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Sample records for interrogation system ibis

  1. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  2. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  3. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Miniaturized Interrogation System for Marsupial Rover Sensing Tether, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development of its marsupial rover sensing tether (MaRS Tether) technology by miniaturizing the sensor's interrogation system. Luna is...

  5. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Operational skill assessment of the IBI-MFC Ocean Forecasting System within the frame of the CMEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Amo-Balandron, Arancha; Aznar Lecocq, Roland; Perez Gomez, Begoña; Levier, Bruno; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Since operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs) are increasingly used as tools to support high-stakes decision-making for coastal management, a rigorous skill assessment of model performance becomes essential. In this context, the IBI-MFC (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland Monitoring & Forecasting Centre) has been providing daily ocean model estimates and forecasts for the IBI regional seas since 2011, first in the frame of MyOcean projects and later as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). A comprehensive web validation tool named NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) has been developed to routinely monitor IBI performance and to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Three-dimensional comparisons are carried out on a different time basis ('online mode' - daily verifications - and 'delayed mode' - for longer time periods -) using a broad variety of in-situ (buoys, tide-gauges, ARGO-floats, drifters and gliders) and remote-sensing (satellite and HF radars) observational sources as reference fields to validate against the NEMO model solution. Product quality indicators and meaningful skill metrics are automatically computed not only averaged over the entire IBI domain but also over specific sub-regions of particular interest from a user perspective (i.e. coastal or shelf areas) in order to determine IBI spatial and temporal uncertainty levels. A complementary aspect of NARVAL web tool is the intercomparison of different CMEMS forecast model solutions in overlapping areas. Noticeable efforts are in progress in order to quantitatively assess the quality and consistency of nested system outputs by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on different temporal and spatial scales, encompassing global configurations (CMEMS Global system), regional applications (NWS and MED ones) and local high-resolution coastal models (i.e. the PdE SAMPA system in the Gibraltar Strait). NARVAL constitutes a powerful approach to increase

  7. Interrogation zone determination in HF RFID systems with multiplexed antennas*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski-Mihułowicz Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The operation of an anti-collision RFID system is characterized by the interrogation zone which should be estimated in any direction of 3D space for a group of electronic transponders. The interrogation zone should be as large as possible. However, the many problems in this area are due to the fact that energy can be transferred to transponders only on a limited distance. The greatest flexibility in developing RFID applications and shaping the interrogation zone can be achieved using the system with an antenna multiplexer. Therefore the problem of the interrogation zone determination in HF RFID systems with two orthogonal RWD antennas is presented in the paper. The perceived issues have been effectively dealt with and the solution has been proposed on the basis of the elaborated model. Conducted studies have been used to develop the software tool JankoRFIDmuxHF in the Mathcad environment. The research results are analysed in an example system configuration. The specialized measuring stand has been used for experimental verification of the identification efficiency. The convergence of the measurements and calculations confirms a practical usefulness of the presented concept of interrogation zone determination in anti-collision systems. It also shows the practical utility of the developed model and software tools.

  8. Noncontact power/interrogation system for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, William B., Jr.; Durkee, S.

    1994-05-01

    The field of smart structures has been largely driven by the development of new high performance designed materials. Use of these materials has been generally limited due to the fact that they have not been in use long enough for statistical data bases to be developed on their failure modes. Real time health monitoring is therefore required for the benefits of structures using these materials to be realized. In this paper a non-contact method of powering and interrogating embedded electronic and opto-electronic systems is described. The technique utilizes inductive coupling between external and embedded coils etched on thin electronic circuit cards. The technique can be utilized to interrogate embedded sensors and to provide > 250 mW for embedded electronics. The system has been successfully demonstrated with a number of composite and plastic materials through material thicknesses up to 1 cm. An analytical description of the system is provided along with experimental results.

  9. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  10. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...... and analyses light reflected from the polymer-based single- mode fibre-optic sensor system....

  11. Hardware embedded fiber sensor interrogation system using intensive digital signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yujuan; Negri, Lucas H.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Mattos, Daniel S.; Negri, Gabriel H.; Paterno, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The description of an interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensors is reported. The full implementation in hardware of the required signal processing is proposed and made publicly available. The hardware description is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) development kit and the processing units allow one to control an optoelectronic interrogation system that uses the tunable filter method. Since the signal that drives the used Fabry-Perot filter (FFP) using a digital...

  12. Development of a Macroinvertebrate - based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI for Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura Canal System (A new approach to assess stream/ wetland health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nilakarawasam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates have been identified as excellent indicators of stream (wetland health as they respond rapidly to environmental changers and provide short to medium term pollution history records. Current study was aimed to develop a Macroinvertebrate-based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI to monitor stream health of Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura canal system. Macroinvertebrates were sampled using a D-framed kick net from ten stations during the period of Nov 2008 to June 2009. Habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters also recorded. For the index development, those ten stations were grouped into two as ’Reference’ and ‘Degraded’ based on their habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters. Then 41vcandidate metrics were nominated for statistical analysis process. After considering their sensitivity to stream impairment, ability of showing exceptionally strong discrimination between reference and degraded sites and less redundancy, ten candidate metrics were selected for M-IBI development. Validity of the index was tested with a new independent data set. Scores acquired for these data set were positively correlated with DO values (r = 0.578. That concluded the potential of using M-IBI developed for biological monitoring and improving biotic integrity of streams and wetlands.

  13. Development of an Optical Fiber Sensor Interrogation System for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Lamberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of dynamic optical fiber sensor interrogation systems on the market it has become possible to perform vibration measurements at frequencies up to a few kHz. Nevertheless, the use of these sensors in vibration analysis has not become a standard practice yet. This is mainly caused by the fact that interrogators are stand-alone systems which focus on strain measurements while other types of signals are also required for vibration analysis (e.g., force signals. In this paper, we present a fiber Bragg grating (FBG interrogation system that enables accurate strain measurement simultaneously with other signals (e.g., excitation forces. The system is based on a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL and can easily be assembled with relatively low-cost off-the-shelf components. Dynamic measurements up to a few tens of kHz with a dynamic precision of around 3 nanostrain per square-root Hz can be performed. We evaluate the proposed system on two measurement examples: a steel beam with FBG sensors glued on top and a composite test specimen with a fiber sensor integrated within the material. We show that in the latter case the results of the interrogation system are superior in quality compared to a state-of-the-art commercially available interrogation system.

  14. Characterization of a FBG sensor interrogation system based on a mode-locked laser scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Javier; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Zheng, Di; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2017-10-02

    This paper is focused on the characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on a fiber ring laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier as the gain medium, and an in-loop electro-optical modulator. This system operates as a switchable active (pulsed) mode-locked laser. The operation principle of the system is explained theoretically and validated experimentally. The ability of the system to interrogate an array of different FBGs in wavelength and spatial domain is demonstrated. Simultaneously, the influence of several important parameters on the performance of the interrogation technique has been investigated. Specifically, the effects of the bandwidth and the reflectivity of the FBGs, the SOA gain, and the depth of the intensity modulation have been addressed.

  15. A Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System with Self-Adaption Threshold Peak Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG interrogation system with a self-adaption threshold peak detection algorithm is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this study. This system is composed of a field programmable gate array (FPGA and advanced RISC machine (ARM platform, tunable Fabry–Perot (F–P filter and optical switch. To improve system resolution, the F–P filter was employed. As this filter is non-linear, this causes the shifting of central wavelengths with the deviation compensated by the parts of the circuit. Time-division multiplexing (TDM of FBG sensors is achieved by an optical switch, with the system able to realize the combination of 256 FBG sensors. The wavelength scanning speed of 800 Hz can be achieved by a FPGA+ARM platform. In addition, a peak detection algorithm based on a self-adaption threshold is designed and the peak recognition rate is 100%. Experiments with different temperatures were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Four FBG sensors were examined in the thermal chamber without stress. When the temperature changed from 0 °C to 100 °C, the degree of linearity between central wavelengths and temperature was about 0.999 with the temperature sensitivity being 10 pm/°C. The static interrogation precision was able to reach 0.5 pm. Through the comparison of different peak detection algorithms and interrogation approaches, the system was verified to have an optimum comprehensive performance in terms of precision, capacity and speed.

  16. Plasmonic Interrogation of Biomimetic Systems for Enhanced Toxicity Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Samuel Stuart

    In light of their escalating exposure to possible environmental toxicants, there are many biological systems that need to be evaluated in a resource and time efficient manner. Understanding how toxicants behave in relation to their physicochemical properties and within complex biological media is especially important toward developing a stronger scientific foundation of these systems so that adequate regulatory decisions may be made. While there are many emerging methods available for the detection and characterization of these chemicals, nanotechnology has presented itself as a promising alternative toward creating more efficient assays. In particular, metallic nanoparticles and thin films exhibit unique optical properties that allow for highly sensitive and multiplexed studies to be performed. These plasmonic materials often preclude the use of molecular tags and labels, enabling direct characterizations and enhancing the throughput of biomolecular studies. However, their lack of specificity toward certain targets and potential toxicity has thus far precluded their widespread use in toxicity testing. The cell membrane, a natural signal transducer, represents one of the fundamental structures for biological recognition and communication. These interfaces principally function as a selective barrier to exogenous materials, including ions, signaling molecules, growth factors, and toxins; therefore, understanding interactions at membrane interfaces is a vital step in elucidating how biological responses are effected. Supported lipid bilayers, which may easily be tailored in composition and complexity, are ideal interfaces for coupling to plasmonic assays since they may be supported in close proximity to metallic nanoparticles and thin films, where measurements are most sensitive. This research will focus on the coupling of plasmonic materials and biomimetic interfaces to increase the sensitivity, efficiency, and throughput of conventional toxicity assays. The

  17. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue

  20. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  1. High-resolution spectrally-resolved fiber optic sensor interrogation system based on a standard DWDM laser module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents a spectrally-resolved integration system suitable for the reading of Bragg grating, all-fiber Fabry-Perot, and similar spectrally-resolved fiber-optic sensors. This system is based on a standard telecommunication dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission module that contains a distributed feedback laser diode and a wavelength locker. Besides the transmission module, only a few additional opto-electronic components were needed to build an experimental interrogation system that demonstrated over a 2 nm wide wavelength interrogation range, and a 1 pm wavelength resolution. When the system was combined with a typical Bragg grating sensor, a strain resolution of 1 με and temperature resolution of 0.1 °C were demonstrated experimentally. The proposed interrogation system relies entirely on Telecordia standard compliant photonic components and can thus be straightforwardly qualified for use within the range of demanding applications.

  2. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Seok Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system.

  3. Compact multichannel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical systems-based interrogator for Fiber Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Rose, Bjarke; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel type of compact high-resolution multichannel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based interrogator, where we replace the linear detector with a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD is typically cheaper and has better pixel sampling than an InGaAs detector used...

  4. Microwave-Interrogated Embedded Sensor System for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Lab propose to develop a new class of microwave-interrogated embedded sensors for nondestructive evaluation...

  5. Development of the QA/QC Procedures for a Neutron Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Valkovic, Vladivoj [Ruder Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-07-01

    In order to perform QA/QC procedures for a system dedicated to the neutron interrogation of objects for the presence of threat materials one needs to perform measurements of reference materials (RM) having the same (or similar) atomic ratios as real materials. It is well known that explosives, drugs, and various other benign materials, contain chemical elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen in distinctly different quantities. For example, a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is characteristic of drugs. Explosives can be differentiated by measurement of both C/O and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios. The C/N ratio of the chemical warfare agents, coupled with the measurement of elements such as fluorine and phosphorus, clearly differentiate them from the conventional explosives. Correlations between theoretical values and experimental results obtained in laboratory conditions for C/O and N/C ratios of simulants of hexogen (RDX), TNT, DLM2, TATP, cocaine, heroin, yperite, tetranitromethane, peroxide methylethyl-ketone, nitromethane and ethyleneglycol dinitrate are presented. (authors)

  6. Microwave photonic filter-based interrogation system for multiple fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanici, Maria I; Chen, Lawrence R; Kung, Peter

    2017-11-10

    Fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) find potential use in condition monitoring because their spectral properties change according to external environmental and/or physical factors. We propose and demonstrate a technique for interrogating multiple FBG-based sensors based on microwave photonic (MWP) filtering. In particular, we exploit the spectrum-slicing properties of two different FBG Fabry-Perot cavities to implement a double passband MWP filter. Each sensor spectrum results in a unique MWP filter passband. As temperature is applied to a sensor, the corresponding MWP filter passband will shift in frequency; we track such shifts by monitoring the detected power at a fixed radio frequency. We discuss the use of a ratiometric approach for enhancing the sensitivity and the impact of cross-talk from the MWP filter responses in terms of simultaneous multi-sensor operation. Results show that we can monitor local temperatures at two (or multiple) different locations simultaneously and independently using a single measurement system.

  7. Ibis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1864-01-01

    Ces oiseaux se rapprochent plutôt des Hérons que des Cicognes, et ne rapellent les Courlis que par la forme générale de leur bec. Ils se propagent en société, construisent leur nids sur des arbres ou arbustes au milieu des marais ou lieux inondés, et pondent des oeufs d’une teinte claire et

  8. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, G. [LANL; Sandberg, R. L. [LANL; Lalone, B. M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. R. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Udd, E. [Columbia Gorge Research

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  9. High pressure sensing and dynamics using high speed fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Sandberg, R. L.; Lalone, B. M.; Marshall, B. R.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G.; Udd, E.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  10. Enhancing the performance of a tensioned metastable fluid detector based active interrogation system for the detection of SNM in <1 m3 containers using a D-D neutron interrogation source in moderated/reflected geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, T. F.; Hagen, A. R.; Archambault, B. C.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a SNM detection system for interrogating 1m3 cargos via the combination of a D-D neutron interrogation source (with and without reflectors) and tensioned metastable fluid detectors (TMFDs). TMFDs have been previously shown (Taleyarkhan et al., 2008; Grimes et al., 2015; Grimes and Taleyarkhan, 2016; Archambault et al., 2017; Hagen et al., 2016) to be capable of using Threshold Energy Neutron Analysis (TENA) techniques to reject the ∼2.45 MeV D-D interrogating neutrons while still remaining sensitive to >2.45 MeV neutrons resulting from fission in the target (HEU) material. In order to enhance the performance, a paraffin reflector was included around the accelerator head. This reflector was used to direct neutrons into the package to increase the fission signal, lower the energy of the interrogating neutrons to increase the fission cross-section with HEU, and, also to direct interrogating neutrons away from the detectors in order to enhance the required discrimination between interrogating and fission neutrons. Experiments performed with a 239 Pu-Be neutron source and MnO2 indicated that impressive performance gains could be made by placing a parabolic paraffin moderator between the interrogation source and an air-filled cargo container with HEU placed at the center. However, experiments with other cargo fillers (as specified in the well-known ANSI N42.41-2007 report), and with HEU placed in locations other than the center of the package indicated that other reflector geometries might be superior due to over-"focusing" and the increased solid angle effects due to the accommodation of the moderator geometry. The best performance for the worst case of source location and box fill was obtained by placing the reflector only behind the D-D neutron source rather than in front of it. Finally, it was shown that there could be significant gains in the ability to detect concealed SNM by operating the system in multiple geometric

  11. Intercomparison of different operational oceanographic forecast products in the CMEMS IBI area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Amo-Baladrón, Arancha; Aznar, Roland; De Pascual, Alvaro; Levier, Bruno; Bowyer, Peter; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Salon, Stefano; Tonani, Marina; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    The development of skill assessment software packages and dedicated web applications is a relatively novel theme in operational oceanography. Within the CMEMS IBI-MFC, the quality of IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) forecast products is assessed by means of NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) web-based tool. The validation of IBI against independent in situ and remote-sensing measurements is routinely conducted to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Noticeable efforts are in progress to define meaningful skill scores and statistical metrics to quantitatively assess the quality and reliability of the IBI model solution. Likewise, the IBI-MFC compares the IBI forecast products with other model solutions by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on overlapping areas at diverse timescales. In this context, NARVAL web tool already includes a specific module to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of IBI versus other CMEMS operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs). In particular, the IBI physical ocean solution is compared against the CMEMS MED and NWS OOFSs. These CMEMS regional services delivered for the Mediterranean and the North West Shelves include data assimilation schemes in their respective operational chains and generate analogous ocean forecast products to the IBI ones. A number of physical parameters (i.e. sea surface temperature, salinity and current velocities) are evaluated through NARVAL on a daily basis in the overlapping areas existing between these three regional systems. NARVAL is currently being updated in order to extend this intercomparison of ocean model parameters to the biogeochemical solutions provided by the aforementioned OOFSs. More specifically, the simulated chlorophyll concentration is evaluated over several subregions of particular concern by using as benchmark the CMEMS satellite-derived observational products. In addition to this IBI comparison against other regional CMEMS products on overlapping areas, a

  12. Datgan, a reusable software system for facile interrogation and visualization of complex transcription profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Benjamin L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce Glaucoma Discovery Platform (GDP, an online environment for facile visualization and interrogation of complex transcription profiling datasets for glaucoma. We also report the availability of Datgan, the suite of scripts that was developed to construct GDP. This reusable software system complements existing repositories such as NCBI GEO or EBI ArrayExpress as it allows the construction of searchable databases to maximize understanding of user-selected transcription profiling datasets. Description Datgan scripts were used to construct both the underlying data tables and the web interface that form GDP. GDP is populated using data from a mouse model of glaucoma. The data was generated using the DBA/2J strain, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. The DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ strain provided a genetically matched control strain that does not develop glaucoma. We separately assessed both the retina and the optic nerve head, important tissues in glaucoma. We used hierarchical clustering to identify early molecular stages of glaucoma that could not be identified using morphological assessment of disease. GDP has two components. First, an interactive search and retrieve component provides the ability to assess gene(s of interest in all identified stages of disease in both the retina and optic nerve head. The output is returned in graphical and tabular format with statistically significant differences highlighted for easy visual analysis. Second, a bulk download component allows lists of differentially expressed genes to be retrieved as a series of files compatible with Excel. To facilitate access to additional information available for genes of interest, GDP is linked to selected external resources including Mouse Genome Informatics and Online Medelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM. Conclusion Datgan-constructed databases allow user-friendly access to datasets that involve temporally ordered stages of disease or developmental stages

  13. Fiber optic interrogation systems for hypervelocity and low velocity impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. A.; Cole, M. J.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop non-contact fiber optic based displacement sensors to operate in the harsh environment of a "light gas gun" (LGG), which can "fire" small particles at velocities ranging from 1 km/s-8.4 km/s. The LGG is used extensively for research in aerospace to analyze the effects of high speed impacts on materials. Ideally the measurement should be made close to the center of the impact to minimize corruption of the data from edge effects and survive the impact. We chose to develop a non-contact "pseudo" confocal intensity sensor, which demonstrated resolution comparable with conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors combined with high survivability and low cost. A second sensor was developed based on "fiber Bragg gratings" (FBG) to enable a more detailed analysis of the effects of the impact, although requiring contact with the target the low weight and very small contact area of the FBG had minimal effect on the dynamics of the target. The FBG was mounted either on the surface of the target or tangentially between a fixed location. The output signals from the FBG were interrogated in time by a new method. Measurements were made on carbon fiber composite plates in the LGG and on low velocity impact tests. The particle momentum for the low velocity impact tests was chosen to be similar to that of the particles used in the LGG.

  14. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  15. Biosensing of BCR/ABL fusion gene using an intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangling; Huang, Yu; Bian, Xintong; Li, DanDan; Cheng, Quan; Ding, Shijia

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a custom-made intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) system has been developed to directly detect a specific sequence of BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The variation in the reflected light intensity detected from the sensor chip composed of gold islands array is proportional to the change of refractive index due to the selective hybridization of surface-bound DNA probes with target ssDNA. SPRi measurements were performed with different concentrations of synthetic target DNA sequence. The calibration curve of synthetic target sequence shows a good relationship between the concentration of synthetic target and the change of reflected light intensity. The detection limit of this SPRi measurement could approach 10.29 nM. By comparing SPRi images, the target ssDNA and non-complementary DNA sequence are able to be distinguished. This SPRi system has been applied for assay of BCR/ABL fusion gene extracted from real samples. This nucleic acid-based SPRi biosensor therefore offers an alternative high-effective, high-throughput label-free tool for DNA detection in biomedical research and molecular diagnosis.

  16. Classifying threats with a 14-MeV neutron interrogation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strellis, Dan; Gozani, Tsahi

    2005-01-01

    SeaPODDS (Sea Portable Drug Detection System) is a non-intrusive tool for detecting concealed threats in hidden compartments of maritime vessels. This system consists of an electronic neutron generator, a gamma-ray detector, a data acquisition computer, and a laptop computer user-interface. Although initially developed to detect narcotics, recent algorithm developments have shown that the system is capable of correctly classifying a threat into one of four distinct categories: narcotic, explosive, chemical weapon, or radiological dispersion device (RDD). Detection of narcotics, explosives, and chemical weapons is based on gamma-ray signatures unique to the chemical elements. Elements are identified by their characteristic prompt gamma-rays induced by fast and thermal neutrons. Detection of RDD is accomplished by detecting gamma-rays emitted by common radioisotopes and nuclear reactor fission products. The algorithm phenomenology for classifying threats into the proper categories is presented here.

  17. Incorporation of Photon Analysis into an Active Interrogation System for Shielded Uranium Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canion, Bonnie E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this project is to investigate how photon and neutron signatures from an Associated Particle Imaging (API) Deuterium-Tritium (DT) neutron generator detector system can be used to non-destructively predict the enrichment of uranium in an unknown configuration of shielded uranium.

  18. Interrogating the justice system in a multi-ethnic state: a study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law is a major instrument of maintaining cohesion in any given society. Its formulation, codification or unification as well as interpretation are major factors in determining the credibility of the criminal justice system and the level of legal conformity. The letter and spirit of the law are defeated when its formation, modulations, ...

  19. High-resolution all-optical photoacoustic imaging system for remote interrogation of biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-05-01

    Conventional photoacoustic imaging (PAI) employs light pulses to produce a photoacoustic (PA) effect and detects the resulting acoustic waves using an ultrasound transducer acoustically coupled to the target tissue. The resolution of conventional PAI is limited by the sensitivity and bandwidth of the ultrasound transducer. We have developed an all-optical versatile PAI system for characterizing ex vivo and in vivo biological specimens. The system employs noncontact interferometric detection of the acoustic signals that overcomes limitations of conventional PAI. A 532-nm pump laser with a pulse duration of 5 ns excited the PA effect in tissue. Resulting acoustic waves produced surface displacements that were sensed using a 532-nm continuous-wave (CW) probe laser in a Michelson interferometer with a GHz bandwidth. The pump and probe beams were coaxially focused using a 50X objective giving a diffraction-limited spot size of 0.48 μm. The phase-encoded probe beam was demodulated using a homodyne interferometer. The detected time-domain signal was time reversed using k-space wave-propagation methods to produce a spatial distribution of PA sources in the target tissue. Performance was assessed using PA images of ex vivo rabbit lymph node specimens and human tooth samples. A minimum peak surface displacement sensitivity of 0.19 pm was measured. The all-optical PAI (AOPAI) system is well suited for assessment of retinal diseases, caries lesion detection, skin burns, section less histology and pressure or friction ulcers.

  20. Neutron interrogation systems using pyroelectric crystals and methods of preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Vincent; Meyer, Glenn A.; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Rusnak, Brian; Sampayan, Stephen; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Wang, Li-Fang; Harris, John; Morse, Jeff

    2017-08-01

    According to one embodiment, an apparatus includes a pyroelectric crystal, a deuterated or tritiated target, an ion source, and a common support coupled to the pyroelectric crystal, the deuterated or tritiated target, and the ion source. In another embodiment, a method includes producing a voltage of negative polarity on a surface of a deuterated or tritiated target in response to a temperature change of a pyroelectric crystal, pulsing a deuterium ion source to produce a deuterium ion beam, accelerating the deuterium ion beam to the deuterated or tritiated target to produce a neutron beam, and directing the ion beam onto the deuterated or tritiated target to make neutrons using a voltage of the pyroelectric crystal and/or an HGI surrounding the pyroelectric crystal. The directionality of the neutron beam is controlled by changing the accelerating voltage of the system. Other apparatuses and methods are presented as well.

  1. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute ...

  2. Towards a regional ocean forecasting system for the IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area: developments and improvements within the ECOOP project framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cailleau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to predict large scale lower frequency ocean features. In the framework of the ECOOP project, a regional system for the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area has been upgraded from an existing V0 version to a V2. This paper focuses on the improvements from the V1 system, for which the physics are close to a large scale basin system, to the V2 for which the physics are more adapted to shelf and coastal issues. Strong developments such as higher regional physics resolution in the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model for tides, non linear free surface and adapted vertical mixing schemes among others have been implemented in the V2 version. Thus, regional thermal fronts due to tidal mixing now appear in the latest version solution and are quite well positioned. Moreover, simulation of the stratification in shelf areas is also improved in the V2.

  3. Software for Manipulating and Embedding Data Interrogation Algorithms into Integrated Systems: Special Application to Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    In this study a software package for easily creating and embedding structural health monitoring (SHM) data interrogation processes in remote hardware is presented. The software described herein is comprised of two pieces. The first is a client to allow graphical construction of data interrogation processes. The second is node software for remote execution of processes on remote sensing and monitoring hardware. The client software is created around a catalog of data interrogation algorithms compiled over several years of research at Los Alamos National Laboratory known as DIAMOND II. This study also includes encapsulating the DIAMOND II algorithms into independent interchangeable functions and expanding the catalog with work in feature extraction and statistical discrimination. The client software also includes methods for interfacing with the node software over an Internet connection. Once connected, the client software can upload a developed process to the integrated sensing and processing node. The node software has the ability to run the processes and return results. This software creates a distributed SHM network without individual nodes relying on each other or a centralized server to monitor a structure.

