire foot is separated from the substrate only by a thin layer of mucus and the snail leaves a continuous mucus trail; and loping, where regions of the foot arch above the substrate and the snail leaves a discontinuous mucus trail. Loping has been interpreted as a means of rapidly escaping predators. We found that the pulmonate Cornu aspersum moved using adhesive crawling on dry acrylic or glass substrates, but loped on dry concrete or wood. Loping snails did not move more rapidly than snails using adhesive crawling. Snails moving on concrete secreted a greater volume of pedal mucus per area of trail than those moving on acrylic; locomotion on concrete thus requires greater expenditure of mucus than does locomotion on acrylic. Because loping snails deposit a smaller area of mucus per distance traveled than do snails using adhesive crawling, loping may conserve mucus when moving on porous, absorbent substrates. Members of several other terrestrial pulmonate taxa can also lope on concrete, suggesting that this plasticity in gait is widespread among terrestrial snails.

  7. Changes in habitat complexity negatively affect diverse gastropod assemblages in coralline algal turf.

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    Kelaher, B P

    2003-05-01

    The physical structure of a habitat generally has a strong influence on the diversity and abundance of associated organisms. I investigated the role of coralline algal turf structure in determining spatial variation of gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights of a rocky shore near Sydney, Australia. The structural characteristics of algal turf tested were frond density (or structural complexity) and frond length (the vertical scale over which structural complexity was measured). This definition of structural complexity assumes that complexity of the habitat increases with increasing frond density. While frond length was unrelated to gastropod community structure, I found significant correlations between density of fronds and multivariate and univariate measures of gastropod assemblages, indicating the importance of structural complexity. In contrast to previous studies, here there were negative relationships between the density of fronds and the richness and abundance of gastropods. Artificial habitat mimics were used to manipulate the density of fronds to test the hypothesis that increasing algal structural complexity decreases the richness and abundance of gastropods. As predicted, there were significantly more species of gastropods in loosely packed than in tightly packed turf at both low- and mid-shore levels. Despite large differences between gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights, the direction and magnitude of these negative effects were similar at low- and mid-shore levels and, therefore, relatively independent of local environmental conditions. These novel results extend our previous understanding of the ecological effects of habitat structure because they demonstrate possible limitations of commonly used definitions of structural complexity, as well as distinct upper thresholds in the relationship between structural complexity and faunal species richness.

  8. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  9. Checklist of Gastropods from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan; Rahim, Siti Akmar Khadijah Ab; Rumpet, Richard; Musel, Jamil; Hassan, Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo , Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea . In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.

  10. The "island rule" and deep-sea gastropods: re-examining the evidence.

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    John J Welch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing patterns in mammalian biogeography is the "island rule", which states that colonising species have a tendency to converge in body size, with larger species evolving decreased sizes and smaller species increased sizes. It has recently been suggested that an analogous pattern holds for the colonisation of the deep-sea benthos by marine Gastropoda. In particular, a pioneering study showed that gastropods from the Western Atlantic showed the same graded trend from dwarfism to gigantism that is evident in island endemic mammals. However, subsequent to the publication of the gastropod study, the standard tests of the island rule have been shown to yield false positives at a very high rate, leaving the result open to doubt.The evolution of gastropod body size in the deep sea is reexamined. Using an extended and updated data set, and improved statistical methods, it is shown that some results of the previous study may have been artifactual, but that its central conclusion is robust. It is further shown that the effect is not restricted to a single gastropod clade, that its strength increases markedly with depth, but that it applies even in the mesopelagic zone.The replication of the island rule in a distant taxonomic group and a partially analogous ecological situation could help to uncover the causes of the patterns observed--which are currently much disputed. The gastropod pattern is evident at intermediate depths, and so cannot be attributed to the unique features of abyssal ecology.

  11. Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul D.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Cordeiro, James R.; Garner, Jeffrey T.; Hartfield, Paul D.; Lepitzki, Dwayne A.; Mackie, Gerry L.; Pip, Eva; Tarpley, Thomas A.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Whelan, Nathan V.; Strong, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first American Fisheries Society conservation assessment of freshwater gastropods (snails) from Canada and the United States by the Gastropod Subcommittee (Endangered Species Committee). This review covers 703 species representing 16 families and 93 genera, of which 67 species are considered extinct, or possibly extinct, 278 are endangered, 102 are threatened, 73 are vulnerable, 157 are currently stable, and 26 species have uncertain taxonomic status. Of the entire fauna, 74% of gastropods are imperiled (vulnerable, threatened, endangered) or extinct, which exceeds imperilment levels in fishes (39%) and crayfishes (48%) but is similar to that of mussels (72%). Comparison of modern to background extinction rates reveals that gastropods have the highest modern extinction rate yet observed, 9,539 times greater than background rates. Gastropods are highly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation, particularly narrow endemics restricted to a single spring or short stream reaches. Compilation of this review was hampered by a paucity of current distributional information and taxonomic uncertainties. Although research on several fronts including basic biology, physiology, conservation strategies, life history, and ecology are needed, systematics and curation of museum collections and databases coupled with comprehensive status surveys (geographic limits, threat identification) are priorities.

  12. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  13. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  14. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some......, while other species may not tolerate these changes. In order to protect gastropod diversity and avoid dominance of intermediate hosts, such as B. choanomphala, a management plan for the use of these fish landing sites should be developed. This could include rules on how to dispose of fish remnants...

  15. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  16. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  17. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Jacqueline L; Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  19. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  20. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  1. Measurement of DNA integrity in marine gastropods as biomarker of genotoxicity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Vashistha, D.; Gupta, N.; Malik, K.; Gaitonde, D.C.S.

    to identify the hot spot of pollution due to genotoxic compounds, the DNA damage was measured in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in marine gastropods due to the occurrence of DNA strand breaks following the technique of time dependent partially alkaline...

  2. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  3. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  4. The interstitial pneumonitis induced by cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, M.; Markova, I.; Mistina, L.

    1998-01-01

    The author presents a cause of 9-year old boy with ALL-F2B in the stage of the prevention treatment where in the its course the induced interstitial pneumonitis by cytostatics was developed. The bacterial, virus, mycological and parasitic causes of the interstitial pneumonitis on the basis of the bronchoscopy, BAL, CT, scintigraphy, laboratory and by cultivation were excluded. (authors)

  5. The behavior of interstitials in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model is developed to simulate the behavior of self-interstitials with particular attention to clustering. Owing to the layer structure of graphite, atomistic simulations can be performed using a large parallelepipedic supercell containing a few layers. In particular, interstitial clustering is studied here using a supercell that contains two basal planes only. Frenkel pairs are randomly produced. Interstitials are placed at sites between the crystal planes while vacancies are distributed in the two crystal planes. The size of the computational cell is 20000 atoms and periodic boundary conditions are used in two dimensions. Vacancies are assumed immobile whereas interstitials are given a certain mobility. Two point defect sinks are considered, direct recombination of Frenkel pairs and interstitial clusters. The clusters are assumed to be mobile up to a certain size where they are presumed to become loop nuclei. Clusters can shrink by emission of singly bonded interstitials or by recombination of a peripheral interstitial with a neighboring vacancy. The conditions under which interstitial clustering occurs are reported. It is shown that when clustering occurs the cluster size population gradually shifts towards the largest size cluster. The implications of the present results for irradiation growth and irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed

  6. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafqat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

  7. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavere, P.; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A.; Roullet, B.; Morzel, A.; Rhein, B.; Bonnetblanc, J.M.; Olivier, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected

  8. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassmann, G.; Kolotas, C.; Heyd, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  9. Determination of Acetylcholinesterase activities in marine gastropod (Morula granulata) as a biomarker of neurotoxic contaminants along the Goan coast.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Tegur, P.M.; Jana, S.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    diseases or even death. Hence it is considered as a suitable biomarker for detecting environmental pollution caused by the neurotoxic compounds. We have carried out experiments with marine gastropods (Morula granulate) at the selected sites, Arambol...

  10. Effect of pollution on diversity of marine gastropods and its role in trophic structure at Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean supplies a significant amount of food to human population. However, marine ecosystem is under a threat due to the increasing marine pollution. Fiji Islands, located in South Pacific sea, are experiencing such a threat. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of pollution on the diversity of marine gastropods in Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands. A detailed opportunistic survey was conducted; 85 species of marine gastropods molluscas were recorded belonging to 29 families in four different habitats (Habitat 1, Habitat 2, Habitat 3 and Habitat 4 at Nasese Shore during April–September 2014. Compared with Habitat 4, all three other habitats were polluted by frequently added sewages and domestic effluents via artificial and natural creeks to the coastal area. Therefore, diversity and abundance of the gastropods were significantly lower in those three habitats. Furthermore, a higher human consumption rate for some of the gastropods was observed.

  11. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  12. Impacts of Near-Future Ocean Acidification and Warming on the Shell Mechanical and Geochemical Properties of Gastropods from Intertidal to Subtidal Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D

    2017-11-07

    Many marine organisms produce calcareous shells as the key structure for defense, but the functionality of shells may be compromised by ocean acidification and warming. Nevertheless, calcifying organisms may adaptively modify their shell properties in response to these impacts. Here, we examined how reduced pH and elevated temperature affect shell mechanical and geochemical properties of common grazing gastropods from intertidal to subtidal zones. Given the greater environmental fluctuations in the intertidal zone, we hypothesized that intertidal gastropods would exhibit more plastic responses in shell properties than subtidal gastropods. Overall, three out of five subtidal gastropods produced softer shells at elevated temperature, while intertidal gastropods maintained their shell hardness at both elevated pCO 2 (i.e., reduced pH) and temperature. Regardless of pH and temperature, degree of crystallization was maintained (except one subtidal gastropod) and carbonate polymorph remained unchanged in all tested species. One intertidal gastropod produced less soluble shells (e.g., higher calcite/aragonite) in response to reduced pH. In contrast, subtidal gastropods produced only aragonite which has higher solubility than calcite. Overall, subtidal gastropods are expected to be more susceptible than intertidal gastropods to shell dissolution and physical damage under future seawater conditions. The increased vulnerability to shell dissolution and predation could have serious repercussions for their survival and ecological contributions in the future subtidal environment.

  13. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  14. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  15. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  16. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  17. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamnani, Motilal

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that decompensation results from potassium-mediated vasodilation and/or loss of cardiac contractility, and thus a method of measuring interstitial potassium should be a crucial part...

  18. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... Zoology Department, Institute for Coastal Research, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box ... Oliff, Gardner, Turner & Sharp (1970) and later Dye, ... Wooldridge, Dye & ...... potential sources of food for interstitial organisms,.

  19. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  20. Evaluation of impairment of DNA in marine gastropod, Morula granulata as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Bhagat, Jacky; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2014-08-01

    The impairment of DNA in marine gastropod Morula granulata was evaluated in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in the species as a measure of the impact of genotoxic contaminants prevalent in the marine environment along the coast of Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage occurred in the marine gastropods collected from different sampling sites such as Arambol, Anjuna, Sinquerim, Dona Paula, Bogmalo, Hollant, Velsao, Betul and Palolem along the coast of Goa was measured following the technique of partial alkaline unwinding as well as comet assays. The highest DNA integrity was observed at Arambol (F, 0.75), identified as the reference site, whereas the lowest DNA integrity at Hollant (F, 0.33) situated between the two most contaminated sites at Bogmalo and Velsao. The impact of genotoxic contaminants on marine gastropods was pronounced by their low DNA integrity at Sinquerim (F, 0.40) followed by Betul (F, 0.47), Velsao (F, 0.51), Anjuna (F, 0.54), Bogmalo (F, 0.55), Dona Paula (F, 0.67) and Palolem (F, 0.70). The extent of DNA damage occurred in M. granulata due to ecotoxicological impact of the prevailing marine pollutants along the coast of Goa was further substantiated by comet assay and expressed in terms of %head-DNA, %tail DNA, tail length and Olive tail moment. The single cell gel electrophoresis of M. granulata clearly showed relatively higher olive tail moment in the marine gastropod from the contaminated sites, Anjuna, Hollant, Velsao and Betul. The variation in the mean %head DNA at different sampling sites clearly indicated that the extent of DNA damage in marine gastropod increases with the increase in the levels of contamination at different sampling sites along the coast. The stepwise multiple regression analysis of the water quality parameters showed significant correlation between the variation in DNA integrity and PAH in combination with NO3, salinity and PO4 (R¯(2), 0.90). The measurement of DNA integrity in M. granulata thus provides an early

  1. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  2. Structure of gastropod communities at mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang village, West Berandan District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, T.; Bakti, D.; Leidonald, R.

    2018-02-01

    Gastropod was one of the class from mollusca in mangrove ecosystem. Lubuk Kertang Village’s mangrove forest was been converted into tourist areas, agricultural land and settlements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of gastropods at Avicennia lanata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba. This research was conducted at Lubuk Kertang Village in February-March 2017. Gastropod were collected in 1 m × 1 m transect in mangrove. Examples of biota were taken by using shovel, then the biota was inserted into a plastic bag sample, wrote date of sampling and identified. The results showed there were 15 species Gastropods, namely Achatina fulica, Cerithidea alata, Cerithidea cingulata, Cerithidea obtusa, Chicoreus capucinus, Cymatium pileare, Ellobium aurimisdae, Ellobium aurisjudae, Littoraria melanostoma, Littoraria scabra, Murex tribulus, Nerita balteata, Nerita planospira, Pugilina cochlidium, Stramonita gradata, Telescopium telescopium and Terebralia sulcata. Diversity index ranged 1.702 to 2.165 was in medium category, Similarity index ranged 0.676 to 0.799 was in low category and Dominance index ranged 0.142 to 0.282 that categorized was low. The highest gastropod density was 31 individuals/m2 in the Sonneratia alba. The conclusion of the research is the existing mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang Village in a stable state.

  3. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L -1 ). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  4. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm −1 , which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm −1 IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum

  5. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references

  6. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  7. Freshwater gastropods of Neogene and Quaternary lake systems of Europe - state of the art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Globally, about 4000 extant species of freshwater gastropod species have been described. In contrast, only 225 species are listed by MollBase2012 for North- and Central Europe. Many of these are rare species, limited to certain springs and in fact the typical diversity of gastropods in lakes of North and Central Europe is much lower. The high number is boosted by several highly speciose endemic radiations in long-lived ancient lakes, which are hotspots for biodiversity. These long-lived ancient lakes provide key examples for understanding evolutionary processes and therefore are intensively studied. During the Neogene, Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several such long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, these lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their geologically temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems. Apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Building upon a great amount of existing literature, a new project will provide the first detailed assessment of the composition of European freshwater gastropods during the Neogene and Quaternary at species, genus and family levels, with emphasis on lake faunas. The γ-diversity of several hundred modern and fossil European lakes will be evaluated. Data will be made available permanently for

  8. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  9. Evidence of trophic transfer of microcystins from the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Petit, Anais; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paty, Christelle; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    According to our previous results the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria accumulates microcystins (MCs) both as free and covalently bound forms in its tissues, therefore representing a potential risk of MC transfer through the food web. This study demonstrates in a laboratory experiment the transfer of free and bound MCs from L. stagnalis intoxicated by MC-producing Planktothrix agardhii ingestion to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. Fish were fed during five days with digestive glands of L. stagnalis containing various concentrations of free and bound MCs, then with toxin-free digestive glands during a 5-day depuration period. MC accumulation was measured in gastropod digestive gland and in various fish organs (liver, muscle, kidney, and gills). The impact on fish was evaluated through detoxification enzyme (glutathion-S-transferase, glutathion peroxydase and superoxyde dismutase) activities, hepatic histopathology, and modifications in gill ventilation, feeding and locomotion. G. aculeatus ingestion rate was similar with intoxicated and toxin-free diet. Fish accumulated MCs (up to 3.96±0.14μgg -1 DW) in all organs and in decreasing order in liver, muscle, kidney and gills. Hepatic histopathology was moderate. Glutathion peroxydase was activated in gills during intoxication suggesting a slight reactive oxygen species production, but without any impact on gill ventilation. Intoxication via ingestion of MC-intoxicated snails impacted fish locomotion. Intoxicated fish remained significantly less mobile than controls during the intoxication period possibly due to a lower health condition, whereas they showed a greater mobility during the depuration period that might be related to an acute foraging for food. During depuration, MC elimination was total in gills and kidney, but partial in liver and muscle. Our results assess the MC transfer from gastropods to fish and the potential risk induced by bound MCs in the food web. Copyright

  10. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: imaging-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Stephen M.; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    The terminology related to idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) remains confusing and in some cases wholly inaccurate. In addition, a greater understanding of the correlation between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances and the corresponding histopathological changes found in the interstitial pneumonias has resulted in a crucial role for HRCT in the investigation of IIPs. The role of the radiologist is becoming increasingly important with a strong emphasis on establishing a diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. We aim to clarify the current classification of the IIPs highlighting their clinical, pathological and imaging characteristics in order to assist the radiologist in performing their increasingly important diagnostic role. (orig.)

  11. Quantum diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, T.; Bergersen, B.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of diffusion of self-trapped light interstitials in metals is presented. The theory encompasses both coherent and incoherent tunneling, but the approximation used neglects the dependence of the interstitial transfer matrix element on the vibrational state of the crystal. The coherent tunneling contribution is estimated by fitting the incoherent diffusion rate to experimental data for hydrogen and muon diffusion. It is predicted that coherent diffusion should be dominant below approximately 80 K for H in Nb and below approximately 190 K for μ + in Cu. Experimental verifications of these predictions would require high purity strain free samples and low concentrations of the diffusing species. (author)

  12. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sen, A.

    geographic range. Several trochid species such as, Umbonium costatum from Japan (Noda et al., 1995) and Astrea undosa from Mexico (Belmar- Perez et al., 1993) spawn twice a year. Incomplete spawning for a number of gastropods has been reported (Ramesh et al... and reproductive cycle of wavy turban snail (Astrea undosa Wood, 1828; Gastropoda: Turbinidae) in Bahai Tortugas, BCS. Anales del Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 18, 169–87 (1993). Berry, A.J. and Bin O. Zamri...

  13. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  14. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  15. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with 81m Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by 81m Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with 99m Tc-MAA, 67 Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO 2 was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. 67 Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of 67 Ga. 67 Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author)

  16. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J. F.; van Gemert, M. J.; Roux, F. X.; Bown, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e.,

  17. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  18. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with {sup 81m}Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by {sup 81m}Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA, {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO{sub 2} was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. {sup 67}Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of {sup 67}Ga. {sup 67}Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author).

  19. Freshwater gastropods in the Northern littoral mesoregion of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazilhave been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.

  20. Bioerosion of gastropod shells: with emphasis on effects of coralline algal cover and shell microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Miriam J.

    1989-12-01

    Organisms boring into fifty nine species of gastropod shells on reefs around Guam were the bryozoan Penetrantia clionoides; the acrothoracian barnacles Cryptophialus coronorphorus, Cryptophialus zulloi and Lithoglyptis mitis; the foraminifer Cymbaloporella tabellaeformis, the polydorid Polydora sp. and seven species of clionid sponge. Evidence that crustose coralline algae interfere with settlement of larvae of acrothoracian barnacles, clionid sponges, and boring polychaetes came from two sources: (1) low intensity of boring in limpet shells, a potentially penetrable substrate that remains largely free of borings by virtue of becoming fully covered with coralline algae at a young age and (2) the extremely low levels of boring in the algal ridge, a massive area of carbonate almost entirely covered by a layer of living crustose corallines. There was a strong negative correlation between microstructural hardness and infestation by acrothoracian barnacles and no correlation in the case of the other borers. It is suggested that this points to a mechanical rather than a chemical method of boring by the barnacles. The periostracum, a layer of organic material reputedly a natural inhibitor of boring organisms, was bored by acrothoracican barnacles and by the bryozoan. The intensity of acrothoracican borings is shown to have no correlation with the length of the gastropod shell.

  1. Traces (ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides of predatory gastropods on bivalve shells from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Yong Kong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circular to subcircular drill holes were identified on the bivalve shells collected from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea. A great majority of the drill holes (>70% were found on the surfaces of a bivalve species Glycymeris rotunda. They are characterized by a beveled sharp edge and paraboloid in cross section with larger outer borehole diameter (OBD; mean 4.21 mm and smaller inner borehole diameter (mean 2.94 mm. Walls of the drill holes are generally smooth, and walls ornamented with etched relief-like structures were also recognized. A slightly raised central boss observed in an incomplete specimen may indicate a failure of predator’s attack. All drill holes collected are classified as a single ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides Bromley, 1981. They are interpreted as boring traces produced by predatory gastropods, particularly naticid gastropods. Most O. paraboloides boreholes are observed in the central area of shell surfaces; a few boreholes lie marginally, which may reflect a borehole-site selectivity. No correlation between size of prey (shell height and size of predator (OBD is recognized. It is likely, however, that drilled shells of about 30 mm in height represent optimal prey size for naticid predators that lived in a benthic Seogwipo community.

  2. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  3. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  5. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  6. The gastropod shell has been co-opted to kill parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, R

    2017-07-06

    Exoskeletons have evolved 18 times independently over 550 MYA and are essential for the success of the Gastropoda. The gastropod shell shows a vast array of different sizes, shapes and structures, and is made of conchiolin and calcium carbonate, which provides protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Here, I report that the gastropod shell has another function and has been co-opted as a defense system to encase and kill parasitic nematodes. Upon infection, cells on the inner layer of the shell adhere to the nematode cuticle, swarm over its body and fuse it to the inside of the shell. Shells of wild Cepaea nemoralis, C. hortensis and Cornu aspersum from around the U.K. are heavily infected with several nematode species including Caenorhabditis elegans. By examining conchology collections I show that nematodes are permanently fixed in shells for hundreds of years and that nematode encapsulation is a pleisomorphic trait, prevalent in both the achatinoid and non-achatinoid clades of the Stylommatophora (and slugs and shelled slugs), which diverged 90-130 MYA. Taken together, these results show that the shell also evolved to kill parasitic nematodes and this is the only example of an exoskeleton that has been co-opted as an immune system.

  7. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of unknown function (TMAP) of sperm from five species of teguline gastropods. A mitochondrial DNA clock (calibrated by congeneric species divided by the Isthmus of Panama) estimates that these five species diverged 2-10 MYA. Inferred amino acid sequences reveal a propeptide that has diverged rapidly between species. The mature protein has diverged faster still due to high nonsynonymous substitution rates (> 25 nonsynonymous substitutions per site per 10(9) years). cDNA encoding the mature protein (89-100 residues) shows evidence of positive selection (Dn/Ds > 1) for 4 of 10 pairwise species comparisons. cDNA and predicted secondary-structure comparisons suggest that TMAP is neither orthologous nor paralogous to abalone lysin, and thus marks a second, phylogenetically independent, protein subject to strong positive selection in free-spawning marine gastropods. In addition, an internal repeat in one species (Tegula aureotincta) produces a duplicated cleavage site which results in two alternatively processed mature proteins differing by nine amino acid residues. Such alternative processing may provide a mechanism for introducing novel amino acid sequence variation at the amino-termini of proteins. Highly divergent TMAP N-termini from two other tegulines (Tegula regina and Norrisia norrisii) may have originated by such a mechanism.

  8. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  9. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  10. Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Korniichuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region. Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate, temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis

  11. Gastropod-derived haemocyte extracellular traps entrap metastrongyloid larval stages of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Malin K.; Penagos-Tabares, Felipe; Munoz-Caro, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Background Phagocyte-derived extracellular traps (ETs) were recently demonstrated mainly in vertebrate hosts as an important effector mechanism against invading parasites. In the present study we aimed to characterize gastropod-derived invertebrate extracellular phagocyte trap (InEPT) formation i...

  12. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  13. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  14. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  15. A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    豊見山, 寛; 兼島, 洋; 下地, 克佳; 金城, 勇徳; 中富, 昌夫; 小張, 一峰; 松井, 克明; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Kaneshima, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Katsuyoshi; Kinjo, Yutoku; Nakatomi, Masao; Kobari, Kazumine; Matsui, Katsuaki; 琉球大学医学部第一内科

    1982-01-01

    A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was reported. A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with his complaint of shortness of breath. On physical examination clubbing of the fingers was noticed and velcro rales was heard on the bilateral lower back. On laboratory data no remarkable finding was revealed. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse reticulonodular shadow and small ring shadow of the bilateral lower lung fields. On pulmonary function test decline of VC and DLco was revealed...

  16. Self-interstitial atoms in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, W.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge and understanding of the properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the structure of SIAs and those properties which relate to structure such as relaxation volumes, elastic polarizabilities, defect vibrations, geometry of jump processes, and elastic interactions. The present experimental status with respect to these properties is summarized, and the basic theoretical concepts for their understanding are presented as simply as possible. (Auth.)

  17. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  18. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  19. Nature of interstitially induced lattice strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larger and larger strain fields which ultimately are associated with the production of broken bonds. Simple models of the strain fields associated with the addition of particles to a lattice in which the force exerted between the added atoms and host atoms is finite have been studied. From these studies one can define situations in which the billiard-ball approach has qualitative validity and those in which it is inappropriate. Basically, those situations in which the displacements of the host atoms can be represented as involving acoustic phonons yield long-range strain fields analogous to those of the billiard-ball model with the radius of the extra billiard ball being determined by the stiffness of the host lattice and the forces between the added atom and the surrounding host atoms. If the displacements produced by the added atoms are represented as involving primarily optical phonons the displacement pattern is short-ranged and not described by the usual elasticity theory. For example, Vegard's law does not apply in these instances. Such concerns arise in considering the strains induced by interstitial helium in tritides

  20. Role of interstitial implantation in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recurrent cancer at any site carries a gloomy prognosis. Cancer of the cervix that recurs after radical surgery or curative radiation therapy is a perplexing problem confronting both gynecological and radiation oncologists. In the authors' series, 45% of the patients survived disease-free at 1 year and 10% survived without disease at 5 years or longer following interstitial implantation for recurrent cervical cancer. The optimal utilization of this procedure seems to depend on the site of recurrence, the extent of the disease in the pelvis, and the status of para-aortic node involvement. This retrospective analysis enabled the authors to identify the prognostic factors. The most favorable group benefited by this technique were those who presented with either central recurrence or unilateral, localized pelvic side wall recurrent disease. The least morbidity was noticed in those patients with minimal surgical manipulations at the time of the interstitial implantation. The authors recommended that only a limited and essential surgical procedure should accompany interstitial implantation, since the associated morbidity and mortality is high and survival brief

  1. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  2. Interstitial prostate brachytherapy. LDR-PDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Gyoergy; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. Written by an interdisciplinary team who have been responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Teaching Course. Discusses in detail patient selection, the results of different methods, the role of imaging, and medical physics issues. Prostate brachytherapy has been the subject of heated debate among surgeons and the proponents of the various brachytherapy methods. This very first interdisciplinary book on the subject provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in low dose rate (LDR), high dose rate (HDR), and pulsed dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. In addition to detailed chapters on patient selection and the use of imaging in diagnostics, treatment guidance, and implantation control, background chapters are included on related medical physics issues such as treatment planning and quality assurance. The results obtained with the different treatment options and the difficult task of salvage treatment are fully discussed. All chapters have been written by internationally recognized experts in their fields who for more than a decade have formed the teaching staff responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Prostate Brachytherapy Teaching Course. This book will be invaluable in informing residents and others of the scientific background and potential of modern prostate brachytherapy. It will also prove a useful source of up-to-date information for those who specialize in prostate brachytherapy or intend to start an interstitial brachytherapy service.

  3. Diversity and abundance of epibiota on invasive and native estuarine gastropods depend on substratum and salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    ,226 shells representing the common gastropod species in the estuary; Nassarius pauperatus, Bedeva paiva and Batillaria australs from various sites and habitats. Generalized linear models were used to model variability of richness and abundances of common functional groups and species for the above listed...... factors. The five factors accounted for 3-34% of the total deviance explained of the models, with shell type and salinity levels being the only significant factors in nine of 14 models. These results highlight an overwhelming importance of shell type and salinity in explaining estuarine epibiota......Epibiosis is a common life form in estuarine ecosystems, where shell structures in particular, provide important attachment substrate for sessile species. Many studies have quantified variation in epibiota communities against a few environmental factors, but rarely studies have accounted...

  4. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    , the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri...... (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere......-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative...

  5. Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Muñoz-Antolí, C; Pérez, M; Esteban, J G

    1998-03-01

    Malacological samplings were made from January 1994 to December 1996 in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) to trace the dynamics of molluscan populations and the prevalence and intensity of infection by larval trematodes. A total of 10,533 freshwater gastropods belonging to seven species (Lymnaea auricularia, L. truncatula, L. palustris, L. peregra, Bithynia tentaculata, Physa acuta and Gyraulus chinensis) was examined, and 110 (1.04%) were found to harbour some of the nine distinguishable types of cercariae, namely four echinostome cercariae (Hypoderaeum conoideum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Euparyphium albuferensis, and Echinostoma sp.), four furcocercous cercariae, and one xiphidiocercous cercaria. This study shows that the composition of the snail and trematode communities may be determined by the particular environmental conditions present and the human intervention in the area.

  6. Native and introduced gastropods in laurel forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heike; Delgado, Juan D.; Alonso, María R.; Ibáñez, Miguel

    2009-09-01

    The introduction of non-native gastropods on islands has repetitively been related to a decline of the endemic fauna. So far, no quantitative information is available even for the native gastropod fauna from the laurel forests (the so-called Laurisilva) of the Canary Islands. Much of the original laurel forest has been logged in recent centuries. Based on vegetation studies, we hypothesized that densities and the number of introduced species decline with the age of the regrowth forests. We sampled 27 sites from which we collected thirty native and seven introduced species. Two introduced species, Milax nigricans and Oxychilus alliarius, were previously not reported from the Canary Islands. Assemblage composition was mainly structured by disturbance history and altitude. Overall species richness was correlated with slope inclination, prevalence of rocky outcrops, amounts of woody debris and leaf litter depth. Densities were correlated with the depth of the litter layer and the extent of herb layer cover and laurel canopy cover. Introduced species occurred in 22 sites but were neither related to native species richness nor to the time that elapsed since forest regrowth. One introduced slug, Lehmannia valentiana, is already wide-spread, with densities strongly related to herb cover. Overall species richness seemed to be the outcome of invasibility, thus factors enhancing species richness likely also enhance invasibility. Although at present introduced species contribute to diversity, the potential competition between introduced slugs and the rich native semi-slug fauna, and the effects of introduced predatory snails ( Oxychilus spp. and Testacella maugei) warrant further monitoring.

  7. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  8. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pappalardo

    Full Text Available Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule, which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in

  9. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Brante

    Full Text Available Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species.

  10. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods.

  11. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  12. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  13. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  14. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  15. Low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yosuke; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Shiro; Monma, Tetsuo; Ohki, Takahiro [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan); Murai, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    From December 1997 through January 1999, fifteen prostatic cancer patients were treated with low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy using TRUS and perineal template guidance without external radiotherapy. Up to now, as no apparent side effects were found, the safety of this treatment is suggested. In the future, in order to treat prostatic cancer patients with interstitial brachytherapy using I-125 or Pd-103, more investigation for this low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy is needed. (author)

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy.

  18. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  19. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  20. Evidence of interstitial microsegregation in iron obtained by ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Segregation of impurity atoms to the strain fields of dislocations and the effective locking of the dislocations by the impurity atmospheres have been suggested earlier by others. The formation of interstitial atmospheres and their effect in iron was first treated mathematically by Cottrell and Bilby (Proc. Phys. Soc.; A62: 49(1949). Hirth and Lothe (Theory of Discolations, McGraw-Hill, New York (1968) reviewed more recent evidence of interstitial effects and theoretical treatments of interstitial dislocation interactions. This paper describes additional evidence of microsegregation of several interstitial elements in iron that were detected using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). 10 references, 2 figures

  1. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  2. Migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, M.; Gao, F.; Zwicker, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed

  3. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  5. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  6. Evaluating a 5-year metal contamination remediation and the biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod along the Xiangjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Xiang; Fraser, Dylan J

    2018-05-16

    Effective remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is desired in many regions, but it requires integrative assessments of sediments, water, and biota that can serve as robust biomonitors. We assessed the effects of a 5-year metal contamination remediation along the Xiangjiang River, China, by comparing concentrations of trace metals in water and surface sediments between 2010-2011 and 2016. We also explored the trace metal biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa). Metal concentrations in water (means and ranges) dropped over time to within permissible limits of drinking water guidelines set by China, USEPA, and WHO in 2016. Although sediment means and ranges of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn also diminished with remediation, those for Cr and Cu slightly increased, and all six metals retained concentrations higher than standards set by China. All metals in sediments could also be associated with anthropogenic inputs using a hierarchical clustering analysis, and they generate high potential ecological risks based on several indices, especially for Cd and As. The bio-sediment accumulation factors of all measured trace metals in gastropod soft tissues and shells were lower than 1.0, except for Ca. Trace metal contents in gastropods were positively correlated with those in water and surface sediments for As (soft tissues) and Cr (shells). Collectively, our results do not yet highlight strong beneficial effects of 5-year remediation and clearly illustrate the heavy metal pollution remaining in Xiangjiang River sediment. Additional physical, chemical, and biological measurements should be implemented to improve sediment quality. We further conclude that gastropod soft tissues and shells can be suitable biomonitors of spatial differences in some heavy metals found within river sediments (e.g., As, Cr).

  7. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  8. Gastropod growth and survival as bioindicators of stress associated with high nutrients in the intertidal of a shallow temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Baharuddin, Nursalwa

    2015-04-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms are not well understood. Using cage experiments we measured the survival and growth of the pulmonate gastropod Amphibola crenata at five locations which differed contaminant levels. Water nutrients came from a nearby sewage treatment works and the sediment contained low levels of trace metals. Over 6 weeks of exposure, sediment surface chlorophyll levels varied amongst locations. The Chl a values were positively correlated with sediment N and P and trace metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Pulmonate survival depended on location, highest mortality was from a site close to the treatment plant and mortality rate of large individuals decreased significantly with distance away from it. For four locations, medium A. crenata had higher survival than small (juveniles) or adults. Growth rates of small individuals exceeded those for medium and large A. crenata. The mean length increment/week for medium gastropods ranged between 0.49 and 1.11 mm and was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in the surface sediment, suggesting the negative effects of eutrophication on gastropod growth. Growth rate of the pulmonate was not correlated with nutrient concentration or trace metal concentrations in the sediment. The dry weight condition index (CI) did not correlate with the growth rate, and for medium individuals, was unaffected by any of the environmental variables. The CI of small individuals was negatively affected by increasing water nutrient levels and the CI of large individuals negatively affected by increasing sediment nutrients and trace metal concentrations. The results from this study suggest that gastropod growth and survival could be used as tools to monitor the effects of changing nutrient levels and recovery from eutrophication within temperate estuaries.

  9. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  10. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Kirichenko, Taras A.; Kong, Ning; Larson, Larry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As 2 I 2 ) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As 2 I 2 is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low ( 2 I 2 can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters

  11. Energetics of formation and migration of self-interstitials and self-interstitial clusters in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Maroudas, D.; Lucas, G.E.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    1997-01-01

    Energetic primary recoil atoms from fast neutron irradiation generate both isolated point defects and clusters of vacancies and interstitials. Self-interstitial mobility as well as defect cluster stability and mobility play key roles in the subsequent fate of defects and, hence, in the overall microstructural evolution under irradiation. Self-interstitials and two, three and four-member self-interstitial clusters are highly mobile at low temperatures as observed in molecular-dynamics simulations and high mobility probably also extends to larger clusters. In this study, the morphology, energetics and mobility of self-interstitials and small self-interstitial clusters in α-iron are studied by molecular-statics and molecular-dynamics simulations using a Finnis-Sinclair many-body interatomic potential. Self-interstitial migration is found to be a two-step process consisting of a rotation out of the split-dumbbell configuration into the split-dumbbell configuration and translational jumps through the crowdion configuration before returning to the dumbbell configuration. Self-interstitial clusters of type split-interstitials assembled on adjacent {110} planes migrate along directions in an amoeba-like fashion by sequential local dissociation and re-association processes. (orig.)

  12. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bartoloni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  13. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gislason, H P; Johnston, K; Langouche, G; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Fe-57 atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following implantation of Mn-57 decaying to Fe-57. Four Mossbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  14. Species diversity of planktonic gastropods (Pteropoda and Heteropoda) from six ocean regions based on DNA barcode analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert M.; Bucklin, Ann; Ossenbrügger, Holger; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2010-12-01

    Pteropods and heteropods are two distinct groups of holoplanktonic gastropods whose species and genetic diversity remain poorly understood, despite their ubiquity in the world's oceans. Some species apparently attain near cosmopolitan distributions, implying long-distance dispersal or cryptic species assemblages. We present the first multi-regional and species-rich molecular dataset of holoplanktonic gastropods, comprising DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I subunit gene (COI) from 115 individuals of 41 species sampled from six ocean regions across the globe. Molecular analysis and assessment of barcoding utility supported the validity of several morphological subspecies and forms (e.g. of Creseis virgula and Limacina helicina), while others were not supported (e.g. Cavolinia uncinata). Significant genetic variation was observed among conspecific specimens collected in different geographic regions for some species, particularly in euthecosomatous pteropods. Several species of euthecosomes showed no evidence of genetic separation among distant ocean regions. Overall, we suggest some taxonomic revision of the holoplanktonic gastropods will be required, pending a more complete molecular inventory of these groups.

  15. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  16. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  17. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  18. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  19. Effects of ocean acidification on the shells of four Mediterranean gastropod species near a CO2 seep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Ashley; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-11-30

    Marine CO 2 seeps allow the study of the long-term effects of elevated pCO 2 (ocean acidification) on marine invertebrate biomineralization. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification on shell composition and structure in four ecologically important species of Mediterranean gastropods (two limpets, a top-shell snail, and a whelk). Individuals were sampled from three sites near a volcanic CO 2 seep off Vulcano Island, Italy. The three sites represented ambient (8.15pH), moderate (8.03pH) and low (7.73pH) seawater mean pH. Shell mineralogy, microstructure, and mechanical strength were examined in all four species. We found that the calcite/aragonite ratio could vary and increased significantly with reduced pH in shells of one of the two limpet species. Moreover, each of the four gastropods displayed reductions in either inner shell toughness or elasticity at the Low pH site. These results suggest that near-future ocean acidification could alter shell biomineralization and structure in these common gastropods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b- for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean

  1. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...... the clinical course and treatment intensity in relation to these variables....

  2. Theory of the change of elastic constants by interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, N.; Dederichs, P.H.; Lehmann, C.; Leibfried, G.; Scholz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of the change of elastic constants by point-defects, in particular by interstitials, is briefly summarized. The typical effects of spring changes in a defect lattice on the elastic data are discussed qualitatively. Numerical results for the change of elastic constants by self-interstitials and vacancies are given and compared with experimental data for Cu and Al

  3. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  4. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by ...

  5. Spawn in two deep-sea volute gastropods (Neogastropoda: Volutidae) from southwestern Atlantic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Teso, Valeria; Pastorino, Guido

    2017-12-01

    The gastropods Odontocymbiola pescalia and Provocator corderoi and their egg capsules were collected by the R/V Puerto Deseado from the Mar del Plata Submarine Canyon ( 37°53‧S, at depths of 291-1404 m) and from Burdwood Bank ( 54°27‧S, 128-785 m). Odontocymbiola pescalia egg capsules measured 15.67 ± 3.38 mm in diameter. They were subspherical in shape with an external calcareous layer. Each egg capsule contained 3-5 embryos and white material as extra embryonic food. Embryos grew to a size of up to 9.3 ± 1.1 mm in mean shell length before hatching as crawling juveniles. The spawn of P. corderoi consisted of a single dome shaped egg capsule of 14.17 ± 1.5 mm in diameter, attached to hard substrata by a basal membrane with a rounded outline. A curved semilunar furrow (seam) on one side of the capsules was always present. The number of embryos per capsule was 2-6. Embryos hatched as crawling juveniles with a shell length of 5.9 ± 0.6 mm. The size and number of whorls in the hatchling shell suggested a slow rate of development, akin to many other deep-sea invertebrates. The egg capsules and reproductive development strategies of both species were compared with those from other congeneric representatives.

  6. The influence of encapsulated embryos on the timing of hatching in the brooding gastropod Crepipatella dilatata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Villagrán, P. V.; Baria, K. S.; Montory, J. A.; Pechenik, J. A.; Chaparro, O. R.

    2018-01-01

    Encapsulated embryos are generally thought to play an active role in escaping from egg capsules or egg masses. However, for species that brood their egg capsules, the factors controlling the timing of hatching are largely unclear, particularly the degree to which hatching is controlled by the embryos rather than by the mother, and the degree to which the hatching of one egg capsule influences the hatching of sister egg capsules within the same egg mass. We studied aspects of hatching using the direct-developing gastropod Crepipatella dilatata, which includes nurse eggs in its egg capsules and broods clusters of egg capsules for at least several weeks before metamorphosed juveniles are released. Isolated egg capsules were able to hatch successfully, in the absence of the mother. Moreover, the hatching of one capsule did not cause adjacent sister capsules to hatch. Hatched and un-hatched sister egg capsules from the same egg mass differed significantly in the number of metamorphosed juveniles, average shell size, offspring biomass (juveniles + veliger larvae), and the number of nurse eggs remaining per egg capsule. Differences in when egg capsules hatched within a single egg mass were not explained by differences in egg capsule age. Hatching occurred only after most nurse eggs had been ingested, most offspring had metamorphosed into juveniles, and juveniles had reached a mean shell length > 1.36 mm. Whether the mother has any role to play in coordinating the hatching process or juvenile release remains to be determined.

  7. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations Between Egg Capsule Morphology and Predation Among Populations of the Marine Gastropod, Nucella emarginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, T A

    1990-12-01

    Intraspecific variation in the morphology of egg capsules is ideal for assessing the costs and benefits of encapsulation, yet little is known about the extent of such variation among populations of a single species. In the present study, I compared capsule morphology among three populations of the intertidal gastropod, Nucella emarginata. Significant differences were found both in capsule wall thickness and capsule strength. Mean capsule wall thickness varied as much as 25% among populations, with the dry weight of capsular cases differing accordingly. Capsule strength, measured as resistance to puncturing and squeezing forces, also varied among populations, but did not directly reflect differences in capsule wall thickness. Despite extensive variation in capsule morphology within this species, the number and size of eggs contained within capsules of equal volume did not differ significantly among populations. I also compared the type of capsule-eating predators that were present at each site. Shore crabs, Hemigrapsus spp., were abundant at all three sites; however, the predatory isopods Idotea wosnesenskii were only present at sites containing relatively thick-walled capsules. Although Hemigrapsus and Idotea were able to chew through both thick- and thin-walled capsules, laboratory experiments revealed that Idotea preferentially opened thin-walled capsules. These results suggest that variation in capsule morphology among populations of N. emarginata may, at least in part, reflect selection for the protection of embryos against predation.

  9. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  10. Salinity and temperature tolerance of the invasive freshwater gastropod Tarebia granifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aquatic species, such as the gastropod Tarebia granifera, can cause ecological isturbances and potentially reduce biodiversity by displacing indigenous invertebrates. In South Africa, T. granifera was first recorded in an estuarine environment in the St Lucia Estuary. Its tolerance to salinity and temperature was investigated through the experimental manipulation of these factors. T. granifera can tolerate temperatures between 0 ºC and 47.5 ºC, allowing it to survive high temperature extremes. The species may also survive cold snaps and invade higher altitude areas. More remarkably, this snail survives high salinity for a relatively long time, as LS50 (lethal salinity for 50% of the population was reached at 30 psu over 65–75 days. However, higher salinity adversely affected the T. granifera population. Snails acclimated to freshwater conditions and suddenly transferred to 30 psu experienced 100% mortality within 48 h. Snail activity also declined with increasing salinity. T. granifera’s environmental tolerance and parthenogenetic characteristics are the keys to successful introduction and establishment. Therefore, the management of T. granifera may prove diffcult in the short to medium term. The present findings constitute a contribution to the knowledge of biological invasions in Africa and to the understanding of estuarine invasions by T. granifera.

  11. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cochliopinae (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae): an enigmatic group of aquatic gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H P; Hershler, R; Thompson, F G

    2001-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was performed for 26 representatives of the aquatic gastropod subfamily Cochliopinae, 6 additional members of the family Hydrobiidae, and outgroup species of the families Rissoidae and Pomatiopsidae. Maximum-parsimony analysis yielded a single shortest tree which resolved two monophyletic groups: (1) a clade containing all cochliopine taxa with the exception of Antroselates and (2) a clade composed of Antroselates and the hydrobiid genus Amnicola. The clade containing both of these monophyletic groups was depicted as more closely related to members of the family Pomatiopsidae than to other hydrobiid snails which were basally positioned in our topology. New anatomical evidence supports recognition of the cochliopine and Antroselates-Amnicola clades, and structure within the monophyletic group of cochliopines is largely congruent with genitalic characters. However, the close relationship between the Pomatiopsidae and these clades is in conflict with commonly accepted classifications and suggests that a widely accepted scenario for genitalic evolution in these snails is in need of further study. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Susceptibility of the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) exposed to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A J; Rae, R

    2015-05-01

    The Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) is a major pest in tropical countries. Current control methods involve the use of slug pellets (metaldehyde) but they are ineffective, therefore new methods of control are needed. We investigated whether A. fulica is susceptible to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, which has been developed as a biological control agent for slugs and snails in northern Europe. We exposed A. fulica to P. hermaphrodita applied at 30 and 150nematodes per cm(2) for 70days and also assessed feeding inhibition and changes in snail weight. We show that unlike the susceptible slug species Deroceras panormitanum, which is killed less than 30days of exposure to P. hermaphrodita, A. fulica is remarkably resistant to the nematode at both doses. Also P. hermaphrodita does not reduce feeding in A. fulica nor did it have any effect on weight gain over 70days. Upon dissection of infected A. fulica we found that hundreds of P. hermaphrodita had been encapsulated, trapped and killed in the snail's shell. We found that A. fulica is able to begin encapsulating P. hermaphrodita after just 3days of exposure and the numbers of nematodes encapsulated increased over time. Taken together, we have shown that A. fulica is highly resistant to P. hermaphrodita, which could be due to an immune response dependent on the snail shell to encapsulate and kill invading parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  15. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  16. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  17. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.

    2016-02-03

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  18. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment

  19. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  20. Impact of toxic cyanobacteria on gastropods and microcystin accumulation in a eutrophic lake (Grand-Lieu, France) with special reference to Physa (= Physella) acuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Emilie; Brient, Luc; Carpentier, Alexandre; Acou, Anthony; Marion, Loic; Bormans, Myriam; Gerard, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are known to accumulate in gastropods following grazing of toxic cyanobacteria and/or absorption of MCs dissolved in water, with adverse effects on life history traits demonstrated in the laboratory. In the field, such effects may vary depending on species, according to their relative sensitivity and ecology. The aims of this study were to i) establish how various intensities of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations alter the structure of gastropod community and ii) compare MC tissue concentration in gastropods in the field with those obtained in our previous laboratory experiments on the prosobranch Potamopyrgus antipodarum and the pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis. We explored these questions through a one-year field study at three stations at Grand-Lieu Lake (France) affected by different intensities of cyanobacteria proliferations. A survey of the community structure and MC content of both cyanobacteria and gastropods was associated with a caging experiment involving P. antipodarum and L. stagnalis. In total, 2592 gastropods belonging to 7 prosobranch and 16 pulmonate species were collected. However, distribution among the stations was unequal with 62% vs 2% of gastropods sampled respectively at the stations with the lowest vs highest concentrations of MC. Irrespective of the station, pulmonates were always more diverse, more abundant and occurred at higher frequencies than prosobranchs. Only the pulmonate Physa acuta occurred at all stations, with abundance and MC tissue concentration (≤ 4.32 μg g DW -1 ) depending on the degrees of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations in the stations; therefore, P. acuta is proposed as a potential sentinel species. The caging experiment demonstrated a higher MC accumulation in L. stagnalis (≤ 0.36 μg g DW -1 for 71% of individuals) than in P. antipodarum (≤ 0.02 μg g DW -1 for 12%), corroborating previous laboratory observations. Results are discussed in

  1. Stable isotope evidence for dietary overlap between alien and native gastropods in coastal lakes of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822 is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods.A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes dietary overlap (IDO, % aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp., detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60% between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848, Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841 and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774. However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848, under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed.The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods. Complementary stable isotope and gut content analysis can

  2. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  3. Systems medicine advances in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffo, Flavia R; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fernandez, Isis E

    2017-09-30

    Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments. This review discusses the state-of-the-art contributions of systems medicine-based approaches in ILDs over the past 5 years. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  4. Interstitial radiophosphorus diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, S.M.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Godin, V.P.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    Method of invasive β-radiometry in breast cancer was developed. Analysis of observations of 148 patients with breast cancer was presented. Qualitative increase of count efficiency is the important advantage for interstitial β-radiometry in intratumoral situation of β-detector. Radionuclide activity of 37-74 kBq/kg permits to receive values of relative accumulation of 32 P in a tumor (RAPTu1) by invasive method. Tendency is evident to some decrease of mean values of RAPTu1 in investigations conducted in 70 hrs and more after 32 P introduction. Study on relative accumulation of radionuclide in tumor after conservative treatment can serve as a criterion for evaluation of efficiency of antitumor treatment

  5. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  6. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Adrian C; Swartz, Melody A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell–cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals

  7. Gastropod shells: a dynamic resource that helps shape benthic community structure. [Calliactis tricolor; Pagurus pollicaris; Calappa flammea; Octopus joubini; Panulirus argus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, R

    1983-01-01

    Empty gastropod shells are an important resource for many animals in shallow benthic marine communities. Shells provide shelter for hermit crabs, octopuses, and fishes, provide attachment substratum for hermit crab symbionts, and directly or indirectly modify hermit crab predation. Creation of an empty shell due to predation of one gastropod on another and acquisition of that shell by a hermit crab are two key events in the subsequent use of that shell. Shells of different gastropod species and the species of hermit crab acquiring them affect the symbiont complement that attaches to the shell, which in turn may affect future shell use by other symbionts. Certain shell types worn by the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicaris Say, are positively associated with the symbiotic sea anemone, Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur), which protects the hermit crab from predation by the crab, Calappa flammea (Herbst), and possibly from the octopus, Octopus joubini Robson. Shells of other species of gastropods are resistant to being crushed by the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille). The inter- and intraspecific interactions centered on the gastropod shell are termed a ''habitat web.'' The potential of the shell to limit the size and distribution of animal populations demonstrates how this resource helps shape community structure.

  8. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  9. Reconstruction of Regional Environments in the Caribbean During the Neogene Using Gastropod Stable Isotope Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. A.; Grossman, E. L.; O'Dea, A.; Tao, K.