  4. Integrated Biosphere Simulator Model (IBIS), Version 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (or IBIS) is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere. Tthe model represents a wide range of...

  5. Integrated Biosphere Simulator Model (IBIS), Version 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (or IBIS) is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere. Tthe model represents a wide range of processes,...

  6. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  7. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  8. Proof-of-Concept Assessment of a Photofission-Based Interrogation System for the Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Harker, Y. D.; Hoggan, J. M.; Haskell, K. J.; VanAusdeln, L. A.

    2000-11-01

    A photonuclear interrogation method was experimentally assessed for the detection of shielded nuclear materials. Proof-of-Concept assessment was performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-18 facility and used the INEEL VARITRON electron accelerator. Experiments were performed to assess and characterize the delayed neutron emission responses for different nuclear materials with various shield configurations using three ''nominal'' electron beam energies; 8-, 10-, and 11-MeV. With the exception of highly enriched uranium (HEU), the nuclear materials assessed represent material types commonly encountered in commerce. The specific nuclear materials studied include a solid 4.8-kg HEU sphere, a 5-kg multiple-object, depleted uranium (DU) [uranium with about 0.2% enrichment with U-235] target, and two 11-kg thorium disks. The shield materials selected include polyethylene, borated-polyethylene, and lead. Experimental results, supported with numerical predictions, have shown that the photonuclear interrogation technique is quite capable of detecting shielded nuclear material via the direct measurement of the photofission-induced delayed neutron emissions. To identify or discriminate between nuclear material types (i.e., depleted uranium, HEU, and thorium), a ratio of delayed neutron counts at two different beam energies is utilized. This latter method, referred to as the dual-beam energy ratio Figure-of-Merit, allows one to differentiate among the three nuclear material types.

  9. Inexpensive, Rugged and Compact Tunable Laser with Simple Tuning Control for Airborne Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) Interrogators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dryden (Armstrong) Flight Research Center has developed a 4-fiber interrogation system for Fiber Optic Smart Structures (FOSS) sensor networks interrogation....

  10. Inexpensive, Rugged and Compact Tunable Laser with Simple Tuning Control for Airborne Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) Interrogators, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dryden (Armstrong) Flight Research Center has developed a 4-fiber interrogation system for Fiber Optic Smart Structures (FOSS) sensor networks interrogation....

  11. Health Interrogation for Space Structures (HISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Health Interrogation for Space Structures (HISS) system provides a significant improvement over current alternatives for monitoring pressurized space...

  12. Group knowledge in interrogative epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Boddy, R.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Sandu, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we formalize an approach to knowledge that we call Interrogative Epistemology, in the spirit of Hintikka’s “interrogative model” of knowledge. According to our approach, an agent’s knowledge is shaped and limited by her interrogative agenda (as defined by her fundamental questions or

  13. INTEGRAL/IBIS detects renewed activity from H 1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Sidoli, L.

    2014-01-01

    During a recent INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning observation (PI: A. Bazzano), started on 2014 January 19 at 07:51 UTC, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity from the transient system H 1417-624. The source H 1417-624 was detected at about 10 sigma in the IBIS map 18-40 keV, with a flux of 14....... H 1417-624 is a Be X-ray Transient (Apparao et al. 1980, A&A 89, 249; Grindlay et al. 1984, ApJ 276, 621) showing a neutron star spin period of 17.54 s and an orbital period of 42.12 days (Finger et al. 1996, A&A Supp. Ser. 120, 209). It was previously detected in 1994 and 1995 (during a strong type...

  14. Micro elements for interrogating magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports a new approach for interrogating a magnetoelastic sensor\\'s resonant frequency. Previously, the frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor was measured by using a large-scale solenoid coil of at least some millimeters both in diameter and length. Planar structures of straight-line and rectangular spiral coil are designed, fabricated and tested to interrogate the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor. A sensor of 4 mm length is measured to have a resonant frequency of 551 kHz in air. The ability to interrogate a magnetoelastic sensor with such microscale elements is a step towards the miniaturization of a magnetoelastic sensor system and integration of such a system in a microfluidics device. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jung, Eun Joo

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. (paper)

  16. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-06-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal.

  17. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis are globally widespread, their ecology is not fully understood. Surveys of the species were undertaken in November 2012, and April 2013, in Lake Manyara National Park, Manyara Ranch, and outside the two protected areas. We investigated the effects of host identity, habitat type and host ...

  18. Range expansion of the hadeda ibis Bostrychia hagedash in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The southern African range of the habeda ibis Bostrychia hagedash has expanded from 530 900 km 2 in 1910 to 1 323 300 km2 in 1985. Major range expansions have occurred in the fynbos biome of the south-western Cape, the Karoo, the grasslands of the eastern Cape, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal highveld.

  19. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  20. Advanced FBG sensing through rapid spectral interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Wesley; Newman, Jason; Wilding, Daniel; Zhu, Zixu; Lowder, Tyson; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen; Wirthlin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A fiber Brag grating sensor interrogator has been developed which is capable of gathering vectors of information from individual fiber Bragg gratings by capturing the full optical spectrum 3 kHz. Using a field programmable gate array with high speed digital-to-analog converters and analog-to-digital components, plus a kilohertz rate MEMS optical filter, the optical spectrum can be scanned at rates in excess of 10 million nanometers per second, allowing sensor sampling rates of many kilohertz while maintaining the necessary resolution to understand sensor changes. The autonomous system design performs all necessary detection and processing of multiple sensors and allows spectral measurements to be exported as fast as Ethernet, USB, or RS232 devices can receive it through a memory mapped interface. The high speed - full spectrum - fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator enables advanced interrogation of dynamic strain and temperature gradients along the length of a sensor, as well as the use of each sensor for multiple stimuli, such as in temperature compensation. Two examples are described, showing interrogation of rapid laser heating in an optical fiber, as well as complex strain effects in a beam that had an engineered defect.

  1. Systems report on the analysis of spent, highly enriched U-235 reactor fuel by delayed neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, T.C.; Kirkham, R.J.

    1990-05-01

    Design aspects are briefly given of a neutron source shuffler used to measure fissile material content of spent, highly enriched reactor fuel. The mode of operation used, results of analyzing 176 fuel packages and recommended system improvements are discussed. Four measurements were made on each of the fuel packages with the mean of the 176 standard deviations being 2.03 percent of value. The maximum individual standard deviation was 9.27 percent. Appendixes concerning imprecisions introduced by counting statistics and crane speed irregularities are given. Use of an improved neutron source shuffler, an improved fuel package motion system and modernized computer system should permit system performance to be limited mainly by counting statistics, to about 1.5 percent of measured value. A stronger source could then be installed to further enhance system operation. 16 figs., 3 tabs

  2. A Company Profile for Ibis Surabaya City Center Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Grace; Gunawan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Company profile is a description of the company history, resources, structure, performance, and reputation. Therefore, company profile is very important for the hotel and it also plays an important role for business communication because it provides the useful information of the hotel that can help the employees to get the product knowledge about the hotel. Also, it will help the customers when they want to stay in the hotel. As we know, ibis Surabaya City Center Hotel did not have the writte...

  3. Software Development to Assist in the Processing and Analysis of Data Obtained Using Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating is a portion of a core of a fiber optic stand that has been treated to affect the way light travels through the strand. Light within a certain narrow range of wavelengths will be reflected along the fiber by the grating, while light outside that range will pass through the grating mostly undisturbed. Since the range of wavelengths that can penetrate the grating depends on the grating itself as well as temperature and mechanical strain, fiber Bragg gratings can be used as temperature and strain sensors. This capability, along with the light-weight nature of the fiber optic strands in which the gratings reside, make fiber optic sensors an ideal candidate for flight testing and monitoring in which temperature and wing strain are factors. A team of NASA Dryden engineers has been working to advance the fiber optic sensor technology since the mid 1990 s. The team has been able to improve the dependability and sample rate of fiber optic sensor systems, making them more suitable for real-time wing shape and strain monitoring and capable of rivaling traditional strain gauge sensors in accuracy. The sensor system was recently tested on the Ikhana unmanned aircraft and will be used on the Global Observer unmanned aircraft. Since a fiber Bragg grating sensor can be placed every halfinch on each optic fiber, and since fibers of approximately 40 feet in length each are to be used on the Global Observer, each of these fibers will have approximately 1,000 sensors. A total of 32 fibers are to be placed on the Global Observer aircraft, to be sampled at a rate of about 50 Hz, meaning about 1.6 million data points will be taken every second. The fiber optic sensors system is capable of producing massive amounts of potentially useful data; however, methods to capture, record, and analyze all of this data in a way that makes the information useful to flight test engineers are currently limited. The purpose of this project is to research the availability of software

  4. Observations on the behaviour of the Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber, in Artis Zoo, Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, R.E.; Walstijn, van M.W.; Albrecht, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber (Linnaeus), fam. Threskiornithidae, is the closest relative of the White Ibis, Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus). The two species live in adjoining geographical areas. Nothing is known about the Scarlet Ibis’s breeding biology in the wild and only little about its breeding

  5. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Valley, and the Surat Basin, a large sedimentary basin of confined artesian aquifers. This latter example required more detail in the hydrostratigraphy, correlation of formations with drillholes and visualisation of simulation piezometric surfaces. Both alluvial system GVS models were developed during drought conditions to support government strategies to implement groundwater management. The Surat Basin model was industry sponsored research, for coal seam gas groundwater management and community information and consultation. The "virtual" groundwater systems in these 3D GVS models can be interactively interrogated by standard functions, plus production of 2D cross-sections, data selection from the 3D scene, rear end database and plot displays. A unique feature is that GVS allows investigation of time-series data across different display modes, both 2D and 3D. GVS has been used successfully as a tool to enhance community/stakeholder understanding and knowledge of groundwater systems and is of value for training and educational purposes. Projects completed confirm that GVS provides a powerful support to management and decision making, and as a tool for interpretation of groundwater system hydrological processes. A highly effective visualisation output is the production of short videos (e.g. 2-5 min) based on sequences of camera 'fly-throughs' and screen images. Further work involves developing support for multi-screen displays and touch-screen technologies, distributed rendering, gestural interaction systems. To highlight the visualisation and animation capability of the GVS software, links to related multimedia hosted online sites are included in the references.

  6. First Deminsys (high speed FBG interrogator) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Els, Thomas J.

    2009-03-01

    Deminsys is the world's fastest multi sensor / multi channel FBG interrogator, identifies one till four channels with typically 8 sensors per channel. The system is especially developed for the interrogation of signals up to 19,3 kHz for each sensor and the sample frequency is independent of the number of sensors. By having multiple sensors per fibre you can create a very compact network of sensors. Due to its revolutionary (light weight, compact and solid state) design, Deminsys seems to fit perfectly into (research) programs for aerospace, medic & life science, maritime, industrial, crash test and all other fast detection applications. Technobis Fibre Technologies (TFT) and NLR made a first test flight with the Deminsys optical fibre measurement system using the NLR test aircraft on October 24th 2008. This flight was a first step in the further development of the current system in order to make it suitable for operation on-board an aircraft and bring it from TRL3 towards TRL5, a functional model for aerospace applications.

  7. Photon interrogation annual report for FY-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.; Lawrence, R.S.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The Photon Interrogation Technique is being developed for the assay of transuranic materials. A description of source and detector geometry, die-away times and photon flux measurements is given. Considerable effort during FY-1980 was devoted to collimator construction and shielding materials and configurations. Boric acid was found to be a very efficient shielding material for this application. Descriptions and results of these efforts are presented. Results of photon flux determinations, system response to source position and their effects on accuracy are discussed. Changes in the detector system produced a considerable efficiency increase and instrumentation changes brought improved performance. The instrument system with additions can obtain neutron spectral information. A schedule for further development of the system is presented

  8. Validación de dos índices biológicos de integridad (IBI en la subcuenca del río Angulo en el centro de México Validation of two indices of biological integrity (IBI for the Angulo River subbasin in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ramírez-Herrejón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las acciones para detener el deterioro de los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas del centro del México requieren herramientas de biomonitoreo que permitan el análisis de su integridad biológica. En este trabajo se analizó la viabilidad del uso de dos índices biológicos de integridad (IBI con base en las comunidades de peces en ambientes lóticos y lénticos en la subcuenca del Río Angulo (Cuenca del Lerma-Chapala. Utilizando datos provenientes de recolectas independientes durante dos años consecutivos e información sobre los atributos ecológicos para cada una de las especies, se calcularon los valores de dos IBI en 16 sistemas lénticos y lóticos. Se estimó también la calidad ambiental a través de la evaluación de la calidad del agua y del hábitat en cada sitio. Se encontró integridad biótica pobre, regular y buena. El estudio no mostró sitios con buena calidad ambiental. Los valores de los IBI presentaron correlaciones altas y significativas con aquellos derivados de metodologías independientes de evaluación ambiental. Los IBI reflejaron de forma fehaciente las condiciones ambientales en la mayoría de los sitios de estudio. Con este análisis se logró la expansión de área de uso del IBI para ambientes lóticos y una validación inicial del IBI para ambientes lénticos. Estos resultados sugieren que las herramientas pueden ser utilizadas en futuros esfuerzos de conservación en cuerpos dulceacuícolas en la cuenca del Medio Lerma.Efforts to halt freshwater ecosystem degradation in central Mexico can benefit from using bio-monitoring tools that reflect the condition of their biotic integrity. We analyzed the applicability of two fish-based indices of biotic integrity using data from lotic and lentic systems in the Angulo River subbasin (Lerma-Chapala basin. Both independent data from our own collections during two consecutive years, and existing information detailing the ecological attributes of each species, were used to

  9. High-cadence and High-resolution Hα Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Tritschler, Alexandra; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Reardon, Kevin; Denker, Carsten; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2013-06-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution Hα imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in conjunction with the adaptive optics system at the 76 cm Dunn Solar Telescope on 2011 October 22 in the active region NOAA 11324. Such a two-dimensional spectroscopic observation covering the entire evolution of a flare ribbon with high spatial (0.''1 pixel-1 image scale), cadence (4.8 s), and spectral (0.1 Å step size) resolution is rarely reported. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in three-dimensional fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely studied. During the flare impulsive phase, we define "core" and "halo" structures in the observed ribbon based on IBIS narrowband images in the Hα line wing and line center. Examining the Hα emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics that have been revealed by previous theoretical simulations and observations of flaring Hα line profiles. These characteristics include broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (~30 s) and cooling (~14-33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km s-1) between discrete

  10. A Novel Approach to Mission-Level Engineering of Complex Systems of Systems: Addressing Integration and Interoperability Shortfalls by Interrogating the Interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    on Stochastic Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification in Complex Systems. Rio de Janeiro Brazil: Virginia Tech. Sauser, B., Ramirez-Marquez, J...environment is populated with mission threads. These mission threads are the description of the end-to-end set of activities and component systems...components are able to connect, pass messages (correct protocol, format, etc.) and some (perhaps all) of the data is populated , we typically claim

  11. Technology for Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication and Interrogation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis

    The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak detec...... by measuring optical resolution, wavelength fit resolution, accuracy, temperature and polarization dependable wavelength shift and use it to measure the strain response of a fewmode and a highly multimode FBG in a polymer fiber.......The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak......) based interrogator, where the linear detector is replaced with a commercially available DMD, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Original optical design, which utilizes advantages of a retro-reflect optical scheme, has been developed in Zemax. We test the presented interrogator...

  12. Conspecific brood parasitism in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Pelecaniformes) revealed by microsatellites' based kinship-reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Miño, Carolina Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi Vieillot, 1817 (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) is a socially monogamous colonially breeding bird in which behavioral and ecological observations suggest the occurrence of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). We inferred aspects of the genetic mating system of P. chihi in nature, using a genetic approach in the absence of parental information. We used five heterologous microsatellite loci and a multiple-step methodological approach to infer kinship patterns among 104 pairs of nestlings sampled inside 80 nests in a breeding colony from southern Brazil. The estimated effective population size was 69 white-faced ibises (95% CI: 50-98), enough to ensure long-term population survival. Kinship patterns were identified for 38% of the analyzed pairs: 60% of the diagnosed pairs were identified as full-siblings, 2.5% as half-siblings and 37.5% as unrelated individuals. CBP could explain the presence of unrelated nestlings within broods, in agreement with available non-genetic evidence. The presence of half-siblings within broods could indicate extra-pair paternity. Results suggest that a non-strictly monogamous genetic mating system may be present in the white-faced ibis. This study is the first molecular approach to better characterize the reproductive behavior of P. chihi in the wild. Our findings set the stage for further research to investigate the possible causes and consequences of alternative reproductive strategies in this species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel is...

  14. Police interrogations through the prism of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Areh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.

  15. Rattling nucleons: New developments in active interrogation of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Chichester, David L.; Thompson, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  16. IBIS UvA: Combining theory and practice in the area of quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.

    2012-01-01

    The institute for Business and Industrial Statistics of the University of Amsterdam (IBIS UvA) is an independent consultancy firm. The institute sees the interaction between scientific research, on the one hand, and the application of technology in business and healthcare, on the other, as its core.

  17. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds

  18. A preliminary benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (B-IBI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was developed for the Moiben River. The index assesses effects of human disturbance on the biotic condition of stream macroinvertebrate communities. Eight stations were selected to represent different land-use types including forestry, settlement, grassland and mixed farming, ...

  19. The signature of 44Ti in Cassiopeia a Revealed by IBIS/ISGRI on INTEGRAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, M.; Vink, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Lebrun, F.; den Hartog, P.R.; Terrier, R.; Couvreur, C.; Knödlseder, J.; Martin, P; Prantzos, N.; Bykov, A.M.; Bloemen, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the detection of both the 67.9 and 78.4 keV 44Sc g-ray lines in Cassiopeia A with the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI instrument. Besides the robustness provided by spectroimaging observations, the main improvements compared to previous measurements are a clear separation of the two 44Sc lines

  20. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J T; Morgado, Richard E; Wang, Tai-Sen F; Vodolaga, B; Terekhin, V; Onischenko, L M; Vorozhtsov, S B; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, A S; Alenitsky, Yu G; Perpelkin, E E; Glazov, A A; Novikov, D L; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Vostrikov, V; Mashinin, V A; Fedotov, S N; Minayev, S A

    2010-10-01

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  1. The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor by analyzing the fork interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Riqing; Qiu, Liqiang; Hu, Haifeng; Meng, Lu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the fork interference pattern between the orbital angular momentum beam and plane wave. The variation of interference pattern with phase difference between the two light beams is investigated to realize the phase interrogation. By employing principal component analysis method, the features of the interference pattern can be extracted. Moreover, the experimental system is designed to verify the theoretical analysis, as well as feasibility of phase interrogation. In this work, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer was employed to convert the strain applied on sensing fiber to the phase difference between the reference and measuring paths. This interrogation method is also applicable for the measurements of other physical parameters, which can produce the phase delay in optical fiber. The performance of the system can be further improved by employing highlysensitive materials and fiber structures.

  2. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  3. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio; Ianiro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  4. LA LIMITACIÓN DE LAS BASES IMPONIBLES DEL IBI RÚSTICO PARA LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS EN EL RÉGIMEN FISCAL DE COOPERATIVAS Y SU NECESARIA REFORMA / LIMITATION OF THE TAX BASE ON THE LAND TAX FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE COOPERATIVE TAX SYSTEM, AND IT’S NECESSARY REFORM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO MARÍ VIDAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades cooperativas en España, al igual que en otros países, vienen gozando de unos beneficios tributarios en virtud de la decidida protección que el legislador les ha querido conferir. La normativa actualmente vigente en España es la Ley de Régimen Fiscal de Cooperativas (LRFC, que establece diferentes niveles de beneficios en función del grado de protección que otorga a la cooperativa. En el caso de las cooperativas agrarias se establecen ciertos requisitos para alcanzar el mayor grado de protección, entre los que se encuentra que la base imponible del Impuesto sobre Bienes Inmuebles (IBI correspondiente a los bienes de naturaleza rústica, dentro del ámbito geográfico de actuación de la sociedad, no exceda de 39.065,79 €. En el presente trabajo se analiza si la no actualización de ese límite desde la promulgación de la LRFC en 1990 puede suponer un problema para el cumplimiento del mismo por parte de las cooperativas agrarias para seguir gozando de la especial protección. En este sentido se pondrá de manifiesto cómo los valores catastrales (que determinan la base imponible del IBI de los inmuebles de naturaleza rústica se han venido actualizando anualmente, con el consiguiente incremento de los mismos y por tanto se hace necesaria la reforma del límite fijado en la LRFC. / Cooperatives in Spain, as in other countries, have been enjoying tax benefits under the protection that legislator intended to confer on them. The legislation currently in force in Spain is the Cooperative Tax Systme (CTS, which provides different levels of benefits depending on the degree of protection afforded to the cooperative. In the case of agricultural cooperatives certain requirements are established to achieve the highest degree of protection, which is the Tax Base on the Land Tax. It can’t exceed € 39,065.79. In the present paper we analyze whether the failure to update this limit since the publication of the CTS in 1990 can be a

  5. LBA-ECO LC-04 IBIS Model Simulations for the Amazon and Tocantins Basins: 1921-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The provided data were generated by the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) terrestrial ecosystem model using data from the East Anglia Climate Research...

  6. INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEM-X observations of LVT151012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-01-01

    During the first observing run of LIGO, two gravitational wave events and one lower-significance trigger (LVT151012) were reported by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. At the time of LVT151012, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) was pointing at a region of the sky coincident...... with the high localization probability area of the event and thus permitted us to search for its electromagnetic counterpart (both prompt and afterglow emission). The imaging instruments on-board INTEGRAL (IBIS/ISGRI, IBIS/PICsIT, SPI, and the two JEM-X modules)have been exploited to attempt the detection...... of view in order to provide an efficient monitoring of the entire LVT151012 localization region at energies above 75 keV. We did not find any significant transient source that was spatially and/or temporally coincident withLVT151012, obtaining tight upper limits on the associated hard X-ray and...

  7. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  8. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  9. Ibi et cor tuum: The Twin Perils of Studium and Otium in English Renaissance Intellectual Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Gertrude

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation, “Ibi et cor tuum: The Twin Perils of Studium and Otium in English Renaissance Intellectual Culture,” investigates the ways in which the temptations posed by intellectual labor were conceptualized and navigated by English Renaissance humanists. The competition pitting the vita activa against the vita contemplativa, which every age—including ours—must resolve anew, generated a spate of writings engaging with the mixed legacy of classical and medieval Christian attitudes towards...

  10. High-cadence and high-resolution Hα imaging spectroscopy of a circular flare's remote ribbon with IBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States); Denker, Carsten, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution Hα imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in conjunction with the adaptive optics system at the 76 cm Dunn Solar Telescope on 2011 October 22 in the active region NOAA 11324. Such a two-dimensional spectroscopic observation covering the entire evolution of a flare ribbon with high spatial (0.''1 pixel{sup –1} image scale), cadence (4.8 s), and spectral (0.1 Å step size) resolution is rarely reported. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in three-dimensional fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely studied. During the flare impulsive phase, we define 'core' and 'halo' structures in the observed ribbon based on IBIS narrowband images in the Hα line wing and line center. Examining the Hα emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics that have been revealed by previous theoretical simulations and observations of flaring Hα line profiles. These characteristics include broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (∼30 s) and cooling (∼14-33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump

  11. SOLAR FLARE CHROMOSPHERIC LINE EMISSION: COMPARISON BETWEEN IBIS HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Dalda, Alberto Sainz [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Liu, Wei, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation over a broad spectral range and a wide range of heights. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results could be extremely valuable, but has not yet been attempted. In this paper, we present such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope’s Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 which we have modeled using the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN. We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in Hα 6563 Å and Ca ii 8542 Å, and with RHESSI in X-rays. The latter observations were used to infer the non-thermal electron population, which was passed to RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response to electron collisional heating. We then synthesized spectral lines and compared their shapes and intensities to those observed by IBIS and found a general agreement. In particular, the synthetic Ca ii 8542 Å profile fits well to the observed profile, while the synthetic Hα profile is fainter in the core than for the observation. This indicates that Hα emission is more responsive to the non-thermal electron flux than the Ca ii 8542 Å emission. We suggest that it is necessary to refine the energy input and other processes to resolve this discrepancy.

  12. Survey of Neutron Generators for Active Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Calvin Elroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sundby, Gary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chichester, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, James P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-02

    Some of these commercially available generators meet all of the requirements in Table 1, but there are other concerns. Most generators containing SF6 will be required to have the SF6 gas removed for shipping because of DOT regulations. However, Thermo Fisher has a DOT exemption. The P211 and B211 from Thermo Fisher meet the requirements listed in Table 1, but they are old designs and are no longer offered for sale. Also, they require 15 minutes or more of warmup before neutron output is available, and they lack a modern digital control. The nGen-300C from Starfire Industries is interesting because it is a portable system, but it uses the DD reaction for 2.5 MeV neutrons, which are not as penetrating as the 14 MeV neutrons from the DT reaction. The MP 320 from Thermo Fisher is another portable system, but the minimum pulse rate is 250 Hz, which is too fast for measurement of delayed neutrons and re-interrogation by delayed neutrons between pulses. The Genie 16 from Sodern (from France) probably meets the requirements, but the required power is probably too high for battery operation. The generators from Russia and China may be difficult to purchase, and service may not be available. The power required by some of these generators is low enough that batteries can be used. The portable units, nGen-300C and the MP320, could easily be operated with batteries. Other generators with low power requirements, as specified in the above vendors list, could possibly be operated with reason size batteries. The batteries do not need to be internal to the generator, but can be in a separate package. The availability of high capacity lithium batteries with sophisticated safety circuits makes battery operation more possible now than when lead acid batteries were used. The best path forward probably requires working with vendors of the existing systems. If Starfire Industries could be persuaded to put tritium in their nGen-300C generator, possibly in collaboration with a national

  13. Wireless SAW Interrogator and Sensor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) temperature sensors, operating in a multi-sensor environment, developed at the...