    2011-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) ca. 3.8-3.6 Ma triggered changes in nearshore environments in the Caribbean, causing changes in marine annual range of temperature (MART), carbonate deposition, and the benthic ecosystem. The associated extinction event began ca. 3-2 Ma, peaking between 2-1 Ma. More than two dozen "faunules", discreet packages of fauna which lived under similar environmental conditions, represent time just prior to, during, and after the uplift of the CAI. Multiple parameters including the amount and types of fauna present in each faunule have been used to estimate factors such as paleodepth, MART, extinction rates, and changes in ecological structure over time. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod shells serially-sampled about the spire provide records of seasonal environmental conditions. In the tropics, gastropods that live under conditions of strong seasonal upwelling and freshwater input have a greater range of δ18O values in their profiles compared to those animals that live in non-upwelling waters with little freshwater input. Low δ13C values often represent the isotopically low terrestrial carbon found in river runoff, and may be coupled with low δ18O values during seasonal freshening of marine waters. Preliminary data from Strombus shells representing four faunules ranging in age from before the rise of the isthmus through its completion demonstrate the effectiveness of using these mollusks to study ancient tropical environments. Rio Limoncito (~3 Ma), which is believed to represent water depths of 20-40m based on foraminiferal assemblage, yielded the lowest δ18O values (-0.6±0.4%, representing the warmest temperatures/lowest salinities). The samples from Pueblo Nuevo (~1.6 Ma), with an estimated paleodepth between 50 and 100m, had an average value of 0.4±0.3% and therefore represent cooler waters/higher salinity. A shell from NE Escudo de Veraguas (~3.55 Ma) shows a shift from essentially

  10. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  11. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  12. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  13. Cryptic diversity in Mediterranean gastropods of the genus Aplus (Neogastropoda: Buccinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrifa Aissaoui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean gastropods previously ascribed to the buccinid genus Pollia Gray, 1837 are more correctly classified in the genus Aplus de Gregorio, 1885. Using an integrative taxonomy approach combining molecular, morphological and geographic data, we revisit the limits of the extant species in the area, and propose a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis based on 66 specimens from various localities in the Mediterranean Sea, including type localities of some nominal taxa. We used a preliminary morphological inspection, followed by a DNA-barcoding approach to propose species hypotheses, subsequently consolidated using additional data (phylogenetic, geographic and refined morphological data. Seven species hypotheses were eventually retained within our molecularly assayed samples, versus three classical morphologically recognized species. Among these, three correspond to Aplus dorbignyi (Payreaudeau, 1826 with its hitherto unrecognized geographical cognates A. gaillardoti (Puton, 1856 (eastern Mediterranean and Aplus nodulosus (Bivona Ant., 1832 (Sicily; two closely related, yet considerably divergent, lineages are treated as a single species under Aplus scaber (Locard, 1892; the classically admitted Aplus scacchianus (Philippi, 1844 is confirmed by molecular evidence; Mediterranean populations attributable to Aplus assimilis (Reeve, 1846 may represent either cryptic native populations or an ongoing invasion of the Mediterranean by what was hitherto considered to be a West African species; finally, specimens from the Strait of Gibraltar may represent an undescribed species, but we conservatively refrain from formally introducing it pending the analysis of more material, and it is compared with the similar Aplus campisii (Ardovini, 2014, recently described from Sicily and not assayed molecularly, and Aplus scaber.

  14. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  15. Phenotypic differentiation of the Red Sea gastropods in response to the environmental deterioration: Geometric morphometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of degradation in the coastal zone of the Red Sea are becoming well known in upper portions of the trophic web (e.g., humans and fish), but are less well known among the benthic primary consumers. In addition, the degree to which heavy metals are entering the trophic web can be better-quantified using macrobenthos. Two-gastropod genera encompassing Echinolittorina subnodosa and Planaxis sulcatus from three different localities on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea were examined in order to deduce the impact of environmental deterioration on the morphology of shells. The examined sites include clean pristine, slightly polluted, and markedly polluted rocky shores. Phosphate/lead industry is the main source of pollution in this zone. Because landmarks on the rugose Echinolittorina are difficult to define and to ensure finer resolution of the analyses, a newly 'grid-based' landmarks was implemented. Both Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) were particularly capable to capture and terrace the minor morphological variations accurately. Two phenotypes portioned among the environmentally different populations were recognized and interpreted as ecotypes with many intermediate forms. The first ecotype has a higher spire and smaller aperture and dominating the pristine site North of Marsa Alam, whereas the second ecotype has a globular shell shape with big aperture and dominating the markedly polluted site. The intermediate forms dominating the slightly polluted site. The shape differences are interpreted as an adaptive differentiation to different metal concentrations. As the morphological variation between the two-ecotypes of both taxa is still minors, and both ecotypes occur together with many intermediate forms, the phenotypic divergence stage has not yet accomplished. The gradational shape change among the investigated populations was positively correlated with index of Pollution (IP). As the human activities were the main

  16. Growth patterns of an intertidal gastropod as revealed by oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Hill, T. M.; Guerra, C.

    2007-12-01

    The size and morphology of mollusk shells are affected by environmental conditions. As a result, it is difficult to assess growth rate, population age structure, shell morphologies associated with ontogenetic stages, and to compare life history patterns across various environments. Oxygen isotope analysis is a useful tool for estimating minimum ages and growth rates of calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Calcite shell material from members of two northern California populations of the intertidal muricid gastropod Acanthinucella spirata was sampled for isotopic analysis. Individual shells were sampled from apex to margin, thus providing a sequential record of juvenile and adult growth. A. spirata were collected from a sheltered habitat in Tomales Bay and from an exposed reef in Bolinas. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, wave exposure, and substrate consistency, and biotic composition differ significantly between these sites, possibly resulting in local adaptations and variation in life history and growth patterns. Shell morphology of A. spirata changes with age as internal shell margin thickenings of denticle rows associated with external growth bands are irregularly accreted. It is not known when, either seasonally and/or ontogentically, these thickenings and bands form or whether inter or intra-populational variation exists. Preliminary results demonstrate the seasonal oxygen isotopic variability present at the two coastal sites, indicating 5-6 degC changes from winter to summertime temperatures; these data are consistent with local intertidal temperature records. Analysis of the seasonal patterns indicate that: 1) differences in growth rate and seasonal growth patterns at different ontogenetic stages within populations, and 2) differences in growth patterns and possibly age structure between the two A. spirata populations. These findings indicate that isotopic analyses, in addition to field observations and morphological measurements, are necessary to

  17. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  18. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  19. Bioaccumulation of microcystins in two freshwater gastropods from a cyanobacteria-bloom plateau lake, Lake Dianchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junqian; Wang Zhi; Song Zhuoyan; Xie Zhicai; Li Lin; Song, Lirong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the bioaccumulation patterns of microcystins (MCs) in organs of two gastropods, samples were collected in Lake Dianchi monthly from May to October, 2008, when cyanobacteria typically bloom. The average MCs concentrations for Radix swinhoei (pulmonate) and Margarya melanioides (prosobranch) tended to be similar for the different organs: the highest values in the hepatopancreas (9.33 by 3.74 μg/g DW), followed by digestive tracts (1.66 by 3.03 μg/g DW), gonads (0.45 by 1.34 μg/g DW) and muscles (0.22 by 0.40 μg/g DW). Pulmonate had higher value than prosobranch because of the stronger bioaccumulation ability in hepatopancreas. The levels in organs of R. swinhoei were correlated with environmentally dissolved MCs, but influenced by intracellular MCs for M. melanioides. The estimated MCs concentrations in edible parts of M. melanioides were beyond the WHO’s provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg/kg), suggesting the risk of consumption of M. melanioides from the lake. Highlights: ► We probe bioaccumulated patterns of microcystins in organs of pulmonate and prosobranch. ► The highest microcystins in hepatopancreas for both snails. ► The higher microcystins for pulmonate results from the stronger bioaccumulation ability in hepatopancreas. ► Environmentally dissolved microcystins are the main sources for pulmonate, but intracellular for prosobranch. ► Suggesting the risk of consumption snails in the studying regions. - Higher bioaccumulation MCs level for pulmonate mainly contributed to the stronger bioaccumulation ability in its hepatopancreas.

  20. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  1. Interstitial shadow on chest CT is associated with the onset of interstitial lung disease caused by chemotherapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niho, Seiji; Goto, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Kim, Y.H.; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kubota, Kaoru; Saijo, Nagahiro; Nishiwaki, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) films of the chest was studied to clarify the influence of interstitial shadow on developing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Eligible patients were those lung cancer patients who started to receive first-line chemotherapy between October 2001 and March 2004. Patients who received thoracic radiotherapy to the primary lesion, mediastinum, spinal or rib metastases were excluded. We reviewed pretreatment conventional CT and plain X-ray films of the chest. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation or reticular shadow without segmental distribution was defined as interstitial shadow, with this event being graded as mild, moderate or severe. If interstitial shadow was detected on CT films of the chest, but not via plain chest X-ray, it was graded as mild. Patients developing ILD were identified from medial records. A total of 502 patients were eligible. Mild, moderate and severe interstitial shadow was identified in 7, 8 and 5% of patients, respectively. A total of 188 patients (37%) received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, namely gefitinib or erlotinib. Twenty-six patients (5.2%) developed ILD either during or after chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses revealed that interstitial shadow on CT films of the chest and treatment history with TKI were associated with the onset of ILD. It is recommended that patients with interstitial shadow on chest CT are excluded from future clinical trials until this issue is further clarified, as it is anticipated that use of chemotherapeutic agents frequently mediate onset of ILD in this context. (author)

  2. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Quentin E.; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq 153 Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D 98% ), I-RSBT reduced urethral D 0.1cc below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D 1cc was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D 1cc was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq 153 Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed 153 Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows

  3. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  4. Neutral N-glycan patterns of the gastropods Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutternigg, Martin; Bürgmayr, Sabine; Pöltl, Gerald; Rudolf, Judith; Staudacher, Erika

    2007-11-01

    The N-glycosylation potentials of Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica were analysed by investigation of the N-glycan structures of the skin and viscera glycoproteins by a combination of HPLC and mass-spectrometry methods. It is one of the first steps to enlarge the knowledge on the glycosylation abilities of gastropods, which may help to establish new cell culture systems, to uncover new means for pest control for some species, and to identify carbohydrate-epitopes which may be relevant for immune response. All snails analysed contained mainly oligomannosidic and small paucimannosidic structures, often terminated with 3-O-methylated mannoses. The truncated structures carried modifications by beta1-2-linked xylose to the beta-mannose residue, and/or an alpha-fucosylation, mainly alpha1,6-linked to the innermost N-acetylglucosaminyl residue of the core. Many of these structures were missing the terminal N-acetylglucosamine, which has been shown to be a prerequisite for processing to complex N-glycans in the Golgi. In some species (Planorbarius corneus and Achatina fulica) traces of large structures, terminated by 3-O-methylated galactoses and carrying xylose and/or fucose residues, were also detected. In Planorbarius viscera low amounts of terminal alpha1-2-fucosylation were determined. Combining these results, gastropods seem to be capable to produce all kinds of structures ranging from those typical in mammals through to structures similar to those found in plants, insects or nematodes. The detailed knowledge of this very complex glycosylation system of the gastropods will be a valuable tool to understand the principle rules of glycosylation in all organisms.

  5. A Circa-decadal Change in the Gastropod Fauna on a Tidal Flat in an Island Mangrove Estuary(Ecology)

    OpenAIRE

    Shun-ichi, Ohgaki; Takeharu, Kosuge; Ishigaki Tropical Station, Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute

    2005-01-01

    An investigation on gastropod fauna was carried out on a tidal flat in the Nagura Estuary on Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyu Islands in 1989 and 1998 using similar methods. 470-480 guadrats covering ca. 1900m^2 were surveyed during low tides from February to April in each year. Of the total 19 species recorded, the range of eight species had varied significantly between the two surveys, with six species expanding their range and two species contracting their range. Percentage in abundance of mudd...

  6. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  7. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Andrea [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); Velásquez, E.A. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Instrumentación Científica y Microelectrónica, Grupo de Estado Sólido, IF-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Florez, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); and others

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration. - Highlights: • We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. • We propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. • The band exchange splitting reduction as the H concentration increases, is a consequence of the competition between the band energy term (kinetic energy) and the ferromagnetic energy term (Weiss field).

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal in chagasic megaesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Tavares, Marcelo Garcia; Gerolin, Gustavo Pacheco; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Chagasic visceromegalies are the most important digestive manifestations of Chagas disease and are characterized by motor disorders and dilation of organs such as esophagus and colon. One of the theories raised to explain the physiopathogenesis of chagasic megas is the plexus theory. Recent studies have shown a reduction of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the colon of chagasic patients. These cells are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and are considered to be pacemaker cells, that is, they are responsible for coordinating peristalsis and for mediating nerve impulses. In view of the lack of studies on these cells in megaesophagus and the previous observation of a reduction of ICCs in chagasic megacolons, we compared the distribution of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic and nonchagasic patients to contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathogenesis of this esophageal disease. Esophageal biopsy samples from 10 chagasic and 5 nonchagasic patients were used. Cells were identified with the anti-CD117 antibody. The number of ICCs was quantified in longitudinal and circular muscle layers and myenteric plexus. The results were analyzed statistically by comparison of means. An intense reduction in the number of ICCs was observed in muscle layers and in the myenteric plexus of patients with megaesophagus. We conclude that there is an intense reduction of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic patients when compared to nonchagasic patients, a finding supporting the important role of these cells in gastrointestinal tract motility. A deficiency in these cells might be implied in the genesis of megaesophagus.

  9. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [de

  10. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  11. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole

  12. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    patients,       treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were       sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised       surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically       optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index...... on the       regularity of the implant, such that the benefit of optimisation was       larger for irregular implants. OI and HI correlated strongly with target       volume limiting the usability of these parameters for comparison of dose       plans between patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dwell time optimisation significantly......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  13. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  14. A new interstitial flatworm (Turbellaria: Promesostomidae) from the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerck, De G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Paraproboscifer alacerregis, representing a new genus and a new species of the interstitial typloplanoid flatworms is described from the Seychelles and Kenya. It is placed in the turbellarian family Promesostomidae, The type locality is on Mahé Island, Seychelles.

  15. Leflunomide-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Güzel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leflunomide (LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis is a very rare condition but potentially fatal. We report a case of LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis. A 63-year-old woman followed-up for 37 years with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated with LEF (20 mg/day since 5 months were admitted to our hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and dark sputum.Chest radiography represented bilateral alveolar consolidation. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated diffuse ground-glass appearance and interlobular septal thickening. Since the patient’s clinics and radiologic findings improved dramatically after the cessation of LEF and recieving oral steriod therapy, she was diagnosed as drug-induced interstitial lung disease. In conclusion, when nonspecific clinical signs such as respiratory distress, cough and fever seen during the use of LEF, drug-induced interstitial lung disease should be kept in mind for the differantial diagnosis.

  16. A CURIOUS CASE OF FEVER AND INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shahid Mahdi; Dr. Darpanarayan Hazra; Dr. Zainab Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare chronic autoimmune inflammatory myopathy with fever, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud’s phenomenon and polyarthritis. The exact underlying cause of antisynthetase syndrome is not yet known. Diagnosis is made with presence of Jo-1 (Histydyl t RNA synthase) antigen in a patient with underlying interstitial lung disease, myositis, arthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon and mechanic’s hand. Some of the other antisynthetase anti bodies are PL-7 (antigen – threonyl-tRNA...

  17. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  18. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, S.; Benamore, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Assayag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  20. Modeling of long-range migration of boron interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Burunova, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial migration of ion-implanted dopant in silicon during low-temperature thermal treatment has been formulated. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created during ion implantation or at the initial stage of annealing. During thermal treatment a migration of these impurity interstitials to the surface and in the bulk of a semiconductor occurs. On this basis, a simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 35 minutes at a temperature of 800 0 C has been carried out. The calculated boron profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters describing the interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 0.092 μm at a temperature of 800 0 C. To carry out modeling of ion-implanted boron redistribution, the analytical solutions of nonstationary diffusion equation for impurity interstitials have been obtained. The case of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the case of reflecting boundary on the surface of a semiconductor have been considered. (authors)

  1. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  2. An approach to interstitial lung disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J N Pande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are common and have varied etiology, clinical presentation, clinical course and outcome. They pose a diagnostic challenge to physicians and pulmonologists. Patients present with dry cough, exertional dyspnoea, interstitial lesions on X-ray of the chest and restrictive ventilatory defect on spirometry. A sharp decline in oxygen saturation with exercise is characteristic. Careful evaluation of the history of the patient and physical examination help in narrowing down diagnostic probabilities. HRCT of the chest has emerged as an important tool in the evaluation of these disorders. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIP are a group of conditions which are classified into several types based on pathological features. Bronchoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosis of certain disorders but are of limited value in classification of IIP which requires surgical biopsy. Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP, also referred to as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, has a progressive course and an unfavourable outcome. Certain new drugs have recently become available for treatment of UIP. Our approach towards diagnosis and management of interstitial lung diseases based on personal experience over the past three decades is reported here. Key words: Usual interstitial pneumonia – sarcoidosis – pneumoconiosis – bronchoscopy – lung biopsy 

  3. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  4. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa: Gastropod molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the

  5. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as "A." aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained

  6. Terrestrial and lacustrine gastropods from the Priabonian (upper Eocene) of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Neubauer, Thomas A; Kadolsky, Dietrich; Pickford, Martin; Nordsieck, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic gastropods from the upper Eocene (Priabonian) Zalumah Formation in the Salalah region of the Sultanate of Oman are described. The assemblages reflect the composition of the continental mollusc fauna of the Palaeogene of Arabia, which, at that time, formed parts of the southeastern Tethys coast. Several similarities with European faunas are observed at the family level, but are rarer at the genus level. These similarities point to an Eocene (Priabonian) rather than to a Rupelian age, although the latter correlation cannot be entirely excluded. At the species level, the Omani assemblages lack any relations to coeval faunas. This suggests the possible presence of a distinct biogeographic province during the Palaeogene or may simply reflect the extremely sparse non-marine fossil record of the Eocene in the Tethys region. The occurrence of the genera Lanistes, Pila, and Gulella along with some pomatiids, probably related to extant genera, suggests that the modern African-Arabian continental faunas can be partly traced back to Eocene times and reflect very old autochthonous developments. In contrast, the diverse Vidaliellidae went extinct, and the morphologically comparable Neogene Achatinidae may have occupied the equivalent niches in extant environments. Carnevalea Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabiella Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pyrgulella Harzhauser, Kadolsky and Neubauer nov. gen., Salalahia Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanitopsis Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabicolaria Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pacaudiella Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Goniodomulus Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Eoquickia Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanillya H. Nordsieck nov. gen. and Omanifera H. Nordsieck nov. gen. are introduced as new genera. Pila neuberti Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Arabiella arabica Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Pyrgulella parva Harzhauser, Kadolsky and

  7. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  8. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  9. [Taphonomy of the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta (Heterobranchia: Streptacididae) from the Middle Pennsylvanian, La Joya Formation, Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez E, Catalina; Buitrón S, Blanca; Vachard, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Gastropods are an important component in most of the fossil record; however, investigations have focused mainly on the characterization of the tafofacies and signatures in determined environments. We present qualitative and quantitative taphonomic data for the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta assemblages from the La Joya Formation of the Sierra Agua Verde, Sonora State, (NW) Mexico. We analyzed 176 shells. Good preservation received ahigh taphonomic grade (A) and poor preservation a D. The shells were complete in 72% of cases (taphonomic grade B). Less than 10% are corroded or are parallel to the layer (grade A). This rock is petrographycally classified as wackestone, sedimentologically it is characterized by middle sorting (grade B) and low grading (grade A). The fossiliferous assemblage grades as A and B. Biostratinomic features of the skeletal assemblage are characteristic of sedimentologic concentrations of autochthonous-parautochthonous elements at the accumulation site. There was minimal reworking and transport in an environment of low energy, locally produced during a short period of accumulation.

  10. Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, E.; Bardet, E.; Peuvrel, P.; Martinet, L.; Perrot, P.; Baraer, F.; Loirat, Y.; Sartre, J.Y.; Malard, O.; Ferron, C.; Dreno, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (L.D.R.) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medico surgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6 h). The median dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-40 Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6 cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5 cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6 cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6 cm (p = 0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Conclusion: Early perioperative L.D.R. brachytherapy delivering 20 Gy at 5 mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. (authors)

  11. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  12. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  13. Taxonomic diversity dynamics of early cretaceous brachiopods and gastropods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus (Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontological data available from the Azerbaijanian domains (Somkhit-Agdam, Sevan-Karabakh, and Miskhan-Kafan tectonic zones of the Lesser Caucasus permit reconstruction of the regional taxonomic diversity dynamics of two groups of Early Cretaceous marine benthic invertebrates. Stratigraphical ranges of 31 species and 14 genera of brachiopods and 40 species and 31 genera of gastropods are considered. The total number of species and genera of brachiopods was low in the Berriasian-Valanginian and then rose to peak in the Barremian. Then, the diversity declined in the Aptian, and brachiopods are not known regionally from the Albian. Gastropods appeared in the Hauterivian and experienced a strong radiation in the Barremian. The diversity of species and genera declined in the Aptian (with a minor radiation in the Middle Aptian, and no gastropods are reported from the Albian. Globally, the number of brachiopod genera remained stable through the Early Cretaceous, and the number of gastropod genera increased stepwise with the maximum in the Albian. The regional and global patterns of the diversity dynamics differed for the both groups of marine benthic invertebrates. The Barremian maximum of the taxonomic diversity coincided with the regional flourishing of reefal ecosystems. The taxonomic diversity dynamics of brachiopods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus is very similar to those of the Northern Caucasus, which is an evidence of proximity of these regions during the Early Cretaceous.

  14. New data on Paleocene-Eocene fauna (gastropods, ostracods, fishes) and palynoflora of the Boltysh impact structure (Ukraine) with reference to palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dykan, N.; Kovalchuk, O.; Dykan, K.; Gurov, E.; Dašková, Jiřina; Přikryl, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 213-239 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : pollen * gastropods * ostracods * fishes * Boltysh * Paleogene * Eastern Eurpúe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  15. An unusual taphocoenosis of a sea urchin and a rectally inserted turriform gastropod from the lowermost Paleocene of Stevs klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Jesper; Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Vallon, Lothar H.

    2015-01-01

    A specimen of the common irregular echinoid Echinocorys sulcata (Goldfuss, 1826), recovered from the lowermost Paleocene Stevns Klint Formation, at Stevns Klint, Denmark, is of note in revealing a perfect external mold of the turriform gastropod Cerithiella fenestrata (Ravn, 1902) in the anal ope...

  16. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  17. Inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of freshwater gastropod shells from Lake Lednica, western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Pełechaty, Mariusz

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of shells and opercula of gastropods sampled live from the littoral zone of Lake Lednica, western Poland. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured in individual opercula of Bithynia tentaculata and in shells of Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus crista, Lymnaea sp., Physa fontinalis, Radix auricularia, Theodoxus fluviatilis and Valvata cristata. The gastropods selected for the study are among the species most commonly found in European Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The carbon isotope composition of the gastropod shells was species-specific and the same order of species from the most to the least 13C-depleted was observed at all sites sampled. Differences in shell δ13C values between species were similar at all sampling sites, thus the factors influencing shell isotopic composition were interpreted as species-specific. The δ18O values of shells were similar in all the species investigated. Significant intra-specific variability in shell δ13C and δ18O values was observed not only within the populations of Lake Lednica, which can be explained by heterogeneity of δ13C DIC, δ18O water and water temperature between the sites where macrophytes with snails attached were sampled, but also between individuals sampled from restricted areas of the lake's bottom. The latter points to the importance of factors related to the ontogeny of individual gastropods.

  18. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  19. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Effects of solute interstitial elements on swelling of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegler, J.O.; Leitnaker, J.M.; Bloom, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    High-purity stainless steel (HPS), equivalent to type 316 stainless steel in major alloy elements but with greatly reduced interstitial elements and manganese contents, was irradiated in the temperature range 725 to 875 K to fluences ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 x 10 26 neutrons/m 2 (>0.1 MeV). The HPS swelled 20 to 50 times more than commercial grade 316 stainless steel (316 SS), and about the same as commercial-purity nickel, which has about the same interstitial content as HPS. A fine-grained 316 SS in which interstitial elements but not manganese were precipitated by thermomechanical treatments also showed exaggerated swelling, approaching that of HPS, which suggests that swelling in commercial stainless steels is retarded by small amounts of interstitial elements normally present in them and not by the major alloying elements. Interstitials tend to precipitate from solution during irradiation, and bulk extractions of precipitate particles were made to evaluate the extent of the precipitation reactions. At both 643 and 853 K precipitation was clearly enhanced by irradiation significantly enough to alter the matrix composition, which suggests that swelling may be increased at high fluences over that predicted by extrapolation of lower fluence data. These observations are discussed in terms of potential behaviour of fuel cladding materials and of the validity and interpretation of accelerated schemes for simulating neutron damage. (author)

  1. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  4. Dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth under cascade damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Semenov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling temperature regime), the concentration of freely migrating vacancies is much higher than that of the interstitials, owing to the evaporation from the primary vacancy clusters (i.e. those produced by intracascade clustering). It is not immediately obvious how the dislocations can be net interstitials sinks, and hence that the observed nucleation and growth of the interstitial loops at elevated temperatures can be correctly predicted as in the conventional theory. To address these basic questions, a rate theory model is formulated in this paper, which describes the dislocation climb and loop growth in the presence of intracascade primary clusters. Within this model, conservation equations for the concentrations and average radii of the two kinds of primary cluster are derived, and the corresponding steady-state concentrations and average radii are calculated. From this, the dislocation climb velocity and interstitial loop growth rate are calculated. On the basis of the results of this calculation, some of the basic questions of production bias are discussed. (Author)

  5. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p 2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  6. Food availability and predation risk drive the distributional patterns of two pulmonate gastropods in a mangrove-saltmarsh transitional habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yisheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Shing Yip

    2017-09-01

    The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats. For both species, the maximum population abundance occurred in the upper saltmarsh and the ecotone between mangrove and saltmarsh at 361.0 and 358.0 ind.m -2 , respectively, which was four times that of the lower saltmarsh. Mangroves were evaluated as the optimal habitat for the pulmonates in terms of the environmental parameters moisture content and food availability. However, due to its longer inundation duration within each tidal cycle, use of the mangrove habitat by the pulmonates was impeded because of difficulties in oxygen acquisition under submerged conditions. Laboratory experiments revealed the oxygen intake of the pulmonates dropped abruptly to 4.3-9.0% of aerial rates when submerged. This result indicated that mangroves were not the optimal habitat for the pulmonates. Furthermore, the visiting frequency of predators (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and toadfishes, Tetraodontidae) was 1.3 times higher in the mangrove compared to those in the ecotone and upper saltmarsh habitats. Underwater video recording also suggested high mortality of these gastropods at 31.7-88.9% in mangrove and 0.80-0.98 times higher than that in saltmarsh, resulting from the predators preying in the mangrove habitat during high tides. Despite the abiotic factors facilitating the distribution of the pulmonates in the mangrove, the

  7. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  8. 67Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting

  9. /sup 67/Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-02-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting.

  10. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  11. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  12. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  13. [Composition, distribution and abundance of gastropod larvae in the South of Quintana Roo,Mexico and north of Belice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Rivera, J; de Jesús Navarrete, A

    2000-12-01

    To know the composition, abundance and distribution of gastropod larvae, monthly samplings were carried out in the south of Quintana Roo, Mexico and north of Belize, from April to December, 1996. Collections were made in six sites at Chinchorro Bank, four in the South Coast and six at Hol-Chan, Belize, between the 10 and 20 hrs. At each station 2.5 m3 of seawater were pumped through a 202 microns mesh; 27 species were identified. The most abundant species were: South Coast, Rissoina sp. 1., Limacina sp. 1 and Natica sp. 1, Chinchorro Bank, Limacina sp. 1, Creseis acicula, Cerithiopsis hero and Rissoina sp. 1 and Hol-Chan, Limacina sp. 2, Alaba incerta and Rissoina sp. 1. The highest abundance was in rainy season. Apparently the presence of winds, coastal currents and food availability, control the distribution and abundance of larvae.

  14. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  15. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Santos Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida dos; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins

    1997-01-01

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  16. Interstitial diffusion in crystal and the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The role of different vibrational states of a crystal is taken into account in the model of interstitial uncorrelated jumps. The relation of the diffusion coefficient for an interstitial with probabilities of jumps is found. The cross section for resonant absorption of γ-quanta by a nucleus of a diffusing atom in a crystal is calculated. The existence of vibrational levels is shown to lead to less broadening and intensity of the Moessbauer line than those predicted by the simple model of jumps. The absorption line shape for atom jumping through octahedral sites in bcc lattice is investigated [ru

  17. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report

  18. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men.......Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  19. Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rourke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

  20. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  1. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  2. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective of their fun......This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective...

  3. Interactions between cyanobacteria and gastropods II. Impact of toxic Planktothrix agardhii on the life-history traits of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Paty, Chrystelle; Bormans, Myriam; Brient, Luc; Gérard, Claudia

    2007-03-30

    Hepatotoxins are frequently produced by many cyanobacterial species. Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent and widely studied hepatotoxins, with potentially hazardous repercussions on aquatic organisms. As a ubiquitous herbivore living in eutrophic freshwaters, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) is particularly exposed to cyanobacteria. The toxic filamentous Planktothrix agardhii is common in temperate lakes and is therefore, a potential food resource for gastropods. In the first part of this study, we demonstrated the ingestion of toxic P. agardhii by L. stagnalis during a 5 weeks exposure, with concomitant accumulation of, on average, 60% of total MCs ingested. After 3 weeks of non-toxic food (lettuce), approximately 90% of MCs were eliminated from tissues. Here, we investigate the impact of toxic P. agardhii consumption on the life-history traits (survival, growth and fecundity), locomotion and the structure of digestive and genital glands of juvenile and adult L. stagnalis. We observed a decrease of growth regardless of age, although this was more marked in juveniles, and a reduction of fecundity in adults. Survival and locomotion were not affected. Reduction of growth and fecundity continued to be observed even after feeding of non-toxic food for 3 weeks. The structure of the digestive gland was altered during the intoxication period but not irreversibly as cells tended to recover a normal status after the 3-week detoxification period. No histopathological changes occurred in the genital gland and oocytes, and spermatozoids were present in the gonadic acini. The density of cyanobacterial suspensions used in this study was comparable to those regularly observed in lakes, particularly in eutrophic waters. These results are discussed in terms of the negative impact of toxic cyanobacteria on natural communities of freshwater gastropods, and potential cascading effects on the equilibrium and functioning of the ecosystem.

  4. The role of vermetid gastropods in the development of the Florida Middle Ground, northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Poore, Richard Z.; Hickey, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Middle Ground is a complex of north to northwest trending ridges that lie approximately 180 km northwest of Tampa Bay, Florida. The irregular ridges appear on the otherwise gently sloping West Florida shelf and exhibit between 10-15 m of relief. Modern studies interpret the ridges as remnants of a Holocene coral-reef buildup that today provide a hard substrate for growth of a variety of benthic organisms including hydrocorals, scleractinians, alcyonarians, and algae. Recent rotary coring reveals that the core of the eastern ridge of the Florida Middle Ground complex consists of unconsolidated marine calcareous muddy sand that is capped by a boundstone composed primarily of the sessile vermetid gastropod Petaloconchus sp., and overlays a weathered, fossiliferous limestone. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon ages (uncalibrated) on the 3.6-m thick vermetid worm rock indicate that it developed during a sea-level stillstand in the early Holocene (8,225 ±30-8,910 ± 25 yr B.P.). Our observations suggest that the Florida Middle Ground is a remnant of a series of shore parallel bars that formed in the early Holocene and were capped by a 3.6-m thick unit of vermetid gastropods. During a rapid sea-level rise that began ~8,000 yr B.P. the vermetids growth ceased and the worm rock preserved the ridges structure. Diver observations document that the edges of the ridges are currently being eroded and undermined by biological activity and current action, leading to calving of large capstone blocks.

  5. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  6. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz-Rivera

    Full Text Available The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt, a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny. Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown.

  7. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known.

  8. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  9. [New toxicity of fotemustine: diffuse interstitial lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Wémeau-Stervinou, L; Gauthier, S; Auffret, M; Mortier, L

    2012-04-01

    Fotemustine is an alkylating cytostatic drug belonging to the nitrosourea family and is used in particular in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of interstitial lung disease associated with fotemustine. An 81-year-old man treated with fotemustine for metastatic melanoma presented acute interstitial lung disease 20 days after a fourth course of fotemustine monotherapy. The condition regressed spontaneously, with the patient returning to the clinical, radiological and blood gas status that had preceded fotemustine treatment. After other potential aetiologies had been ruled out, acute fotemustine-induced lung toxicity was considered and this treatment was definitively withdrawn. Other cytostatic agents belonging to the nitrosourea family can cause similar pictures, with a number of cases of interstitial lung disease thus being ascribed to fotemustine and dacarbazine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial lung disease induced by fotemustine monotherapy. This diagnosis should be considered where respiratory signs appear in melanoma patients undergoing fotemustine treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations employing DFT are reliable tools ... as well as predicting equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties. Self-consistent ..... produced by interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd. The quantity of central interest .... These numbers are in reasonable qualitative agreement.

  11. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  12. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  13. Pulmonary function vascular index predicts prognosis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Tamera J.; Wort, Stephen J.; MacDonald, Peter S.; Edey, Anthony; Hansell, David M.; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Maher, Toby M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Bandula, Steven; Bresser, Paul; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We hypothesize that baseline KCO (diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and 6-month decline in KCO reflect PH, thus predicting mortality

  14. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    4):572–577. 68. Okragly AJ, Niles AL, Saban R, et al. Elevated tryptase, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic... neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the urine of318 interstitial cystitis and bladder cancer patients. The

  15. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  16. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  19. Morphology of the Interstitial Tissue of Active and Resting Testis of the Guinea Fowl

    OpenAIRE

    Dharani, Palanisamy; Kumary, S. Usha; Sundaram, Venkatesan; Joseph, Cecilia; Ramesh, Geetha

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY: The morphology of the interstitial tissue of sexually active and resting testis of the guinea fowl were studied. Six adult health birds of active and resting phases of reproductive cycle were used for this study. The interstitial tissue consisted of loose connective tissue, interstitial cells (Leydig cells), few connective cells, blood vessels and adrenergic nerve fibres in the present study in both active and resting testes. The interstitial tissue was compact in sexually active tes...

  20. Comparison of gastropod mollusc (Apogastropoda: Hydrobiidae habitats in two crater lakes in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K McCrary

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic gastropod mollusc, Pyrgophorus coronatus, may perform an important role in the transmission of an emergent ocular pathology among fishes in Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. This disease emerged after an introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the subsequent loss of Chara sp. beds in the lake. We compared the mollusc population densities in three habitats (sandy/muddy substrates, rocks, and Chara vegetation at varying depths (1.5, 10, 20, and 30 m in two volcanic crater lakes in Nicaragua: Lake Apoyo and Lake Xiloa, where lower numbers of affected fishes were found and tilapia has not been introduced. Duplicate samples at 1.5 m depth were taken in each habitat monthly for a year, and triplicate samples for bathymetric analysis of snail populations were performed during August, 2005. Samples of fixed surface area were filtered in a 0.4 cm size screen and live snails were counted from each sample. The preferred snail habitat in both lakes, Chara beds, was vastly reduced in Lake Apoyo via consumption by introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Structureless sandy substrates (mean ± standard error 3.1±1.3 ind/m² had lower population densities than other habitats in Lake Xiloá (rocks 590.9±185.3 ind/m²; vegetation 3 686.5±698.2 ind/m2; ANOVA I, pEl gasterópodo acuático, Pyrgophorus coronatus, podría jugar un papel importante en la transmisión de una patología ocular emergente entre los peces de la laguna de Apoyo, Nicaragua. Esta enfermedad surgió después de una introducción de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y la subsecuente pérdida de lechos de Chara sp. en la laguna. Comparamos las densidades poblacionales del caracol en tres hábitats (substratos arenosos/lodosos, rocas y vegetación de Chara en dos lagunas cratéricas volcánicas en Nicaragua: La laguna de Apoyo y la laguna de Xiloá, donde no se encuentraron grandes cantidades de peces afectados y donde no se han introducido tilapias. Mensualmente, por un a

  1. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human small intestine. Ultrastructural identification and organization between the main smooth muscle layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle...

  2. Fine interstitial clusters as recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trushin, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    Behaviour of interstitial clusters and their roll in processes of radiation swelling of metals are described. It is shown that occurrence of coherent advanced precipitations during decomposition of solid solutions under irradiation leads to matrix supersaturation over interstitial atoms. This enhances recombination of unlike defects due to vacancy precipitation on fine interstitial clusters. Evaluation of cluster sizes was conducted

  3. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  4. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  5. Tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons in gastropod species from Vietnam analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chin Jen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among marine toxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs are known as notorious neurotoxins that induce serious food poisoning incidents in the Southeast Asia region. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TTX and PSP toxins are important issues of seafood safety. Paralytic toxicity was observed in mice exposed to 34 specimens from five species of gastropods using a PSP bioassay. Five species of gastropods, Natica vitellus, Natica tumidus, Oliva hirasei, Oliva lignaria, and Oliva annulata, were collected from the coastal seawaters in Nha Trang City, Vietnam, between August 2007 and October 2007. The average lethal potency of gastropod specimens was 90 ± 40 (mean ± standard deviation mouse units (MU for N. vitellus, 64 ± 19 MU for N. tumidus, 42 ± 28 MU for O. hirasei, 51 ± 17 MU for O. lignaria, and 39 ± 18 MU for O. annulata. All toxic extracts from the sample species were clarified using a C18 Sep-Pak solid-phase extraction column and a microcentrifuge filter prior to analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection indicated that the toxins of the olive shell (O. hirasei, O. lignaria, and O. annulata were mainly composed of saxitoxin (STX (73–82%, gonyautoxin (GTX 2, 3 (12–22%, and minor levels of TTX (5–6%. The toxins of N. vitellus and N. tumidus were mainly composed of STX (76–81% and GTX 1, 4 (19–24%. Furthermore, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to verify the identity of the PSPs and TTX. Our evidence shows that these gastropods have novel toxin profiles.

  6. An evaluation of Mesodon and other larger terrestrial gastropod shells for dating late Holocene and historic alluvium in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovan, Monica T.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Nekola, Jeffery C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of stream erosion and changes in channel morphology is important for managing and restoring unstable streams. One of the significant challenges in this type of research is establishing accurate dating of late Holocene and historic alluvium. Here we evaluate the potential of using 14C dating and amino acid racemization (AAR) to date large terrestrial gastropod shells that are often preserved within alluvial sediments. Many terrestrial gastropods incorporate old carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks into their shells and therefore are unsuitable for radiocarbon dating. Recent studies, however, have shown that some taxa avoid this ‘limestone problem’ and can yield reliable 14C ages. In this study, we measured the 14C activity of specimens for the genera Mesodon, Ventridens, and Allogona collected live and from alluvial sequences dated independently by dendrochronology, 14C dating of wood, and/or 137Cs analyses. Mesodon zaletus contained old carbon in similar concentrations (up to ~ 30%) found in previous studies of other large taxa and should be avoided for 14C dating when possible. In contrast, shells of Ventridens ligera and Allogona profunda showed minimal limestone effects and therefore may be suitable for dating late Holocene alluvium. These results highlight the importance of taxonomic identification of gastropod taxa prior to their use for 14C dating and demonstrate that shell fragments that are not identifiable should be avoided. We also measured d/l ratios (n = 17) of aspartic and glutamic acid from eight different taxa of terrestrial gastropods recovered from four late Holocene and historic stratigraphic sequences. Average d/l ratios of aspartic and glutamic acid from historic sediments < 300 years old are lower in shells from younger stratigraphic units, indicating that AAR can be used to differentiate between multiple historic stratigraphic units.

  7. Mg and 18O Variations in the Shell of the Chilean Gastropod Concholepas concholepas Reflect SST and Growth Rate variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Poitrasson, F.; Cuif, J.; Ortlieb, L.

    2004-12-01

    To validate the use of fossil mollusc shells as recorders of environmental conditions, a primary calibration study was carried out on modern shells of the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas, the so-called southern hemisphere abalone which is particularly abundant in Holocene archaeological sites. Organisms were maintained in culture tanks and feed with live mytilids. The sea water temperature in the tank was recorded every half-an-hour by an automatic device. The experiment lasted several months. Periodical marking with calcein provided a precise chronological control of the shell growth. Thus, well-dated high resolution chemical profiles could be directly compared with temperatures during shell formation. Geochemical analyses of the calcite layers include Mg, Sr and 16O/18O composition. Trace elements were analysed using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Electron Microprobe while stable isotopes were measured on a Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). The shell growth rate during two months of formation varied between 30 and 140 µm/day which allows us to reach a temporal resolution for chemical profiles between a few hours and three days. The growth rate variations do not seem to be related to temperature fluctuations. Only Mg content was analytically reproducible and showed significant variations across the shells. The Mg high-resolution profiles display a grossly sinusoidal shape. Shells from different sites along the coasts of Chile showed mean Mg contents of 300 ppm and 500 ppm for mean temperatures of 17 and 20° C, respectively. This suggests a gross correlation between Mg and temperature. However, high resolution Mg results do not show an exact fitting neither with temperature nor with growth rates. Other parameters, like shell ageing as suggested by an amplitude increase observed near the edge of one of the shells, or other complex biological factors, may influence Mg incorporation into the shell. \\delta 18O values of the calcite vary between -1,5 and 2

  8. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  9. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  10. Determination of the population of octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.M.; Gogava, V.V.; Shilo, S.I.; Biryukova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of neutron investigations of ZrHsub(1.66), ZrHsub(1.75) and ZrHsub(1.98) zirconium hydrides are presented. Investigations were conducted using plane polycrystal samples by multidetector system of scattered neutron detection. Neutron diffraction method was used to determine the number of interstitial hydrogen atoms in interstitials of the lattice cell in the case of statistic atom distribution. The numbers of interstitial atoms in octahedral interstitials for zirconium hydrides were determined experimentally; the difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms in octa- and tetrahedral interstitials was determined as well. It is shown that experimentally determined difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms, occupying octa- and tetrahedral positions in investigated zirconium hydrides results at room temperature in the pretailing occupation of tetrahedral interstitials by hydrogen atoms (85-90%); the occupation number grows with temperature decrease and the ordering of interstitial vacancies with formation of hydrogen superstructure takes place at low temperatures

  11. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro

    1984-01-01

    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan. (author)

  12. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  13. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  14. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  15. Explicit studies of the quantum theory of light interstitial diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Baskes, M.I.; Wilson, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The formalism associated with small-polaron diffusion in the high temperature semiclassical regime is generalized so as to transcend simplifications employed in developing the nonadiabatic theory. The diffusion constant is then calculated for simple models in which the metal atoms interact with each other and with the interstitial atom with two-body forces. Studies of these models not only confirm the necessity of generalizing the formalism but also yield diffusion constants whose magnitudes and temperature dependenes ar consistent with the general features of the existing data for the diffusion of hydrogen and its isotopes in bcc metals. The motion of a positive muon between interstitial positions of a metal is also investigated

  16. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Mitcham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures.

  17. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistivity studies of interstitial helium mobility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.G.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The mobility of interstitial helium in Nb and Nb-O alloys was studied in the temperature range of 10-383 K using resistivity measurements. The helium was introduced by radioactive decay of solute tritium (approximately 1 at%). At T < 100 K the resistivity increased due to conversion of tritium trapped at oxygen interstititals to helium. The formation of helium caused a very significant resistance increase at room temperature and above. The results suggest that helium is mobile at temperatures above 295 K and that the precipitation of large helium bubbles occurs along grain boundaries. The mobile helium species may either be single interstitials or small helium clusters. The activation enthalpy for the diffusion of the mobile helium species was estimated to be about 55 kJ/mol (0.66 eV). (Auth.)

  19. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank

    2007-01-01

    using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... flattened processes, ramifying primarily in a bipolar fashion. Using immunoelectron microscopy (I-TEM) it was possible to view CD34 gold labelling of cells corresponding to interstitial cells. Although similar CD34-positive cells have been demonstrated in the bowel wall, they have never been described...... in the detrusor. The ontogeny and function of CD34-ir, a kit-negative cell, is unknown, but it may be involved in smooth muscle contraction....

  20. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgers, J.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  1. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. From classification to diagnostic work-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.; Bankier, A.; Stiebellehner, L.; Schmid, K.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) comprise seven entities with distinct histologic patterns. In their idiopathic form IIP are rare diseases. They are, nevertheless, considered prototypes of the much more common secondary interstitial pneumonias. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has had a profound impact on the imaging of IIP, because the detailed delineation of the lung anatomy allows a close correlation between the histologic patterns of IIP and the CT features. On the basis of CT morphology and in the correct clinical context, the radiologist can achieve an accurate diagnosis in many cases. However, due to overlap between the various entities, complementary lung biopsy is recommended in virtually all cases. This article reviews the CT pattern of IIP and offers relevant clinical and histological information for the purpose of enabling the radiologist to understand and participate in the multidisciplinary concept of IIP. (orig.) [de

  2. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of the interstitial space in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, David G

    2003-01-01

    Background The pharmacokinetics of extracellular solutes is determined by the blood-tissue exchange kinetics and the volume of distribution in the interstitial space in the different organs. This information can be used to develop a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model applicable to most extracellular solutes. Methods The human pharmacokinetic literature was surveyed to tabulate the steady state and equilibrium volume of distribution of the solutes mannitol, EDTA, morphi...

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  5. Sharp interstitial Nefritis, Value Diagnoses of the Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Humberto; Andrade, Rafael E; Garcia, Diego

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of young patients are revised and they present a clinical picture of acute renal insufficiency of unknown aetiology. This fact was no suspected initially but thanks to the help of ultrasound and the clinical history it was possible to diagnose as an acute interstitial nephritis due to hypersensitivity to drugs. The classification of this illness is revised as well as its etiopathogenic clinical picture and ultrasound diagnosis

  6. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re{sub 3}N and Re{sub 2}N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials

  7. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, G.; Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. ► The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. ► The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. ► The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. ► The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re 3 N and Re 2 N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials within binary nitride chemistry.

  8. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  10. Condensation of helium in interstitial sites of carbon nanotubes bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcone, B.; Orlandini, E.; Toigo, F.; Ancilotto, F.

    2006-01-01

    Helium atoms are believed to be strongly bound within the interstitial channels in bundles of carbon nanotubes. In a recent paper [F. Ancilotto et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 165422 (2004)] inhomogeneity in the size distribution of nanotube radii was shown to make a system of 4 He atoms in such an environment effectively a four-dimensional Bose gas, thus permitting a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of the adsorbed atoms into the minimum energy state. This surprising result was obtained for a model of noninteracting atoms in a continuum distribution of (virtually) infinite interstitial channels. Here we investigate how the singular thermal properties of the ideal system and the occurrence of BEC are affected by a more realistic modeling of a bundle of nanotubes where (i) the number of nanotubes is finite and where (ii) 4 He atoms adsorbed within the same interstitial channel interact among themselves. Also in this case we observe an anomalous heat capacity close to the ideal condensation temperature, suggesting the persistence of the condensation transition for interacting 4 He atoms, which might be experimentally observed

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, David N

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  12. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases. Often forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschenrieder, F.; Stroszczynski, C.; Hamer, O.W.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). These patterns are presented based on case studies, whereby emphasis is placed on the clinical context. This is to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary communication and discussion in the diagnostic field of DILD as it is a diagnosis of exclusion or of probability in most cases. Helpful differential diagnostic indications for the presence of DILD, such as an accompanying eosinophilia or increased attenuation of pulmonary consolidations in amiodarone-induced pneumopathy are mentioned and the freely available online database http://www.pneumotox.com is presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Diffuse neutron scattering study of metallic interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, P.

    1991-10-01

    We studied two interstitial solid solutions (Ni-C(1at%) and Nb-O(2at%) and two stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-CaO(13.6mol%) and ZrO2-Y2O3(9.6mol%) by elastic diffuse neutron scattering. We used polarized neutron scattering in the case of the ferromagnetic Ni-based sample, in order to determine the magnetic perturbation induced by the C atoms. Measurements were made on single crystals in the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS, Saclay, France). An original algorithm to deconvolve time-of-flight spectra improved the separation between elastically and inelastically scattered intensities. In the case of metallic solutions, we used a simple non-linear model, assuming that interstitials are isolated and located in octahedral sites. Results are: - in both compounds, nearest neighbours are widely displaced away from the interstitial, while next nearest neighbours come slightly closer. - the large magnetic perturbation induced by carbon in Nickel decreases with increasing distance on the three first neighbour shells and is in good agreement with the total magnetization variation. - no chemical order between solute atoms could be evidenced. Stabilized zirconia exhibit a strong correlation between chemical order and the large displacements around vacancies and dopants. (Author). 132 refs., 38 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: etiology, clinical findings and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Lilian Tiemi; Leslie, Kevin O; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Coletta, Ester Aparecida Ney; Storrer, Karin Mueller; Soares, Maria Raquel; de Castro Pereira, Carlos Alberto

    2015-05-09

    Airway-centered Interstitial Fibrosis (ACIF) is a common pathologic pattern observed in our practice. The objectives of this study are to describe the causes associated with ACIF in a large sample of patients and its effect on survival. A retrospective study in three centers of interstitial lung disease in São Paulo, between January of 1995 and December of 2012. The surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed by three pathologists. The clinical, functional and tomographic findings were analyzed by a standardized protocol. There were 68 cases of ACIF, most of them women. The mean age was 57 ± 12 yr. Dyspnea, cough, restrictive pattern at spirometry and oxygen desaturation at exercise were common. A reticular pattern with peribronchovascular infiltrates was found in 79% of the cases. The etiologies of ACIF were hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 29 (42.6%), gastroesophageal reflux disease in 17 (25.0%), collagen vascular disease in 4 (5.9%), a combination of them in 15 cases and idiopathic in 3 (4.4%). The median survival was 116 months (95% CI = 58.5 - 173.5). Lower values of oxygen saturation at rest, presence of cough and some histological findings--organizing tissue in the airways, fibroblastic foci and microscopic honeycombing--were predictors of worse survival. ACIF is an interstitial lung disease with a better survival when compared with IPF. The main etiologies are HP and GERD. The oxygen saturation at rest, the presence of cough and some histological findings are predictors of survival.