  14. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  15. Revenge versus rapport: Interrogation, terrorism, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison, Laurence; Alison, Emily

    2017-04-01

    This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy. We review this emerging field of study and show how rapport-based methods rely on building alliances and involve a specific set of interpersonal skills on the part of the interrogator. We conclude with 2 key propositions: (a) for psychologists to firmly maintain the Hippocratic Oath of "first do no harm," irrespective of perceived threat and uncertainty, and (b) for wider recognition of the empirical evidence that rapport-based approaches work and revenge tactics do not. Proposition (a) is directly in line with fundamental ethical principles of practice for anyone in a caring profession. Proposition (b) is based on the requirement for psychology to protect and promote human welfare and to base conclusions on objective evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sequential interrogation of multiple FBG sensors using LPG modulation and an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Mainak; Ghorai, S K

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) requires highly sensitive spectrum scanning equipment such as optical spectrum analyzers, tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters etc, which are expensive, bulky and time consuming. In this paper, we present a new approach for multiple FBG sensor interrogation using long-period gratings and an artificial neural network. The reflection spectra of the multiplexed FBGs are modulated by two long period gratings separately and the modulated optical intensities were detected by two photodetectors. The outputs of the detectors are then used as input in a previously trained artificial neural network to interrogate the FBG sensors. Simulations have been performed to determine the strain and wavelength shift using two and four sensors. The interrogation system has also been demonstrated experimentally for two sensors using simply supported beams in the range of 0–350 μstrain. The proposed interrogation scheme has been found to identify the perturbed FBG, and to determine strain and wavelength shift with reasonable accuracy. (paper)

  17. Miniature and low cost fiber bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, P.M.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the

  18. An Evaluation of "Miranda" Rights and Interrogation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salseda, Lindsay M.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Fass, Tracy; Miora, Deborah; Leark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary deficits present in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may lead to increased susceptibility to involvement in the criminal justice system. The same deficits may also cause individuals with ASD to be more vulnerable to interrogation techniques and other aspects of the legal system. Due to the increased level of vulnerability as well as…

  19. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  20. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  1. High-Speed Interrogation for Large-Scale Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyuan Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A high-speed interrogation scheme for large-scale fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensing arrays is presented. This technique employs parallel computing and pipeline control to modulate incident light and demodulate the reflected sensing signal. One Electro-optic modulator (EOM and one semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA were used to generate a phase delay to filter reflected spectrum form multiple candidate FBGs with the same optical path difference (OPD. Experimental results showed that the fastest interrogation delay time for the proposed method was only about 27.2 us for a single FBG interrogation, and the system scanning period was only limited by the optical transmission delay in the sensing fiber owing to the multiple simultaneous central wavelength calculations. Furthermore, the proposed FPGA-based technique had a verified FBG wavelength demodulation stability of ±1 pm without average processing.

  2. Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center; Pelkey, G.E. [City of Livermore Police Dept., CA (United States); Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center

    1994-09-01

    A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

  3. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  4. Interrogator independence and challenges of his lack of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interrogator in criminal procedures is charged with important and momentous judicial tasks and for this reason, he should enjoy higher job security as in French law, an interrogator is not considered among the officials of public prosecutor's office and enjoys higher security. Code of Criminal Procedure of 2013 has ...

  5. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any…

  6. Division of labor in the interpretation of declaratives and interrogatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Roelofsen, F.

    This article presents an account of the semantic content and conventional discourse effects of a range of sentence types in English, namely falling declaratives, polar interrogatives and certain kinds of rising declaratives and tag interrogatives. The account aims to divide the labor between

  7. The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. IV. Dual-line evidence of heating in chromospheric network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauzzi, G.; Reardon, K.; Rutten, R.J.; Tritschler, A.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and energy balance of the solar chromosphere remain poorly known.We used the imaging spectrometer IBIS at the Dunn Solar Telescope to obtain fast-cadence, multi-wavelength profile sampling of Hα and Ca II 854.2 nm over a sizable two-dimensional field of view encompassing quiet-Sun

  8. The ongoing outbursts of Aql X-1 and Ginga 1843+009 as seen with INTEGRAL/IBIS-ISGRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Hannikainen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Our INTEGRAL monitoring campaign of GRS 1915+105 allows the Aquila region of the sky to be nicely covered with the IBIS telescope. During our last observation, on March 18, 2009 (11h-16h45 UTC), both the LMXB Aql X-1 was clearly detected with the ISGRI camera at 17.5 sigma, 8.6 sigma, 6.6 sigma...

  9. 76 FR 39299 - Shortpaid and Unpaid Information-Based Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 604.4, 604.8, and 604.10, to implement revenue protection procedures for mailpieces entered with shortpaid and unpaid Information Based Indicia (IBI) postage payment and to implement revenue protection procedures for shortpaid Express Mail...

  10. An INTEGRAL/IBIS view of young Galactic SNRs through the 44Ti gamma-ray lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, M.; Vink, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Lebrun, F.; Terrier, R.; Ballet, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present preliminary results of INTEGRAL/IBIS observations on Cas A, Tycho and Vela Junior supernova remnants in the line emission of 44Ti. This radioactive nucleus is thought to be exclusively produced in supernovae during the first stages of the explosion. It has a lifetime of about 87 yr and is

  11. Rapid and high-throughput detection of highly pathogenic bacteria by Ibis PLEX-ID technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Jacob

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we describe the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria using an assay coupling biothreat group-specific PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS run on an Ibis PLEX-ID high-throughput platform. The biothreat cluster assay identifies most of the potential bioterrorism-relevant microorganisms including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, Brucella species, and Coxiella burnetii. DNA from 45 different reference materials with different formulations and different concentrations were chosen and sent to a service screening laboratory that uses the PCR/ESI-MS platform to provide a microbial identification service. The standard reference materials were produced out of a repository built up in the framework of the EU funded project "Establishment of Quality Assurances for Detection of Highly Pathogenic Bacteria of Potential Bioterrorism Risk" (EQADeBa. All samples were correctly identified at least to the genus level.

  12. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  13. Interrogating transcriptional regulatory sequences in Tol2-mediated Xenopus transgenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G Loots

    Full Text Available Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in vertebrates remains a significant challenge. It is now recognized that transcriptional regulatory sequences are critical in orchestrating dynamic controls of tissue-specific gene expression during vertebrate development and in adult tissues, and that these elements can be positioned at great distances in relation to the promoters of the genes they control. While significant progress has been made in mapping DNA binding regions by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing, functional validation remains a limiting step in improving our ability to correlate in silico predictions with biological function. We recently developed a computational method that synergistically combines genome-wide gene-expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding-site analysis to predict tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this method to 270 genes highly expressed in skeletal muscle and predicted 190 putative cis-regulatory modules. Furthermore, we optimized Tol2 transgenic constructs in Xenopus laevis to interrogate 20 of these elements for their ability to function as skeletal muscle-specific transcriptional enhancers during embryonic development. We found 45% of these elements expressed only in the fast muscle fibers that are oriented in highly organized chevrons in the Xenopus laevis tadpole. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified >2 Mef2/MyoD sites within ~200 bp regions in 6 of the validated enhancers, and systematic mutagenesis of these sites revealed that they are critical for the enhancer function. The data described herein introduces a new reporter system suitable for interrogating tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements which allows monitoring of enhancer activity in real time, throughout early stages of embryonic development, in Xenopus.

  14. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interrogative Utterances in Surah Al-Baqarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Bayoumy AIi Oteify

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’an is singularly distinctive in its style compared to any human composition. Human eloquence, with its remarkable history in the composition of poetry, has failed to compose even a single verse like that of the Qur'an. The Qur'anic composition is a living challenge for human beings to imitate its miraculous style. This inimitable aspect of the Qur'an, among other things, proves that it was revealed by Allah (SWT to Prophet Muhammad (SAAS. In addition, the miracle of its linguistic composition was a means to declare the faith based on monotheism and the introduction of a new order and a theo-centric guidance that was meant to unite humanity. Adopting the monotheistic faith gave rise to a new community, the Muslim ummah that was able to bridge the differences between human beings in culture, race, colour and geographical boundaries. Consequently, the unique style of the Qur’an deserves a careful study. The present study investigates the use of interrogative utterances in surah al-Baqarah and their contribution to the Qur'an's rhetorical style. Hopefully, the results of this study will be useful in later investigations of other parts of the Qur' an...

  16. Characterization of fast acoustic wave propagation using OFDR with double interrogation and frequency tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive OFDR system capable of detecting and tracking fast acoustic wave propagation is described. The system was tested by dropping a screw (50gr) and a paperclip (impact of the screw led to a transient shift in the frequency of the interrogating light which corrupted the observed response. By tracking the beat frequencies of predefined reflectors and extracting their amplitudes significant improvement in the system's output was obtained.

  17. An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, R.; Scarano, F.; Riethmuller, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a cross-correlation based PIV image interrogation algorithm that adapts the number of interrogation windows and their size to the image properties and to the flow conditions. The proposed methodology releases the constraint of uniform sampling rate (Cartesian mesh) and spatial resolution (uniform window size) commonly adopted in PIV interrogation. Especially in non-optimal experimental conditions where the flow seeding is inhomogeneous, this leads either to loss of robustness (too few particles per window) or measurement precision (too large or coarsely spaced interrogation windows). Two criteria are investigated, namely adaptation to the local signal content in the image and adaptation to local flow conditions. The implementation of the adaptive criteria within a recursive interrogation method is described. The location and size of the interrogation windows are locally adapted to the image signal (i.e., seeding density). Also the local window spacing (commonly set by the overlap factor) is put in relation with the spatial variation of the velocity field. The viability of the method is illustrated over two experimental cases where the limitation of a uniform interrogation approach appears clearly: a shock-wave-boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The examples show that the spatial sampling rate can be adapted to the actual flow features and that the interrogation window size can be arranged so as to follow the spatial distribution of seeding particle images and flow velocity fluctuations. In comparison with the uniform interrogation technique, the spatial resolution is locally enhanced while in poorly seeded regions the level of robustness of the analysis (signal-to-noise ratio) is kept almost constant.

  18. Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Methods for Accelerating Active Interrogation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The potential for smuggling special nuclear material (SNM) into the United States is a major concern to homeland security, so federal agencies are investigating a variety of preventive measures, including detection and interdiction of SNM during transport. One approach for SNM detection, called active interrogation, uses a radiation source, such as a beam of neutrons or photons, to scan cargo containers and detect the products of induced fissions. In realistic cargo transport scenarios, the process of inducing and detecting fissions in SNM is difficult due to the presence of various and potentially thick materials between the radiation source and the SNM, and the practical limitations on radiation source strength and detection capabilities. Therefore, computer simulations are being used, along with experimental measurements, in efforts to design effective active interrogation detection systems. The computer simulations mostly consist of simulating radiation transport from the source to the detector region(s). Although the Monte Carlo method is predominantly used for these simulations, difficulties persist related to calculating statistically meaningful detector responses in practical computing times, thereby limiting their usefulness for design and evaluation of practical active interrogation systems. In previous work, the benefits of hybrid methods that use the results of approximate deterministic transport calculations to accelerate high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations have been demonstrated for source-detector type problems. In this work, the hybrid methods are applied and evaluated for three example active interrogation problems. Additionally, a new approach is presented that uses multiple goal-based importance functions depending on a particle s relevance to the ultimate goal of the simulation. Results from the examples demonstrate that the application of hybrid methods to active interrogation problems dramatically increases their calculational efficiency.

  19. Spectroscopy of high rate events during active interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Wehe, D.K.; Bartels, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed accelerators are being used for radiographic inspections in homeland security applications. Adding spectroscopic detection capability enables additional information to be extracted but challenges signal processing hardware. This work compares two approaches to cost-effective digital spectroscopy systems designed to handle these high rate scenarios. In the first system, the signal from a PMT is directly digitized and then deconvolved on a PC using standard techniques. Bypassing the preamplifier, this system can handle high count rates (>10 6 cps) from an LaCl 3 detector with no dead time and an energy resolution of 5% at 1.33 MeV. Spectra acquired from fission product gamma rays between interrogation pulses are shown. At higher rates, this approach is limited by the DAQ transfer rate to the PC. Instead, we tested a fast ADC (125 MSPS) and an FPGA that performed onboard, real-time digital signal processing (DSP). The energy spectrum is generated on the FPGA board during the measurement and transferred later. This system was tested in nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. Resonance peaks from NRF reactions are shown.

  20. Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K

    2004-01-01

    Allegations of abuse of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq have raised questions about the applicability of the law of war to interrogations for military intelligence purposes...

  1. An Ethical Framework for Physician Involvement in Detainee Interrogations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    procedures to otherwise able-bodied human beings (i.e. cosmetic (vs. reconstructive) surgeries , bariatric intestinal redirecting surgeries , diet pills...process. The purpose should only be to ensure that the dignity of the detainee is not being violated and that interrogation techniques protect that...obtain information from patients or assist in the detainee management. a. Training and advising interrogators in interview techniques .43, 44 b. Observing

  2. INTEGRAL/IBIS observations of the Galactic center region at the epoch of the short Fermi/LAT flare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Natalucci, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic Center was in the IBIS/ISGRI field-of-view during the epoch of the gamma-ray flare observed recently by Fermi/LAT (ATEL#3162). During the 20s interval of the flare IBIS/ISGRI did not detect any emission from SAX J1747.0-2853, located at ~10degrees off-axis, with a 3sigma upper limit......, the second one was selected because the source position was most optimal, i.e., about 6-8 degrees off-axis, the closest to the Galactic center region. The second slot is only a few hours apart from the Swift/XRT observation of SAX J1747.0-2853 (ATEL #3163), during which very bright emission from this source...

  3. Miniature and low cost fiber Bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, P. M.; Hagen, R. A. J.; Hakkesteegt, H. C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beginning of 2013 and is financed by the Seventh Framework Program (FP7) of the European Commission. Within the PEASSS project, a Nano-Satellite is being designed and manufactured to be equipped with new technology that will help keep Europe on the cutting edge of space research, potentially reducing the cost and development time for more accurate future sensor platforms including synthetic aperture optics, moving target detection and identification, and compact radars. After on ground testing the satellite is planned to be launched at the end of 2015. Within the satellite, different technologies will be demonstrated on orbit to show their capabilities for different in-space applications. For our application the FBG interrogator monitors the structural and thermal behaviour of a so called "smart panel". These panels will enable fine angle control and thermal and vibration compensation in order to improve all types of future Earth observations, such as environmental and planetary mapping, border and regional imaging. The Fiber Optic (FO) system in PEASSS includes four FBG strain sensors and two FBG temperature sensors. The 3 channel interrogator has to have a small footprint (110x50x40mm), is low cost, low in mass and has a low power consumption. In order to meet all these requirements, an interrogator has been designed based on a tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) enabling a wavelength sweep of around 7 nm. To guarantee the absolute and relative performance, two reference methods are included internally in the interrogator. First, stabilized reference FBG sensors are used to obtain absolute wavelength calibrations. This method is used for the temperature

  4. Comparison of breaking strength and shell thickness as evaluators of white-faced ibis eggshell quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Bennett, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a 1986 field study of white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada, were used to compare the utility of eggshell strength measurement and eggshell thickness as indicators of eggshell quality. The ibis population had a history of reproductive failure correlated with elevated egg concentrations of p,p`DDE, hereafter referred to as DDE. Eggs from 80 nests (one egg/nest) were tested for shell strength and thickness. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorines, mercury and selenium; productivity at each nest (minus one egg) was monitored in the field. DDE-DDT concentrations in the eggs ranged from none detected (less than 0.1) to 29 ppm (wet weight). Shell thickness and shell strength were both negatively correlated with DDE (0.60, 0.61, respectively), but shell strength deteriorated at a faster rate than shell thickness. Scanning electron micrographs indicated the deterioration in strength was related to changes in ultrastructure as well as to decreased thickness. Fourteen eggs with less than 0.40 ppm DDE were used to exemplify normal control eggs. Of the eggs with higher concentrations of DDE (i.e., greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm), 11 of 66 were thinner (greater than 2 SD below 'control' mean) than normal, 11 of 59 were weaker than normal and 7 eggs were cracked so their strength could not be tested, although thickness was measured. Therefore, 17% of the eggs with greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm DDE were thinner than normal and 27% were either weaker than normal or cracked. Further, six eggs (four with greater than or equal to 15 ppm DDE) did not have abnormally thin shells, but did have abnormally weak shells. Nests with abnormal test eggs (thinner, weaker or cracked) produced fewer young than nests with normal eggs. Use of the shell strength parameter provides additional information for better evaluations of reproductive problems. The potential utility of monitoring eggshell quality goes beyond evaluating effects of

  5. INTEGRAL/IBIS detection of hard X-ray activity from the HMXB 4U 1036-56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.

    2015-01-01

    was never in the field of view of JEM-X monitor during this observation. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum is reasonably fitted by a power law with photon index 2.3+/-0.8. The average flux is 1.8 x 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1 (18-60 keV) which, at the 5 kpc source distance, translates into a luminosity of 5.4 x 1035 erg s-1....

  6. Design of a fiber-optic interrogator module for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Plattner, Markus; Hurni, Andreas; Manhart, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the results of the radiation tests performed on the optical components of the fiber-optic interrogator module as a part of the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. The HSB-system is developed in the frame of an ESAARTES program and will be verified as flight demonstrator onboard the German Heinrich Hertz satellite in 2016. The HSB system is based on a modular concept which includes sensor interrogation modules based on I2C electrical and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber-optical sensor elements. Onboard fiber-optic sensing allows the implementation of novel control and monitoring methods. For read-out of multiple FBG sensors, a design based on a tunable laser diode as well as a design based on a spectrometer is considered. The expected and tested total ionizing dose (TID) applicable to the HSB system is in the range between 100 krad and 300 krad inside the satellite in the geostationary orbit over a life time of 15 years. We present radiation test results carried out on critical optical components to be used in the fiber-optic interrogation module. These components are a modulated grating Y-branch (MGY) tunable laser diode acting as light source for the tuning laser approach, the line detector of a spectrometer, photodetectors and the FBG sensors acting as sensor elements. A detailed literature inquiry of radiation effects on optical fibers and FBG sensors, is also included in the paper. The fiber-optic interrogator module implemented in the HSB system is based on the most suitable technology, which sustains the harsh environment in the geostationary orbit.

  7. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio A; Fernandes, Érika F S T; Santana, Sandra C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Barros, Mércia R; Vilela, Sineide M O; Reis, Eliane M F; Mota, Rinaldo A; Silva, Jean C R

    2018-03-03

    The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Simulated effects of nitrogen saturation the global carbon budget using the IBIS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Xiuying; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhu, Qiuan; Zhang, Zhen; Peng, Changhui

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, human activity has greatly changed the rate of atmospheric N (nitrogen) deposition in terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in N saturation in some regions of the world. The contribution of N saturation to the global carbon budget remains uncertain due to the complicated nature of C-N (carbon-nitrogen) interactions and diverse geography. Although N deposition is included in most terrestrial ecosystem models, the effect of N saturation is frequently overlooked. In this study, the IBIS (Integrated BIosphere Simulator) was used to simulate the global-scale effects of N saturation during the period 1961–2009. The results of this model indicate that N saturation reduced global NPP (Net Primary Productivity) and NEP (Net Ecosystem Productivity) by 0.26 and 0.03 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The negative effects of N saturation on carbon sequestration occurred primarily in temperate forests and grasslands. In response to elevated CO2 levels, global N turnover slowed due to increased biomass growth, resulting in a decline in soil mineral N. These changes in N cycling reduced the impact of N saturation on the global carbon budget. However, elevated N deposition in certain regions may further alter N saturation and C-N coupling.

  9. IBIS, FBR 3-D Steady-State and Kinetics with Thermohydraulic Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomura, Mamoru; Tada, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The IBIS code performs steady state and kinetics calculations based on a three-dimensional nuclear diffusion kinetics with thermal hydraulic feedback. It can calculate the following values in hexagonal-Z geometry of a fast breeder reactor core through the progress of transient: (1) Net reactivity; (2) Total and group-wise delayed neutron fraction; (3) Group-wise delayed neutron precursor concentration; (4) Total power and energy; (5) Space dependent neutron flux in each energy group; (6) Space dependent temperature of each material; (7) Maximum temperature of each material and its location. 2 - Method of solution: The quasi-static method is adopted to solve the three-dimensional nuclear diffusion kinetics problem. The method is the same as employed in the code QX1. The shape function equation is solved with the finite difference treatment as used in the codes CITATION and HONEYCOMB. One-dimensional thermo-hydraulics is solved with a model similar to that given in the code SASLA. Sodium boiling can be taken into account. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of neutron energy groups is fixed to 3 groups in the present version of the code

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Henk; Polder, Anuschka; Venter, Belinda; Skaare, Janneche U

    2008-03-01

    During the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from South Africa, despite the high levels found previously. We analysed eggs from African darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, African sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found HCB, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at detectable levels. The presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in South Africa. It also seemed as if terrestrial feeding birds had higher DDE:PCB ratios when compared with aquatic feeding birds. Except for chlordane, the African darter eggs had the highest levels of all other compounds (mean 370 and 300 ng g(-1) ww Sigma pesticides and Sigma PCBs, respectively). Multivariate analysis clearly distinguished the aquatic and terrestrially feeding birds on pollution profile. The African darter (aquatic feeding) and the cattle egret (terrestrial feeding) would be good indicator candidates. Eggshell thinning was detected in the African darter, and was associated with most of the compounds, including DDE and PCBs. We raise a concern that generally longer living birds in warmer climates, laying fewer eggs per clutch, might be at increased risk when compared with trophically similar birds exposed to equivalent levels of pollution in colder climates. Given the scarcity of water and the high biodiversity in Southern Africa, climate change will exert strong pressure, and any additional anthropogenic contamination at levels that can cause subtle behavioural, developmental and reproductive changes, can have serious effects.

  11. Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-29

    A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

  12. High spatial and temporal resolution interrogation of fully distributed chirped fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Eamonn J.; Wang, Chao; Feng, Dejun; Yan, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel interrogation technique for fully distributed linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) strain sensors with simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution based on optical time-stretch frequency-domain reflectometry (OTS-FDR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. LCFBGs is a promising candidate for fully distributed sensors thanks to its longer grating length and broader reflection bandwidth compared to normal uniform FBGs. In the proposed system, two identical LCFBGs are...

  13. Molecular techniques to interrogate and edit the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Robert E; Jonikas, Martin C

    2015-05-01

    The success of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism is to a large extent due to the wide range of molecular techniques that are available for its characterization. Here, we review some of the techniques currently used to modify and interrogate the C. reinhardtii nuclear genome and explore several technologies under development. Nuclear mutants can be generated with ultraviolet (UV) light and chemical mutagens, or by insertional mutagenesis. Nuclear transformation methods include biolistic delivery, agitation with glass beads, and electroporation. Transforming DNA integrates into the genome at random sites, and multiple strategies exist for mapping insertion sites. A limited number of studies have demonstrated targeted modification of the nuclear genome by approaches such as zinc-finger nucleases and homologous recombination. RNA interference is widely used to knock down expression levels of nuclear genes. A wide assortment of transgenes has been successfully expressed in the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, including transformation markers, fluorescent proteins, reporter genes, epitope tagged proteins, and even therapeutic proteins. Optimized expression constructs and strains help transgene expression. Emerging technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, high-throughput mutant identification, and a whole-genome knockout library are being developed for this organism. We discuss how these advances will propel future investigations. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Toward multi-area distributed network of implanted neural interrogators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marc P.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Galligan, Craig; Ashe, Jeffrey; Borton, David A.

    2017-08-01

    As we aim to improve our understanding of the brain, it is critical that researchers have simultaneous multi-area, large-scale access to the brain. Information processing in the brain occurs through close and distant coupling of functional sub-domains, as opposed to within isolated single neurons. However, commercially available neural interfaces capable of sensing electrophysiology of single neurons, currently allow access to only a small, mm3 volume of cortical cells, are not scalable to recording from orders of magnitude more neurons, and leverage bulky, skull mounted hardware and cabling sensitive to relative movements of the skull and brain. In this work, we propose a system capable of recording from many individual distributed neural interrogator nodes, untethered from any external electronics. Using an array of epidural inductive coils to wirelessly power the implanted electronics, the system is intended to be agnostic to the surgical placement of any individual node. Here, we demonstrate the ability to transmit nearly 15mW of power with greater than 50% power transfer efficiency, benchtop testing of individual subcircuit system components showing successful digitization of neural signals, and wireless transmission currently supporting a data rate of 3.84Mbps. We leverage a software defined radio based RF receiver to demodulate the data which can be stored in memory for later retrieval. Finally, we introduce a packaging technology capable of isolating active electronics from the surrounding tissue while providing capability for electrical feed-through assemblies for external neural interfacing. We expect, based on the presented preliminary findings, that the system can be integrated into a platform technology for the study of the intricate interactions between cortical domains.

  15. Interrogations And The Right To Remain Silent - A Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilalli Arta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interrogations are a very specific component of any criminal investigation. The answers gained through interrogative process provides information that are considered as direct evidences. In contemporary criminal procedure, the court is not absolved from gaining other evidences, even in cases when the defendant confesses his/her guiltiness. This is a mechanism for excluding the inquisitorial approach for extracting compulsory confessions. The modern procedure uses a variety of mechanisms to guarantee that the defendant will not be compelled to confess guilt.