  15. Determination of the toxic variability of lipophilic biotoxins in marine bivalve and gastropod tissues treated with an industrial canning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Oyaneder-Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Cristóbal; Del Campo, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Héctor R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C). Changes in the profiles of toxins and total toxicity levels of LMB in endemic bivalves and gastropods were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total reduction of toxicity (≈ 15%) was not related to the destruction of the toxin, but rather to the loss of LMB on removing the shells and packing media of canned products (***p < 0.001). Industrial processing of shellfish reduces LMB contents by up to 15% of the total initial contents, concomitant only with the interconversion of PTX-group toxins into PTX-2sa. In soft bottom-dwelling species with toxicities beyond the standard for safe human consumption (≥ 160 μg OA-eq kg - 1 ), toxicity can be reduced to safe levels through industrial preparation procedures.

  16. X-irradiation effects on growth and metamorphosis of gastropod larvae (Crepidula fornicata): a model for environmental radiation teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Pechenik, J; Lord, A; Gould, L; Naparstek, E; Kase, K; FitzGerald, T J

    1986-02-01

    Little information is available on the effects of x-irradiation on the development of multicellular marine organisms. Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata were irradiated at 200 rad/min, 250 kVp X-rays, to doses between 500 and 20,000 rad in a single fraction. During the weeks following exposure, changes in shell length and biomass, incidence of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage of development, and mortality were measured. The results over a 20-day period demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in growth rate of larval shells following doses above 2000 rad (control at day 20 = 850 +/- 110 ..mu..m length, 820 +/- 11 ..mu..m for 500 rad, 750 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 2000 rad, 710 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 5000 rad, 620 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 10,000 rad, and 580 +/- 15 ..mu..m for 20,000 rad). Shell length-specific biomass was significantly decreased for doses above 10,000 rad. A significant increase in larval mortality was detected with doses above 2000 rad. The cumulative percent of larval metamorphosis was decreased by exposures to 5000 rad and was detectable as early as 18 days after irradiation; however, metamorphosis of larvae after 5000 rad occurred faster by day 21 while other groups metamorphosis required 34-35 days for completion. Crepidula fornicata may provide a very sensitive and convenient system in which to study teratogenic effects of x-irradiation on multicellular organisms.

  17. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  18. Responses of a Rocky Shore Gastropod to the Effluents of Predatory and Non-predatory Crabs: Avoidance and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, P B; Palmer, A R

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that the rocky shore gastropod, Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin), could discriminate between the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs. N. lamellosa turned away from seawater that had passed over the large predatory crab, Cancer productus Randall. This avoidance behavior was observed in snails from two localities that, based on differences in shell form, presumably experienced different levels of predation intensity. The scent of the non-predatory crabs Pugettia producta (Randall) and Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt had no effect on the turning behavior of snails from either site. Surprisingly, snails from both sites were attracted to the scent of a small shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), but moved at random in response to a common prey item Balanus glandula Darwin. These results suggest that N. lamellosa can assess from a distance the relative risks posed by different species of crabs, and respond appropriately. The unexpected attraction to H. nudus suggests that N. lamellosa may use this effluent to home in from a distance on potential refugia, because H. nudus are often associated with crevices and the undersides of boulders where N. lamellosa would be less vulnerable to larger predators.

  19. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  20. The larvae of congeneric gastropods showed differential responses to the combined effects of ocean acidification, temperature and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyu; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-02-15

    The tolerance and physiological responses of the larvae of two congeneric gastropods, the intertidal Nassarius festivus and subtidal Nassarius conoidalis, to the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 at 380, 950, 1250 ppm), temperature (15, 30°C) and salinity (10, 30 psu) were compared. Results of three-way ANOVA on cumulative mortality after 72-h exposure showed significant interactive effects in which mortality increased with pCO2 and temperature, but reduced at higher salinity for both species, with higher mortality being obtained for N. conoidalis. Similarly, respiration rate of the larvae increased with temperature and pCO2 level for both species, with a larger percentage increase for N. conoidalis. Larval swimming speed increased with temperature and salinity for both species whereas higher pCO2 reduced swimming speed in N. conoidalis but not N. festivus. The present findings indicated that subtidal congeneric species are more sensitive than their intertidal counterparts to the combined effects of these stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert

    2017-09-13

    Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin. I found a remarkable hierarchical structure of differentiation mechanisms in space and time: neutral and mutation-order processes are older and occur mainly between regions, whereas more recent adaptive processes are the main driver of genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation within regions. The strongest differentiation occurs between habitats and between regions, i.e. when ecological and non-ecological processes act synergistically. The structured occurrence of these processes based on the specific geographical setting and ecological opportunities strongly influenced the potential for evolutionary radiation. The results highlight the importance of interactions between various mechanisms of differentiation in evolutionary radiations, and suggest that non-ecological processes are important in adaptive radiations, including those of cichlids. Insight into such interactions is critical to understanding large-scale patterns of organismal diversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Parasitic gastropod bioerosion trace fossil on Cenomanian oysters from Le Mans, France and its ichnologic and taphonomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Breton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe and name Loxolenichnus stellatocinctus Breton and Wisshak igen. et isp. nov., a bioerosion trace fossil on an Upper Cenomanian oyster from Le Mans (France. This trace is attributed here to a parasitic gastropod. The characteristics of this ichnospecies are a combination of one or several, vertical or oblique, complete penetrations, and an asymmetrical attachment etching (fixichnion with a diagnostic set of stellate grooves increasingly distinct towards the margin of the trace. By including two former Oichnus ichnospecies, Loxolenichnus halo comb. nov. and Loxolenichnus taddei comb. nov., Oichnus, is now constrained to pure predation traces (praedichnia. The numerous oysters collected from the Marnes à Pycnodonte biauriculata Formation show associated epibionts and encrusters as well as borers and scrapers. Encrusters comprise 24 taxa while bioerosion trace fossils comprise 17 ichnotaxa ranging from very rare (< 0.1% to quite abundant (81%. The taphonomic history leading to an ex-situ condensation of these oysters is complex. Both the Gnathichnus and Entobia ichnofacies are represented on the shellgrounds, presumably alternatingly.

  3. Palaeotemperature estimation in the Holsteinian Interglacial (MIS 11) based on oxygen isotopes of aquatic gastropods from eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    For quantitative estimation of past water temperature of four Holsteinian (MIS 11) palaeolakes from eastern Poland, the oxygen isotope palaeothermometer was applied to shells of the aquatic gastropods Viviparus diluvianus and Valvata piscinalis. The δ18O composition of their shells demonstrated the average growth-season water temperatures during the mesocratic stage of the interglacial (Ortel Królewski Lake), during its climatic optimum - the Carpinus-Abies Zone (Ossówka-Hrud, Roskosz and Szymanowo Lakes), and in the post-optimum (Szymanowo Lake). The calculation was based on δ18OShell values and the δ18OWater assumed for the Holsteinian from the modern oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the expected amount of evaporative enrichment. The mean oxygen isotope palaeotemperatures of Ortel Królewski lake waters were in the range of 18.1-21.9°C and were uniform for the Taxus and Pinus-Larix zones. Ossówka-Hrud and Roskosz Lakes had mean temperatures of 17.4-21.0°C during the climatic optimum, whereas the temperature of Szymanowo lake waters was estimated at 20.6-21.7°C at that time. These values are concordant with the pollen-inferred July air temperatures noted during the Holsteinian in eastern Poland. Relatively high values of 25°C in the post-optimum noted at Szymanowo were connected with the presence of a shallow and warm isolated bay indicated by pollen and mollusc records.

  4. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population: a study using the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC...

  5. A comparison in cosmetic outcome between per-operative interstitial breast implants and delayed interstitial breast implants after external beam radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Russell, Nicola S.; Jansen, Edwin P. M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; Borger, Jacques; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Interstitial implants for brachytherapy boost in the breast conserving therapy of breast cancer can be performed in two ways; implants during the tumor excision (per-operative implants) or after the external beam therapy (delayed interstitial implants). Differences in

  6. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  7. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  9. Postoperative interstitial hernia as a cause of obscure incisional wound site pain

    OpenAIRE

    Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Śmietański, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    An interstitial hernia is one in which the hernia sac is located between the layers of the abdominal wall. The analysis of contemporary literature shows that interstitial hernias are most often seen in children as a type of inguinal hernia and often accompany undescended testis. The hernia sac is usually located between the external-oblique and internal-oblique muscles in a lateral-cephalic direction. The authors present 3 cases of interstitial hernia found during laparoscopic exploration of ...

  10. Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, K.; Averback, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular dynamics computer simulations using embedded atom potentials. Near the melting temperature these concentrations are both ∼10 -6 . Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute more to diffusion. In perfect, or pulse-heated crystals, spontaneous Frenkel pair production results in even higher interstitial concentrations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  12. Cicatricial organising pneumonia mimicking a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Bilawich, AnaMaria

    2018-04-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is composed of loose granulation tissue plugs in distal airspaces; these disappear with steroid treatment. Recently a variant labelled 'cicatricial' OP has been described in which the granulation tissue organised to much denser fibrous tissue but still retained the usual pattern of OP. Here we report 10 patients thought to have an interstitial lung disease, and who on biopsy had a variant of cicatricial OP characterised by linear bands or small nodular masses of dense fibrous tissue that does not resemble ordinary OP. The bands/nodules were usually distributed randomly but occasionally resembled fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia in local areas. Small foci of loose granulation tissue at the edge of the fibrotic bands sometimes mimicked fibroblast foci. Recognisable conventional OP was always present, but often in very small amounts. Four cases, including one patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, showed formation of bone in the fibrotic bands and nodules. On computerised tomography (CT) scan of the chest some cases looked like typical OP, but some demonstrated only irregularly distributed linear opacities, sometimes with associated calcification. Follow-up imaging on six cases showed that the process either markedly improved or remained stable over time; no case had progressive disease. Cicatricial OP with this pathological pattern represents an uncommon form of OP that appears to be a generally benign process which may have persisting linear opacities on CT scan but that does not progress; however, it can be confused on biopsy and CT with a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  14. Development of rearing and testing protocols for a new freshwater sediment test species: the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Cognat, Claudine; Mons, Raphaël; Mouthon, Jacques; Garric, Jeanne

    2006-03-01

    This paper aimed at proposing rearing and testing protocols for Valvata piscinalis, a new potential species for sediment toxicity testing. Such tests were developed since this species reliably represents the bio/ecological characteristics of other gastropods. It may thus be representative of their sensitivity to chemicals. V. piscinalis was successfully cultured in our laboratory for six generations. Cultures provided a high productivity for a low working time and low costs. The tests conditions we proposed seemed to be relevant for the development of reliable tests with this species. Indeed, hatching probability of egg-capsules, as well as embryo, newborn and juvenile survival rates, were close to 100%. Moreover, growth rates and fecundity were significantly higher than in field and in other laboratory studies. Partial life-cycle tests on clean sediments were achieved for various feeding levels to determine survival, growth and reproduction patterns, ad libitum feeding level and life cycle parameters values. Ad libitum feeding levels for newborn, juveniles and adults were 0.1, 0.4 and 0.8 mg Tetramin/individual/working day. Growth tests with zinc-spiked sediments provided a no-effect concentration and a lowest effect concentration of respectively 200 and 624 mg zinc/kg dry sediment. Other growth tests on spiked sediments we ran at our laboratory with second, third and fourth instars larvae of Chironomus riparius pointed out that V. piscinalis was more sensible to zinc than the chironomid, which is a routine test species in ecotoxicology. According to these results, V. piscinalis is a promising candidate species for sediment toxicity testing.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  16. Proteomic analysis of the reproductive organs of the hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to different endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Giusti

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD. In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin could

  17. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  18. Assessment of host-associated genetic differentiation among phenotypically divergent populations of a coral-eating gastropod across the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyza Johnston

    Full Text Available Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp. and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.

  19. Assessment of host-associated genetic differentiation among phenotypically divergent populations of a coral-eating gastropod across the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lyza; Miller, Margaret W; Baums, Iliana B

    2012-01-01

    Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp.) and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.

  20. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  1. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    and nomenclature are ongoing. Some new treatments have been reported that may be of benefit. Summary In the age of the internet, it is incumbent upon the clinician to keep up with current ideas, epidemiology, and treatment findings to be able to discuss these with well informed patients who come to clinics around......Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition...

  2. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  3. Registration of interstitial anions in irradiated MgO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, A.P.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of application of positron annihilation for detection in oxides of rare earth metals with interstitial component of Frenkel anion defects is revealed. Magnesium oxide monocrystals with Ca, Si, Fe, Al impurity contents of 0.1 wt.% were investigated. These crystals were irradiated by X-rays (45 kV, 20 μA) and protons (10 MeV). It is shown that heating of magnesium oxide crystals irradiated by protons up to 700 K completely anneals F + -centers. In this case the component disappears inth the pulse distributon at xi=5.0; the subsequent crystal irradiation with X-ray does not lead to its reduction

  4. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  5. Usual interstitial pneumonia in adult-onset still's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodelo, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Velasquez, Monica Patricia; Vasquez, Gloria; Uribe, Oscar; Perez, Maria del Pilar; Ramirez, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, characterized by high spiking fevers, evanescent salmon colored rash, arthralgias or arthritis, hepatospleno-megaly, Iymphadenopathy and sore throat. It is not uncommon for AOSD to involve other organs, such as the liver, the kidney; the bone marrow and less often the lungs. Pulmonary involvement ranges from 30 to 40 % (0 to 53 %), the pulmonary manifestations of AOSD include pleurisy, acute pneumonitis and even the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a case of a patient with AOSD who developed an interstitial lung disease and reviewed the literature on it

  6. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones. (Authors)

  7. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine and Radiology); Hall, R. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK))

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones.

  8. HRCT appearances of pulmonary interstitial diseases. The pathologic basis and clinical diagnostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi; Guan Yansheng; He Wen; Nie Yongkang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT appearances, the pathologic basis and diagnostic significance of pulmonary interstitial diseases. methods: 14 isolated lungs with interstitial diseases were obtained at autopsy and surgery. The lungs were inflated and fixed. HRCT and 1 cm thin slice soft X-ray radiograph were performed and then histologic examination was done. HRCT images of 72 cases with interstitial diseases were analysed. The HRCT appearances of 10 cases were followed up for 1.5-7.0 years. Results: According to HRCT-pathologic correlation, pulmonary interstitial diseases had the following HRCT findings: (1) Intralobular interstitial thickening (33 cases, 46%), including fine linear, reticular and radiating appearances and the interface sign. (2) Interlobular septal thickening (24 cases, 33%). (3) Thickening of bronchovesicular bundles (35 cases, 49%), with coarse, blurred or smooth bundle, and nodular shape. (4) Subpleural lines (31 cases, 43%). (5) Ground-glass opacity (22 cases, 31%) with peripheral, diffuse or locular distribution. (6) Honeycombing (27 cases, 38%), having sizes: 5 mm. Of the 10 cases with follow-up, 2 cases became normal on CT and 8 cases progressing to honeycombed lung. Conclusions: The HRCT findings of pulmonary interstitial diseases represent abnormalities of axial, peripheral and septal interstitium. Interstitial fibrosis of the lung can be differentiated from that without fibrosis by HRCT. Ground-glass opacity, intralobular interstitial thickening and subpleural lines are preliminary findings of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

  9. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  11. Molecular identification of marine symbiont bacteria of gastropods from the waters of the Krakal coast Yogyakarta and its potential as a Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) antibacterial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Muhammad Syaifudien; Pringgenies, Delianis; Trianto, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria may occur to many types of antibiotics, especially in cases of non-compliance use of antibiotics, which likely to allow the evolution of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Gastropods seas are marine invertebrates informed capable of production of secondary metabolites as antibacterial MDR. The purpose of the study was the isolation and identification of gastropod symbiont bacteria found in the waters of Krakal, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, which has the ability to produce antibacterial compounds against MDR(Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA (methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus homunis) molecular. Stages of this research began with the isolation of bacteria, bacteria screening for anti-MDR compound, mass culture, and extraction, antibacterial activity test, DNA extraction, amplification by PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing. The results of the study showed that 19 isolates of bacteria were isolated from three species of gastropods namely Littorina scabra, Cypraea moneta and Conus ebraeus. Among them, 4 isolates showed activity against MDR test bacteria (E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. homunis). The highest activity was displayed by code LS.G1.8 isolate with the largest inhibition zone 15.47±0.45mm on S. humonis at 250 µg/disk concentration. Isolate CM.G2.1 showed largest inhibition zone, with 21.5±0.07mm on MRSA at 1000 µg/disk concentration and isolate the largest inhibition zone CM.G2.5 14.37±0.81mm on MRSA 14.37±0.81mm at concentrations 1000 µg/disk. The molecular identification of isolates LS.G1.8 has 99% homology with Bacillus subtilis and isolates CM.G2.1 has 99% homology with Bacillus pumillus.

  12. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  13. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  14. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Lamb

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC. UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers.A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay.We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male, of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male, 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity.The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  15. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-09-26

    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  17. MRI of interstitial lung diseases. What is possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Wielpuetz, M.O.; Jobst, B.J.; Dinkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs is becoming increasingly appreciated as a third diagnostic imaging modality besides chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT). Its value is well acknowledged for pediatric patients or for scientific use particularly when radiation exposure should be strictly avoided. However, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is the biggest challenge of all indications. The objective of this article is a summary of the current state of the art for diagnostic MRI of interstitial lung diseases. This article reflects the results of a current search of the literature and discusses them against the background of the authors own experience with lung MRI. Due to its lower spatial resolution and a higher susceptibility to artefacts MRI does not achieve the sensitivity of CT for the detection of small details for pattern recognition (e.g. fine reticulation and micronodules) but larger details (e.g. coarse fibrosis and honeycombing) can be clearly visualized. Moreover, it could be shown that MRI has the capability to add clinically valuable information on regional lung function (e.g. ventilation, perfusion and mechanical properties) and inflammation with native signal and contrast dynamics. In its present state MRI can be used for comprehensive cardiopulmonary imaging in patients with sarcoidosis or for follow-up of lung fibrosis after initial correlation with CT. Far more indications are expected when the capabilities of MRI for the assessment of regional lung function and activity of inflammation can be transferred into robust protocols for clinical use. (orig.) [de

  18. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables.We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "presence" or "nonpresence" of bilateral Velcro crackles.Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern.In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care.

  19. Peritumoral interstitial fluid flow velocity predicts survival in cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hompland, Tord; Lund, Kjersti V.; Ellingsen, Christine; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is associated with poor outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We have recently developed a noninvasive assay of the IFP of tumors, and in this assay, the outward interstitial fluid flow velocity at the tumor surface (v 0 ) is measured by Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI and used as a parameter for IFP. Here, we investigated the independent prognostic significance of v 0 in cervical cancer patients given cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. Patients: The study involved 62 evaluable patients from a cohort of 74 consecutive patients (Stage IB through IIIB) with a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Results: The actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 67% and 76%, respectively. Significant associations were found between v 0 dichotomized about the median value and DFS and OS, both in the total patient cohort and a subcohort of 40 Stage IIB patients. Multivariate analysis involving stage, tumor volume, lymph node status, and v 0 revealed that only v 0 provided independent prognostic information about DFS and OS. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates a strong, independent prognostic impact of the pretreatment peritumoral fluid flow velocity in cervical cancer

  20. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  1. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, S.A.; Gutin, P.H.; Davis, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 ( 125 I) and iridium-192 ( 192 Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  2. Legionnaire's pneumonia: Is there really an interstitial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, C.; Frat, J.P.; Le Moal, G.; Roblot, F.; Michalakis, G.; Cabon, E.; Tasu, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Legionella pneumonia is usually classified as 'atypical pneumonia', which suggests a predominance of interstitial patterns in chest X-rays. Based on a selection of recent clinical cases and a brief review of the literature, the aim of the study is to clarify, how far the actual radiological findings would be consistent with these expectations. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 epidemic personal cases and a review of the literature data were performed to describe the chest X-ray findings of Legionella pneumophila (LP) community acquired pneumonia. X-ray review was performed simultaneously and in consensus by two radiologists (J.P.T., E.C.) and a physician (C.G.). Results: From our series, 17 patients had an abnormal chest X-ray on admission. Among these pathological X-ray cases, infiltrates were more often confluent (n = 16), or patchy (n = 7), rather than interstitial (n = 1). Fifteen patients had infiltrates involving the lower lung fields. Bilateral distribution of abnormalities and pleural effusion were each observed in three cases. Radiological findings deteriorated between the second and seventh days following admission, particularly in the form of patchy infiltrates with pleural effusion. The review of the literature is consistent with these findings, by reporting prevalent confluent or patchy infiltrates. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the physiopathological particularity of this affection and incite us to avoid the classification 'atypical pneumonia' in radiologic terminology. This term is more appropriate for clinical and microbiological use

  3. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  4. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.

    2005-01-01

    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  5. Usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Correlation between CT findings at the site of biopsy with pathological diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public Health Teachers, 3-1 Kurumazuka, Itami, Hyougo 664-8533 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011 (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, 5-3-1 Tikami, Kumamoto, 861-4193 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Fukuoka, Junya [Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, 160 Nishioiwake-cho, Seto City, Aichi (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings at the site of biopsy with the whole lung CT and pathologic diagnoses in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods: The study included 35 patients (25 UIP and 10 NSIP) diagnosed both pathologically and clinically. 81 surgical biopsy specimens (54 UIP, and 27 NSIP) and extracted areas corresponding to biopsy sites on HRCT were analyzed. CT interpretations were compared with pathological diagnoses in both extracted images and the whole lung. Concordant and discordant cases in multiple extracted images were divided and analyzed. Then the whole cases were categorized by including or not at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images and evaluated. Results: The diagnoses in extracted sites significantly correlated with pathological diagnoses (p = 0.047). There were significant differences in the concordances of extracted images compared with the diagnosis of whole lung and pathology (p = 0.008, 0.003, respectively). All 7 cases that were not concordant were diagnosed as radiological UIP with whole lung CT. The cases with at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted CT images were diagnosed as UIP in pathology more frequently (18 in 25) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radiological UIP in whole CT had more frequently discordant diagnoses from multiple extracted images than NSIP. And there were more cases in pathological UIP that included at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images compared with pathological NSIP.

  6. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  7. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, Pooja; Narula, Mahender K.; Anand, Rama; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT) evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE), in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema

  8. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  9. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  10. Sub-daily growth patterns and environmental recording in the shell of the Chilean coastal gastropod Concholepas concholepas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Cuif, J.-P.; Ortlieb, L.

    2003-04-01

    It is nowadays well established that paleo-oceanographic reconstructions based on variations of the geochemical composition of molluscs shells require a good understanding of many biological and biogeochemical processes affecting the shell formation and of the different kinds of diagenetic effects superimposed to the biominerals. Therefore, the parameters which control the growth modality as well as the ecological behaviour of the organisms become a prerequisite in the study of geochemical variations within carbonate skeletons. Such studies involve a calibration of the relationships between the actual environmental parameters and the registered variations of the elements or isotopes measured within the biominerals. This approach must take into account the size of the measured samples (eventually limited by instrumental techniques) and the variation of the relevant parameters during the time period covered by the sample. In a study aimed to reconstruct ENSO and upwelling impacts from geochemical variations within shells of a coastal gastropod of northern Chile, Concholepas concholepas, we undertook microstructural, mineralogical, biochemical analyses. Preliminary stable isotope analyses made with 0.3 mm standard drills provided δ18O values between 1,0 and 2,5 (/PDB) and Mg/Ca ratios between 2,0 and 5,5 mmol/mol for the calcitic layers of shells that grew in 1998--2000 (temperature range: 15--21^oC). Sr, Ba and Cd measured in the water are in the order of 10 ppm, 4,5 ppb and 0,040 ppb respectively, while the composition of the same elements (with respect to Ca) in the shells amount to mean values of 1,5 mmol/mol, 0,6 μmol/mol and 0,1 μmol/mol. For high resolution calibration studies, to be developed with laser ICP-MS and ionic microprobes, it is necessary to identify with a great (sub-daily) precision the time of formation of the considered fragment of shells that are subsampled. To achieve this requisite, we have grown Concholepas concholepas individuals in a

  11. Post Cretaceous cooling trend documented in the gastropods (Turritella Sp.) from the Cenozoic startigraphic successions of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Y.; Ghosh, P.; Halder, K.; Malarkodi, N.; Pathak, P.

    2017-12-01

    The aftermath of the Himalyan orogeny and subsequent cooling is documented in the deep sea sedimentary record from the Oceanic realm (1). Here we attempt to reconstruct the temperature pattern based on marine gastropods i.e. Turritella sp. which became abundant during the post Cretaceous period and have successfully been used for the reconstruction of climate by measuring the stable isotopic composition (2,3,4). Well preserved specimens of Cretaceous Turritella from the Rajamundry Infratrappean beds and those from the Miocene, Holocene succession of Kutch, western India were analysed along with specimen from the modern time scale (also from Kutch). The Cretaceous, early to mid Miocene, early Holocene and modern shells recorded δ13C variability from 0.36 to 4.94‰, -1.83 to -4.83‰, -3.26 to 0.40‰, -1.47 to -4.70‰ respectively suggesting drop in the productivity during mid Miocene and subsequent period of rapid growth. The Variability in terms of δ18O ranges from -2.28 to -4.99‰, -2.66 to -7.06‰, -2.86 to 0.96‰, -1.05 to -3.23‰ for the Cretaceous, early to mid Miocene, early Holocene and modern shells respectively. Corbula sp. collected from the same strata with that of the early to mid Holocene Turritella showed a similar δ13C and δ18O values denoting similar environmental condition during deposition. Absence of any significant correlation between δ13C vs δ18O support equilibrium precipitation of shell growth bands. We used Epstein oxygen isotope thermometry to derive temperature from the oxygen isotope of carbonate and adopted water isotopic composition (1‰ for the Cretaceous and -0.7‰ for the Miocene) from the literature. Our observation captured an overall cooling trend from the Cretaceous to the Holocene time period (especially in between mid Miocene to Holocene) and a subsequent warming trend in modern time. Validation with other thermometry method will be displayed at the time of presentation. References: [1] Zachos et al., 2001

  12. Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine...... bivalves and gastropods. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain reviewed the available literature but did not find support for the minimum lethal dose for humans of 2 mg, mentioned in various reviews. Some human case reports describe serious effects at a dose of 0.2 mg, corresponding to 4 μg/kg body...... weight (bw). However, the uncertainties on the actual exposure in the studies preclude their use for derivation of an acute reference dose (ARfD). Instead, a group ARfD of 0.25 μg/kg bw, applying to TTX and its analogues, was derived based on a TTX dose of 25 μg/kg bw at which no apathy was observed...