  16. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  17. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  18. Preliminary tests to determine the fatigue curve of the Ibis ACSR (Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced) conductor; Ensaios preliminares para determinacao da curva de fadiga do cabo condutor ACSR Ibis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Daniel M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Gama), DF (Brazil)], E-mail: danielrosa@unb.br; Fadel, Aida A.; Araujo, Jose Alexander; Ferreira, Jorge Luiz A.; Henriques, Antonio Manoel D. [Universidade de Brasilia (EnM/UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: aida@unb.br, alex07@unb.br, jorge@unb.br, Henriques@unb.br; Hortencio, Tania M.O.S. [Companhia Energetica de Goias Distribuicao S.A. (CELG D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: tania.hortencio@celg.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to present a fretting fatigue experimental rig for overhead conductors and to carry out a set of experiments to obtain life estimative for a standard Ibis ACSR, Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced. A preliminary S-N (Wohler) Curve was obtained in the medium high cycle fatigue regime. Experiments considered the occurrence of at least two wire breaks to obtain each point of the S-N curve, which was compared to CIGRE's Safe Border Line (CSBL). The experimental results showed five to ten times large lives than the ones provided by CSBL adoption. (author)

  19. What neuroimaging should be performed in children in whom inflicted brain injury (iBI) is suspected? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.M.; Rajaram, S.; Mann, M.; Tempest, V.; Farewell, D.; Gawne-Cain, M.L.; Jaspan, T.; Maguire, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the optimal neuroradiological investigation strategy to identify inflicted brain injury (iBI). Materials and methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1970-2008 in any language was conducted, searching 20 databases and four websites, using over 100 keywords/phrases, supplemented by hand-searching of references. All studies underwent two independent reviews (with disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer) by trained reviewers from paediatrics, paediatric neuroradiology and related disciplines, using standardized critical appraisal tools, and strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included primary studies that evaluated the diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to initial computed tomography (CT), or follow-up CT or ultrasound in children with suspected iBI. Results: Of the 320 studies reviewed, 18 met the inclusion criteria, reflecting data on 367 children with iBI and 12 were published since 1998. When an MRI was conducted in addition to an abnormal early CT examination, additional information was found in 25% (95% CI: 18.3-33.16%) of children. The additional findings included further subdural haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, shearing injury, ischaemia, and infarction; it also contributed to dating of injuries. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) further enhanced the delineation of ischaemic changes, and assisted in prognosis. Repeat CT studies varied in timing and quality, and none were compared to the addition of an early MRI/DWI. Conclusions: In an acutely ill child, the optimal imaging strategy involves initial CT, followed by early MRI and DWI if early CT examination is abnormal, or there are ongoing clinical concerns. The role of repeat CT imaging, if early MRI is performed, is unclear, as is the place for MRI/DWI if initial CT examination is normal in an otherwise well child.

  20. High-Cadence and High-Resolution Halpha Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Tritschler, A.; Jing, J.; Chen, X.; Liu, C.; Reardon, K. P.; Denker, C.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution halpha imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with IBIS on 2011 October 22. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in 3D fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely reported. During the flare impulsive phase, we define "core" and "halo" structures in the observed ribbon. Examining the halpha emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics. These characteristics include: broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (30 s) and cooling (14--33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km/s) between discrete magnetic elements implying reconnection involving different flux tubes. We observe a very high temporal correlation (>0.9) between the integrated halpha and HXR emission during the flare impulsive phase. A short time delay (4.6 s) is also found in the halpha emission spikes relative to HXR bursts. The ionization timescale of the cool chromosphere and the extra time taken for the electrons to travel to the remote ribbon site may contribute to this delay.

  1. 29 Interrogating Infanticide/ Child Euthanasia in the Roman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Monica Omoye Aneni* http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ujah.v14i2.2. Abstract. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to examine infanticide practices in the Roman Christian era and interrogate infanticide and child euthanasia in the same era. It also attempts to point out infanticide practices in Abuja and makes a distinction ...

  2. Interrogating Infanticide/ Child Euthanasia in the Roman Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to examine infanticide practices in the Roman Christian era and interrogate infanticide and child euthanasia in the same era. It also attempts to point out infanticide practices in Abuja and makes a distinction between infanticide and child euthanasia in Abuja. The study employed ...

  3. Interrogating Your Wisdom of Practice to Improve Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a heuristic for language teachers to articulate and explore their fundamental theories of and philosophical stances towards language, language learning, and language teaching. It includes tools with which teachers can interrogate those theories, weighing them up against their actual classroom practices. Through presenting…

  4. Patriarchy and social determinism: interrogating feminist agenda in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines poems written in English by Tanzanians from a feminist perspective. Specifically, the paper examines how Tanzanian poets in English handle feminist ideas. It interrogates how the poets address issues of human rights, dignity and equality from a feminist perspective in a predominantly patriarchal ...

  5. On the aesthetics of mimicry and proliferation: interrogations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines innovative modes of interrogating spectacles of State power in postcolonial dictatorship novels. Authoritarian power in the postcolonial public sphere perpetuates itself through practices that reiterate the prerogatives of State reason, national progress, national unity and the indispensability of the ...

  6. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern John H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  7. Postmortem ICD interrogation in mode of death classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Theodora; Johnson, Miriam J; Ghosh, Justin M; Marincowitz, Carl; Shah, Saumil; Lammiman, Michael J; Schilling, Richard J; Clark, Andrew L

    2018-01-08

    The definition of sudden death due to arrhythmia relies on the time interval between onset of symptoms and death. However, not all sudden deaths are due to arrhythmia. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), postmortem device interrogation may help better distinguish the mode of death compared to a time-based definition alone. This study aims to assess the proportion of "sudden" cardiac deaths in patients with an ICD that have confirmed arrhythmia. We conducted a literature search for studies using postmortem ICD interrogation and a time-based classification of the mode of death. A modified QUADAS-2 checklist was used to assess risk of bias in individual studies. Outcome data were pooled where sufficient data were available. Our search identified 22 studies undertaken between 1982 and 2015 with 23,600 participants. The pooled results (excluding studies with high risk of bias) suggest that ventricular arrhythmias are present at the time of death in 76% of "sudden" deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 67-85; range 42-88). Postmortem ICD interrogation identifies 24% of "sudden" deaths to be nonarrhythmic. Postmortem device interrogation should be considered in all cases of unexplained sudden cardiac death. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thoughts on the Police Interrogation of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perske, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This article presents 20 reasons why it is usually easy for police to get confessions from individuals with mental retardation. It urges that police training be seen as everyone's responsibility and that individuals with mental retardation be prepared for possible police interrogation. (DB)

  9. Interrogating Public Sphere and Popular Culture as Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its theoretical roots in Western liberal thinking, scholars in African studies such as Comaroffs, Mamdani and Ekeh have vigorously debated the extent to which the concept of civil society is useful in explaining and interrogating developments in Africa. However, the concept of the public sphere has been subjected ...

  10. The viability of biological treatment at Ibi wastewater treatment station; Viabilidad del tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor Garcia, M.V.; Morenilla Martinez, J.J.; Ruiz Zapata, R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we have proved the viability of biological treatment of leaving waters from Ibi Wastewater Treatment Station, where water is subject to the action of coagulant agents, following a physical and chemical process. the experience was based on wastewater treatment by using activated sludge, at experimental scale in a pilot plant. During the experiments, we controlled the main parameters which indicate treatment success; namely, Suspended Solids (SS), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), in addition to other substances such as nutrients and toxicants, and inhibitors of bio metabolism. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Interrogating the topological robustness of gene regulatory circuits by randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment. Here we report a new computational method, named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE, for interrogating the robust dynamical behavior of a gene regulatory circuit even without accurate measurements of circuit kinetic parameters. RACIPE generates an ensemble of random kinetic models corresponding to a fixed circuit topology, and utilizes statistical tools to identify generic properties of the circuit. By applying RACIPE to simple toggle-switch-like motifs, we observed that the stable states of all models converge to experimentally observed gene state clusters even when the parameters are strongly perturbed. RACIPE was further applied to a proposed 22-gene network of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, from which we identified four experimentally observed gene states, including the states that are associated with two different types of hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal phenotypes. Our results suggest that dynamics of a gene circuit is mainly determined by its topology, not by detailed circuit parameters. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for circuit-based systems biology modeling. We anticipate RACIPE to be a powerful tool to predict and decode circuit design principles in an unbiased manner, and to quantitatively evaluate the robustness and heterogeneity of gene expression.

  12. Design challenges of a tunable laser interrogator for geo-stationary communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Honniball, Arthur; McCue, Raymond; Todd, Michael; O'Dowd, John A.; Sheils, David; Voudouris, Liberis; Farnan, Martin; Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Philipp; Lemke, Norbert; Roner, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Recently optical sensing solutions based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology have been proposed for temperature monitoring in telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geo-stationary orbit. Developing radiation hardened optical interrogators designed to be used with FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers offer the capabilities of multiplexing multiple sensors on the same fiber and reducing the overall weight by removing the copper wiring harnesses associated with electrical sensors. Here we propose the use of a tunable laser based optical interrogator that uses a semiconductor MG-Y type laser that has no moving parts and sweeps across the C-band wavelength range providing optical power to FBG sensors and optical wavelength references such as athermal Etalons and Gas Cells to guarantee stable operation of the interrogator over its targeted life time in radiation exposed environments. The MG-Y laser was calibrated so it remains in a stable operation mode which ensures that no mode hops occur due to aging of the laser, and/or thermal or radiation effects. The key optical components including tunable laser, references and FBGs were tested for radiation tolerances by emulating the conditions on a geo-stationary satellite including a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) radiation level of up to 100 krad for interrogator components and 25 Mrad for FBGs. Different tunable laser control, and signal processing algorithms have been designed and developed to fit within specific available radiation hardened FPGAs to guarantee operation of a single interrogator module providing at least 1 sample per second measurement capability across a temperature range of -20°C to +65°C using femtosecond inscribed FBGs (fs-FBG), a polarization switch is used to mitigate for the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDFS) induced from fs-FBG which could be in the order of a hybrid sensor bus (HSB) engineering model system developed in the

  13. Interrogative constructions in Danish Sign Language (DSL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie

    if and how manual question words are used. DSL uses distinct nonmanual signals to mark content and polar questions and my findings reveal a rich system of both manual and non-manual markers. The manual question words in DSL form a large paradigm of at least six items. The syntactic position of the manual...... question words can vary, though they usually appear sentence finally. The nonmanual signals include specific facial expressions, head posture and mouthing. Some of the features are shared with other sign languages. Furthermore, although it has not been investigated in detail it seems that the nonmanual...

  14. SARConnect: A Tool to Interrogate the Connectivity Between Proteins, Chemical Structures and Activity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mats; Nilsson, Ingemar; Kogej, Thierry; Southan, Christopher; Johansson, Martin; Tyrchan, Christian; Muresan, Sorel; Blomberg, Niklas; Bjäreland, Marcus

    2012-08-01

    The access and use of large-scale structure-activity relationships (SAR) is increasing as the range of targets and availability of bioactive compound-to-protein mappings expands. However, effective exploitation requires merging and normalisation of activity data, mappings to target classifications as well as visual display of chemical structure relationships. This work describes the development of the application "SARConnect" to address these issues. We discuss options for delivery and analysis of large-scale SAR data together with a set of use-cases to illustrate the design choices and utility. The main activity sources of ChEMBL,1 GOSTAR2 and AstraZeneca's internal system IBIS, had already been integrated in Chemistry Connect.3 For target relationships we selected human UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot4 as our primary source of a heuristic target classification. Similarly, to explore chemical relationships we combined several methods for framework and scaffold analysis into a unified, hierarchical classification where ease of navigation was the primary goal. An application was built on TIBCO Spotfire to retrieve data for visual display. Consequently, users can explore relationships between target, activity and structure across internal, external and commercial sources that encompass approximately 3 million compounds, 2000 human proteins and 10 million activity values. Examples showing the utility of the application are given.

  15. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption of... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control...

  16. Photonic Interrogation and Control of Nano Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassemnejad, Baha

    2003-01-01

    My research activities for the summer of 2003 consisted of two projects: One project was concerned with determining a method for predicting the static and dynamic assembly properties of nano-structures using laser tweezers. The other project was to investigate the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes using a spatial light modulator incorporated into an optical tweezers system. Concerning the first project, I initially pursued the approach suggested by my NASA colleague Dr. Art Decker. This approach involved mimicking the model of the structure of atomic nucleus for the assembly of 1 to 100 atoms using allowed quadruple transitions induced by orbital angular momentums of a Laguerre- Gaussian (Doughnut) laser mode. After realizing the inaptness of the nuclear model with the nanostructure model as far as the binding forces and transitions were concerned, I focused on using quantum dot modei. This model was not attuned also for the host lattice influences the electronic structure of the quantum dot. Thus one other option that I decided to pursue was the approach of molecular quantum mechanics. In this approach the nanostructure is treated as a large (10-100 nm) molecule constructed from single element or multi-elements. Subsequent to consultation with Dr. Fred Morales, a chemical engineer at NASA GRC, and Dr. David Ball, a computational chemist at Cleveland State University, I acquired a molecular-quantum computation software, Hyperchem 7.0. This software allows simulation of different molecular structures as far as their static and dynamic behaviors are concerned. The time that I spent on this project was about eight weeks. Once this suitable approach was identified, I realized the need to collaborate with a computational quantum chemist to pursue searching for stable nanostructures in the range of 10-100 nm that we can be assembled using laser tweezers. The second project was about generating laser tweezers that possess orbital angular momentum. As shown, we were

  17. Interrogations to Learn from the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisquet, E.; Jeffroy, F.

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake in eastern Japan caused the reactors in operation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) to trip. The emergency generators started and then suddenly failed following the tsunami. The cooling water injection system no longer worked. Suddenly plunged into total darkness, the operators had to manage the accident. Starting from the official reports and testimonies on the Fukushima accident, IRSN has conducted a survey “Human and Organizational Factors Perspective on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.” Four years after the accident, however, as more witness accounts become available, IRSN feels it useful to return to the human and organizational response to the accident inside the NPP itself. To what extent can the participants act and coordinate their actions when faced with such a dramatic situation? To what degree did their actions contribute to the disaster? Rather than looking at the causes of the accident, this study examines the unfolding of the crisis, particularly in the most urgent early stages, and draws lessons for safety culture from the decisions and actions of key actors. The main results would be presented in three key areas: 1. How to make sense of the situation? People had to make sense of what happened and create new indicators. Since instruments and controls, as well as many communication technologies, were knocked out by the tsunami, all the standard means of determining the status of the reactors were impossible. Although they were under normal circumstances almost completely dependent on these indicators, and although (or because) their lives were most directly at risk, the operators managed this uncertainty through various means that will be successively presented. 2. What are the challenges for the emergency structure? The Emergency Response Center (ERC) operations team was responsible for being in contact with the operators in the control rooms and providing them technical support as needed. The ERC

  18. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.

    2015-09-01

    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  19. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  20. Microwave Wire Interrogation Method Mapping Pressure under High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wireless reading for in-situ mapping of pressure under high-temperature environments is the most feasible method, because it is not subject to frequent heterogeneous jointing failures and electrical conduction deteriorating, or even disappearing, under heat load. However, in this article, we successfully demonstrate an in-situ pressure sensor with wire interrogation for high-temperature applications. In this proof-of-concept study of the pressure sensor, we used a microwave resonator as a pressure-sensing component and a microwave transmission line as a pressure characteristic interrogation tunnel. In the sensor, the line and resonator are processed into a monolith, avoiding a heterogeneous jointing failure; further, microwave signal transmission does not depend on electrical conduction, and consequently, the sensor does not suffer from the heat load. We achieve pressure monitoring under 400 °C when employing the sensor simultaneously. Our sensor avoids restrictions that exist in wireless pressure interrogations, such as environmental noise and interference, signal leakage and security, low transfer efficiency, and so on.

  1. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Posada-Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs (OFC generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz. Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  2. The food spectrum of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. in the Chřiby Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomešek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.

  3. Genomic signatures of near-extinction and rebirth of the crested ibis and other endangered bird species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengbin; Li, Bo; Cheng, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundNearly a quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North...... of near extinction events in association with environmental and behavioral attributes of species. We confirm that both loss of genetic diversity and enrichment of deleterious mutations of protein-coding genes contribute to the major genetic defects of the endangered species. We further identify...... practices, to facilitate sustainable recovery of endangered species.ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate common genomic signatures of population decline across avian species and pave a way for further effort in saving endangered species and enhancing conservation genomic efforts....

  4. IBiSA_Tools: A Computational Toolkit for Ion-Binding State Analysis in Molecular Dynamics Trajectories of Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    Ion conduction mechanisms of ion channels are a long-standing conundrum. Although the molecular dynamics (MD) method has been extensively used to simulate ion conduction dynamics at the atomic level, analysis and interpretation of MD results are not straightforward due to complexity of the dynamics. In our previous reports, we proposed an analytical method called ion-binding state analysis to scrutinize and summarize ion conduction mechanisms by taking advantage of a variety of analytical protocols, e.g., the complex network analysis, sequence alignment, and hierarchical clustering. This approach effectively revealed the ion conduction mechanisms and their dependence on the conditions, i.e., ion concentration and membrane voltage. Here, we present an easy-to-use computational toolkit for ion-binding state analysis, called IBiSA_tools. This toolkit consists of a C++ program and a series of Python and R scripts. From the trajectory file of MD simulations and a structure file, users can generate several images and statistics of ion conduction processes. A complex network named ion-binding state graph is generated in a standard graph format (graph modeling language; GML), which can be visualized by standard network analyzers such as Cytoscape. As a tutorial, a trajectory of a 50 ns MD simulation of the Kv1.2 channel is also distributed with the toolkit. Users can trace the entire process of ion-binding state analysis step by step. The novel method for analysis of ion conduction mechanisms of ion channels can be easily used by means of IBiSA_tools. This software is distributed under an open source license at the following URL: http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~ktkshr/ibisa_tools/.

  5. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  6. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  7. INTERCONNECTION AND INTERACTION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sklyarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper presents the results of research devoted to one of significant aspects of interrogative sentences. The precise definitions of interconnection and interaction and the application of these terms to the language units helped to distinguish between interconnection and interaction of interrogative sentences in English. The existence of two different kinds of relations in the language, namely paradigmatic and syntagmatic, provided the basis for singling out two corresponding forms of interaction of English interrogative sentences. Contextual and distributional analyses of the material from authentic sources enabled to characterize the range and degree of their paradigmatic and syntagmatic interaction. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  9. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  10. Background and Source Term Identification in Active Neutron Interrogation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    background source terms during active neutron interrogation. Oxide Percent SiO2 60.6 Al2O3 15.9 CaO 6.4 MgO 4.7 Na2O 3.1 Fe 6.7 K2O 1.8 TiO2 0.7... P2O5 0.1 Table 5. Chemical Properties of Continental Crust Provides the average amount of each element present in the earth’s crust for

  11. Evaluation of fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using InGaAs linear detector arrays and Gaussian approximation on embedded hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have become popular for applications related to structural health monitoring, biomedical engineering, and robotics. However, for successful large scale adoption, FBG interrogation systems are as important as sensor characteristics. Apart from accuracy, the required number of FBG sensors per fiber and the distance between the device in which the sensors are used and the interrogation system also influence the selection of the interrogation technique. For several measurement devices developed for applications in biomedical engineering and robotics, only a few sensors per fiber are required and the device is close to the interrogation system. For these applications, interrogation systems based on InGaAs linear detector arrays provide a good choice. However, their resolution is dependent on the algorithms used for curve fitting. In this work, a detailed analysis of the choice of algorithm using the Gaussian approximation for the FBG spectrum and the number of pixels used for curve fitting on the errors is provided. The points where the maximum errors occur have been identified. All comparisons for wavelength shift detection have been made against another interrogation system based on the tunable swept laser. It has been shown that maximum errors occur when the wavelength shift is such that one new pixel is included for curve fitting. It has also been shown that an algorithm with lower computation cost compared to the more popular methods using iterative non-linear least squares estimation can be used without leading to the loss of accuracy. The algorithm has been implemented on embedded hardware, and a speed-up of approximately six times has been observed.

  12. Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Chang; Jeon, Min Yong; Jung, Eun-Joo; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array interrogation using a 1.3 µm Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) wavelength-swept laser. The FDML wavelength-swept laser provides a high speed scanning rate and wide scanning bandwidth. Using the FDML wavelength swept laser, we measure the performances of static strain sensor interrogation for both time and spectral domains. The slope coefficients for the measured relative wavelength difference and relative time delay from the static strain are 0.8 pm/µstrain and 0.086 ns/µstrain, respectively. We demonstrate the dynamic response of the FBG sensor array with a 100 Hz modulating strain based on the FDML wavelength-swept laser at a 40.6 kHz scanning rate. The FBG sensor interrogation system using the FDML wavelength-swept laser can be realized for high-speed and high-sensitivity monitoring systems

  13. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hyun Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a high-speed (~2 kHz dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.

  14. Assembly and interrogation of Alzheimer's disease genetic networks reveal novel regulators of progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soline Aubry

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex multifactorial disorder with poorly characterized pathogenesis. Our understanding of this disease would thus benefit from an approach that addresses this complexity by elucidating the regulatory networks that are dysregulated in the neural compartment of AD patients, across distinct brain regions. Here, we use a Systems Biology (SB approach, which has been highly successful in the dissection of cancer related phenotypes, to reverse engineer the transcriptional regulation layer of human neuronal cells and interrogate it to infer candidate Master Regulators (MRs responsible for disease progression. Analysis of gene expression profiles from laser-captured neurons from AD and controls subjects, using the Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe, yielded an interactome consisting of 488,353 transcription-factor/target interactions. Interrogation of this interactome, using the Master Regulator INference algorithm (MARINa, identified an unbiased set of candidate MRs causally responsible for regulating the transcriptional signature of AD progression. Experimental assays in autopsy-derived human brain tissue showed that three of the top candidate MRs (YY1, p300 and ZMYM3 are indeed biochemically and histopathologically dysregulated in AD brains compared to controls. Our results additionally implicate p53 and loss of acetylation homeostasis in the neurodegenerative process. This study suggests that an integrative, SB approach can be applied to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, and provide significant novel insight on the disease progression.

  15. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  16. Inside interrogation: the lie, the bluff, and false confessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Jennifer T; Kassin, Saul M

    2011-08-01

    Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125-128, 1996) computer crash paradigm, Experiment 1 indicated that bluffing increases false confessions comparable to the effect produced by the presentation of false evidence. Experiment 2 replicated the bluff effect and provided self-reports indicating that innocent participants saw the bluff as a promise of future exoneration which, paradoxically, made it easier to confess. Using a variant of the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) cheating paradigm, Experiment 3 replicated the bluff effect on innocent suspects once again, though a ceiling effect was obtained in the guilty condition. Results suggest that the phenomenology of innocence can lead innocents to confess even in response to relatively benign interrogation tactics.

  17. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials Using Pulsed Microwave Interrogating Signals and Acoustic Wave Induced Reflections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanese, R

    2002-01-01

    A class of inverse problems is formulated for the estimation of material dielectric parameters using reflections of pulsed microwave interrogating signals from moving acoustic interfaces in the dielectric...

  19. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  20. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haori

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238 U and 239 Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two-fold approach was

  1. Importance of interrogation volume and full spectrum LIBS for measuring carbon in intact soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R.; Brown, D. J.; Barefield, J.; Clegg, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) potentially provides a rapid method of measuring soil carbon (C) concentration in situ. In a previous study, we showed that 200-300 nm LIBS could be used to semi-quantitatively measure soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and total carbon (TC) in intact soil cores by utilizing stoichiometric relationships between C, Mg and Ca in partial least squares regression (PLSR2) models (Bricklemyer et al., 2011). We hypothesized that two problems might limit the accuracy of this technique: (1) the relatively small volume of soil interrogated by LIBS (~3 cm^3) might not be representative of larger core segments analyzed with standard laboratory procedures (~150 cm^3); and (2) a 200-300 nm LIBS instrument, capturing the C emission peak, may not provide enough elemental information (e.g. O, H, and N) to reliably discriminate using stoichiometry between soil organic carbon (SOC) and SIC. In the present study, 218 intact soil cores were extracted from nine Montana wheat fields. For 790 core segments (~150 cm^3) we determined TC, SIC and SOC using standard laboratory methods for both the core segment as a whole (dried and homogenized prior to subsampling for analysis) and one interrogation volume subsample (~3 cm^3) taken from the intact core segment prior to homogenization. A correlation analysis of core segment vs. interrogation volume yielded r^2 values of 0.83, 0.83, and 0.61 for TC, IC, and SOC, respectively. Measured TC and SOC concentrations differed significantly (paired t-test, α = 0.05) with mean bias = 0.69 g TC kg^-1 soil and 0.59 g SOC kg^-1. Using a custom LIBS-Core Scanning system to collect full spectrum LIBS data (200-800 nm), we interrogated 60 intact soil cores (50 cm depth) from six wheat fields following Bricklemyer et al. (2011). Predictive PLSR2 models were calibrated to laboratory determined TC, IC, and SOC using full (200-800 nm) and reduced (200-300 nm) spectrum LIBS data. Model quality was tested using independent

  2. The feeding location of three species herons Casmerodius albus, Egretta garzetta, and Bubulcus ibis in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Serang, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI ELFIDASARI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is to know feeding location for three species herons that lived in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve (CAPD, Serang, Banten Province. This research has been done at feeding area for the herons around Pulau Dua Nature Reserve. The data were taken from film shooting use Focal Observation Methods, while the film shooting analysed use Scan Sampling Methods. Result showed that Casmerodius albus and Egretta garzetta were using the mudflat, fisheries and rice-fields around CAPD as feeding location. Bubulcus ibis was using rice-field and grassland as feeding location. The preference for C. albus to feeding in mudflat was (²=21691,29; db=2, =0,01. E. garzetta have preference for feeding in fisheries (²=18221,27; db=2, =0,01 and the preference for B. ibis to feeding in grassland is (²=27,57; db=1, =0,01. The selections of feeding location for three species herons were depend on the specific preys for them. C. albus and E. garzetta were select fish as their food, and B. ibis choose insect and other small animals as his food.