  13. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Mahana iti Gatti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP, associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia. The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  14. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Lonati, Davide; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Zancan, Arturo; Roué, Mélanie; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-02-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  15. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Davide; Zancan, Arturo; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories. PMID:29495579

  16. A first-principles investigation of interstitial defects in dilute tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul, E-mail: erhart@chalmers.se

    2015-12-15

    The thermodynamic properties of intrinsic and extrinsic (Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Re) defects in tungsten have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The formation energies of substitutional defects are discussed with respect to their thermodynamic solubility limits. Several different interstitial configurations have been identified as local minima on the potential energy surface. In addition to dumbbell configurations with orientations along 〈111〉 and 〈110〉, a lower symmetry configuration is described, which is referred to as a bridge interstitial. This interstitial type is found to be the lowest energy configuration for mixed-interstitials containing Ti, V, and Re, and can be up to 0.2 eV lower in energy than the other configurations. According to the calculations Ti, V and Re also trap self-interstitial atoms, which can be produced in substantial numbers during ion irradiation, affecting the mobility of the latter.

  17. Effect of the chemical pressure by the addition of interstitials in CePd3:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the 'chemical pressure' on the intermediate valence compound CePd 3 , is studied by means of specific heat measurements with and without magnetic field. The addition of interstitials in the cubic structure on the alloys CePd 3 A H (A = B, Be, Si) is analyzed. At low interstitial concentration the thermal and magnetic properties that characterize the evolution of the Ce valence show a universal behaviour with the volume displaced by the interstitial. For higher concentrations two different behaviours were found in the trivalent state: a) With the larger interstitials, Be and Si, the system evolves toward a long range antiferromagnetic order; b) With the smaller interstitial, B, the system evolves toward a concentrated Kondo state. (Author) [es

  18. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  19. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  1. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  2. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids. Curietherapie postoperatoire des cicatrices cheloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavere, P; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A; Roullet, B; Morzel, A; Rhein, B; Bonnetblanc, J M; Olivier, J P [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 87 - Limoges (France)

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected.

  3. CT and conventional radiographic techniques in interstitial pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipner, N.; Schueller, H.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.; Schlolaut, K.H.; Overlack, A.; Bonn Univ.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined by CT and by conventional radiological methods. Sixty patients had asbestosis, thirty-nine silicosis, forty sarcoidosis and twenty-five had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CT is superior to conventional radiography in evaluating interstitial pulmonary changes, particularly of the pleura and the lung parenchyma. In sixty-nine patients there were some findings which could only be demonstrated by CT. In asbestosis, silicosis and sarcoidosis the CT classification of the lung parenchyma which we have suggested produces significantly better correlation with vital capacity than can be achieved from conventional chest films, according to the guidelines of the I.L.O. (orig./GDG) [de

  4. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias, Antonio; Ojeda, Paulina; Matiz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An interstitial lung disease (ILD) belongs to a group of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases it should be differentiated from other pathologies among those are idiopathic and ILD associated to connective tissue diseases (CTD) New concepts have been developed in the last years and they have been classified in seven defined subgroups. It has been described the association of each one of these subgroups with CTD. Natural history and other aspects of its treatment is not known completely .For complete diagnose it is required clinical, image and histopathologic approaches. The biopsy lung plays an essential role. It is important to promote and to stimulate the subclasification of each subgroup with the purpose of knowing their natural history directing the treatment and to improve their outcome

  5. Aortic calcified particles modulate valvular endothelial and interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Bertazzo, Sergio; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Yacoub, Magdi H; Chester, Adrian H; Latif, Najma

    Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs). Cell differentiation, viability, and proliferation were analyzed. Particles were heterogeneous, differing in size and shape, and were crystallized as calcium phosphate. Diseased donors had significantly more calcified particles compared to healthy donors (Pinnocent bystanders but induce a phenotypical and pathological change of VECs and VICs characteristic of activated and pathological cells. Therapy tailored to reduce these calcified particles should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a sense of urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno, Philip M; Chapple, Chris R; Cardozo, Linda D

    2009-12-01

    A classic triad of symptoms (bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency) has served to define bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/PBS/IC) syndrome. BPS/PBS/IC is a distinct condition and it is likely that the urgency experienced by these patients differs from that experienced by those with overactive bladder syndrome. It is unclear how best to define urgency in the BPS/PBS/IC setting. Differences in the other primary symptoms associated with these conditions probably influence how urgency is perceived. Advances in research into the pathophysiology of urgency and underlying disease processes will help to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment of BPS/PBS/IC.

  7. Interstitial radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefermann, H.; Bruggmoser, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1981-01-01

    The practical and organisatory sides of interstitial radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with iodine 125 capsules are reported on. Special stress is laid upon measures and measurements concerning radiation protection. First evaluations of these measurements show that this form of therapy is to be carried out in exact correspondence with the radiation protection law. The computer-supported isodose calculation and in-vivo-measurements in rectum, method and urinary bladder confirm the rapid drop in the dosage outside of the irradiated focus volume. Therefore, the inflammatory accompanying reactions are despite higher tumour dose, significantly milder then with the percutaneous radiation therapy. The indication criteria should be closely adhered to because the operation is a very extensive one. (orig.) [de

  8. Management of Myositis-Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Julie; Johnson, Cheilonda; Rich, Eric; Collard, Harold R; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-11-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent pulmonary manifestation and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Myositis-related ILD presents a therapeutic challenge for clinicians, as there are no available guidelines to help with management decisions. This review covers the existing evidence on the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of myositis-related ILD, highlighting the lack of randomized controlled data to guide treatment. Given the absence of existing guidelines to inform treatment decisions, we provide a comprehensive summary, including dosing, side effects, and suggested monitoring of the commonly used immunosuppressive agents and a proposed treatment algorithm based on the existing literature. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Intravesical treatments of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a disabling chronic condition that affects up to 7% of women in the USA. In men, BPS/IC seems to be less common, but might be underestimated because it can be confused with chronic prostatitis. The aetiology and pathophysiology of BPS/IC are not well understood. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment is challenging and most therapies used to date are off-label. These therapies include bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and BCG, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Overall, botulinum neurotoxin A injection, intravesical sodium hyaluronate instillation and DMSO instillation seem to be the best-performing treatments, with response rates of 79%, 76% and 75%, respectively, and can be used effectively as second-line or third-line therapies for BPS/IC. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to improve the available data.

  11. The vacancy-interstitial model of DX centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) studies of 'DX' centers in dilute Al x Ga 1-x As alloys agree with a model of the deep neutral state in which the donor has moved into an adjacent interstitial site leaving behind a vacancy. The enthalpy and entropy of these states, which depend on the number (0 to 3) of Al atoms adjacent to the donors, have been obtained by fitting the data. This model, which also predicts the large potential barriers between the centered and relaxed states, thus accounting for PPC (persistent photoconductivity), is an extension to large displacement of the displaced donor model proposed earlier. It is equivalent to recent model of the EL2 metastable state based on displaced antisite double-donors. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Interstitial lung disease during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzurio, Syota; Horita, Naokatsu; Shiota, Yutaro; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2010-01-01

    We studied clinical and radiographic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administration. Ten patients who had received prednisolone treatment for underlying diffuse pulmonary disease showed various ILDs after introduction of TMP/SMX. The radiographic features of the ILDs were not consistent with infectious disease or exacerbation of the underlying disease, and these diagnoses were excluded radiographically and on clinical grounds during the differential diagnosis of the ILDs. These ILDs emerged relatively early after introduction of TMP/SMX, which is consistent with the former case report of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) caused by TMP/SMX. Therefore DI-ILDs caused by TMP/SMX were suspected in these cases. In most of these cases, the ILDs were clinically mild and disappeared immediately although administration of TMP/SMX was continued. (author)

  13. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  14. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  15. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  16. Assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucy; Walthall, Helen

    2017-09-02

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a cluster of fibroinflammatory conditions. There are limited treatment options and most patients have severe dyspnoea. The prognosis is poor. This study aims to evaluate current literature on the assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in ILD. Few tools are available to assess dyspnoea in advanced respiratory disease. Holistic assessment requires a combination of tools but there are few disease specific tools. The role of opioids is well established in the reduction of breathlessness, but there is insufficient evidence that benzodiazepines are beneficial. Non-pharmcolological breathlessness intervention services can give patients mastery of their disease, reduced distress due to breathlessness and were more cost effective. More research on holistic interventions for use in advanced disease needs to be done. Patient-reported outcome measures could elicit valuable evidence to describe the benefit of breathlessness management services in advanced respiratory disease.

  17. Lipoprotein(a Induces Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, or Lp(a, significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, release of phosphate, calcium deposition, hydroxyapatite, cell apoptosis, matrix vesicle formation, and phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins; increased expression of chondro-osteogenic mediators; and decreased SOX9 and matrix Gla protein (p < 0.001. Inhibition of MAPK38 and GSK3β significantly reduced Lp(a-induced calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells (p < 0.001. There was abundant presence of Lp(a and E06 immunoreactivity in diseased human aortic valves. The present study demonstrates a causal effect for Lp(a in aortic valve calcification and suggests that interfering with the Lp(apathway could provide a novel therapeutic approach in the management of this debilitating disease.

  18. 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brain implant: optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Dinesh; Chitra, S.; Gupta, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The new modality of stepping source dosimetry system (SSDs) illustrates a remarkable improvement in attaining the uniform and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume. The technique enables the physicist to correct for a certain amount of misplacement or curvature of implant geometry. The short course of brachytherapy provides good palliation in terms of functional improvements with low and acceptable toxicity in high-grade glioma. With continual refinements of the technique, brachytherapy performed by a skilled brachytherapy team offers an opportunity to improve patient survival and quality of life. Since 1997, micro selectron HDR 192 Ir treatments are done including gynecological, oesophageal, breast, surface mould, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and brain in our hospital. In this paper, procedure of interstitial brain implant in glioma as implant technique, simulation and treatment planning will be discussed

  19. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia. (topical review)

  20. High-dose rate fractionated interstitial radiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The limitations of treating oropharyngeal cancer patients with definitive external radiotherapy are the complications of salivary glands, taste buds, mandible and temporomandibular joints. To avoid these complications we started interstitial radiotherapy as boost after 46 Gy of external radiotherapy. Ten cases (retromolar trigone; 1, soft palate; 1, base of tongue; 3, lateral wall; 5) were treated with this method and seven cases were controlled locally. With short follow-up period, xerostomia and dysgeusia are less than definitive external radiotherapy as clinical impression and no in-field recurrences have been experienced. With markedly increased tumor dose, the local control rate can be improved. This treatment method will be an alternative to definitive external radiotherapy to gain better QOL and higher control rate. (author).

  1. Retrospective study of 87 interstitial brachytherapy for facial skin carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, E.; Bolla, M.; Saillard, F.; Beani, J.C.; Lebeau, J.; Fillon, J.P.; Vrousos, C.

    1996-01-01

    From 1977 to 1983, 83 patients (pts) with 87 facial skin carcinomas (FSC) were treated with interstitial brachytherapy (BT) in our department. Median age was 70 years (43-97 y). There was 61 basal cell carcinomas and 26 squamous cell carcinomas. 28 of them corresponded to local relapse of FSC initially treated without BT. TNM stadification was as following: T1+rT1=72,4%; T2+rT2=23%; T3+rT3=2,3%; T4+rT4=2,3%. The median follow-up was 53 months (8 months to 15 years). Different techniques were used:hypodermic needles,plastic tubes, Raynal method. A dose of 60 Gy was prescribed on the reference isodose, according to the PARIS system. Specific overall survival was 98,8% at 5 and 10 y. Local control at 5 and 10 y was 100 and 90% for FSC treated in first intention, and 81,2% for recurrent FSC. This was highly significant (p=0,002 Logrank test) Functional sequelae were appreciated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale: 29 occurred in 21 pts.60% of them were depigmentation ((11(29))) and epilation ((6(29))). Among the 21 FSC of the eyelid, one lacrimal stenosis occurred (4,8%) Cosmetic results were judged 'good' or 'very good' for 83% of the pts (BONVALLOT criteria). Bad results occured more frequently for recurrent FSC According to the litterature, our study shows that interstitial BT is a good alternative to surgery for facial skin carcinoma for elderly patients

  2. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismüller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions and the significance thresholds were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the MF features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p < 0.005) for both classifiers. The highest accuracy was found for MF.euler (97.5%, 96.6%; for the k-NN and RBFN classifier, respectively). The best standard texture features were the GLCM features 'homogeneity' (91.8%, 87.2%) and 'absolute value' (90.2%, 88.5%). The results indicate that advanced topological texture features can provide superior classification performance in computer-assisted diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  3. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie

    2018-06-04

    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  4. Comparison of clinicoradiologic manifestation of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A report from NRITLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafti Saeid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since Katzenstein and Fiorelli introduced the term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP to denote those cases of interstitial pneumonia that cannot be categorized as any of the other types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP, there has been continuing debate on whether it is a real clinical entity or not. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Symposium task group tried to identify idiopathic NSIP as a separate disease and exclude it from the category of IIP. However, it appears that the clinical presentation of NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP are the same. Objective : To show that the radiologic features of NSIP and UIP should be relied upon, instead of clinical presentation and pathologic findings, to differentiate between the two. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who had received a diagnosis of either NSIP or UIP on the basis of open lung biopsy between January 2001 and December 2007 were identified for inclusion in this retrospective review. The study included 61 subjects: 32 men and 29 women with a mean age of 59.39 ± 14.5 years. Chest computed tomography images of all the cases were collected for a review. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT and all pathologic specimens were also evaluated. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to evaluate whether radiology can be used instead of biopsy for the diagnosis of NSIP and UIP. Comparison of the mean ages and the time intervals (i.e., interval between symptom onset and the time of diagnosis in the UIP and NSIP groups was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. Association between gender and biopsy result was evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Data were evaluated using SPSS, v.13. Results : Sixty-one patients were included in this study, 32 were male and 29 were female. On the basis of biopsy findings, 50 (82% patients had UIP and 11 (18% had NSIP. Thirty (60% of the 50 patients who had UIP were male and 20 (40% were female; 2 (18

  5. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  6. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  7. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  8. Interstitial Features at Chest CT Enhance the Deleterious Effects of Emphysema in the COPDGene Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Rahaghi, Farbod N; Sanchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo Vegas; Putman, Rachel K; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva, Jorge Onieva; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T; Wells, J Michael; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2018-06-05

    Purpose To determine if interstitial features at chest CT enhance the effect of emphysema on clinical disease severity in smokers without clinical pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, an objective CT analysis tool was used to measure interstitial features (reticular changes, honeycombing, centrilobular nodules, linear scar, nodular changes, subpleural lines, and ground-glass opacities) and emphysema in 8266 participants in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) called COPDGene (recruited between October 2006 and January 2011). Additive differences in patients with emphysema with interstitial features and in those without interstitial features were analyzed by using t tests, multivariable linear regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to determine if interstitial features modified the effect of continuously measured emphysema on clinical measures of disease severity and mortality. Results Compared with individuals with emphysema alone, those with emphysema and interstitial features had a higher percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (absolute difference, 6.4%; P < .001), a lower percentage predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (absolute difference, 7.4%; P = .034), a 0.019 higher right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RVLV) volume ratio (P = .029), a 43.2-m shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (P < .001), a 5.9-point higher St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P < .001), and 82% higher mortality (P < .001). In addition, interstitial features modified the effect of emphysema on percentage predicted DLCO, RVLV volume ratio, 6WMD, SGRQ score, and mortality (P for interaction < .05 for all). Conclusion In smokers, the combined presence of interstitial features and emphysema was associated with worse clinical disease severity and higher mortality than was emphysema alone. In addition, interstitial features

  9. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  10. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  11. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucle...

  12. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  13. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  14. Modelling of initial stages of interstitial solid solution decomposition in bcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanter, M S

    1982-01-01

    By means of a model of deformation interaction of interstitial atoms added by interlocking of the nearest positions the configuration of cluster of alien atoms intruded into octahedral ..cap alpha..-Fe, V, Nb and Ta interstitially sites is computerized. The cluster structure is determined by elastic properties, of the crystal lattice of the metal-solvent. Clusters in ..cap alpha..-Fe have a plate form in a plane (001) of half lattice period width, in V, Nb and Ta - of monatomic plate in a plane (110). Clusters of interstitials must be sufficiently stable and arise even in solutions low concentration.

  15. Detection of the free migration of the self-interstitials in magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzier, J; Hillairet, J; Duclos, D; Vieux Champagne, A

    1986-05-01

    This paper describes the first experimental determination of the migration temperature of freely diffusing self-interstitials in magnesium. This observation was made possible by analysis of the elastic modulus and damping variations induced by the pinning of the dislocations by self-interstitials. A marked pinning stage is found between 9 K and 14 K, which is definite evidence for the long-range diffusion of the self-interstitial at these temperatures. Prior data are discussed and reinterpreted in the light of this finding.

  16. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  17. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  18. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  19. CT stereotactic reconstruction of oral cavity interstitial plastic tube implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispin, V.; Carrasco, P.; Guardino, C.; Lopez, J.; Chust, M.; Arribas, L.; Mengual, J.; Miragall, E.G.; Hernandez, A.; Carrascosa, M.; Cardenal, R.; Guinot, J.; Casana, M.; Prats, C.

    1996-01-01

    The continuous using of CT images in external RT have made us think of its applications for plastic tube interstitial implants in the oral cavity in order to calculate the dose delivered by an interstitial implant at any point of the image and its relationship with local control and complications. Moreover, the outcoming result of the whole treatment depends on whether the irradiated volume up to a prescribed dose includes the CTV or not. None of these objectives may be achieved through the classical film reconstruction. Although film reconstruction appeared as the only accurate method for these purposes in the early eighties, it does not allow us to calculate doses at critical points or volumes. Therefore possible complications over critical tissues surrounding the radioactive implant cannot be taken into account in a precise way. The use of a stereotactic coordinate system could make CT reconstruction as precise as film reconstruction. As our stereotactic frame can be placed over the patient in 'direct' or 'inverse' positions it is really interesting in the applications we are talking about. We also have used a non invasive standard plexiglass helmet commonly used in stereotactic fractionated irradiations in teletherapy. It fits perfectly the patient's head and avoids any movement of the patient during the CT exam. We do parallel slices, approximately perpendicular to the iridium wires (following the Paris System), covering the whole implant helping ourselves with both bone and implant references. The dose-volume histograms and DNR (dose nonuniformity ratio) index defined by Saw et Al are used for intercomparison between the ortogonal and the stereotactic reconstructions. The existence of a minimum in the DNR curve indicates that there is a reference dose rate for this implant which provides an optimal dose distribution. If we calculate which is the minimum of each method, we find they are very close. So, as both methods give very similar results, we can conclude

  20. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  1. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (nsoil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore.

  2. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  3. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  4. Computerized tomography of chest in emphysema and interstitial diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto Bayarri, M.; Malagari, K.; Ibarburen, C.; Arenas, G.; Correa Pombo, J.; Garcia Tahoces, P.; Tucker, D.; Barnes, G.T.; Luna, R.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Fraser, R.G.; Vidal Carrerira, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of increasing the spatial resolution on thin section (1.5 mm) computed tomography (CT) of the chest, we compared images reconstructed with the standard algorithm (SA) to three other images obtained with 1) a high spatial frequency algorithm, 2) retrospective targeting to a small field of view (FOV) reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm, and 3) the same high spatial frequency algorithm with images acquired with the small (0.6 mm) rather the large (0.9 mm) focal spot. Examinations were performed on a phantom, on normal subjects, and on patients with emphysema and other diffuse lung diseases. Modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations revealed that higher resolution was achieved on the small focal spot and high spatial frequency algorithm than on the standard algorithm. Evaluation of the four images from 25 normal subjects, 16 patients with emphysema and 9 with interstitial disease was performed by means of an ROC study. Results from the areas under the ROC curves, sensitivity and specificity have shown that images reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm were preferred. We conclude that the use of a high spatial frequency algorithm increases spatial resolution and improves visibility of lung parenchyma. Although more evaluation is needed, the potential of increasing spatial resolution further by using a smaller focal spot is currently limited by the mas Available per slice and the associated increased level of quantum noise. (Author)

  5. Safety of Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy in Patients With Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Sanjeet S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Watson, Robert E; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2018-02-10

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has increasingly been used as a treatment option for medically refractory epilepsy, tumors, and radiation necrosis. The use of LiTT requires intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) thermography. This can become an issue in patients with other implanted therapeutic devices such as pacemakers and vagal nerve stimulators due to concerns regarding increases in the specific absorption rate (SAR). This is a technical case report demonstrating a successfully and safely performed LiTT in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pacemaker for mesial temporal sclerosis. An 83-yr-old gentleman who had an implanted cardiac pacemaker presented with medically intractable epilepsy and was confirmed to have mesial temporal sclerosis on imaging. Video electroencephalography demonstrated concordant ipsilateral seizures and semiology. He underwent LiTT for ablation of the mesial temporal lobe. This was performed with the below described protocol with a cardiology nurse monitoring the patient's cardiac condition and a physicist monitoring SAR, and MR imaging quality without any adverse events. This study reports on a protocol of cardiac and MR SAR to safely perform MR-guided LiTT in the setting of traditional pacemakers in patients who are not pacemaker dependent. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  7. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Position locating device and method for interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A position locating device is described for interstitial radiotherapy of a body portion comprising a flexible sheet member for being received about and conformed with a body portion which is to receive radiotherapy. The sheet member has spaced position locating means and first and second opposite ends, and attachment means for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion comprising joining means securing bands with the sheet member. The joining means provides first and second clamping units each detachably secured with the sheet member proximate to a respective one of its ends for being replaced and repositioned therewith. The bands comprise first and second sets having first ends pivotably secured with a respective one of the first and second clamping units for allowing their angular adjustment with the second ends of the first set of bands being detachably securable with the second ends of the second set of bands for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion. Each of the clamping units comprises a flat bar having a slot for receiving therethrough an end of the sheet member and screw elements threadedly engaging a respective one of the bars for clamping and securing the sheet member therewith. The first ends of the bands have an opening for receiving a respective screw element therethrough for securing same with the bar unit and allowing pivotal movement thereabout

  9. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wijsenbeek, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to chronic diseases, including COPD. The patho- genesis may involve chronic hypoxia, which is common in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to study the relationship between ILD and ED. Method: Male patients with ILD detected by high...... degree of ED, thirty (56.6%) had moderate to severe ED, and 23 (43.4%) had severe ED. Low diffusion capacity and high body mass index showed a trend of increasing risk of moderate to severe ED. The risk increased with age (OR per 5-year increase=2.63 (1.25; 5.53)) and decreased with 6MWT distance (OR per...... 50 m increase=0.60 (0.41; 0.89). Only two patients (6.7%) received specific treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Conclusion: Severe ED is a common problem in men with ILD, and is associated with poor walking distance and high age. Treatment coverage is low, and physicians should ad- dress...

  10. Oxygen therapy for interstitial lung disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Bell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD. We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea. Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509. There was no effect of oxygen therapy on modified Borg dyspnoea score at end exercise (mean difference (MD −0.06 units, 95% CI −0.24–0.13; two studies, n=27. However, effects on exercise outcomes consistently favoured oxygen therapy. One study showed reduction in dyspnoea at rest with oxygen in patients who were acutely unwell (MD visual analogue scale 30 mm versus 48 mm, p<0.05; n=10. Four studies of long-term oxygen therapy (n=2670 had high risk of bias and no inferences could be drawn. This systematic review showed no effects of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea during exercise in ILD, although exercise capacity was increased. Future trials should evaluate whether acute improvements in exercise capacity with oxygen can be translated into improved physical activity and HRQoL.

  11. Sirolimus-associated interstitial pneumonitis in a liver transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claire Berrouet, Marie; Aristizabal, Julian Miguel; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Correa, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used during the past few years. Sirolimus is indicated in rescue therapies and to reduce the secondary toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors. This drug has been associated with infrequent but severe pulmonary toxicity. Cases of interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, and alveolar proteinosis have been described. We describe a case of pulmonary toxicity associated with the use of sirolimus in a 59-yr-old liver transplant recipient. We also review all reported cases of sirolimus-associated lung toxicity among liver transplantation recipients, with the intention of understanding the risk factors, the clinical picture and the outcomes of this complication. Five cases have been reported since January 2000, including the present case. Clinical presentation is similar, with fever, dyspnoea, fatigue, cough, and hemoptysis. Discontinuation of the drug led to resolution of clinical and radiographic findings. Sirolimus-induced pulmonary toxicity is a serious condition and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver recipients presenting with respiratory findings. Discontinuation of the drug is associated with resolution of the pulmonary compromise

  12. Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

  13. Fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT findings that predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edey, Anthony J.; Hansell, David M. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Devaraj, Anand A. [St. George' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Tooting (United Kingdom); Barker, Robert P. [Frimley Park Hosptal, Department of Radiology, Frimley, Surrey (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Andrew G. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The study aims were to identify CT features that predict outcome of fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) when information from lung biopsy data is unavailable. HRCTs of 146 consecutive patients presenting with fibrotic IIP were studied. Visual estimates were made of the extent of abnormal lung and proportional contribution of fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic (cysts {<=}4 mm) and macrocystic honeycombing. A score for severity of traction bronchiectasis was also assigned. Using death as our primary outcome measure, variables were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. CT features predictive of a worse outcome were coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, as well as overall extent of lung abnormality (p < 0.001). Importantly, increased severity of traction bronchiectasis, corrected for extent of parenchymal abnormality, was predictive of poor prognosis regardless of the background pattern of abnormal lung (HR = 1.04, CI = 1.03-1.06, p < 0.001). On bivariate Cox analysis microcystic honeycombing was a more powerful determinant of a poor prognosis than macrocystic honeycombing. In fibrotic IIPs we have shown that increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is indicative of higher mortality irrespective of the HRCT pattern and extent of disease. Extent of microcystic honeycombing is a more powerful determinant of outcome than macrocystic honeycombing. (orig.)

  14. Interstitial pneumonitis is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients treated with sirolimus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, A

    2012-06-01

    Sirolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug which is being used increasingly after liver transplantation because of its renal sparing and anti-tumour effects. It has been associated with uncommon, but potentially fatal, interstitial pneumonitis.

  15. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  16. INTERSTITIAL LUNG-DISEASE AND MYOSITIS IN A PATIENT WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCURRING SARCOIDOSIS AND SCLERODERMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; POSTMA, DS; KALLENBERG, CGM

    1993-01-01

    A patient initially presented with sarcoidosis in combination with myositis of sarcoid origin and Raynaud's phenomenon. During the course of his disease, he additionally developed scleroderma. Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed because of increase of interstitial markings in the presence of enlarged

  17. Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte Margareta; Dahl, Morten; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis and high mortality. Objectives: We examined the association between ever-diagnosed venous thromboembolism and risk of incident idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Venous thromboembolism was taken as a proxy...... Danish registries. Measurements and Main Results: Age-standardized incidence rates per 10,000 person-years for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were higher among those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (1.8; n = 158,676), pulmonary embolism (2.8; n = 70,586), and deep venous thrombosis only (1.......2; n = 88,090), than among control subjects (0.8; n = 7,260,278). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.7-1.9) in those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism, 2.4 (95% CI, 2.3-2.6) in those ever diagnosed with pulmonary...

  18. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus...... no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. RESULTS: The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786 + 3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261 + 522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7 · 10......(-9) and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all...

  19. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... a continuous basal lamina, caveolae, intermediate filaments, dense bodies, dense bands, and a well-developed subsurface smooth endoplasmic reticulum), but the arrangement of organelles was clearly different, and cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. Interstitial cells of Cajal were......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  20. Interstitial pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of some rare earth oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of powdered materials depend upon interstitial gas pressure. The present study reports the experimental results for the effective thermal conductivity of three rare earth oxide powders viz. yttrium oxide, samarium oxide, and gadolinium oxide, at various interstitial pressures by using transient plane source (TPS) method. A theoretical model is also proposed for the interpretation of the variation of the effective thermal conductivity with interstitial gas pressure. Its validity is found to be good in low pressure range of 45 mm Hg to normal pressure when compared with the experimental results. Also an attempt has been made to calculate the variation of thermal conductivity with interstitial pressure in the high pressure range up to 2 kbar using the proposed model. (author)

  1. Usual interstitial pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia: serial thin-section CT findings correlated with pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Chung Myung Jin; Han, Joung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Colby, Thomas V. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale (United States); Kim, Seon Woo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to demonstrate and compare the serial high-resolution CTs (HRCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) findings of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The serial HRCT scans and the PFT results were retrospectively analysed and compared for 35 patients having UIP without significant honeycombing (UIP-w/o hc, < 5% of honeycombing at CT), 35 patients having UIP with honeycombing (UIP-w/i hc, {>=} 5% of honeycombing), and 25 patients with NSIP. The mortality rates were also compared. Follow-up CT scans were available in 75 patients (29 UIP-w/o hc patients, 22 UIP-w/i hc patients and 24 NSIP patients) and the follow-up periods ranged from 150 to 2,370 days. The initial and follow-up PFT data were available for 71 patients. On the initial CT, significant differences were present between the UIP-w/i hc patients and both the UIP-w/o hc patients and the NSIP patients in the overall extent, ground-glass opacity (GGO) away from the reticulation, reticulation and honeycombing (all {rho} < 0.05). Improvement was noticed in five (17%) of 29 UIP-w/o hc patients, none of 22 UIP-w/i hc patients, and 9 (37%) of 24 NSIP patients; deterioration was noted in six (21%) UIP-w/o hc patients, two (9%) UIP-w/i hc patients and three (13%) NSIP patients ({rho} 0.044 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.637 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} = 0.007 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). The serial changes of the pulmonary function in the NSIP patients were different from those noted for the UIP-w/i hc and UIP-w/o hc patients ({rho} = 0.440 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.022 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} =0.003 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). Five (14%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/o hc, 16 (46%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/i hc and three (12%) of the 25 patients with NSIP died ({rho} = 0.002, comparison for the three groups). On CT, NSIP and UIP-w/o hc patients have similar patterns of parenchymal abnormalities and

  2. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shunichi; Komiya, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Ikuhiro; Tashiro, Kazuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    To investigate applicability of Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy, 93 cases of oral squamous carcinoma were examined. The patients underwent Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy as thorough therapy in our hospital. The criteria of applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was diameter of within 5 cm and depth within 2 cm of tumor size. Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was applied to 82 cases of tongue, 10 cases of oral floor and one case of lower lip carcinomas. The local control rate was 92.5%, and secondary neck metastasis was 32.3% in all cases applied Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The results were not bad compared with surgical treatment. However, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 64.9%, which was not good enough at the result to obtain a good local control rate and secondary neck metastasis rate. The result was relative to low treatment result of local recurrence cases with Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. To improve the result, it is important to distinguish local recurrence from radioinduced ulcer, and to start early secondary treatment. The cases in which cervical lymph node metastasis was found as the first examination underwent neck dessection after Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 83.3% in N1 cases and 40.6% in N2 cases, and the result of N2 cases was poorer than N1 cases with a significant difference. The results indicate that a needle having a diameter of within 5 cm, depth of within 2 cm and less than N1 can be applied during Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for complete cure of cancer. (author)

  4. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease in a 70-Year-Old Man with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hampton W; Frye, Jeanetta W

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a rare but increasingly recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that can have devastating consequences if left untreated. We report a case of ulcerative colitis-associated interstitial lung disease presenting with acute hypoxic respiratory failure during an ulcerative colitis flare. Gastroenterologists and pulmonologists should be aware of the numerous bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms that can suggest systemic illness in inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness.

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease due to Siderosis in a Lathe Machine Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, D; Satija, B; Kumar, S; Kaur, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Since its first description in 1936, siderosis of lung has been considered a benign pneumoconiosis due to absence of significant clinical symptoms or respiratory impairment. Subsequently, authors have questioned the non-fibrogenic property of iron. However, siderosis causing interstitial lung disease with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern has not been described in the past. We report a case of UIP on high resolution computed tomography, proven to be siderosis on transbronchial lung biopsy in a lathe machine worker.

  8. Application of interstitial radiotherapy for cancers of the tongue and oral caving mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, O.A.; Vakhramova, M.P.; Razorenova, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with new procedures of interstitial, complex and combined treatment of cancer of the tongue and mucosa of fundus of the oral cavity with time space-differentiated doses of radiation. If indicated, cervical lymph nodes undergo surgery at the final stage of therapy. Interstitial radiotherapy has proved a highly-effective radical component of said treatment for cancers of the tongue and oral cavity

  9. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  10. Small interstitial clusters as opposite defect recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.N.; Trushin, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to make allowance for the role of binary and ternary interstitials in the kinetics of radiation point defects both in the presence and in the absence of coherent preseparation. It is shown that in solid solutions, decomposing under irradiation, recombination with binary and ternary interstitials proceeds more quickly than directly, and this difference is more pronounced (from 2 up to 20 time growth) due to defect flow for preseparation at the stage of coherent preseparation formation

  11. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  12. Interstitial lung disease pattern turned out to be a predominantly lepidic lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hammen, Dr. Med

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 46-year-old woman without any medical history who presented to our Respiratory Department with exertional dyspnoea for the last 6 weeks associated with non-productive cough. Chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse interstitial opacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies performed during flexible bronchoscopy as a step in the diagnostic workup of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia showed cells of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  13. A comparison of visual and quantitative methods to identify interstitial lung abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Araki, Tetsuro; Doyle, Tracy J.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Jos?e; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Ross, James C.; Est?par, Ra?l San Jos?; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Lederer, David J.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density met...

  14. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of interstitial-solute interactions in irradiated Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Lam, N.Q.; Dagens, L.; Adda, Y.

    1981-11-01

    The stable configurations and binding energies of interstitial and di-interstitial-solute complexes in Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-K, Al-Li, Al-Mg and Al-Zn alloys were calculated using the molecular dynamics technique in conjunction with interatomic potentials derived entirely from theoretical considerations and not fitted to any experimental data. All the results reported in this work are thus of first-principles nature

  16. Interstitial fluid flow in cancer: implications for disease progression and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Jennifer M; Shieh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    As cancer progresses, a dynamic microenvironment develops that creates and responds to cellular and biophysical cues. Increased intratumoral pressure and corresponding increases in interstitial flow from the tumor bulk to the healthy stroma is an observational hallmark of progressing cancers. Until recently, the role of interstitial flow was thought to be mostly passive in the transport and dissemination of cancer cells to metastatic sites. With research spanning the past decade, we have seen that interstitial flow has a promigratory effect on cancer cell invasion in multiple cancer types. This invasion is one mechanism by which cancers can resist therapeutics and recur, but the role of interstitial flow in cancer therapy is limited to the understanding of transport of therapeutics. Here we outline the current understanding of the role of interstitial flow in cancer and the tumor microenvironment through cancer progression and therapy. We also discuss the current role of fluid flow in the treatment of cancer, including drug transport and therapeutic strategies. By stating the current understanding of interstitial flow in cancer progression, we can begin exploring its role in therapeutic failure and treatment resistance

  17. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  18. Is a linear probe helpful in diagnosing diseases of pulmonary interstitial spaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Buda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a lung ultrasound examination, interstitial lung lesions are visible as numerous B-line artifacts, and are best recorded with the use of a convex probe. Interstitial lung lesions may result from many conditions, including cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, or interstitial lung disease. Hence difficulties in the differential diagnostics of the above clinical conditions. This article presents cases of patients suffering from interstitial lung lesions discovered in the course of lung ultrasound examination. The patients were examined with a 3.5–5.0 MHz convex probe and a 7.0–11.0 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound images have been analysed, and differences in the imaging with both probes in patients with interstitial lung lesions have been detailed. The use of a linear probe in patients with interstitial lung lesions (discovered with a convex or a micro-convex probe provides additional information on the source of the origin of the lesions.

  19. Clinical and Genetic Associations of Objectively Identified Interstitial Changes in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Putman, Rachel K; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva Onieva, Jorge; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-related lung injury may manifest on CT scans as both emphysema and interstitial changes. We have developed an automated method to quantify interstitial changes and hypothesized that this measurement would be associated with lung function, quality of life, mortality, and a mucin 5B (MUC5B) polymorphism. Using CT scans from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study, we objectively labeled lung parenchyma as a tissue subtype. We calculated the percentage of the lung occupied by interstitial subtypes. A total of 8,345 participants had clinical and CT scanning data available. A 5% absolute increase in interstitial changes was associated with an absolute decrease in FVC % predicted of 2.47% (P percentage of lung with interstitial changes. Objective interstitial changes on CT scans were associated with impaired lung function, worse quality of life, increased mortality, and more copies of a MUC5B promoter polymorphism, suggesting that these changes may be a marker of susceptibility to smoking-related lung injury, detectable even in those who are healthy by other measures. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nature of the Interstitials in Titanium Dioxide and Their Impact on Transmission Coefficient: Ab Initio Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ab initio calculations about the properties of the interstitials doping in the rutile TiO2 and their impact on the transport coefficients are reported. As the doping of the Zr or Ti interstitials in the TiO2, the lattice Ti4+ ions acquire the excess electrons so reduced to the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. However, the Cu interstitials could not lose enough electrons to reduce the lattice Ti4+ ions. Furthermore, the Ti or Cu interstitials in the ZrO2 also are unable to promote the lattice Zr4+ ions to form the lattice Zr3+ or Zr2+ ions. The high transport coefficients are observed in the defected TiO2 with the Ti or Zr interstitials as the high concentration of the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. So, the Zr interstitials are the favorable choice for the extra-doping to improve the transport properties in the TiO2-based resistive random access memory.

  1. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. DESIGN: Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. RESULTS: Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001. The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.27∼3.66. Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53 compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  2. Interstitial telomere-like repeats in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are protected by telomeres, which are thought to play an important role in ensuring the complete replication of chromosomes. On the other hand, non-functional telomere-like repeats in the interchromosomal regions (interstitial telomeric repeats; ITRs) have been reported in several eukaryotes. In this study, we identified eight ITRs in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, each consisting of complete and degenerate 300- to 1200-bp sequences. The ITRs were grouped into three classes (class IA-B, class II, and class IIIA-E) based on the degeneracy of the telomeric repeats in ITRs. The telomeric repeats of the two ITRs in class I were conserved for the most part, whereas the single ITR in class II, and the five ITRs in class III were relatively degenerated. In addition, degenerate ITRs were surrounded by common sequences that shared 70-100% homology to each other; these are named ITR-adjacent sequences (IAS). Although the genomic regions around ITRs in class I lacked IAS, those around ITRs in class II contained IAS (IASa), and those around five ITRs in class III had nine types of IAS (IASb, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j). Ten IAS types in classes II and III showed no significant homology to each other. The chromosomal locations of ITRs and IAS were not category-related, but most of them were adjacent to, or part of, a centromere. These results show that the A. thaliana genome has undergone chromosomal rearrangements, such as end-fusions and segmental duplications.

  3. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney; Monge, Emmanuel; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Delhaye, Cédric; Molinari, Francesco; Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude; Wallaert, Benoit; Duhamel, Alain; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%

  5. Relationship between the prognosis of interstitial pneumonia and its comorbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Makino, Hideki; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Motojima, Shinji; Kaneko, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the prognosis of chronic interstitial pneumonia (IP) and its comorbidities, we conducted a retrospective study for clinically and radiologically diagnosed IP. We assessed comorbidities by using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). We classified 224 patients given clinical diagnoses of chronic IP (excluding the patients who had clear causes such as collagen disease, infection, drugs or radiation) in our institution between April 2000 and June 2010, into 2 groups; those with clinical diagnoses of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF: 108 cases) and those with other chronic IP but without honeycomb lung (116 cases); and analyzed their backgrounds and comorbidities. We also classified them into survival and non-survival groups to assess their prognostic factors. Although the smoking status of patients with clinically diagnosed IPF was higher, and SpO2 was lower than those with other chronic IP without honeycomb lung, the mean age, comorbidities and CCI did not differ between them. The 5-year overall survival of the clinically-diagnosed IPF group was lower than that of the other chronic IP without honeycomb lung group (50.8% vs. 76.3%, p<0.01). In cases of other chronic IP without honeycomb lung, the CCI of non-survival cases was higher than that of survival cases (4.05 vs. 2.47, p<0.01), although patient backgrounds did not differ between survival and non-survival cases in those with clinically diagnosed IPF (CCI: 2.32 vs. 2.98, p=0.70). Our analysis revealed the possibility that comorbidities and CCI were prognostic factors in other chronic IP cases without honeycomb lung, although the prognosis of IPF was not affected by their comorbidity. (author)

  6. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Is Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, phyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081

  7. Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  8. Contemporary challenges for specialist nursing in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anne Marie; Olive, Sandra; Lines, Sarah; Murphy, Anna; Hocking, Julie; Newell, Karen; Morris, Helen; Harris, Emma; Dixon, Catherine; Agnew, Sarah; Burge, Geraldine

    2018-03-01

    The role of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is evolving in response to clinical guidelines and the growth of clinical research. The role is well established in the UK, although more ILD posts are needed to ensure supply meets clinical demand. This phenomenon is also happening across Europe. An appreciation of the similarities and differences between CNS and advanced nurse practitioners is important given the challenges in defining, developing and supporting this nursing specialisation. Globally, different models exist. In some countries charitable organisations take a leading role in supporting patients. Many European centres look to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and quality standards as a template to develop and evaluate the role of the ILD CNS. We present a UK perspective in the context of a government subsidised healthcare system to promote professional discussion and debate regarding the future of nursing practice in the ILD specialty. ILDs are often complex and associated with significant mortality, morbidity and co-morbid conditions that require a technical healthcare skill setThere is worldwide shortage of nurses, low retention rates and retirement of many skilled nursesCollaboration across the ILD interdisciplinary community is needed to safeguard the future of our professions and high-quality patient careThe ILD interdisciplinary and nurse network has identified key priorities to help secure the future of the ILD clinical and academic nurse specialism. To explain the similarities and differences between clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) in the context of ILD specialismTo review contemporary nursing specialism in the UK's government subsidised healthcare systemTo stimulate discussion and debate across the European/international respiratory community regarding the clinical and academic development of the ILD CNSTo identify key priorities that will

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  10. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  11. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, phyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  12. International registry results for an interstitial laser BPH treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard L.; Muschter, Rolf; Adams, Curtis S.; Esch, Victor C.

    1996-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can significantly impair quality of life in older men. Most men over 60 experience some symptoms due to BPH and it is thought that essentially all men would eventually be affected by it if they lived long enough. At present, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), a surgical treatment for BPH, is one of the more common procedures performed in the developed world, particularly in the United States. A number of other treatments are also often used, including open prostatectomy, side-firing lasers, and drug therapy. With the population in the developed world rapidly aging, BPH is expected to affect an even larger group of men in the future. Current methods of therapy carry significant disadvantages. Open prostatectomy carries a fairly high risk of impotence and incontinence, as well as sometimes significant risk of death depending on the patient's age and medical conditions. TURP also carries similar risks, albeit reduced, including the risk of substantial blood loss and a small but meaningful risk of death. Side-firing lasers are thought to have a reduced risk of death compared to TURP due to significantly reduced bleeding; however, patients often experience an extended period of pain during voiding due to prolonged tissue sloughing. Drug treatment, although useful for some patients, does not strongly improve symptoms in the majority of patients. Even with the current range of treatments, many patients with symptomatic BPH elect to avoid any current treatment due to risks and side effects. As a possible solution to this problem, previous writers have suggested the possibility of treating BPH through interstitial thermotherapy. In this treatment, prostatic tissue is heated from within the prostate to the point of irreversible necrosis. Healing processes then reduce the volume of the affected tissue, even in the absence of sloughing. This study covers initial human use of such a device, using an 810 nm wavelength diode laser

  13. An interstitial miniature antenna for localized in vivo 31P spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, M.; Wust, P.; Faehling, H.; Richter, R.; Vogl, T.; Semmler, W.; Wolf, K.J.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Phosphorus spectroscopy can be used to assess response in tumor therapy and to monitor response. Methodical problems of localisation and contamination make it more difficult to interpret and reproduce the spectra. Interstitial and endoluminal spectroscopy antennas placed directly within or close to the tumor could provide help in this problem. We developed an interstitial 31 P MRS antenna together with a tuning network which can be used in thermometry catheters for hyperthermia within an internal lumen of 1.1 mm in diameter. A prototype of this type of miniature antenna suitable for use in Siemens MRI scanners at 1.5 T was described spectroscopically with regard to excitation profile, range and SNR. Results: In terms of quality, the excitation profiles of the interstitial antennas in relation to orientation correspond to those of comparable but considerably larger endocavitary antennas and catheter coils for MR imaging and spectroscopy. Maximum sensitivity was achieved by aligning the coil normal perpendicular to the B 0 field. Signal losses of up to 50% have to be reckoned with when using other orientations. The maximum range of the interstitial antenna was determined using spectroscopy and was found to be 5 mm, i.e. 9 times coil radius. The sensitivity of the studied type of interstitial antenna allows in vivo 31 P spectroscopy to be performed despite the unusually low axial dimension (coil radius r=0.55 mm). The prototype of the described interstitial antenna was used to measure an in vivo spectrum from the back muscle of a rabbit in 10 min. Nevertheless, the detection volume of at least some ml necessary for 31 P spectroscopy results mainly from the large antenna length. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the interstitial antenna needs to be further improved in order to assess treatment response in patients. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Comparison between Japanese and French interstitial brachytherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is the optimal radiotherapy modality for head and neck cancer because the highest dose conformity can be achieved, and implanted tubes can move synchronously with the tumor movement. Compared with radical surgery, interstitial brachytherapy can achieve equivalent local control with less morbidity and less functional deficit. In Japan, because of technical limitations, interstitial brachytherapy has been confined to treatment of small tongue cancers. To improve our head and neck cancer treatment, technical limitations should be eliminated and a wider indication for interstitial brachytherapy should be achieved. In France, interstitial brachytherapy has been technically more developed and widely indicated than in Japan. We analyzed the differences between Japanese (Osaka) and French (Lyon and Nancy) techniques, to improve our interstitial brachytherapy. Implant devices and techniques: French applicators (Longcip 1) are more flexible and more suitable for loop techniques of the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the vallecula, than applicators available in Japan. Various implant techniques are established especially for the oropharynx in France. Mandibular protection: Lead blocks used in France can more effectively shield the mandible than our silicone spacers. We showed the dosimetric results in an experimental treatment setting. Dose specification: The five-mm dose specification method used in Japan can work only for easy cases, such as small oral tongue cancers and mouth floor cancers. For complicated implants, such as for the oropharynx, the CTV-based dose specification method used in France is essential for sufficient irradiation. Indications: The indication for head and neck interstitial brachytherapy in Japan is limited mostly to small oral tongue cancers. The indication in France is wider, including the oral cavity, the oropharynx, and postoperative cases. We can refine our head and neck cancer treatment if we combine French

  15. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  16. High dose rate versus low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for carcinoma of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hideya; Koizumi, Masahiko; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Ken; Shiomi, Hiroya; Imai, Atsushi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eichii; Nose, Takayuki; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei; Fuchihata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with cancer of the floor of mouth are treated with radiation because of functional and cosmetic reasons. We evaluate the treatment results of high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation for cancer of the floor of mouth. Methods and Materials: From January 1980 through March 1996, 41 patients with cancer of the floor of mouth were treated with LDR interstitial radiation using 198 Au grains, and from April 1992 through March 1996 16 patients with HDR interstitial radiation. There were 26 T1 tumors, 30 T2 tumors, and 1 T3 tumor. For 21 patients treated with interstitial radiation alone, a total radiation dose of interstitial therapy was 60 Gy/10 fractions/6-7 days in HDR and 85 Gy within 1 week in LDR. For 36 patients treated with a combination therapy, a total dose of 30 to 40 Gy of external radiation and a total dose of 48 Gy/8 fractions/5-6 days in HDR or 65 Gy within 1 week in LDR were delivered. Results: Two- and 5-year local control rates of patients treated with HDR interstitial radiation were 94% and 94%, and those with LDR were 75% and 69%, respectively. Local control rate of patients treated with HDR brachytherapy was slightly higher than that with 198 Au grains (p = 0.113). For late complication, bone exposure or ulcer occurred in 6 of 16 (38%) patients treated with HDR and 13 of 41 (32%) patients treated with LDR. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to LDR brachytherapy for cancer of the floor of mouth and eliminate radiation exposure for the medical staff

  17. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  18. Rectal complications associated with transperineal interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Potters, Louis

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: As transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) grows in acceptance as an option in the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer, its associated toxicities are being defined. This clinical report documents rectal toxicity from a large cohort of men treated by a single practitioner for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Eight hundred twenty-five men were treated from September 1992 to September 1998 with TIPPB. One hundred-forty were treated in conjunction with external beam irradiation (EBRT) and 685 with TIPPB alone. All patients were implanted under real-time ultrasound guidance. No dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for this study. All patients were followed at 5 weeks after the procedure, then every 3-6 months thereafter. Rectal morbidity was graded by a modified RTOG toxicity scale. Therapy to control symptoms was recommended on an individual basis. Results: The median follow-up for the cohort is 48 months. A total of 77 patients (9.4%) reported Grade 1 toxicity at some time following an implant whereas 54 patients (6.6%) reported Grade 2 toxicity. The peak post-TIPPB time for experiencing rectal toxicity was 8 months at which time Grade 1 and 2 rectal toxicity was reported in 9.5% of the patients. This improved over the subsequent months and resolved in all patients by 3((1)/(2)) years. Four patients (0.5%) reported Grade 3 rectal toxicity with rectal ulceration identified on colonoscopy at 1 year from implant. Two of the four patients had colonic manipulation in the radiated portion of the colon which subsequently caused it to bleed. None of the patients required blood product transfusion. In 3 of the 4 patients the Grade 3 rectal toxicity has resolved spontaneously and 1 patient continues to heal at the time of this report. No patient required hospitalization or surgical intervention. Conclusion: TIPPB is a tolerable and acceptable treatment option when used alone in early-stage, organ

  19. Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša

    2010-10-01

    In the adult human telencephalon, subcortical (gyral) white matter contains a special population of interstitial neurons considered to be surviving descendants of fetal subplate neurons [Kostovic & Rakic (1980) Cytology and the time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. J Neurocytol9, 219]. We designate this population of cells as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons and describe their morphology and distribution in the postnatal and adult human cerebrum. Human fetal subplate neurons cannot be regarded as interstitial, because the subplate zone is an essential part of the fetal cortex, the major site of synaptogenesis and the 'waiting' compartment for growing cortical afferents, and contains both projection neurons and interneurons with distinct input-output connectivity. However, although the subplate zone is a transient fetal structure, many subplate neurons survive postnatally as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons. The fetal white matter is represented by the intermediate zone and well-defined deep periventricular tracts of growing axons, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsule, and the fountainhead of the corona radiata. These tracts gradually occupy the territory of transient fetal subventricular and ventricular zones.The human fetal white matter also contains distinct populations of deep fetal interstitial neurons, which, by virtue of their location, morphology, molecular phenotypes and advanced level of dendritic maturation, remain distinct from subplate neurons and neurons in adjacent structures (e.g. basal ganglia, basal forebrain). We describe the morphological, histochemical (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) and immunocytochemical (neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y) features of both deep fetal interstitial neurons and deep (periventricular

  20. Clinical significance of determination of serum MMP9 and P III P levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Cuiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of determination of serum matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP 9 ) and type III pro-collagen peptide (PIIIP) levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Methods: Serum MMP 9 (with ELISA) and PIIIP(with RIA) levels were determined in 46 patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and 30 controls. Results: Serum MMP 9 and PIIIP levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 9 and PIIIP might be used as clinical diagnostic markers for pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. (authors)

  1. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Yong Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  2. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Choi, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  3. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomoichi

    1995-01-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs

  4. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomoichi [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs.