  3. A Contrastive Analysis of Interrogative Sentences in English and Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashlihatul Umami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the forms of questions in English and Indonesian in order to identify the similarities and differences between them. CA may look at linguistic structures in a twofold way: predictability power and wash back effect (Cheng, Watanabe & Curtis, 2004. The former deals with foreseeing the areas of problems the English learners may commit and the latter refers to the effect of diagnostic value of CA on improvement of teaching processes. In this case, the researcher emphasizes her study in analyzing CA based on the first perspective; this study focuses on interrogative sentences which are in the form of questions which play an important role in learning English among junior English students. This study has found the differences and similarities between Indonesian and English. Recognizing this will contribute to the accuracy of English questions made by the students.

  4. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, A.; Pedersen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre recently obtained a license to operate a new experimental device intended for research in the field of nuclear safeguards. The research projects currently being planned for the new device includes mass determination of fissile materials in matrices and detection of contraband non-nuclear materials. The device incorporates a commercial pulsed neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. In this configuration, a relatively high thermal neutron flux with a long lifetime is achieved inside the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator, a sample may be interrogated by a pure thermal neutron flux during repeated time periods. The paper reports on the design of the new device and the pulsed fast and thermal neutron source. The thermal neutron flux caused by the neutron generator and the graphite structure has been characterised by foil activation, fission chamber and 3 He proportional counter measurements. (authors)

  5. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  6. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by.... It also allows the Secretary of Defense to waive the prohibition for a limited period of time, with... Defense to waive the prohibition on contractor interrogations for up to 60 days on the grounds of national...

  7. And I Want to Thank You Barbie: Barbie as a Site for Cultural Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Barbie is presented as the perfect cultural site for interrogating margins, borders, and contradictions in females' lives. This article illuminates such issues by interrogating the "cumulative cultural text of Barbie." Texts criticized are: Barbie collector cards; "Barbie" and "Barbie Fashion" comic books;…

  8. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the collective scattering in well-defined regions in velocity space, here dubbed interrogation regions. Since the CTS instrument measures entire spectra of scattered radiation, many different interrogation regions are probed simultaneously. We here give analytic expressions for weight functions describing...

  9. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  10. Active Interrogation of Sensitive Nuclear Material Using Laser Driven Neutron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of the viability of a laser-driven neutron source for active interrogation is reported. The need is for a fast, movable, operationally safe neutron source which is energy tunable and has high-intensity, directional neutron production. Reasons for the choice of neutrons and lasers are set forth. Results from the interrogation of an enriched U sample are shown.

  11. Diagnostic yield of device interrogation in the evaluation of syncope in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Robert N; Pickett, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Device interrogation has become a standard part of the syncope evaluation for patients admitted with permanent pacemakers (PPM) or implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), although few studies have shown interrogation yields clinically useful data. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic yield of device interrogation as well as other commonly performed tests in the workup of unexplained syncope in patients with previously implanted PPMs or ICDs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 88 patients admitted to our medical center for syncope with previously implanted pacemakers between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2015 using ICD-9 billing data. Pacemaker interrogation demonstrated an arrhythmia as the cause for syncope in 4 patients (4%) and evidence of device failure secondary to perforation in 1 patient (1%). The cause of syncope was unknown in 34 patients (39%). Orthostatic hypotension was the most commonly identified cause of syncope (26%), followed by vasovagal syncope (13%), autonomic dysfunction (5%), ventricular arrhythmia (3%), atrial arrhythmia (2%), congestive heart failure (2%), stroke (2%), and other less common causes (8%). History was the most important determinant of syncope (36%), followed by orthostatic vital signs (14%), device interrogations (4%), head CT (2%), and transthoracic echocardiogram (1%). Device interrogation is rarely useful for elucidating a cause of syncope without concerning physical exam, telemetry, or EKG findings. Interrogation may occasionally yield paroxysmal arrhythmias responsible for syncopal episode, but these rarely alter clinical outcomes. Interrogation appears to be more useful in patients with syncope after recent device placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Additively Manufactured IN718 Components with Wirelessly Powered and Interrogated Embedded Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, Paul [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Bajekal, Sanjay [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Klecka, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Wu, Xin [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Savulak, Steve [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Viens, Dan [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Carey, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Miano, John [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Rioux, William [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zacchio, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dunst, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-07-14

    A methodology is described for embedding commercial-off-the-shelf sensors together with wireless communication and power circuit elements using direct laser metal sintered additively manufactured components. Physics based models of the additive manufacturing processes and sensor/wireless level performance models guided the design and embedment processes. A combination of cold spray deposition and laser engineered net shaping was used to fashion the transmitter/receiving elements and embed the sensors, thereby providing environmental protection and component robustness/survivability for harsh conditions. By design, this complement of analog and digital sensors were wirelessly powered and interrogated using a health and utilization monitoring system; enabling real-time, in situ prognostics and diagnostics.

  13. High-resolution non-destructive 3D interrogation of dentin using X-ray nanotomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Charles R; Sasov, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Dentin, a calcareous material sandwiched between the pulp and the enamel in the tooth structure contains highly orientated tubules. As a result of enamel erosion, gum recession, physical trauma or caries the dentin tubules can become patent to the oral cavity. It has been demonstrated in vivo that dentinal fluid flows out of the tubule lumen into the oral cavity and it has been postulated that alterations in fluid flow form the basis of dentin hypersensitivity. In order to better understand the mode of action of desensitising occlusion-based agents the ability to interrogate dentin non-destructively is paramount. Destructive analysis of the tooth structure may yield subtle artifacts leading to erroneous conclusions or inhibit the accurate assessment of the relationship between an occluding agent and the internal dentin morphology. This paper describes the use of a novel and accessible, non-invasive, high-focused X-ray computer tomographic technique for analysis of the dentin substructure. Dentin slices, ca. 300microm3 in size, were taken from the coronal section of unerupted human third molars and etched in citric acid to reveal the open tubule structure. Samples were analyzed, in their dry state, using the Skyscan 2011 nanoCT system. Numerous, homogeneously dispersed elliptical features, distinguished by their contrast and hence low-mineral density, were observed. These features are observed to be approximately 2-5microm in diameter at a density equivalent to 10(6)cm(-2). 2D CT re-slices demonstrate that these circular features form highly orientated cylindrical manifestations extending throughout the sample. Ultra-high-resolution X-ray computed tomography has been shown to be a powerful new technique for interrogating the submicron tubular structure of dentin non-destructively.

  14. Audit Sistem Informasi Akademik Menggunakan Framework Cobit 4.1 (Studi Kasus Ibi Darmajaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Purwati, Neni

    2014-01-01

    Academic Information System Management that is not managed properly will result in low quality of service, low levels of customer satisfaction / student, so it can affect the level of stakeholder confidence in the institutions. The foregoing can be addressed by monitoring / evaluation periodically the implementation SIAKAD. With the monitoring of the implementation process SIAKAD expected to improve any shortcomings and weaknesses of the current system become better and in accordance with bus...

  15. The Risks of Interrogation with the Help of an Interpreter in the Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati Csilla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the criminal procedure, the process of verification includes the reconstruction of past events for the sake of establishing the statement of facts. When it comes to exploring the events in the past, great significance can be attributed to personal evidence. In order to prevent the influencing of the interrogated person, many provisions of guarantee had been established in the criminal procedure. In such an interrogatory situation, the most difficult practical problem is how to word the question so that the interrogation would aim at the exploration of the mind of the witness or accused, and at the helping of the recalling of the memories. During the criminal procedure however, interrogation with the assistance of an interpreter could also result in the communication of the statements of the accused or the witness about their perceptions and original knowledge with modified contents. Another significant factor at interpreter-assisted interrogations is to avoid the will of either the interrogator or the interpreter being projected on the interrogated person, as that would threaten with the witness, the accused, or the interrogated person giving a confession that is different form their original content of consciousness.

  16. Residue levels of organochlorines and mercury in Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, eggs from the Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullie, W.C. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands) Foundation for Ornithological Research in Egypt, Belfort (Netherlands)); Massi, A.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A. (Universita di Siena (Italy))

    1992-05-01

    In Egypt, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is a common resident bird of the Nile Valley, the southern part of the Nile Delta, and the Suez Canal area. In the 1970s it disappeared as a breeding bird from the greater part of the Nile Delta, as did several other bird species, notably birds of prey. Only in recent years some of the species that had declined are markedly recovering, such as the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus and the Cattle Egret. There is circumstancial evidence that these birds declined - at least partially - as a result of pesticide use in the main cotton growing areas, but this has never been substantiated. The recent recovery of some bird populations, commencing in the 1980s, coincides with a general shift from the use of organochlorines (except for endrin and HCH which are still in use) towards synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates in Egyptian agriculture: 30 million kg of formulated product annually, of which 70% are applied to cotton. The number of breeding pairs of Cattle Egrets in a well-known colony at Giza (30[degrees].01'N 31[degrees].13'E) steadily declined from 2500 in 1977 to 1100 in 1984. Therefore, it was decided to collect some eggs for residue analysis. Cattle Egrets are not piscivores, such as most other egrets, but mainly insectivores. They feed in agricultural areas and likely are good indicators for pesticide use in these habitats. Based on gizzard contents analysis, Kirkpatrick (1925) concluded that Cattle Egrets in Egypt only occasionally take (semi) aquatic prey, such as toads, and further predominantly Orthoptera and Diptera on arable land. Various studies have been published with respect to pesticides or heavy metals in the Egyptian environment but, surprisingly, birds have been almost completely ignored. The data presented are the first residue analyses of bird eggs from an agricultural area in Egypt, and as such they can be considered as baseline data for future research. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Distribution and biology of goshawk (Accipiter gentilis L. in the Chřiby Upland, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomešek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2002–2006, mapping the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis L. population was carried out at the SE edge of the Chřiby Upland, the Czech Republic. At the same time, the food spectrum of the predator was determined in detail in 2004. The studied area amounted to about 30 km2. In the area, 5 nest localities occurred. Each year five occupied nests were observed. The food spectrum was analysed according to leftovers of food in nests and in the vicinity of the nests. In total, 387 leftovers of food were found. Birds represented 52%, mammals 42% and other animals (insect, reptiles etc. 6% of prey. The population of goshawk was monitored from the period of a wedding flight to a period when young birds left their nest during the period of five years. The number of eggs was on average 2.9 per one nest. The total number of laid eggs was 73 during five years. The number of brood was on average 2.7 per one nest. Sex ratio was 47/53 per cent in favour of males. The total number of hatched birds was 68 during five years, out of the number 32 females and 36 males. Moreover, dimensions of nests at particular localities were also determined. The diameter of nests was on average 72.2 cm and the mean height of the actual nest was 48 cm. Nests occurred at an average height of 21.3 m.

  18. Validation of a Process-Based Agro-Ecosystem Model (Agro-IBIS for Maize in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureniguli Amuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural oasis expansion and intensive management practices have occurred in arid and semiarid regions of China during the last few decades. Accordingly, regional carbon and water budgets have been profoundly impacted by agroecosystems in these regions. Therefore, study on the methods used to accurately estimate energy, water, and carbon exchanges is becoming increasingly important. Process-based models can represent the complex processes between land and atmosphere among agricultural ecosystems. However, before the models can be applied they must be validated under different environmental and climatic conditions. In this study, a process-based agricultural ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS was validated for maize crops using 3 years of soil and biometric measurements at Wulanwusu agrometeorological site (WAS located in the Shihezi oasis in Xinjiang, northwest China. The model satisfactorily represented leaf area index (LAI during the growing season, simulating its peak values within the magnitude of 0–10%. The total biomass carbon was overestimated by 15%, 8%, and 16% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The model satisfactorily simulated the soil temperature (0–10 cm and volumetric water content (VWC (0–25 cm of farmland during the growing season. However, it overestimated soil temperature approximately by 4 °C and VWC by 15–30% during the winter, coinciding with the period of no vegetation cover in Xinjiang. Overall, the results indicate that the model could represent crop growth, and seems to be applicable in multiple sites in arid oases agroecosystems of Xinjiang. Future application of the model will impose more comprehensive validation using eddy covariance flux data, and consider including dynamics of crop residue and improving characterization of the final stage of leaf development.

  19. A Fibre Bragg Grating Interrogation Technique Based on High Birefringence Fibre Loop Mirror and WDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fibre Bragg grating (FBG interrogation technique based on high Birefringence fibre loop mirror (Hi-Bi FLM and wavelength division multiplexer (WDM is proposed and demonstrated. The approximate linear edge of the transmittance of the Hi-Bi FLM, which is a sinusoidal function of wavelength, is used to interrogate the sensing FBGs and WDMs is used to realize wavelength discrimination .Suitable for both static and dynamic sensing, this interrogation method has the advantages of all fibre design and high stability.

  20. A Web Architecture to Geographically Interrogate CHIRPS Rainfall and eMODIS NDVI for Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of rainfall and vegetation over the continent of Africa is important for assessing the status of crop health and agriculture, along with long-term changes in land use change. These issues can be addressed through examination of long-term precipitation (rainfall) data sets and remote sensing of land surface vegetation and land use types. Two products have been used previously to address these goals: the Climate Hazard Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data, and multi-day composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the USGS eMODIS product. Combined, these are very large data sets that require unique tools and architecture to facilitate a variety of data analysis methods or data exploration by the end user community. To address these needs, a web-enabled system has been developed to allow end-users to interrogate CHIRPS rainfall and eMODIS NDVI data over the continent of Africa. The architecture allows end-users to use custom defined geometries, or the use of predefined political boundaries in their interrogation of the data. The massive amount of data interrogated by the system allows the end-users with only a web browser to extract vital information in order to investigate land use change and its causes. The system can be used to generate daily, monthly and yearly averages over a geographical area and range of dates of interest to the user. It also provides analysis of trends in precipitation or vegetation change for times of interest. The data provided back to the end-user is displayed in graphical form and can be exported for use in other, external tools. The development of this tool has significantly decreased the investment and requirements for end-users to use these two important datasets, while also allowing the flexibility to the end-user to limit the search to the area of interest.

  1. Interrogating the Practice of Image Making in a Budding Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Image making is a continuous worldwide practice of architects and designers whose concern is to create meaningful environments. Such a practice results in expressions that either reflect the regional context or mirror the wider global culture. This paper aims at interrogating image making practices in the city of Doha, which has experienced rapid urban transformations, associated with building large scale work and learning environments, mixed use developments, and cultural and sport facilities. Contextualizing current debate on Doha’s architecture and urbanism, a critical analysis of geo-cultural politics and on the notion of the ‘scapes of flows’ is undertaken. Based on contextual, critical, and perceptual approaches image-making practices in the city were discerned.  Different types of efforts were categorized and critically analyzed underlying the contextual and critical approaches. The analysis reveals that efforts range from utilizing symbolism in contemporary imaging, to manifesting tradition-modernity in search for image identity, to addressing the global condition towards image making. The perceptual approach established empirical evidence by investigating users’ reactions to three notable office buildings that their design attempts to evoke a unique image.  This was supported by statements made by CEOs of architectural firms and development companies that reflected a promise towards image making in the architecture of Doha. A concluding critique is introduced to elucidate that while there are incessant attempts at image making, the practice of ‘cutting and pasting’ dominates in the absence of critical consciousness. Such a critique calls for avoiding ‘case by case decision making’ the urban governance in the city still adopts while engaging effective place making strategies.

  2. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  3. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  4. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...

  5. Ultraviolet Raman Spectral Signatures in Support of Lisa (Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J; Finfrock, Charles C; Christesen, Steve; Chyba, Tom; Higdon, Scott

    2003-01-01

    ... (Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents). This engineering, testing and evaluation effort uses a novel mini-Raman lidar technique for on-the-move, short-range, non-contact detection and identification of chemical agents on the battlefield...

  6. Adaptive image interrogation for PIV : Application to compressible flows and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    As an experimental tool, Particle Image Velocimetry has quickly superseded traditional point-wise measurements. The inherent image processing has become standardized though the performances are strongly dependent on user experience. Moreover, the arduously selected image interrogation parameters are

  7. Are the American Psychological Association?s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9?11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists? involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article?s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such...

  8. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Etude des formes interrogatives en francais chez les enfants de trois ans (Study of the Interrogative Forms in French in Three-Year-Olds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redard, Francoise

    1976-01-01

    A study of the acquisition of interrogative forms in children of high socioeconomic status reveals that utterances belong more to the colloquial than to the standard range. It is concluded that disadvantaged children would show similar usage, leading to the suggestion that teachers teach language as they use it. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  10. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  11. (MOthers from the Motherland in Edna O’Brien’s The Light of Evening and Colm Tóibín’s Brooklyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Morales Ladrón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the last decade, interest in the rewriting of received notions of the Irish diaspora and of the great famine in the literature produced in Ireland has notably increased, in an attempt to revise both Irish history and identity. Within this impulse in contemporary Irish literature, two enduring authors stand out, Edna O’Brien and Colm Tóibín, whose novels, The Light of Evening (2006 and Brooklyn (2009, focus on the individual experiences of post-famine female emigrants to the United States in their unsuccessful attempts to find better living conditions either in the so-called “Promised land” or in their homeland. Taking O’Brien’s The Light of Evening as a predecessor of Tóibín’s Brooklyn, I will argue along this paper that the stories of female emigration unfolded in the two narratives complement each other in ways that, by and large, have passed unnoticed by critics and reviewers. Considering the bond to the land as a metaphor of the bond to the mother, through the present discussion I will also explore O Brien’s and Toíbín’s current discourses on emigration in light of their portrayal of the conflictive mother figures that mirror their own motherland. 

  12. Is the Sacred ibis a real threat to biodiversity? Long-term study of its diet in non-native areas compared to native areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Loïc

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a 14-year study about the diet of the Sacred ibis in its main introduction area in France and its impact on native bird species, and compares the data to literature from its native area. During an initial period (1993-2004), the diet was essentially composed of invertebrates such as common aquatic insects (correlated with flooding) or Eristalis larvae picked from the mud (a vacant food niche in France), while scraps of meat taken from rubbish dumps were minor. These traditional preys taken from the same ecosystems as in its native area did not result in an exponential increase of the number of breeding Sacred ibises. Invasive Red swamp crayfish recently replaced other foods in its diet with a resulting sharp increase in breeding pair numbers (R(2)=0.48). As in other parts of the world, vertebrates constituted very accidental preys, and no bird species were really threatened by such predation. Conversely, the Sacred ibis can have a positive effect as a predator of invasive crayfish. Adding the species to the DAISIE list of the 100 most invasive alien species in Europe therefore appears debatable. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical mutagens, transposons, and transgenes to interrogate gene function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Bellen, Hugo J

    2014-06-15

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in 1910, when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensing interrogation technique for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors based on a single-passband RF filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei; Fu, Hongyan; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Nan

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, a sensing interrogation system for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors by using a single-passband radio-frequency (RF) filter has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fiber-optic interferometer based sensors can give continuous optical sampling, and along with dispersive medium a single-passband RF frequency response can be achieved. The sensing parameter variation on the fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors will affect their free spectrum range, and thus the peak frequency of the RF filter. By tracking the central frequency of the passband the sensing parameter can be demodulated. As a demonstration, in our experiment a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) based temperature sensor has been interrogated. By tracking the peak frequency of the passband the temperature variation can be monitored. In our experiment, the sensing responsivity of 10.5 MHz/°C, 20.0 MHz/°C and 41.2 MHz/°C, when the lengths of sensing fiber are 1 m, 2 m and 4 m have been achieved.

  15. Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.

  16. Nanoscale bio-platforms for living cell interrogation: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Hu, Jiaming; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Shi, Junfeng; Yang, Zhaogang; Li, Yiwen; Lee, Ly James

    2016-02-01

    The living cell is a complex entity that dynamically responds to both intracellular and extracellular environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the understanding intracellular functions orchestrated with mRNAs and proteins in investigation of the fate of a single-cell, including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, differentiation and mutations. The rapid development of modern cellular analysis techniques (e.g. PCR, western blotting, immunochemistry, etc.) offers new opportunities in quantitative analysis of RNA/protein expression up to a single cell level. The recent entries of nanoscale platforms that include kinds of methodologies with high spatial and temporal resolution have been widely employed to probe the living cells. In this tutorial review paper, we give insight into background introduction and technical innovation of currently reported nanoscale platforms for living cell interrogation. These highlighted technologies are documented in details within four categories, including nano-biosensors for label-free detection of living cells, nanodevices for living cell probing by intracellular marker delivery, high-throughput platforms towards clinical current, and the progress of microscopic imaging platforms for cell/tissue tracking in vitro and in vivo. Perspectives for system improvement were also discussed to solve the limitations remains in current techniques, for the purpose of clinical use in future.

  17. Analysis and Validation of Contactless Time-Gated Interrogation Technique for Quartz Resonator Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baù, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Ferrari, Vittorio

    2017-06-02

    A technique for contactless electromagnetic interrogation of AT-cut quartz piezoelectric resonator sensors is proposed based on a primary coil electromagnetically air-coupled to a secondary coil connected to the electrodes of the resonator. The interrogation technique periodically switches between interleaved excitation and detection phases. During the excitation phase, the resonator is set into vibration by a driving voltage applied to the primary coil, whereas in the detection phase, the excitation signal is turned off and the transient decaying response of the resonator is sensed without contact by measuring the voltage induced back across the primary coil. This approach ensures that the readout frequency of the sensor signal is to a first order approximation independent of the interrogation distance between the primary and secondary coils. A detailed theoretical analysis of the interrogation principle based on a lumped-element equivalent circuit is presented. The analysis has been experimentally validated on a 4.432 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal resonator, demonstrating the accurate readout of the series resonant frequency and quality factor over an interrogation distance of up to 2 cm. As an application, the technique has been applied to the measurement of liquid microdroplets deposited on a 4.8 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. More generally, the proposed technique can be exploited for the measurement of any physical or chemical quantities affecting the resonant response of quartz resonator sensors.

  18. Narrowband interrogation of plasmonic optical fiber biosensors based on spectral combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Álvaro; Kinet, Damien; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings can probe surface Plasmon polaritons with high resolution and sensitivity. In this work, we report two configurations to interrogate such plasmonic biosensors, with the aim of providing more efficient alternatives to the widespread spectrometer-based techniques. To this aim, the interrogation is based on measuring the optical power evolution of the cladding modes with respect to surrounding refractive index changes instead of computing their wavelength shift. Both setups are composed of a broadband source and a photodiode and enable a narrowband interrogation around the cladding mode that excites the surface Plasmon resonance. The first configuration makes use of a uniform fiber Bragg grating to filter the broadband response of the source in a way that the final interrogation is based on an intensity modulation measured in transmission. The second setup uses a uniform fiber grating too, but located beyond the sensor and acting as a selective optical mirror, so the interrogation is carried out in reflection. Both configurations are compared, showing interesting differential features. The first one exhibits a very high sensitivity while the second one has an almost temperature-insensitive behavior. Hence, the choice of the most appropriate method will be driven by the requirements of the target application.

  19. EXCISING TAGS: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INTERROGATIVE SFPS AND TAG QUESTIONS IN TAIWANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Hian Lau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as an investigation into the differences between interrogative sentence-final particles (SFPs and tag questions (tags in Taiwanese. What we are concerned with is the discrepancies found among the lists of interrogative SFPs in the literature. To distinguish tags from the interrogative particles (PRTs, a testing procedure is devised based on the proposal for testing negative particles (NEG-PRTs in Hsieh (2001. We conclude that buē, bē, bô, m, honn, m̄, ma, nih are interrogative SFPs and hiòo, m-me(me, sī--bô, sī-m̄ (sìm and sioh are tag questions. Among the interrogative SFPs, buē, bē, bô, and m are negative-particles which occur under IP, honn, m̄, ma, and nih are particles which perch higher, under CP. We believe that distinguishing SFPs from tags is the foundation of a solid investigation into SFPs.

  20. Neutron interrogation of actinides with a 17 MeV electron accelerator and first results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, A., E-mail: adrien.sari@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Carrel, F.; Lainé, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of neutron interrogation using the conversion target of a 17 MeV linear electron accelerator as a neutron generator. Signals from prompt neutrons, delayed neutrons, and delayed gamma-rays, emitted by both uranium and plutonium samples were analyzed. First results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination are also reported in this paper. Feasibility of this technique is shown in the frame of the measurement of uranium enrichment. The latter was carried out by combining detection of prompt neutrons from thermal fission and delayed neutrons from photofission, and by combining delayed gamma-rays from thermal fission and delayed gamma-rays from photofission.

  1. S’interroger sur la météo, c’est s’interroger sur soi-même

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Karin

    2018-01-01

    S’interroger sur la météo, c’est s’interroger sur soi-même. Car dans la perspective des sciences humaines, c’est le temps vécu qui est placé au centre de l’intérêt dans l’étude des météores, c’est-à-dire le ressenti corporel et mental sur le plan individuel et sur le plan collectif. Autrement dit, l’attention des chercheurs porte sur la « perception du climat », pour reprendre la dénomination du réseau interdisciplinaire dirigé par l’ethnologue Martin de la Soudière, la géographe climatologue...

  2. Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hamsa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1 recording, (2 documentation, (3 field notes, (4 interview. The results showed that: (1 the form of questioning the teacher in the teacher-student interaction in Bahasa Indonesia learning in primary schools generally examined the low-level thinking skills, (2 functions of teacher questions are generally intended to check student understanding, and (3 teachers utilize a variety of strategies in addressing student answers correctly and the apparent hesitation. Some disadvantages are indicated teachers in providing interrogation.

  3. Stretchable Transparent Electrode Arrays for Simultaneous Electrical and Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Wenjing; Luo, Wenhan; Li, Ming; Chu, Fangbing; Xu, Lu; Cao, Anyuan; Guan, Jisong; Tang, Shiming; Duan, Xiaojie

    2018-04-09

    Recent developments of transparent electrode arrays provide a unique capability for simultaneous optical and electrical interrogation of neural circuits in the brain. However, none of these electrode arrays possess the stretchability highly desired for interfacing with mechanically active neural systems, such as the brain under injury, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here, we report a stretchable transparent electrode array from carbon nanotube (CNT) web-like thin films that retains excellent electrochemical performance and broad-band optical transparency under stretching and is highly durable under cyclic stretching deformation. We show that the CNT electrodes record well-defined neuronal response signals with negligible light-induced artifacts from cortical surfaces under optogenetic stimulation. Simultaneous two-photon calcium imaging through the transparent CNT electrodes from cortical surfaces of GCaMP-expressing mice with epilepsy shows individual activated neurons in brain regions from which the concurrent electrical recording is taken, thus providing complementary cellular information in addition to the high-temporal-resolution electrical recording. Notably, the studies on rats show that the CNT electrodes remain operational during and after brain contusion that involves the rapid deformation of both the electrode array and brain tissue. This enables real-time, continuous electrophysiological monitoring of cortical activity under traumatic brain injury. These results highlight the potential application of the stretchable transparent CNT electrode arrays in combining electrical and optical modalities to study neural circuits, especially under mechanically active conditions, which could potentially provide important new insights into the local circuit dynamics of the spinal cord and PNS as well as the mechanism underlying traumatic injuries of the nervous system.

  4. Population structure of Argas arboreus (Acari : Argasidae ticks associated with seasonally abandoned mixed heronries, dominated by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belozerov

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through induction of reproductive diapause in engorged females, and behavioural diapause in unfed nymphs and adult ticks. Many ticks showed morphological anomalies and malformations, the study of which could possibly be used for monitoring of environmental pollution.

  5. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, W.J.; Stevens, L.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch homicide cases and their relation to prior consultation and presence of a lawyer. Analysis of the data indicates that there is a relation between the presence of a lawyer in the interrogation room an...

  7. On the actual bandwidth of some dynamic fiber optic strain/temperature interrogators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preizler, Rotem R.; Davidi, R.; Motil, Avi; Botsev, Yakov; Hahami, Meir; Tur, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    The measurement accuracy of dynamic fiber-optic sensing interrogators, which use frequency scanning to determine the value of the measured, err as either the event bandwidth approaches half the instrument sampling frequency or when the event dynamic range comes close to the instrument designed value. One main source of error is the common practice of assigning sampling at a non-uniform grid to a uniform one. Harmonics higher than -20 dB are observed for signal frequencies exceeding 25% of the sampling rate and/or for signal amplitudes higher than 15% of the instrument dynamic range. These findings have applications to fiber-Bragg-grating and Brillouin interrogators.

  8. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors

  9. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique...

  10. Low level transuranic wastes assay by photon interrogation and neutron counting: application to the concrete packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    1994-02-01

    The present document presents an active detection method for radioactive wastes embedded in high-density matrices, mainly concrete packages. The high density of the packages, as well as their high water content (up to 25%), means only high-energy neutrons or gamma particles have a high enough range to activate the enclosed actinides. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of dosing transuranians by induced photofission, and to optimize an experimental system with a view to improving detection limits. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator (LINAC) to produce high-energy photon bursts from a metallic converter. The photons induce fissions in TRU. When a fission is induced in trace amounts of TRU contaminants in waste material, it provides 'signatures' from fission products that can be used to assay the material before disposal. We give here the results from counting photofission-induced delayed neutrons from 239 Pu, 235 U and 238 U in three sample matrices: glass, polyethylene and concrete. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse of the LINAC using the 'Sequential PHoton Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures' (SPHINCS) technique which had been developed in this thesis work. The experimental process described below (SPHINCS) is one of the first to use a LINAC assay method combined with sequential detection using delayed neutrons. The SPHINCS process enhances the available counts by a factor about 20 compared with the counting of delayed neutrons only after the irradiation period. The electron linear accelerator operates at 15 MeV, 140 mA, and 2.5 μs wide pulse at a 50 Hz rate. Finally, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, measurements results and their interpretation and the future experimental works are discussed. (author)

  11. Dynamic fiber Bragg grating strain sensor interrogation with real-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinwoo; Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jeon, Min Yong

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a 1550 nm band resonance Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber laser with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array. Using the FDML fiber laser, we successfully demonstrate real-time monitoring of dynamic FBG strain sensor interrogation for structural health monitoring. The resonance FDML fiber laser consists of six multiplexed FBGs, which are arranged in series with delay fiber lengths. It is operated by driving the fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) with a sinusoidal waveform at a frequency corresponding to the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Each FBG forms a laser cavity independently in the FDML fiber laser because the light travels different length for each FBG. The very closely positioned two FBGs in a pair are operated simultaneously with a frequency in the FDML fiber laser. The spatial positions of the sensing pair can be distinguished from the variation of the applied frequency to the FFP-TF. One of the FBGs in the pair is used as a reference signal and the other one is fixed on the piezoelectric transducer stack to apply the dynamic strain. We successfully achieve real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the frequencies applied to the FBG without any signal processing delay. The real-time monitoring system is displayed simultaneously on the monitor for the variation of the two peaks, the modulation interval of the two peaks, and their fast Fourier transform spectrum. The frequency resolution of the dynamic variation could reach up to 0.5 Hz for 2 s integration time. It depends on the integration time to measure the dynamic variation. We believe that the real-time monitoring system will have a potential application for structural health monitoring.

  12. Low level transuranic wastes assay by photon interrogation and neutron counting: application to the concrete packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    1994-03-01

    A comprehensive programme is currently in progress at several laboratories for the development of sensitive, practical and non destructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics (TRU) in bulk solid wastes. The present document presents an active detection method for radioactive wastes embedded in high-density matrices, mainly concrete packages. The high density of the packages, as well as their high water content (up to 25%), means only high-energy neutrons or gamma particles have a high enough range to activate the enclosed actinides. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of dosing transuranians by induced photofission, and to optimize an experimental system with a view to improving detection limits. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator (LINAC) to produce high-energy photon bursts from a metallic converter. The photons induce fissions in TRU. When a fission is induced in trace amounts of TRU contaminants in waste material, it provides ''signatures'' from fission products that can be used to assay the material before disposal. We give here the results from counting photofission-induced delayed neutrons from 239 Pu, 235 U and 238 U in three sample matrices: glass, polyethylene and concrete. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse of the LINAC using the ''Sequential PHoton Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures'' (SPHINCS) technique. The electron linear accelerator operates at 15 MeV, 140 mA and 2.5 μs wide pulse at a 50 Hz rate. Finally, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, measurements results and their interpretation and future experimental works are discussed. (author). 53 refs., 101 figs., 21 tabs

  13. Asking for Action or Information? Crosslinguistic Comparison of Interrogative Functions in Early Child Cantonese and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei; Tse, Shek Kam; Leung, Shing On; Ye, Qianling

    2015-01-01

    Request for information (RfI) is believed to be the universally dominant function of young children's questioning, whereas request for action (RfA) has been reported to be the leading interrogative form used in early child Cantonese. The possibility of crosslinguistic variability prompts further research and comparison with additional languages.…

  14. “Please let me shape my fate” : Interrogating the contemporary in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These writers are concerned with the fate of their countries, and so we can argue that the purpose of writing is the desire to shape the fate of the society. This is what we have termed “let me know my fate”. Another concern in this paper is how effectively and successfully can a contemporary writer interrogate a contemporary ...

  15. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W-J. Verhoeven (Willem-Jan); L. Stevens (Lonneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch

  16. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.J.; Stevens, L.

    2012-01-01

    In many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch homicide cases

  17. Interferometric interrogation of π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepa; Tiwari, Umesh; Das, Bhargab

    2018-03-01

    Interferometric interrogation technique realized for conventional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is historically known to offer the highest sensitivity measurements, however, it has not been yet explored for π-phase-shifted FBG (πFBG) sensors. This, we believe, is due to the complex nature of the reflection/transmission spectrum of a πFBG, which cannot be directly used for interferometric interrogation purpose. Therefore, we propose here an innovative as well as simple concept towards this direction, wherein, the transmission spectrum of a πFBG sensor is optically filtered using a specially designed fiber grating. The resulting filtered spectrum retains the entire characteristics of a πFBG sensor and hence the filtered spectrum can be interrogated with interferometric principles. Furthermore, due to the extremely narrow transmission notch of a πFBG sensor, a fiber interferometer can be realized with significantly longer path difference. This leads to substantially enhanced detection limit as compared to sensors based on a regular FBG of similar length. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that high resolution weak dynamic strain measurement down to 4 pε /√{ Hz } is easily achievable. Preliminary experimental results are also presented as proof-of-concept of the proposed interrogation principle.

  18. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...D Instruction 1100.22, Policy and Procedures for Determining Workforce Mix ( http://www.dtic.mil/whs... ( http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/231001p.pdf ); and DoD Directive 3115.09, DoD Intelligence Interrogations, Detainee Debriefings, and Tactical Questioning ( http://www.dtic.mil/whs...

  19. The recognition of acted interpersonal stance in police interrogations and the influence of actor proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Spitters, Sophie; Sanders, Merijn; Fu, Quihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on judgement studies regarding the perception of interpersonal stances taken by humans playing the role of a suspect in a police interrogation setting. Our project aims at building believable embodied conversational characters to play the role of suspects in a serious game for

  20. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  1. Advice-Implicative Interrogatives: Building "Client-Centered" Support in a Children's Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Carly W.; Potter, Jonathan; Danby, Susan; Emmison, Michael; Hepburn, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Interactional research on advice giving has described advice as normative and asymmetric. In this paper we examine how these dimensions of advice are softened by counselors on a helpline for children and young people through the use of questions. Through what we term "advice-implicative interrogatives," counselors ask clients about the…

  2. 25 CFR 11.303 - Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.303 Notification of rights prior... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of rights prior to custodial interrogation... following rights: (a) That he or she has the right to remain silent. (b) That any statements made by him or...

  3. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  4. Evolutionary interrogation of human biology in well-annotated genomic framework of rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Yu, Peng; Zhong, Xiaoming; Chen, Jia-Yu; Yang, Xinzhuang; Peng, Jiguang; Yan, Shouyu; Wang, Chenqu; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xiong, Jingwei; Zhang, Yong E; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2014-05-01

    With genome sequence and composition highly analogous to human, rhesus macaque represents a unique reference for evolutionary studies of human biology. Here, we developed a comprehensive genomic framework of rhesus macaque, the RhesusBase2, for evolutionary interrogation of human genes and the associated regulations. A total of 1,667 next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets were processed, integrated, and evaluated, generating 51.2 million new functional annotation records. With extensive NGS annotations, RhesusBase2 refined the fine-scale structures in 30% of the macaque Ensembl transcripts, reporting an accurate, up-to-date set of macaque gene models. On the basis of these annotations and accurate macaque gene models, we further developed an NGS-oriented Molecular Evolution Gateway to access and visualize macaque annotations in reference to human orthologous genes and associated regulations (www.rhesusbase.org/molEvo). We highlighted the application of this well-annotated genomic framework in generating hypothetical link of human-biased regulations to human-specific traits, by using mechanistic characterization of the DIEXF gene as an example that provides novel clues to the understanding of digestive system reduction in human evolution. On a global scale, we also identified a catalog of 9,295 human-biased regulatory events, which may represent novel elements that have a substantial impact on shaping human transcriptome and possibly underpin recent human phenotypic evolution. Taken together, we provide an NGS data-driven, information-rich framework that will broadly benefit genomics research in general and serves as an important resource for in-depth evolutionary studies of human biology.

  5. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 1 Interrogating the Plausibility of Ideological Classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    perception, especially when issues are not put into their correct perspectives. This distortion is perceived to ... case from the slavery society through to the capitalist. In other words, the class ideology in the west has ..... The second swing issues from the first. Unstable system of government has resulted in perpetual swing in.

  7. Fragmentation and Interrogation as an Approach to Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Karl; Zaretsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the generative role of research and fragmentation as a means for integrating technology and form within an architecture technology lecture class and a co-requisite design studio. The complexity of teaching building systems integration within a design studio context is achieved by removing any expectation of building design…

  8. Interrogation of Prisoners of War in the Airland Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    Germans treated U.S. and British PWs better than Russian PWs.• Dr. Arnold Krammer’s Public Administration of Prisoner of War Camns in America Since the...against deception. One of the document’s "sources* is Reinhard Gehlen , former head of Premde Heere Oat and later chief of West Germany’s Federal...system downward) was extremely successful In all of its operations in divining Russian intentions. At the time this report was In progress, Gehlen and some

  9. Forecasting carbon budget under climate change and CO2 fertilization for subtropical region in China using integrated biosphere simulator (IBIS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, H.; Liu, J.; Peng, C.; Fang, X.; Yu, S.; Zhou, G.; Wei, X.; Ju, W.

    2011-01-01

    The regional carbon budget of the climatic transition zone may be very sensitive to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study simulated the carbon cycles under these changes using process-based ecosystem models. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM), was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), and the vegetation structure of terrestrial ecosystems in Zhejiang province (area 101,800 km2, mainly covered by subtropical evergreen forest and warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf forest) which is located in the subtropical climate area of China. Two general circulation models (HADCM3 and CGCM3) representing four IPCC climate change scenarios (HC3AA, HC3GG, CGCM-sresa2, and CGCM-sresb1) were used as climate inputs for IBIS. Results show that simulated historical biomass and NPP are consistent with field and other modelled data, which makes the analysis of future carbon budget reliable. The results indicate that NPP over the entire Zhejiang province was about 55 Mt C yr-1 during the last half of the 21st century. An NPP increase of about 24 Mt C by the end of the 21st century was estimated with the combined effects of increasing CO2 and climate change. A slight NPP increase of about 5 Mt C was estimated under the climate change alone scenario. Forests in Zhejiang are currently acting as a carbon sink with an average NEP of about 2.5 Mt C yr-1. NEP will increase to about 5 Mt C yr-1 by the end of the 21st century with the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. However, climate change alone will reduce the forest carbon sequestration of Zhejiang's forests. Future climate warming will substantially change the vegetation cover types; warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf forest will be gradually substituted by subtropical evergreen forest. An increasing CO2 concentration will have little

  10. Interrogation of Streptomyces avermitilis for efficient production of avermectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to avermectins and artemisinin, respectively. Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are excellent anthelmintic and potential antibiotic agents. Because wild-type strains only produce low levels of avermectins, much research effort has focused on improvements in avermectin production to meet the ever increasing demand for such compounds. This review describes the strategies that have been widely employed and the future prospects of synthetic biology applications in avermectin yield improvement. With the help of genome sequencing of S. avermitilis and an understanding of the avermectin biosynthetic/regulatory pathways, synthetic and systems biotechnology approaches have been applied for precision engineering. We focus on the design and synthesis of biological chassis, parts, devices, and modules from diverse microbes to reconstruct and optimize their dynamic processes, as well as predict favorable effective overproduction of avermectins by a 4Ms strategy (Mine, Model, Manipulation, and Measurement.

  11. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  12. Interrogation of fibre Bragg gratings through a fibre optic rotary joint on a geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo; James, Stephen W.; Marshall, Alec; Heron, Charles; Korposh, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    The monitoring of an array of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain sensors was performed through a single channel, single mode fibre optic rotary joint (FORJ) mounted on a geotechnical centrifuge. The array of three FBGs was attached to an aluminum plate that was anchored at the ends and placed on the model platform of the centrifuge. Acceleration forces of up to 50g were applied and the reflection signal of the monitored FBGs recorded dynamically using a 2.5kHz FBG interrogator placed outside the centrifuge. The use of a FORJ allowed the monitoring of the FBGs without submitting the FBG interrogator to the high g-forces experienced in the centrifuge.

  13. The reasons why suspects confess during custodial interrogation: data for Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1992-07-01

    This study looks at the reasons offenders give for having confessed during police interrogation. A number of hypotheses were tested, following the work of Gudjonsson and Petursson (1991) on an Icelandic prison sample. The subjects were 80 offenders who were serving prison sentences in Northern Ireland for violence, sex or property offences. The subjects completed the Gudjonsson Confession Questionnaire. All of the hypotheses tested were supported, indicating that there are three primary factors associated with the reasons why criminals make confessions during interrogation. These factors are referred to as Internal Pressure, External Pressure and Proof. The factors were found to be associated with the type of offence committed and the attitude of the offender towards his confession.

  14. How factors present during the immediate interrogation situation produce short-sighted confession decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Smalarz, Laura; Guyll, Max; Scherr, Kyle C

    2013-02-01

    Suspects have a preexisting vulnerability to make short-sighted confession decisions, giving disproportionate weight to proximal, rather than distal, consequences. The findings of the current research provided evidence that this preexisting vulnerability is exacerbated by factors that are associated with the immediate interrogation situation. In Experiment 1 (N = 118), a lengthy interview exacerbated participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when deciding whether or not to admit to criminal and unethical behaviors. This effect was especially pronounced among less serious behaviors. In Experiment 2 (N = 177), participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when making admission decisions was exacerbated by the expectation of a lengthy interview; an effect that became stronger the longer the interview continued. These findings suggest that conditions of the immediate interrogation situation may capitalize on an already-present vulnerability among suspects to make short-sighted confession decisions, thereby increasing the chances that even innocent suspects might confess.

  15. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Anokhin, K. V. [Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kilin, S. Ya. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zheltikov, A. M. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center of Photochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 117421 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  16. Psychologists and detainee interrogations: key decisions, opportunities lost, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, U.S. psychologists faced hard choices about what roles, if any, were appropriate for psychologists in the detainee interrogations conducted in settings such as the Bagram Airbase, the Abu Ghraib Prison, and the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camps. The American Psychological Association (APA) sparked intense controversy with its policies and public statements. This article reviews APA decisions, documents, and public statements in this area, in the context of major criticisms and responses to those criticisms. The review focuses on key issues: how the APA created and reported policies in the areas of ethics and national security; transparency; psychologists' professional identities; psychologists' qualifications; ethical-legal conflicts; policies opposing torture; interpretations of avoiding harm; and effective interrogations. It suggests lessons learned, missed opportunities, and questions in need of a fresh approach. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

  17. The Requirement for U.S. Army Special Forces to Conduct Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ethnography , and the history of various regions, USSF personnel possess a better understanding of the operational environment than any other element of the...Benefit,” in Educing Information— Interrogation: Science and Art , ed. Robert Fein (Washington, DC: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006), 8. 3...physical intelligence provided the preponderance of 4 Sun Tzu, The Art of War (Oxford: University Press, 1963), 145. 5 Michael

  18. Validation and Interrogation of Differentially Expressed and Alternatively Spliced Genes in African-American Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of a clinically effective prostate cancer immunotherapy, without inducing severe autoimmunity . 16 Validation and interrogation of differentially...or worse (CIN2+) in women with histologically confirmed CIN1 who are also infected with ‘high risk’ HPV . Specific Aims: Aim 1: Evaluate aberrant...potential using 3T3- L1 cell culture assays. Effects directed analyses will then be conducted on the dust samples to identify the PPARγ active components

  19. Features of the regulation of the activity among interrogators (clinical and psychological, neuropsychological and gender aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscovskaya M.S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the features of the regulation of the activity of interrogators with different levels of professional stress, taking into account the duration of professional activity and gender. Neuropsychological correlates of dysregulation of activity among interrogators are described. It was assumed that the interrogators with a high level of professional stress would have the reduced ability of control over the activity. The material of the empirical study of 45 interrogators (28 men and 17 women at the age from 19 to 38 years, the average age is 28 years with an experience of work from one year to 15 years is presented. The diagnostic complex included: «The scale of professional stress» Azarnyh T.D. and Tyrtyshnikov I.M., Symptom Check List-90-Revised and a number of neuropsychological techniques (graphical test, Nikitina pattern cubes, Taylor and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, test of Ozereckiy (Fist-Rib-palm, test for the study of working memory. It was revealed that men had lower control over the activity. People with moderate levels of occupational stress had the presence of symptoms of dysphoria. People with a low level occupational stress marked discomfort in the process of interpersonal communication. People with experience of more than 5 years have a pronounced sense of fear, a decrease in interest in life, which indicates signs of professional deformity. Employees with less than 5 years of experience showed the prevalence of somatic symptoms. The obtained results supplement the empirical data of researches aimed to study the stress response among law enforcement officers.

  20. Knowingly but naively: The overpowering influence of innocence on interrogation rights decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Kyle C; Normile, Christopher J; Bierstetel, Sabrina J; Franks, Andrew S; Hawkins, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Most suspects waive the guaranteed protections that interrogation rights afford them against police intimidation. One factor thought to motivate suspects' inclination to waive their rights stems from the acquiescence bias whereby suspects mindlessly comply with interrogators' requests. However, research bearing on the phenomenology of innocence has demonstrated the power of innocents' mindset, which could motivate some innocent suspects to waive their rights knowingly (instead of mindlessly complying). To test these ideas, participants (N = 178) were (a) rightfully (guilty) or wrongfully (innocent) accused of wrongdoing during an experimental session, (b) administered 1 of 2 forms that by signing either waived or invoked their rights to a student advocate, and (c) given questions to assess their degree of knowing during the decision-making process (i.e., extent to which individuals were cognizant of their decisions). Results demonstrated that unknowing innocent and guilty individuals tended to passively comply, engaging in a pre-interrogation acquiescence bias by signing waive and invoke forms at similar rates. But, as participants became more cognizant of their decisions, they acquiesced at lower rates and their change from acquiescence differed depending on their status. As innocents became more cognizant, they signed the waiver form at higher rates than the invoke form, thereby demonstrating that innocence can motivate some suspects to knowingly forgo their rights. Conversely, as guilty individuals became more cognizant, they signed the invoke form at higher rates than the waiver form. These findings have implications for reforming pre-interrogation protocols, protecting suspects' civil liberties, and preventing innocents from offering false self-incriminating evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. UV/IR Filaments for High Resolution Novel Spectroscopic Interrogation of Plumes on Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-66 UV/ IR filaments for high resolution novel spectroscopic...by the factor to get the U.S. customary unit. UV/ IR filaments for high resolution novel spectroscopic Interrogation of Plumes on nuclear materials...10 5.1 UV filaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2 IR filaments

  2. Making Bunyaviruses Talk: Interrogation Tactics to Identify Host Factors Required for Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Riblett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of host cellular genes that act as either proviral or antiviral factors has been aided by the development of an increasingly large number of high-throughput screening approaches. Here, we review recent advances in which these new technologies have been used to interrogate host genes for the ability to impact bunyavirus infection, both in terms of technical advances as well as a summary of biological insights gained from these studies.

  3. O efeito da fragmentação florestal na composição e riqueza de árvores na região da Reserva Morro Grande (Planalto de Ibiúna, SP. The effect of the forest fragmentation in the composition and richness of trees in the region of the Morro Grande Reserve (Ibiúna plateau, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos BERNACCI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversas modificações estruturais efuncionais têm sido indicadas como decorrência doprocesso de fragmentação das comunidades vegetais.Para avaliar alguns desses efeitos, foramcomparadas a composição e a riqueza arbóreaem diferentes áreas em duas paisagens do Planaltode Ibiúna (Cotia e Ibiúna, SP. As duas paisagenslocalizam-se sob condições abióticas similares,mas uma é predominantemente florestal (ReservaMorro Grande - 9.400 ha, onde foram estudadas6 áreas e outra agrícola (onde foram estudados21 fragmentos com ampla gama de tamanhos – 0,9 a275 ha. Utilizou-se o método de quadrantes paraindivíduos com Diâmetro à Altura do Peito 5 cm,sendo que o esforço amostral incluiu 2.400 indivíduosna Reserva e 5.000 indivíduos na paisagemfragmentada. Foram amostradas 362 espécies,pertencentes a 171 gêneros e 71 famílias, sendo asmais ricas Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Fabaceae,Rubiaceae e Euphorbiaceae. Considerando-se oconjunto dos fragmentos foram observadasdiferenças na composição de espécies e menorriqueza. Nos fragmentos ocorreram mais indivíduose espécies anemocóricas e barocóricas e pioneirase secundárias iniciais. Inversamente, ocorrerammais indivíduos e espécies secundárias tardias eumbrófilas e zoocóricas na Reserva Morro Grande,destacando a importância desta área para amanutenção da biodiversidade regional. Apesardesses claros efeitos da fragmentação, algumasespécies ameaçadas de extinção, pouco conhecidasou mesmo inéditas para São Paulo, foramamostradas exclusivamente nos fragmentosflorestais, evidenciando a necessidade de incluirestes fragmentos remanescentes, da região sul doPlanalto Paulistano, em mecanismos de preservaçãoe promover a restauração florestal, para garantir amanutenção da biodiversidade regional.Several structural and functionalmodifications have been indicated as result ofthe process of fragmentation of the forestcommunities. To evaluate some of these effects,we compared

  4. Amphiphilic nanoparticles suppress droplet break-up and increase serial droplet interrogation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyu; Gai, Ya; Pan, Ming; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles (`NPs') flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such channel geometry is commonly used in droplet serial interrogation and assay. We focus on concentrated emulsions as they often form after the droplet incubation. Unlike solid wells in their multi-well plate counterpart, drops are prone to interfacial instability. Droplet break-up ruins assay accuracy. The rate at which break-up occurs sets the limit for assay throughput. Previously, we have studied the break-up of surfactant-stabilized drops in a concentrated emulsion. The key motivation for replacing surfactants with NPs is that NPs can mitigate inter-drop transport of small molecules. Our results show replacing surfactant with NPs as droplet stabilizers has an additional advantage of reducing droplet break-up, thereby increasing the droplet interrogation rate. Such result can be attributed to the increased interfacial viscoelasticity. We examine the effect of channel confinement, viscosity ratio, and size of NPs on the break-up behavior of drops. We find the break-up is dependent on confinement and size of NPs, while insensitive to viscosity ratio within the tested range. Our results have immediate practical use in increasing the throughput limit of droplet-based applications such as serial assay and interrogation.