  5. Diffusion of He interstitial and di-He cluster at grain boundaries in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic molecular dynamics study of the diffusion mechanisms of He interstitial and di-He cluster at two representative interfaces has been carried out in α-Fe. The diffusion coefficient of a He interstitial and the effective migration energies were determined. The He atom diffuses along the Σ11 grain boundary one-dimensionally along specific directions, while it migrates two-dimensionally at low temperatures, and three-dimensionally at higher temperatures, in the Σ3 grain boundary. The di-He interstitial cluster can migrate rapidly along the Σ3 interface at low temperatures, but not at the Σ11 interface. It has been observed that a di-He interstitial cluster can kick out a self interstitial atom (SIA) at high temperatures, forming a He 2 V complex. The SIA migrates rapidly near interfaces, whereas the He 2 V complex is immobile at the temperatures considered. This small cluster may serve as the smallest nucleation for the formation of helium bubbles at interfaces

  6. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petera, J.; Odrazka, K.; Zouhar, M.; Bedrosova, J.; Dolezel, M. [Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2004-02-01

    Background: interstitial low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy allows conservative treatment of T1-T2 penile carcinoma. High-dose-rate (HDR) is often considered to be dangerous for interstitial implants because of a higher risk of complications, but numerous reports suggest that results may be comparable to LDR. Nevertheless, there are no data in the literature available regarding HDR interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis. Case report: a 64-year-old man with T1 NO MO epidermoid carcinoma of the glans is reported. Interstitial HDR brachytherapy was performed using the stainless hollow needle technique and a breast template for fixation and good geometry. The dose delivered was 18 x 3 Gy twice daily. Results: after 232 days from brachytherapy, the patient was without any evidence of the tumor, experienced no serious radiation-induced complications, and had a fully functional organ. Conclusion: HDR interstitial brachytherapy is feasible in selected case of penis carcinoma, when careful planning and small single fractions are used. (orig.)

  7. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  8. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vansthertem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  9. Blood and interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-03-18

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of

  11. Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Vali Khojeini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBL is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that resides in the lumen of blood vessels. Patients typically present with nonspecific findings, particularly bizarre neurologic symptoms, fever, and skin lesions. A woman presented with shortness of breath and a chest CT scan showed diffuse interstitial thickening and ground glass opacities suggestive of an interstitial lung disease. On physical exam she was noted to have splenomegaly. The patient died and at autopsy was found to have an IVLBL in her lungs as well as nearly all her organs that were sampled. Although rare, IVLBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and this case underscores the importance of the continuation of autopsies.

  12. Huang scattering from self-interstitials in electron-irradiated Fe-40 at % Al ordered alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, J.P.; Riviere, J.P.; Beaufort-Richard, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A single crystal of Fe-40 at % Al ordered alloy has been irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at liquid hydrogen temperature, and diffuse X-ray scattering (MoKα 1 ) near Bragg reflections has been studied after annealing the sample up to 300 K. The characteristic diffuse scattering from point defects with weak displacement fields (Huang diffusion) has been observed near the (200) Bragg reflection in the directions [011] and [100] and near the (110) reflection in the directions [110] and [110]. This Huang scattering has been attributed to self interstitials since under the same irradiations conditions, electrical resistivity measurements indicate that the long range migration of self interstitials by annihilation at vacancies would occur only for temperatures higher than 300 K. The comparison of the experimental results with the different simple intertitial configurations proposed for b.c.c. crystals suggest that the most probable configuration should be the [110] split interstitial with orthorhombic symmetry [fr

  13. Changes in interstitial K+ and pH during exercise: implications for blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    that blood flow is affected by changes in K+ as low as 0.1 mmol/L. The vasodilatory effect of K+ can be inhibited with simultaneous barium infusion, indicating that inward rectifier potassium (Kir)channels are involved. Acidosis has a direct effect on blood flow and an indirect effect, mediated by changes...... with the microdialysis technique. Interstitial K+ accumulation is dependent on the intensity and duration of muscle activity and may reach 10 mmol/L during intense exercise, and the concentration in T-tubules may be even higher. Thus, interstitial K+ can reach a level that affects fibre excitability and the development...... of fatigue. It has also been demonstrated with microdialysis that the interstitial decrease in pH during muscle activity is larger than the reduction in blood pH. Ion changes in the interstitium may affect blood flow directly or indirectly. Infusion of K+ into the femoral artery in humans has demonstrated...

  14. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  15. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (<600 K), which consists of <110> dumbbells and <111> crowdions in a specific configuration, resulting in an immobile defect. The stability and diffusion of this cluster at higher temperatures is explored. In addition, an anisotropy distribution factor of a particular [hkl] interstitial loop within the family of loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the <111> crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  16. The COPD Assessment Test as a Prognostic Marker in Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiko Someya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD Assessment Test (CAT, which was developed to measure the health status of patients with COPD, was applied to patients with interstitial lung disease, aiming to examine the CAT as a predictor of outcome. Over a follow-up period of more than one year, 101 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease were evaluated by the CAT. The CAT scores of 40 in total were categorized into four subsets according to the severity. Patients with higher (more severe scores exhibited lower forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. The survival rate was significantly lower in patients with higher scores (log-rank test, P = 0.0002, and the hazard ratios for death of the higher scores and lower lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were independently significant. These findings suggest that CAT can indicate the risk of mortality in patients with interstitial lung disease.

  17. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    .0005). Administration of GH induced an increase in interstitial glycerol in both abdominal and femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: abdominal, P = 0. 04; femoral, P = 0.03). There was no overall difference in the response to GH in the two regions during the study period as a whole (ANOVA: P = 0.5), but during peak...... stimulation of lipolysis abdominal adipose tissue was, in absolute but not in relative terms, stimulated more markedly than femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: P = 0. 03 from 45 to 225 min). Peak interstitial glycerol values of 253 +/- 37 and 336 +/- 74 micromol/l were seen after 135 and 165 min in femoral...... and abdominal adipose tissue, respectively. ATBF was not statistically different in the two situations (ANOVA: P = 0.7). In conclusion, we have shown that a physiological pulse of GH increases interstitial glycerol concentrations in both femoral and abdominal adipose tissue, indicating activated lipolysis...

  18. Self-interstitials, vacancies and their clusters in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, A.; Foell, H.; Frank, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper begins with a survey of knowledge about swirl defects in silicon. In particular, it is shown that recent identification of the A-swirls as dislocation loops of interstitial type strongly supports a previous suggestion that the predominant equilibrium defects controlling self-diffusion in silicon at high temperatures are self-interstitials. This is followed by a brief state-of-the-art report on self-interstitials in silicon, a field in which rapid progress has been made during the past half a decade. The discussion of vacancy-type defects, which stood in the limelight of the preceding conferences, is confined to some examples of recent interest, such as the interaction of vacancy-type defects with hydrogen atoms, positrons and positive muons. (author)

  19. Renal sarcoidosis presenting as acute kidney injury with granulomatous interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varun; Crisi, Giovanna M; D'Agati, Vivette D; Freda, Benjamin J

    2012-02-01

    Among the various renal manifestations of sarcoidosis, granulomatous inflammation confined to the tubulointerstitial compartment is the most commonly reported finding. We present the case of a 66-year-old man with acute kidney injury, hypercalcemia, mild restrictive pulmonary disease, and neurologic signs of parietal lobe dysfunction. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse interstitial inflammation with noncaseating granulomas that exhibited the unusual feature of infiltrating the walls of small arteries with destruction of the elastic lamina, consistent with granulomatous vasculitis. The findings of granulomatous interstitial nephritis on kidney biopsy, hypercalcemia, and possible cerebral and pulmonary involvement in the absence of other infectious, drug-induced, or autoimmune causes of granulomatous disease established the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Pulse methylprednisolone followed by maintenance prednisone therapy led to improvement in kidney function, hypercalcemia, and neurologic symptoms. Vasculocentric granulomatous interstitial nephritis with granulomatous vasculitis is a rare and under-recognized manifestation of renal sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Some considerations in the splitting of interstitial frank loops formed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshan, K.; Grilhe, J.; Washburn, J.

    1975-05-01

    The splitting of interstitial loops formed by irradiation is considered in detail. It is shown that they may split to form obtuse--angled single shear faults on the intersecting (111) planes. A detailed description of the splitting is given in which the interstitial Frank loop is viewed as being made up of perfect dislocation loop and two shears. The detailed description is then considered in the context of the formation of complex loops as are observed in quenching and irradiation studies. Experimentally observed geometries are explained viz, triangular loops within hexagonal ones etc. The nucleation of a DC' loop in complex interstitial loop formation is shown to be feasible. DC' has the magnitude of a perfect dislocation loop and encloses an intrinsic shear

  1. Internal reflection of interstitial atoms from close-packed tungsten faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranova, Zh.I.; Mikhajlovskij, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Use of field-ion microscopy methods has shown that changes in microtopography of tungsten specimens irradiated with 2-5 keV helium atoms are mainly related to the liberation of interstitial atoms on the surface. It is established that the atom liberation on the surface is considerably anisotropic: maximum quantity of atoms is observed in the vicinity of faces (100), (111) and (211) along the sections of zone lines (110) oriented along the edge of the first Brillouin zone. The atom liberation on plane sections of the most dense-packed face (110) was not observed as a rule; atomic steps of the face are interstitial atom sinks. It is concluded on the basis of the results obtained that there is the predominant inner reflection of interstitial atoms from the dense-packed faces and a possible contribution of inner reflection to the surface migration processes activated with the ion bombardment as well as material swelling have been analyzed [ru

  2. Progression of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Interstitial Lung Disease Accompanies Distinct Pulmonary and Laboratory Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J; Overbey, Jessica R; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency may be complicated by interstitial lung disease, which leads to worsened morbidity and mortality in some. Although immunomodulatory treatment has efficacy, choice of patient, duration of treatment, and long-term follow-up are not available. Interstitial lung disease appears stable in certain instances, so it is not known whether all patients will develop progressive disease or require immunomodulatory therapy. This study aims to determine if all common variable immunodeficiency patients with interstitial lung disease have physiological worsening, and if clinical and/or laboratory parameters may correlate with disease progression. A retrospective review of medical records at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was conducted for referred patients with common variable immunodeficiency, CT scan-confirmed interstitial lung disease, and periodic pulmonary function testing covering 20 or more months before immunomodulatory therapy. Fifteen patients were identified from the retrospective review and included in this study. Of the 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 9 had physiological worsening of interstitial lung disease adapted from consensus guidelines, associated with significant reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Those with progressive lung disease also had significantly lower mean immunoglobulin G levels, greater increases and highest levels of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM), and more significant thrombocytopenia. Interstitial lung disease resulted in physiological worsening in many, but not all subjects, and was associated with suboptimal immunoglobulin G replacement. Those with worsening pulmonary function tests, elevated IgM, and severe thrombocytopenic episodes appear to be at highest risk for progressive disease. Such patients may benefit from immunomodulatory treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy

  3. Reversible Lansoprazole-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Showing Improvement after Drug Cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Shin, Bong Kyung; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Eun Young

    2008-01-01

    Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibitor that is similar to omeprazole. It is used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Common adverse effects of lansoprazole are diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash and/or itching. Information from U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that this drug can on rare occasion cause cough or cold-like symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lansoprazole-related pulmonary symptoms are not yet understood. In particular, there are no known reports regarding lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung diseases. We report here a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by oral administration of lansoprazole, which showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) as detected from a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. We believe that this is the first report of a case of pathologically proven lansoprazole-induced ILD for which a surgical lung biopsy was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of DI-ILD caused by lansoprazole. The diagnosis was made by considering the radiological, histopathological and clinical findings, including the close temporal relationship between lansoprazole exposure and symptom severity. Other possible causes were excluded due to a lack of a temporal relationship between the symptoms and work history or prednisolone therapy, and no other history of specific allergen exposure. When there is diffuse interstitial lung disease with an unknown etiology, it is important to remember that drugs can be the cause of pulmonary symptoms and it is crucial to take a careful patient history. If there is a recent history of taking lansoprazole in a patient with clinical and radiological findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease, we recommend stopping the medication to see if there is clinical and radiological improvement. That way, one can avoid using invasive procedures to

  4. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. The Objective Identification and Quantification of Interstitial Lung Abnormalities in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Hunninghake, Gary M; Putman, Rachel K; Onieva, Jorge; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Washko, George R

    2017-08-01

    Previous investigation suggests that visually detected interstitial changes in the lung parenchyma of smokers are highly clinically relevant and predict outcomes, including death. Visual subjective analysis to detect these changes is time-consuming, insensitive to subtle changes, and requires training to enhance reproducibility. Objective detection of such changes could provide a method of disease identification without these limitations. The goal of this study was to develop and test a fully automated image processing tool to objectively identify radiographic features associated with interstitial abnormalities in the computed tomography scans of a large cohort of smokers. An automated tool that uses local histogram analysis combined with distance from the pleural surface was used to detect radiographic features consistent with interstitial lung abnormalities in computed tomography scans from 2257 individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD study, a longitudinal observational study of smokers. The sensitivity and specificity of this tool was determined based on its ability to detect the visually identified presence of these abnormalities. The tool had a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 57.5% for the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities, with a c-statistic of 0.82, and was 100% sensitive and 56.7% specific for the detection of the visual subtype of interstitial abnormalities called fibrotic parenchymal abnormalities, with a c-statistic of 0.89. In smokers, a fully automated image processing tool is able to identify those individuals who have interstitial lung abnormalities with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy with Combined Exposure of External and Interstitial Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Okuyama, Shuhei; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-21

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new target-cell-specific cancer treatment that induces highly selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death after systemic administration of a photoabsorber antibody conjugate and subsequent NIR light exposure. However, the depth of NIR light penetration in tissue (approximately 2 cm) with external light sources limits the therapeutic effects of NIR-PIT. Interstitial light exposure using cylindrical diffusing optical fibers can overcome this limitation. The purpose in this study was to compare three NIR light delivery methods for treating tumors with NIR-PIT using a NIR laser system at an identical light energy; external exposure alone, interstitial exposure alone, and the combination. Panitumumab conjugated with the photoabsorber IRDye-700DX (pan-IR700) was intravenously administered to mice with A431-luc xenografts which are epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive. One and 2 days later, NIR light was administered to the tumors using one of three methods. Interstitial exposure alone and in combination with external sources showed the greatest decrease in bioluminescence signal intensity. Additionally, the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure showed significantly greater tumor size reduction and prolonged survival after NIR-PIT compared to external exposure alone. This result suggested that the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure was more effective than externally applied light alone. Although external exposure is the least invasive means of delivering light, the combination of external and interstitial exposures produces superior therapeutic efficacy in tumors greater than 2 cm in depth from the tissue surface.

  7. Reversible Lansoprazole-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Showing Improvement after Drug Cessation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Shin, Bong Kyung; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibitor that is similar to omeprazole. It is used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Common adverse effects of lansoprazole are diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash and/or itching. Information from U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that this drug can on rare occasion cause cough or cold-like symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lansoprazole-related pulmonary symptoms are not yet understood. In particular, there are no known reports regarding lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung diseases. We report here a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by oral administration of lansoprazole, which showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) as detected from a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. We believe that this is the first report of a case of pathologically proven lansoprazole-induced ILD for which a surgical lung biopsy was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of DI-ILD caused by lansoprazole. The diagnosis was made by considering the radiological, histopathological and clinical findings, including the close temporal relationship between lansoprazole exposure and symptom severity. Other possible causes were excluded due to a lack of a temporal relationship between the symptoms and work history or prednisolone therapy, and no other history of specific allergen exposure. When there is diffuse interstitial lung disease with an unknown etiology, it is important to remember that drugs can be the cause of pulmonary symptoms and it is crucial to take a careful patient history. If there is a recent history of taking lansoprazole in a patient with clinical and radiological findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease, we recommend stopping the medication to see if there is clinical and radiological improvement. That way, one can avoid using invasive procedures to

  8. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Hélène Taiana; Roué, Mélanie; Sibat, Manoella; Viallon, Jérôme; Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Vandersea, Mark W; Tester, Patricia A; Litaker, R Wayne; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp; Chinain, Mireille

    2017-12-21

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates) contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia) prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus . Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  9. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Taiana Darius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus. Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  10. [RNA polymerase II and pre-mRNA splicing factors in diplotene oocyte nuclei of the giant African gastropod Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of pre-mRNA splicing factors (snRNPs and SR-protein SC35) and unphosphorylated from of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) was studied using fluorescent and immunoelectron cytochemistry in diplotene oocytes of the gastropod Achatina fulica. Association of Pol II and splicing factors with oocyte nuclear structures was analysed. The antibodies against splicing factors and Pol II were shown to label perichromatin fibrils at the periphery of condensed chromatin blocks as well as those in interchromatin regions of nucleoplasm. The revealed character of distribution of snRNPs, SC35 protein, and Pol II, together with the decondensed chromatin and absence of karyosphere, enable us to suggest that oocyte chromosomes maintain their transcriptional activity at the diplotene stage of oogenesis. In A. fulica oocytes, sparse nuclear bodies (NBs) of a complex morphological structure were revealed. These NBs contain snRNPs rather than SC35 protein. NBs are associated with a fibrogranular material (FGM), which contains SC35 protein. No snRNPs were revealed in this material. Homology of A. fulica oocyte nuclear structures to Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters is discussed.

  11. Megadenus atrae n. sp., an endoparasitic eulimid gastropod (Mollusca) from the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger (Aspidochirotida: Holothuriidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Warén, Anders; Kano, Yasunori

    2017-07-01

    An eulimid gastropod, Megadenus atrae n. sp., endoparasitic in the cloacal chamber of the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger is described from Okinawa, Japan, as the fifth species of the genus. Conspecific specimens have also been found from southeast India, northeast Australia and New Caledonia. The generic assignment is justified by the presence of (i) a thick, long proboscis that bears a large fold (pseudopallium) near the base and a collar-like structure at the middle, (ii) a thin, globose shell that is covered by the pseudopallium, and (iii) sexual dimorphism with the female generally larger than the male. The new species is distinguishable from the four previously described congeners by its cauldron-shaped pseudopallium, moderately-developed collar of the proboscis and rounded basal lip of the shell. The comparisons of the size and sex of solitary and paired individuals support a previous hypothesis that the species of Megadenus Rosén, 1910 are protandrous with environmental sex determination. The present species occurs mostly as monogamous pairs despite its very low population density, implying that the presence of a conspecific individual acts as a cue for larval settlement. Both mechanisms would increase individual reproductive success in such permanent parasites with low prevalence and abundance as the species of Megadenus.

  12. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Alice; Le Pogam, Pierre; Biver, Grichka; Boustie, Joël; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2017-03-08

    Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata . A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces) were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion).

  13. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Gadea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion.

  14. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Maarouf, Mohammad [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Center of Neurosurgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias; Deckert, Martina [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Hellmich, Martin [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Buehrle, Christian [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, Volker [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Wurzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using {sup 125}iodine seeds ({sup 125}I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with {sup 125}I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung oligodendroglialer Hirntumoren durch die interstitielle Brachytherapie

  15. Radiation protection after interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil - Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this study we measure patients radiation exposure dose after interstitial {sup 125}I permanent prostate Brachytherapy implants, and correlate it with dose limits for public, total activity implanted, patient preoperative weight(1), distance between prostate walls and anterior skin surface. Methods and Material: We analyse 20 patients who were implanted with {sup 125}I seeds. The instrument used to measure radiation is a calibrated Berthold Umo LB 123 aco-plated to a LB 1236-H10 detector. Three measurements were taken: at the perineal and anterior pelvic zones on contact with the skin and at 1 m from the patient. The maximum value was taken for all measurements. The dose at a distance of one meter is obtained at anterior pelvic zone, perpendicular to the skin, according to the recommendations of A.A.P.M.(1). The distance between prostate walls was determined using post -operative CT images. Results: The doses at the perineal zone have determined an average of 186 {mu}Sv/h (range: 110 340 {mu}Sv/h) and at surface pelvic zone of 41 {mu}Sv/h (range: 15 103 {mu}Sv/h). The dose at a distance of 1 meter has an average value of 0.4 {mu}Sv/h (range: 0.2 1.0 {mu}Sv/h). The average total activity implanted was 25 mCi (range: 17 38 mCi). The distance between prostate walls and skin pelvic surface of the patients has an average value of 8.9 cm (range: 6.6 -11.5 cm). At a distance of 1 meter from the pelvic zone the dose measured is very low and below dose limits imposed by the European Directive EURATOM 2 and the Portuguese law. For general public to reach annual dose limit (EURATOM - 1 mSv/year) when contacting the pelvic zone, we extrapolate that 4 days (range: 1.6 11.1 days) would be needed, assuming a daily contact period of 6 hours. Conclusion: We established a correlation between the distance of prostate walls to the skin perineal surface and the total dose, but we find no correlation between measured doses, total activity implanted

  16. Tolerance of rat spinal cord to continuous interstitial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Lucas A.M.; Plas, Mirjam van der; Ruifrok, Arnout C.C.; Schalkwijk, Lia J.M.; Hanssen, Alex E.J.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the kinetics of repair in rat spinal cord during continuous interstitial irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and Methods: Two parallel catheters were inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of T 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1 - 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR- microSelectron. Experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 7 different dose rates: 0.53, 0.90, 1.64, 2.56, 4.4, 9.9 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5 - 6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal were used as experimental endpoints. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall - off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h (ED 50 of 17.3 Gy and 75.0 Gy, respectively). Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis are presented. For the direct analysis the best fit of the data was obtained if a biexponential function for repair was used. For the 100% dose prescribed at the ventral side of the spinal cord the (α(β)) ratio is 1.8 Gy (0.8 - 2.8) and two components of repair are observed: a slow component of repair of 2.44 h (1.18 - ∞) and a fast component of 0.15 h (0.02 - ∞). The proportion of the damage repaired with the slow component is 0.59 (0.18 - 1). For the maximum of 150% of the prescribed dose at the dorsal side of the spinal cord the (α(β)) ratio is 2.7 Gy (1.5 - 4.4); the two components for the kinetics of repair remain the same. Conclusions: Spinal cord

  17. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6...... mg/kg b.w.; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2 six subjects performed one low intense (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na...

  18. W/kit gene required for interstitial cells of Cajal and for intestinal pacemaker activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, J D; Thuneberg, L; Klüppel, M

    1995-01-01

    The pacemaker activity in the mammalian gut is responsible for generating anally propagating phasic contractions. The cellular basis for this intrinsic activity is unknown. The smooth muscle cells of the external muscle layers and the innervated cellular network of interstitial cells of Cajal......, which is closely associated with the external muscle layers of the mammalian gut, have both been proposed to stimulate pacemaker activity. The interstitial cells of Cajal were identified in the last century but their developmental origin and function have remained unclear. Here we show...... of Cajal associated with Auerbach's nerve plexus and intestinal pacemaker activity....

  19. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (family of 〈 hkl 〉 loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the 〈 111 〉 crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  20. Annihilation of interstitial-type dislocation loops in α-Fe during He irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.; Wang, Y.X.; Katakabe, Y.; Iwakiri, H.; Yoshida, N.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial-type dislocation loops were formed in Fe-9Cr alloys on irradiation with 1-MeV He ions at 673 K. However, with increasing irradiation dose, the dislocation loops shrunk. A molecular dynamics simulation was used to elucidate the mechanism of this unexpected phenomenon. The simulation shows that, although the binding energy of a self-interstitial atom to a dislocation loop is normally greater than that of a vacancy, the energy hierarchy is reversed when He atoms decorate the loop. This may indicates preferential absorption of vacancies, causing loop shrinkage at high doses, consistent with experimental observation.