  5. Evaluation of the neutron self-interrogation approach for assay of plutonium in high materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The pyrochemical scrap recovery processes, designed to extract impurities from plutonium metal and compounds, generate a variety of plutonium-laden residues consisting of high (α,n) matrices of varying chemical composition, and often containing grams to tens of grams of americium. For such materials, multiplication corrections based on real neutron coincidence count rate, R, and total neutron count rate, T, measurements cannot be applied because of the large, unknown, and variable (α,n) component in the total neutron emission rate. A study of the prototype self-interrogation assay method is in progress at the Los Alamos plutonium facility. In the self-interrogation approach, the assay signature R(IF)/T is a function of effective fissile plutonium content, where R(IF) is the induced fission component of the measured reals rate, and T is the measured, (α,n)-dominated totals rate. The present study includes a calibration effort using standards consisting of mixtures of PuO 2 and PuF 4 in a salt-strip matrix. The neutron measurements of the standards and the process materials have been performed at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The precision and accuracy of the self-interrogation method applied to pyrochemical residues is examined in this study

  6. The SVM Method for Fissile Mass Estimation through Passive Neutron Interrogation: Advances and Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, C.; Shvili, Israel I.

    2014-01-01

    Fissile mass estimation through passive neutron interrogation is now one of the main techniques for NDT of fissile mass estimation, due to the relative transparency of neutron radiation to structural materials- making it extremely effective in poorly characterized or dirty samples . Passive neutron interrogation relies on the fact that the number of neutrons emitted (per time unit) due to spontaneous fissions from the sample is proportional to the mass of the detected sample. However, since the measurement is effected by additional neutron sources- mainly (D±n) reactions and induced fission chain in the tested sample, a naive estimation, assuming a linear correspondence between the mass of the detected sample and the average number of detections, is bound to give an over estimation of the mass. Since most passive interrogation facilities are based on 3He detectors, the origin of the neutron cannot be determined by analyzing the energy spectrum (as all neutrons arrive at the detector in more or less the same energy), and a mathematical 'filter' is used to evaluate the noise to source ratio in the detection signal. The basic idea behind the mathematical filter is to utilize the fact that the different neutron sources have different statistical attributes- in particular, both the source event rate and the distribution of the number of neutrons released in each event differs between the different sources. There for, by studying the higher moments of the neutron population, new information about the source to noise ration may be obtained

  7. Optical power-based interrogation of plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Á.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Kinet, D.; Mégret, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Caucheteur, C.

    2017-04-01

    Two interrogation techniques for plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors are reported and experimentally tested. Typical interrogation methods are usually based on tracking the wavelength shift of the most sensitive cladding mode, but for biosensing applications, spectrometer-based methods can be replaced by more efficient solutions. The proposed techniques thus rely on the measurement of the induced changes in optical power. The first one consists of a properly polarized tunable laser source set to emit at the wavelength of the sensor most sensitive mode and an optical power meter to measure the transmitted response. For the second method, a uniform fiber Bragg grating is photo-inscribed beyond the sensor in such a way that its central wavelength matches the sensor most sensitive mode, acting as an optical filter. Using a LED source, light reflected backwards by this grating is partially attenuated when passing through the sensor due to plasmon wave excitation and the power changes are quantified once again with an optical power meter. A performance analysis of the techniques is carried out and they both result competitive interrogation solutions. The work thus focuses on the development of cost-effective alternatives for monitoring this kind of biosensors in practical situations.

  8. Relation between travel strategy and social organization of migrating birds with special consideration of formation flight in the northern bald ibis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, B; Fritz, J

    2017-08-19

    A considerable proportion of the world's bird species undertake seasonal long-distance migrations. These journeys are energetically demanding. Two major behavioural means to reduce energy expenditure have been suggested: the use of thermal uplifts for a soaring-gliding migration style and travelling in echelon or V-shaped formation. Both strategies have immediate consequences for the social organization of the birds as they either cause large aggregations or require travelling in small and stable groups. Here, we first discuss those consequences, and second present an analysis of formation flight in a flock of northern bald ibis on their first southbound migration. We observe clear correlations between leading and trailing on the dyadic level but only a weak correlation on the individual level during independent flight and no convincing correlation during the human guided part of the migration. This pattern is suggestive of direct reciprocation as a means for establishing cooperation during formation flight. In general, we conclude that behavioural adaptations for dealing with physiological constraints on long-distance migrations either necessitate or ultimately foster formation of social groups with different characteristics. Patterns and social organization of birds travelling in groups have been elusive to study; however, new tracking technology-foremost lightweight GPS units-will provide more insights in the near future.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Interrogating Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer generelt de analytiske muligheder og begrænsninger for brugen af diasporabegrebet og undersøger, hvordan det kan anvendes på et studie af peruansk migration med særlig henblik på migrationens politiske, solidariske og klassemæssige aspekter....

  10. An Immunochip-based interrogation of scleroderma susceptibility variants identifies a novel association at DNASE1L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochling, Jane; Newell, Felicity; Charlesworth, Jac C; Leo, Paul; Stankovich, Jim; Cortes, Adrian; Zhou, Yuan; Stevens, Wendy; Sahhar, Joanne; Roddy, Janet; Nash, Peter; Tymms, Kathleen; Rischmueller, Maureen; Lester, Sue; Proudman, Susanna; Brown, Matthew A

    2014-10-21

    The aim of the study was to interrogate the genetic architecture and autoimmune pleiotropy of scleroderma susceptibility in the Australian population. We genotyped individuals from a well-characterized cohort of Australian scleroderma patients with the Immunochip, a custom array enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at immune loci. Controls were taken from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. After data cleaning and adjusting for population stratification the final dataset consisted of 486 cases, 4,458 controls and 146,525 SNPs. Association analyses were conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. A replication study was performed using 833 cases and 1,938 controls. A total of eight loci with suggestive association (P <10-4.5) were identified, of which five showed significant association in the replication cohort (HLA-DRB1, DNASE1L3, STAT4, TNP03-IRF5 and VCAM1). The most notable findings were at the DNASE1L3 locus, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and VCAM1, a locus not previously associated with human disease. This study identified a likely functional variant influencing scleroderma susceptibility at the DNASE1L3 locus; a missense polymorphism rs35677470 in DNASE1L3, with an odds ratio of 2.35 (P = 2.3 × 10(-10)) in anti-centromere antibody (ACA) positive cases. This pilot study has confirmed previously reported scleroderma associations, revealed further genetic overlap between scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, and identified a putative novel scleroderma susceptibility locus.

  11. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Chen, Edward Y; Golub, Todd R; Sorger, Peter K; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-07-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  13. Mechanism of duplex DNA destabilization by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease during target interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-05-23

    The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA sequences specified by guide RNA molecules and flanked by a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and is widely used for genome editing in various organisms. The RNA-programmed Cas9 locates the target site by scanning genomic DNA. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of initial DNA interrogation steps that precede the pairing of target DNA with guide RNA. Using fluorometric and biochemical assays, we studied Cas9/guide RNA complexes with model DNA substrates that mimicked early intermediates on the pathway to the final Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex. The results show that Cas9/guide RNA binding to PAM favors separation of a few PAM-proximal protospacer base pairs allowing initial target interrogation by guide RNA. The duplex destabilization is mediated, in part, by Cas9/guide RNA affinity for unpaired segments of nontarget strand DNA close to PAM. Furthermore, our data indicate that the entry of double-stranded DNA beyond a short threshold distance from PAM into the Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) interior is hindered. We suggest that the interactions unfavorable for duplex DNA binding promote DNA bending in the PAM-proximal region during early steps of Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex formation, thus additionally destabilizing the protospacer duplex. The mechanism that emerges from our analysis explains how the Cas9/sgRNA complex is able to locate the correct target sequence efficiently while interrogating numerous nontarget sequences associated with correct PAMs.

  14. Single tunable laser interrogation of slab-coupled optical sensors through resonance tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Spencer; Woodard, Leeland; Perry, Daniel; Selfridge, Richard H; Schultz, Stephen M

    2013-04-20

    This paper describes a method for tuning the resonant wavelengths of slab-coupled optical fiber sensors (SCOSs). This method allows multiple sensors to be interrogated simultaneously with a single tunable laser. The resonances are tuned by rotating a biaxial slab waveguide relative to an optical D-fiber. As the slab waveguide rotates, its effective index of refraction changes causing the coupling wavelengths of the slab waveguide and D-fiber to shift. A SCOS fabricated with potassium titanyl phosphate crystal as the slab waveguide is shown to have resonance tuning ranges of 6.67 and 22.24 nm, respectively, for TM and TE polarized modes.

  15. Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, G.A.; Morey, W.W.; Cheo, P.K. [United Technologies Research Cent, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This paper reports on the application of a calibrated, narrow-linewidth, single-frequency, continuously wavelength-tunable erbium fiber laser to the interrogation of a multipoint Bragg grating temperature sensor. The fiber laser was wavelength-tuned, through an array of three fiber Bragg grating sensors, to determine the temperature of each individual grating. The temperatures of the three gratings were measured as a function of grating Bragg wavelength. The minimum wavelength resolution, due to electro-mechanical repeatability, of the fiber laser source/analyzer was determined to be approximately 2.3 picometers. This corresponds to a frequency resolution of approximately 300 MHz. 10 refs.

  16. Les interrogatives al tortosí i al lleidatà. Un element diferenciador de dialectes

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera i Sabaté, Josefina; Van Oosterzee, Carlos; Fernández Planas, Ana Ma. (Ana María); Romera Barrios, Lourdes; Espuny, Janina; Martínez Celdrán, Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    Aquest article forma part del projecte AMPER (Atles Multimèdia de la Prosodia de l'Espai Romànic) i se centra en el domini occidental del català. Concretament, s'hi analitza la producció de frases interrogatives absolutes de dues informants considerades representatives de dos subdialectes: el lleidatà i el tortosí. S'observa que les produccions obtingudes, tot i tractar-se d'informants del mateix diasistema dialectal, són força diferents. Aquestes diferències també es veuen avalades pels resu...

  17. High-sensitive detection by direct interrogation of 14 MeV Acc neutrons, (1). Uranium-contained metal matrix in a waste dram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Mitsuo; Takase, Misao; Tobita, Hiroshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2004-01-01

    Previously, authors reported that the 14 MeV-neutron direct interrogation method has made possible measure for the discrimination of clearance levels of concrete solidification uranium waste. In this paper, applicability of the method to metal waste matrix is discussed based on the results of simulation experiments by the continuation energy Monte Carlo calculation code (MVP). The problem is that self-neutron moderation effect in a waste cannot be expected when a waste matrix is metal. To solve this, a moderator is adopted so as to surround a metal waste drum and to slow down suitably a 14 MeV neutrons. The simulation calculation showed that this effect is satisfactorily large. The detection limit of radioactivity concentration to 4.5% enriched uranium has been found to be 0.0973 Bq/g in the metal waste model of 215.59 kg gross weight, in which 61 pipes are stuffed into its drum. Moreover, the position-dependent sensitivity difference in a metal waste drum can be settled as small as to ±13.5%. In conclusion, it can be said that 14 MeV-neutron direct interrogation method can be applied to the waste of a metal system: the detection sensitivity is high enough and the position-dependent sensitivity difference is small admittedly. Hence the method can be applied also to discrimination measurement of the clearance level of metal uranium waste. (author)

  18. "What Exactly Is a Black?": Interrogating the Reality of Race in Jean Genet's The Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Thompson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the dedication page of The Blacks , Genet writes "One evening an actor asked me to write a play for an all-black cast. But what exactly is a black? First of all, what's his color?" Prefiguring major issues and paradoxes of African American cultural studies today, The Blacks insists on the very real ways in which the black/white racial binary, like the very concept of race itself, is lived and socially enforced, and at the same time argues that the binary is ultimately a fiction, made real through performative reification. Genet's "clown show," ambiguously reversing the blackface minstrelsy tradition, dramatizes how racial identity can become internalized and naturalized through cultural myths of interracial rape and colonialist narratives of a "heart of darkness," an imaginary site from which "black essence" arises. These racist performance traditions and narratives are so powerful and resilient that attempts to protest them become subtle and unwitting ways of re-creating them. The Blacks' parody of the minstrel tradition to interrogate all racial identity is so permanently suspended in a dialectic of both reinforcing the black/white binary and invalidating it, that the play's strategies present vital paradigms for the study of other and diverse interrogations of racial ontologies.

  19. Peak wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors during impact events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun; Peters, Kara; Zikry, Mohammed; Haber, Todd; Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we embed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in graphite fiber–epoxy woven composite laminates to detect evolving damage modes. The peak wavelengths of the FBG sensors are interrogated at 625 and 295 kHz, while the laminates are subjected to 11.0 J low-velocity impact events. It is demonstrated that 295 kHz interrogation is sufficient for accurately collecting the dynamic response of the sensors. The FBG sensors embedded at the laminate midplanes successfully reconstructed the global laminate response to impact. The maximum and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the relative strain histories demonstrated the same trends as the maximum and FWHM of the contact force histories measured from the impactor. More noise was present in the strain histories obtained from the FBG sensors than the contact force histories, as the embedded FBGs were sensitive to local perturbations in the stress state. The FBG sensors embedded below the midplane of the laminate were closer to the damage regions and measured complex strain histories. In one case, this strain history revealed the presence of delamination

  20. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  1. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  2. Highly sensitive distributed birefringence measurements based on a two-pulse interrogation of a dynamic Brillouin grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo A.; Denisov, Andrey; Angulo-Vinuesa, Xabier; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Thévenaz, Luc; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    A method for distributed birefringence measurements is proposed based on the interference pattern generated by the interrogation of a dynamic Brillouin grating (DBG) using two short consecutive optical pulses. Compared to existing DBG interrogation techniques, the method here offers an improved sensitivity to birefringence changes thanks to the interferometric effect generated by the reflections of the two pulses. Experimental results demonstrate the possibility to obtain the longitudinal birefringence profile of a 20 m-long Panda fibre with an accuracy of 10-8 using 16 averages and 30 cm spatial resolution. The method enables sub-metric and highly-accurate distributed temperature and strain sensing.

  3. Web-Based Interrogation of Large-Scale Geophysical Data Sets and Clustering Analysis of Many Earthquake Events From Desktop and Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbow, Z. A.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.; Sevre, E. O.; Nagle, A. R.; Kaneko, J. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The size of datasets in the geosciences is growing at a tremendous pace due to inexpensive memory, increasingly large storage space, fast processors and constantly improving data-collection instruments. However, the available bandwidth increases at a much slower rate and consequently cannot keep up with the size of the datasets themselves. Coupled with our need to explore the large datasets in a simplified point of view, the current approach of transferring full datasets from one machine to another in order to analyze it is fast becoming impractical and obsolete. We have previously developed a web-based interactive data interrogation system that allows users to remotely analyze geophysical data over the Internet using a client-server paradigm (Garbow et al., Electronic Geosciences, Vol. 6, 2001). To further our idea of interactive data extraction we have used this interrogative system to explore both high-resolution mantle convection data and earthquake clusters involving up to tens of thousands of earthquakes. In addition, we have ported this system to work from handheld devices via wireless connections. Our system uses a combination of Java, Python, and C for running remotely from a desktop computer, laptop, or even a handheld device, while incorporating the power and memory capacity of a large workstation server. Because of the limitations of the current generation of handheld devices in terms of processing power, screen size, memory and storage, they have not yet become practical vehicles for useful scientific work. Our aim is to successfully overcome the limitations of handheld devices to allow them in the near future to be used as portable scientific research laboratories, particularly with the new, more powerful processors (e.g. Transmeta Crusoe) just over the horizon.

  4. Interrogating discourse: the application of Foucault's methodological discussion to specific inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    Discourse analysis following the work of Michel Foucault has become a valuable methodology in the critical analysis of a broad range of topics relating to health. However, it can be a daunting task, in that there seems to be both a huge number of possible approaches to carrying out this type of project, and an abundance of different, often conflicting, opinions about what counts as 'Foucauldian'. This article takes the position that methodological design should be informed by ongoing discussion and applied as appropriate to a particular area of inquiry. The discussion given offers an interpretation and application of Foucault's methodological principles, integrating a reading of Foucault with applications of his work by other authors, showing how this is then applied to interrogate the practice of vocational rehabilitation. It is intended as a contribution to methodological discussion in this area, offering an interpretation of various methodological elements described by Foucault, alongside specific application of these aspects.

  5. Model of a Plasmonic Phase Interrogation Probe for Optical Sensing of Hemoglobin in Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.

    2015-11-01

    Phase interrogation based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is proposed for the determination of Hb concentration. Previous experimental results describing variation of refractive index of human blood with Hb concentration at different wavelengths are considered for design simulations. The biosensor design with silica substrate and gold layer is considered. The sensor's performance is closely analyzed in terms of phase sensitivity and resolution. The influence of operating wavelength on biosensor's performance for Hb measurement is critically investigated, which points to carry out the Hb measurement at a shorter wavelength as phase sensitivity and resolution increase significantly with decrease in wavelength. The results are explained in terms of suitable physical concepts such as radiation damping. Use of contamination-preventing biochemical layer ascertains the stability of measurement with the intended SPR biosensor probe. The simulation results also highlight that the resolution of Hb measurement achievable with the proposed biosensor is much higher compared with several existing methods.

  6. Radar interrogation of high-flying insects: what bug is that?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Special-purpose Special-purpose Insect Monitoring Radars (IMRs) have been developed to detect insects undertaking migratory flights at altitudes of more than 1km. The IMR's design incorporates rapid beam variations that 'interrogate' targets, allowing retrieval of both trajectory and target-character parameters from the recorded signal. The resulting estimates of the sizes, shapes, and wing-beating patterns provide information about the targets' identities that is potentially valuable to users of I MR information products (e.g. locust controllers). The radar's configuration provides consistent measures of these characters, which potentially allow target types to be resolved along a number of possibly independent identification dimensions. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  7. A guide to genome-wide association analysis and post-analytic interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Eric; Nunez, Sara; Kulp, David; Qian, Jing; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2015-12-10

    This tutorial is a learning resource that outlines the basic process and provides specific software tools for implementing a complete genome-wide association analysis. Approaches to post-analytic visualization and interrogation of potentially novel findings are also presented. Applications are illustrated using the free and open-source R statistical computing and graphics software environment, Bioconductor software for bioinformatics and the UCSC Genome Browser. Complete genome-wide association data on 1401 individuals across 861,473 typed single nucleotide polymorphisms from the PennCATH study of coronary artery disease are used for illustration. All data and code, as well as additional instructional resources, are publicly available through the Open Resources in Statistical Genomics project: http://www.stat-gen.org. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Design of a novel instrument for active neutron interrogation of artillery shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Bélanger-Champagne

    Full Text Available The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring the hydrogen peak from the target explosive is especially challenging because the instrument itself contains hydrogen, which is needed for neutron moderation and shielding. By iterative design optimization, the fraction of the hydrogen peak counts coming from the explosive under interrogation increased from [Formula: see text]% to [Formula: see text]% (statistical only for the benchmark design. In the optimized design variants, the hydrogen signal from a high-explosive shell can be measured to a statistics-only precision better than 1% in less than 30 minutes for an average neutron production yield of 109 n/s.

  9. Coupling Sensing Hardware with Data Interrogation Software for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Farrar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM. The authors' approach is to address the SHM problem in the context of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm. In this paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1 Operational Evaluation, (2 Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3 Feature Extraction and Data Compression, and (4 Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. These processes must be implemented through hardware or software and, in general, some combination of these two approaches will be used. This paper will discuss each portion of the SHM process with particular emphasis on the coupling of a general purpose data interrogation software package for structural health monitoring with a modular wireless sensing and processing platform. More specifically, this paper will address the need to take an integrated hardware/software approach to developing SHM solutions.

  10. Microwave interrogated large core fused silica fiber Michelson interferometer for strain sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liwei; Song, Yang; Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Li, Yanjun; Xiao, Hai

    2015-08-20

    A Michelson-type large core optical fiber sensor has been developed, which is designed based on the optical carrier-based microwave interferometry technique, and fabricated by using two pieces of 200-μm diameter fused silica core fiber as two arms of the Michelson interferometer. The interference fringe pattern caused by the optical path difference of the two arms is interrogated in the microwave domain, where the fringe visibility of 40 dB has easily been obtained. The strain sensing at both room temperature and high temperatures has been demonstrated by using such a sensor. Experimental results show that this sensor has a linear response to the applied strain, and also has relatively low temperature-strain cross talk. The dopant-free quality of the fused silica fiber provides high possibility for the sensor to have promising strain sensing performance in a high temperature environment.

  11. IOT Based Inline Errands IBIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things IoT is an emerging technology that is creating an enormous network of things communicating with one another. It involves a broad set of technologies hardware and software stacks. Data humans devices and communication are critical elements of an IoT ecosystem. The primary purpose of this research paper is to provide an advantageous application in day to day life in redeemable time factor. Now a days shopping at malls is a daily or weekly activity of domestic life. Survey states during the initial week of month and weekends are the peak sale periods at shopping malls and super markets. Often equivalent time is taken for billing and payment as time taken for shopping. The Application introduced in this paper provides smart solution to redeemable time.

  12. Research Projects for Interrogations of Biological Systems: Training for the Development of Novel Radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Lever, Susan Z.; Robertson, J. David

    2016-01-01

    This grant was situated at the University of Missouri to train Ph.D. scientists in radiochemistry and synthetic chemistry in conjunction with Faculty from the Interdisciplinary Plant Group, Division of Biological Sciences, the MU Research Reactor Center, Molecular Biology and the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute. This project was collaborative with Brookhaven National Laboratory (Richard Ferrieri, PI). Projects for the Ph.D. candidates included novel probe development for peptides, nucleosides, small molecules or radiometals, the direct use of radiometals as probes, or nuclear techniques for analysis. The projects for the postdoctoral fellow involved synthetic chemistry for the preparation of precursors for novel tracers that will be radiolabeled with 18 F or other appropriate radionuclides. The skill sets of our team members allowed us to prepare probes with positron or single photon emitters, as well as ones that are dual-labeled (fluorescent and radiolabeled). We focused our technical advances to those that will be broadly applicable to any research field.

  13. Ground-based IFF Interrogator System (GBIIS) at Edwards AFB (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-11

    Surveillance/Air Traffic Management); SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar); ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast); TPM (Tailored...The GBIIS also supports IFF transponder flight testing for CNS/ATM tailored performance matrices ( TPM ). 5 GBIIS Features...can provide: - DoD AIMS 03-1103 and CNS/ATM TPM flight testing using GBIIS and FAA radars - Raw data (from ground station, bus instrumentation, and

  14. RETRACTED: Fast neutron interrogation system development for the detection of explosive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Tae Joo; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Em, V. T.; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Uk

    2009-06-01

    This article has been removed at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Authors. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: this article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and authors as it contains serious errors. This proceedings paper did not fully provide readers with the whole process of the experiment because of page limitations. This short paper resulted in prejudiced texts as well as absurd figures in regard with public information of detecting explosive materials against terrorism. The authors will revise the paper after a comprehensive discussion with the co-authors before resubmitting formally an article to NIMA.

  15. Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual. Volume 5: Data Bank Interrogations/Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    formats, and machine oriented coding structure for the collection of item carac - 5.7,14,15 teristics and other item-related logistics data Federal Item...structure for the collection of item carac - 5,7,14,15 teristics and other item-related logistics data Federal Item Name Directory (FIND). Published as

  16. Research Projects for Interrogations of Biological Systems: Training for the Development of Novel Radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Lever, Susan Z. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Robertson, J. David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-10-04

    This grant was situated at the University of Missouri to train Ph.D. scientists in radiochemistry and synthetic chemistry in conjunction with Faculty from the Interdisciplinary Plant Group, Division of Biological Sciences, the MU Research Reactor Center, Molecular Biology and the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute. This project was collaborative with Brookhaven National Laboratory (Richard Ferrieri, PI). Projects for the Ph.D. candidates included novel probe development for peptides, nucleosides, small molecules or radiometals, the direct use of radiometals as probes, or nuclear techniques for analysis. The projects for the postdoctoral fellow involved synthetic chemistry for the preparation of precursors for novel tracers that will be radiolabeled with 18F or other appropriate radionuclides. The skill sets of our team members allowed us to prepare probes with positron or single photon emitters, as well as ones that are dual-labeled (fluorescent and radiolabeled). We focused our technical advances to those that will be broadly applicable to any research field.

  17. Those Who Know and Are Known: Students Using Ethnography to Interrogate Language and Literacy Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Robert Jean

    2018-01-01

    Framing ethnography as a form of democratic inquiry, this study examines how the author worked with a group of Mexican and Vietnamese American adolescents to learn and apply ethnographic tools to interrogate language and literacy ideologies in their school and community. Examination of the students' findings reveals circulating ideologies and…

  18. Universal interrogation protocol with zero probe-field-induced frequency shift for quantum clocks and high-accuracy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon-Willette, T.; Lefevre, R.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    Optical clock interrogation protocols, based on laser-pulse spectroscopy, suffer from probe-induced frequency shifts and their variations induced by laser power. The original hyper-Ramsey probing scheme, which was proposed to alleviate those issues, does not fully eliminate the shift, especially when decoherence and relaxation by spontaneous emission or collisions are present. We propose to solve the fundamental problem of frequency shifts induced by the laser probe by deriving the exact canonical form of a multipulse generalized hyper-Ramsey resonance, including decoherence and relaxation. We present a universal interrogation protocol based on composite laser-pulse spectroscopy with phase modulation eliminating probe-induced frequency shifts at all orders in the presence of various dissipative processes. Unlike frequency shift extrapolation based methods, a universal interrogation protocol based on ±π /4 and ±3 π /4 phase-modulated resonances is proposed which does not compromise the stability of the optical clock while maintaining an ultrarobust error signal gradient in the presence of substantial uncompensated ac Stark shifts. Such a scheme can be implemented in two flavors: either by inverting clock state initialization or by pulse order reversal even without a perfect quantum state initialization. This universal interrogation protocol can be applied to atomic, molecular, and nuclear frequency metrology, mass spectrometry, and the field of precision spectroscopy. It might be designed using magic-wave-induced transitions, two-photon excitation, and magnetically induced spectroscopy or it might even be implemented with quantum logic gate circuit and qubit entanglement.

  19. Are two systemic fish assemblage sampling programmes on the upper Mississippi River telling us the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Bartels, A.D.; Ickes, B.S.; Pearson, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We applied an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) used on Wisconsin/Minnesota waters of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) to compare data from two systemic sampling programmes. Ability to use data from multiple sampling programmes could extend spatial and temporal coverage of river assessment and monitoring efforts. We normalized for effort and tested fish community data collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) 2004–2006 and the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) 1993–2006. Each programme used daytime electrofishing along main channel borders but with some methodological and design differences. EMAP-GRE, designed for baseline and, eventually, compliance monitoring, used a probabilistic, continuous design. LTRMP, designed primarily for baseline and trend monitoring, used a stratified random design in five discrete study reaches. Analysis of similarity indicated no significant difference between EMAP-GRE and LTRMP IBI scores (n=238; Global R= 0.052; significance level=0.972). Both datasets distinguished clear differences only between 'Fair' and 'Poor' condition categories, potentially supporting a 'pass–fail' assessment strategy. Thirteen years of LTRMP data demonstrated stable IBI scores through time in four of five reaches sampled. LTRMP and EMAPGRE IBI scores correlated along the UMR's upstream to downstream gradient (df [3, 25]; F=1.61; p=0.22). A decline in IBI scores from upstream to downstream was consistent with UMR fish community studies and a previous, empirically modelled human disturbance gradient. Comparability between EMAP-GRE (best upstream to downstream coverage) and LTRMP data (best coverage over time and across the floodplain) supports a next step of developing and testing a systemic, multi-metric fish index on the UMR that both approaches could inform.

  20. Systematic interrogation of 3q26 identifies TLOC1 and SKIL as cancer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerstrand, Daniel; Tong, Alexander; Schumacher, Steven E; Ilic, Nina; Shen, Rhine R; Cheung, Hiu Wing; Vazquez, Francisca; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Kim, So Young; Giacomelli, Andrew O; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Schinzel, Anna C; Spardy, Nicole A; Barbie, David A; Mermel, Craig H; Weir, Barbara A; Garraway, Levi A; Tamayo, Pablo; Mesirov, Jill P; Beroukhim, Rameen; Hahn, William C

    2013-09-01

    3q26 is frequently amplified in several cancer types with a common amplified region containing 20 genes. To identify cancer driver genes in this region, we interrogated the function of each of these genes by loss- and gain-of-function genetic screens. Specifically, we found that TLOC1 (SEC62) was selectively required for the proliferation of cell lines with 3q26 amplification. Increased TLOC1 expression induced anchorage-independent growth, and a second 3q26 gene, SKIL (SNON), facilitated cell invasion in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Expression of both TLOC1 and SKIL induced subcutaneous tumor growth. Proteomic studies showed that TLOC1 binds to DDX3X, which is essential for TLOC1-induced transformation and affected protein translation. SKIL induced invasion through upregulation of SLUG (SNAI2) expression. Together, these studies identify TLOC1 and SKIL as driver genes at 3q26 and more broadly suggest that cooperating genes may be coamplified in other regions with somatic copy number gain. These studies identify TLOC1 and SKIL as driver genes in 3q26. These observations provide evidence that regions of somatic copy number gain may harbor cooperating genes of different but complementary functions. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Interrogation of Chesapeake Bay sediment microbial communities for intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie M; Wawrik, Boris; Isom, Catherine; Boling, Wilford B; Callaghan, Amy V

    2015-02-01

    Based on the transient exposure of Chesapeake Bay sediments to hydrocarbons and the metabolic versatility of known anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms, it was hypothesized that distinct Bay sediment communities, governed by geochemical gradients, would have intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under sulfate-reducing and/or methanogenic conditions. Sediment cores were collected along a transect of the Bay. Community DNA was interrogated via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, PCR of anaerobic hydrocarbon activation genes, and qPCR of 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in sulfate reduction/methanogenesis. Site sediments were used to establish microcosms amended with n-hexadecane under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that sediments associated with hypoxic water columns contained significantly greater proportions of Bacteria and Archaea consistent with syntrophic degradation of organic matter and methanogenesis compared to less reduced sediments. Microbial taxa frequently associated with hydrocarbon-degrading communities were found throughout the Bay, and the genetic potential for hydrocarbon metabolism was demonstrated via the detection of benzyl-(bssA) and alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) genes. Although microcosm studies did not indicate sulfidogenic alkane degradation, the data suggested that methanogenic conversion of alkanes was occurring. These findings highlight the potential role that anaerobic microorganisms could play in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the Bay. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, David L.; Seabury, Edward H.

    2009-04-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a 3He neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including enriched uranium and reactor grade plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 times 108 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 61 cm times 61 cm times 71 cm volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  3. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  4. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Photon and neutron interrogation techniques for chemical explosives detection in air cargo: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkle, Robert C.; White, Timothy A.; Miller, Erin A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Collins, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning cargo transported via aircraft ('air cargo') for explosive threats is a problem that presently lacks a comprehensive technical solution. While chemical explosives detection in the baggage-scanning domain has a rich history that sheds light on potential solutions, air cargo differs in several important ways, and thus one cannot look to the present array of technologies. Some contemporary solutions, such as trace analysis, are not readily applied to cargo because of sampling challenges while the larger geometry of air cargo makes others less effective. This review article examines an array of interrogation techniques using photons and neutrons as incident particles. We first present a summary of the signatures and observables chemical explosives provide and review how they have been exploited in baggage scanning. Following this review is a description of the challenges posed by the air-cargo application space. After considering sources of photons and neutrons, we describe methods focused on transmission imaging, sub-surface examination, and elemental characterization. It is our goal to expand the understanding of each method's technical promise while largely deferring questions that revolve around footprint, safety, and conduct of operations. Our overarching intent is that a comprehensive understanding of potential techniques will foster the development of a comprehensive solution.

  6. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  7. Field Prototype of the ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation Device for the Detection of Dirty Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cherubini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation (NAI device is a tool designed to improve CBRNE defense. It is designed to uncover radioactive and nuclear threats including those in the form of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, the so-called “dirty bombs”. The NAI device, at its current development stage, allows to detect 6 g of 235U hidden in a package. It is easily transportable, light in weight, and with a real-time response. Its working principle is based on two stages: (1 an “active” stage in which neutrons are emitted by a neutron generator to interact with the item under inspection, and (2 a “passive” stage in which secondary neutrons are detected originating a signal that, once processed, allows recognition of the offence. In particular, a clear indication of the potential threat is obtained by a dedicated software based on the Differential Die-Away Time Analysis method.

  8. Literature Lab: a method of automated literature interrogation to infer biology from microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegmaier Kimberly

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biomedical literature is a rich source of associative information but too vast for complete manual review. We have developed an automated method of literature interrogation called "Literature Lab" that identifies and ranks associations existing in the literature between gene sets, such as those derived from microarray experiments, and curated sets of key terms (i.e. pathway names, medical subject heading (MeSH terms, etc. Results Literature Lab was developed using differentially expressed gene sets from three previously published cancer experiments and tested on a fourth, novel gene set. When applied to the genesets from the published data including an in vitro experiment, an in vivo mouse experiment, and an experiment with human tumor samples, Literature Lab correctly identified known biological processes occurring within each experiment. When applied to a novel set of genes differentially expressed between locally invasive and metastatic prostate cancer, Literature Lab identified a strong association between the pathway term "FOSB" and genes with increased expression in metastatic prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed increased nuclear FOSB staining in metastatic compared to locally invasive prostate cancers. Conclusion This work demonstrates that Literature Lab can discover key biological processes by identifying meritorious associations between experimentally derived gene sets and key terms within the biomedical literature.

  9. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9:guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9:RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9:RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9:RNA. DNA strand separation and RNA:DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 employs PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate dsDNA scission. PMID:24476820

  10. Interrogating the Effects of Radiation Damage Annealing on Helium Diffusion Kinetics in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, C. D.; Fox, M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is commonly used to study landscape evolution and potential links between climate, erosion and tectonics. The technique relies on a quantitative understanding of (i) helium diffusion kinetics in apatite, (ii) an evolving 4He concentration, (iii) accumulating damage to the crystal lattice caused by radioactive decay[1], and (iv) the thermal annealing of such damage[2],[3], which are each functions of both time and temperature. Uncertainty in existing models of helium diffusion kinetics has resulted in conflicting conclusions, especially in settings involving burial heating through geologic time. The effects of alpha recoil damage annealing are currently assumed to follow the kinetics of fission track annealing (e.g., reference [3]), although this assumption is difficult to fully validate. Here, we present results of modeling exercises and a suite of experiments designed to interrogate the effects of damage annealing on He diffusivity in apatite that are independent of empirical calibrations of fission track annealing. We use the existing experimental results for Durango apatite[2] to develop and calibrate a new function that predicts the effects of annealing temperature and duration on measured diffusivity. We also present a suite of experiments conducted on apatite from Sierra Nevada, CA granite to establish whether apatites with different chemical compositions have the same behavior as Durango apatite. Crystals were heated under vacuum to temperatures between 250 and 500°C for 1, 10, or 100 hours. The samples were then irradiated with ~220 MeV protons to produce spallogenic 3He, the diffusant then used in step-heating diffusion experiments. We compare the results of these experiments and model calibrations to existing models. Citations: [1]Shuster, D., Flowers R., and Farley K., (2006), EPSL 249(3-4), 148-161; [2]Shuster, D. and Farley, K., (2009), GCA 73 (1), 6183-6196; [3]Flowers, R., Ketcham, R., Shuster, D. and Farley, K

  11. Fresh Fuel Measurements With the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Alexis C.; Belian, Anthony P.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) Project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: 1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; 2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; 3) estimate the plutonium mass; 4) estimate decay heat; and 5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI) instrument is one instrument that was assessed for years regarding its feasibility for robust, timely verification of spent fuel assemblies. The instrument was recently built and was tested using fresh fuel assemblies in a variety of configurations, including varying enrichment, neutron absorber content, and symmetry. The early die-away method, a multiplication determination method developed in simulation space, was successfully tested on the fresh fuel assembly data and determined multiplication with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 2.9%. The experimental results were compared with MCNP simulations of the instrument as well. Low multiplication assemblies had agreement with an average RMS error of 0.2% in the singles count rate (i.e., total neutrons detected per second) and 3.4% in the doubles count rates (i.e., neutrons detected in coincidence per second). High-multiplication assemblies had agreement with an average RMS error of 4.1% in the singles and 13.3% in the doubles count rates.

  12. Phantasmatic Constructions: Language and Humor and the Interrogation of Identity in Contemporary Filipino Comic Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rhodora G. Ancheta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which humor operates to interrogate and assert Filipino identity in the face of an ever invasive hyperreal intervention in Philippine contemporary life, in two contemporary comic plays, “Welcome to IntelStar” by Chris Martinez (2005, and “Psychedelia Apocalypsis” by Nicolas Pichay (2007. In the former, a comic monologue foregrounds the “call center phenomenon” in the Philippines. Outsourced service is shown as a maneuver which loosely transplants English-speaking, ‘American-sounding’ workers within a global economic community, and one which now comically depicts these workers, in fact, as culturally mired subjects negotiating their identity constructions within their everyday lives. “Psychedelia Apocalypsis” is a farcical depiction of an American film crew’s apparently innocent entry into the Philippine highlands to shoot the Francis Ford Coppola film Apocalypse Now; as a result, they become embroiled in the intersections of Filipino history, current Philippine internal conflicts, and Philippine political feuds, thus highlighting the matrix of current Philippine culture and life. In reading these two plays as shifting cultural texts, I seek to examine how the language of humor and the comic strategies used therein (especially citing the role of incongruity theories respond to the creation, or to the evolution of a hyperreal Filipino identity, one that complicates the fixing of a national identity in the face of a culture that has long grappled with this question, given the Philippines’ own colonial and hybrid culture. And while this paper focuses mainly on Filipino texts and problematizes Filipino identity, it is significant to explore the Asian and Third World reverberations of the possibilities and problems of this cultural reengagement and reconsolidation of identity, examined now by way of language and culture.

  13. Application of digital image processing techniques and information systems to water quality monitoring of Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. Y.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Tahoe basin occupies over 500 square miles of territory located in a graben straddling the boundary between California and Nevada. Lake Tahoe contains 126 million acre-feet of water. Since the 1950's the basin has experienced an ever increasing demand for land development at the expense of the natural watershed. Discharge of sediment to the lake has greatly increased owing to accelerated human interference, and alterations to the natural drainage patterns are evident in some areas. In connection with an investigation of the utility of a comprehensive system that takes into account the causes as well as the effects of lake eutrophication, it has been attempted to construct an integrated and workable data base, comprised of currently available data sources for the Lake Tahoe region. Attention is given to the image based information system (IBIS), the construction of the Lake Tahoe basin data base, and the application of the IBIS concept to the Lake Tahoe basin.

  14. Expected count rate for the Self- Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry measurements of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossa, Riccardo [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang, 200 - B2400 Mol (Belgium); Universite libre de Bruxelles, Ecole polytechnique de Bruxelles - Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, CP 165/84, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 50 - B1050 Brussels (Belgium); Borella, Alessandro; Van der Meer, Klaas [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang, 200 - B2400 Mol (Belgium); Labeau, Pierre-Etienne; Pauly, Nicolas [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Ecole polytechnique de Bruxelles - Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, CP 165/84, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 50 - B1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is a passive neutron technique that aims at a direct quantification of {sup 239}Pu in the fuel assemblies by measuring the attenuation of the neutron flux in the energy region close to the 0.3 eV resonance of {sup 239}Pu. The {sup 239}Pu mass is estimated by calculating the SINRD signature, that is the ratio between the neutron flux integrated over the fast energy region and around the 0.3 eV resonance region. The SINRD measurement approach considered in this study consists in introducing a small neutron detector in the central guide tube of a PWR 17x17 fuel assembly. In order to measure the neutron flux in the energy regions defined in the SINRD signature, different detector types are used. The response of a bare {sup 238}U fission chamber is considered for the determination of the fast neutron flux, while other thermal-epithermal detectors wrapped in neutron absorbers are envisaged to measure the neutron flux around the resonance region. This paper provides an estimation of the count rate that can be achieved with the detector types proposed for the SINRD measurement. In the first section a set of detectors are evaluated in terms of count rate and sensitivity to the {sup 239}Pu content, in order to identify the optimal measurement configuration for each detector type. Then a study is performed to increase the count rate by increasing the detector size. The study shows that the highest count rate is achieved by using either {sup 3}He or {sup 10}B proportional counters because of the high neutron efficiency of these detectors. However, the calculations indicate that the biggest contribution to the measurement uncertainty is due to the measurement of the fast neutron flux. Finally, similar sensitivity to the {sup 239}Pu content is obtained by using the different detector types for the measurement of the neutron flux close to the resonance region. Therefore, the count rate associated to each detector type

  15. Polymerase chain reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  16. Silicon Carbide and Diamond Neutron Detectors for Active Interrogation Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Michael

    A thorough investigation has been carried out in order to determine the suitability of diamond and silicon carbide for active interrogation applications. This included electrical and radiological characterisation of single crystal diamond (D-SC) and polycrystalline diamond (D-PC) detectors; epitaxial silicon carbide (SiC-EP) and semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI); all compared against the performance of a commercial silicon PIN photodiode (Si-PIN) from Hamamatsu. This work aided in determining whether the detectors were suitable for radiation detection purposes, as well as obtaining the operational criteria for use. Characterisation work was also conducted on semi-insulating silicon carbide detectors from three different suppliers, as well as on detectors fabricated via different techniques. This work demonstrated the robustness of the material, as the charge collection properties were unaffected by contact fabrication technique. Changes in current-voltage characteristics were observed for different contact fabrication methods, but were generally still low (≈nA) over the ranges tested (+/-500V). Following this work the performance of selected detectors was measured against criteria for the AWE active interrogation project. Radiation dose dependent performance deterioration was observed in the SiC-SI and D-PC detectors, with decreased charge collection efficiency (-45+/-4%) and intrinsic efficiency (-40% at -400V) observed respectively. It is not clear as to whether these effects are a result of bulk material damage or contact/surface/mount damage, but an increase in the current-voltage relationship was also observed on these detectors, as well as the Si-PIN (SiC-SI≈+25% and D-PC≈+20% at -400V; Si- PIN≈+300% at -25V). Instability of the peak position and/or counting rate with irradiation time was observed in D-SC, D-PC and all the semi-insulating SiC (polarisation effect). For D-SC this was primarily with alpha particles and stability would be

  17. Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillators versus quarterly device interrogations in clinic: results from a randomized pilot clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Piccini, Jonathan P; Knight, David; Stewart, Margaret; Clapp-Channing, Nancy; Sanders, Gillian D

    2010-05-01

    Remote monitoring is increasingly becoming the new standard of care for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) follow-up. We sought to determine whether remote monitoring of ICDs improves patient outcomes compared with quarterly device interrogations in clinic. In this single-center pilot clinical trial, adult patients with an ICD were randomly assigned to remote monitoring versus quarterly device interrogations in clinic. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular hospitalization, emergency room visit for a cardiac cause, and unscheduled visit to the electrophysiology clinic for a device-related issue at 1 year. We also examined health-related quality of life, costs, and patient satisfaction with their ICD care. Of 151 patients enrolled in this trial, 76 were randomized to remote monitoring and 75 to quarterly device interrogations in clinic. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint (32% in the remote monitoring arm vs 34% in the control arm; P = 0.8), mortality, or cost between the 2 arms. Quality of life and patient satisfaction were significantly better in the control arm than in the remote monitoring arm at 6 months (83 [25th, 75th percentiles 70, 90] vs 75 [50, 85]; P = 0.002 and 88 [75, 100] vs 75 [75, 88]; P = 0.03, respectively), but not at 12 months. We showed no significant reduction in cardiac-related resource utilization with remote monitoring of ICDs. However, given the small number of patients in our study, the real clinical and health economics impact of remote monitoring needs to be verified by a large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial.

  18. Influence of the velocity vector base relocation to the center of mass of the interrogation area on PIV accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modification of calculation algorithm used in data processing from PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method. The modification of standard Multi-step correlation algorithm is based on imaging the centre of mass of the interrogation area to define the initial point of the respective vector, instead of the geometrical centre. This paper describes the principle of initial point-vector assignment, the corresponding data processing methodology including the test track analysis. Both approaches are compared within the framework of accuracy in the conclusion. The accuracy test is performed using synthetic and real data.

  19. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (˜80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination

  20. Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Timothy J. II [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seya, Michio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolind, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  1. Reaction of Br2 with adsorbed CO on Pt, studied by the surface interrogation mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Bard, Allen J

    2009-12-02

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy surface interrogation (SI-SECM) in the cyclic voltammetry mode was successfully used to detect and quantify adsorbed CO on a Pt electrode by reaction with electrogenerated Br(2). The two-electrode setup used in this new technique allowed the production of Br(2) on an interrogator tip, which reported a transient positive feedback above a Pt substrate at open circuit as an indication of the reactivity of this halogen with CO((ads)). Br(-) and CO(2) are shown to be the main products of the reaction (in the absence of O(2)), which may involve the formation of bromophosgene as a hydrolyzable intermediate. Under saturation conditions, CO((ads)) was reproducibly quantified at the polycrystalline Pt surface with theta(CO) approximately = 0.5. The reaction is shown to be blocked by the action of pre-adsorbed cyanide, which demonstrates the surface character of the process. The formation of CO(2) as an end product was further tested in a bulk experiment: addition of Pt black to a mixture of Br(2) in 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) through which CO was bubbled gave a precipitate of BaCO(3) in a saturated solution of Ba(OH)(2). The use of SI-SECM allowed access to a reaction that would otherwise be difficult to prove through conventional electrochemistry on a single electrode.

  2. Direct fissile assay of highly enriched UF6 using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new nondestructive method for direct assay of 235 U mass contained in Model 5A uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) product storage cylinders has been successfully tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. The technique employs passive neutron self-interrogation and uses the ratio of coincidences-to-totals counts as a measure of bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1 sigma) based on field measurements of 44 Model 5A cylinders, 11 of which were either only partially filled or contained reactor return material. The cylinders contained UF 6 with enrichments from 5.96% to 97.6%. Count times were 3 to 6 min depending on 235 U mass. Samples ranged from below 1 kg to over 16 kg of 235 U. Because the method relies primarily on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF 6 takes place. This feature alleviates inhomogeneity problems and offers increased assurance of the presence of stated amounts of bulk fissile material as compared with current verification methods

  3. Examining how youth of color engage youth participatory action research to interrogate racism in their science experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi C.

    While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations

  4. Archival Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    management system named Archival Information Management System (AIMS), designed to meet the audit trail requirement for studies completed under the...are to be archived to the extent that future reproducibility and interrogation of results will exist. This report presents a prototype information

  5. Iterative Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation and Equalization for Ultra-Wideband Systems with Short Cyclic Prefix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bahçeci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB systems where the channel lengths are on the order of a few hundred taps, conventional use of frequency-domain (FD processing for channel estimation and equalization may not be feasible because the need to add a cyclic prefix (CP to each block causes a significant reduction in the spectral efficiency. On the other hand, using no or short CP causes the interblock interference (IBI and thus degradation in the receiver performance. Therefore, in order to utilize FD receiver processing UWB systems without a significant loss in the spectral efficiency and the performance, IBI cancellation mechanisms are needed in both the channel estimation and equalization operations. For this reason, in this paper, we consider the joint FD channel estimation and equalization for IR-UWB systems with short cyclic prefix (CP and propose a novel iterative receiver employing soft IBI estimation and cancellation within both its FD channel estimator and FD equalizer components. We show by simulation results that the proposed FD receiver attains performances close to that of the full CP case in both line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS UWB channels after only a few iterations.

  6. Christian Marclay : « iconoclasme » musical et interrogation sur l’instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Massin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le travail de Christian Marclay, artiste multiforme, improvisateur et performer, explore systématiquement un espace au confluent des arts sonores et visuels (vidéo, photos, installations, sculptures. Comment réfléchir sur le son à travers les objets tangibles et les représentations visuelles qui le réifient ? Comment produire – par une pratique musicale de platiniste notamment – de nouveaux sons et de nouveaux rapports à la musique ? Ce double axe d’interrogation rencontre nécessairement la question de l’instrument. Iconoclasme musical dans la double lignée du mouvement punk et de Fluxus ? Ou /et interrogation sur le fonctionnement de l’instrument dans la pratique vive d’une musique à réinventer ? On voudrait suggérer qu’une telle approche esthétique peut nourrir l’approche ontologique de l’instrument et, en paraphrasant Nelson Goodman, poser la question « quand y a-t-il instrument ? ».Christian Marclay : Musical « iconoclasism » and an instrumental interrogative Christian Marclay a polyvalent/multiform artist who improvises and performs. His work systematically explores the artistic space where audio arts and visual arts (video, photos, installations and sculpture merge. How can sound be considered in relation to tangible objects and visual representations that give it some actuality ? How can new sounds and new relationships with music be produced by any musical output for example of a turntablist ? This bilateral enquiry necessarily confronts the topic of the instrument. Is it a musical iconoclasism in the dynamic of both punk and Fluxus ? Or/and a questioning of the way the instrument works while a vivid musical practice has to be reinvented? It is suggested that such an esthetical approach may feed the ontological approach of the instrument and, to paraphrase Nelson Goodman, ask the question “When is something an instrument ?”.

  7. Interrogating Notions of Nationhood, Nation and Globalisation in Postcolonial Africa: A Textual Analysis of Four African Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUNGWE, Chipo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of Pepetela’s Mayombe, Ngugi’s Petals of Blood, Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah and A Man of the People, this article interrogates concepts of nationhood and nation in postcolonial Africa within the framework of the postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory defies grand narratives such as the nation and nationhood, hence deconstructs such narratives as they are problematic. This study shows problems associated with definitions of a nation in which some members are sidelined. Also explored is the idea of nationalism and its importance in forming the nation. It is revealed that nationhood is problematic in post independent Africa even though nationalism served a critical role during decolonisation because variations are noted as differences in gender and ethnicity disturb nation building. Globalisation is also threatening, challenging and undermining the existence of nations.

  8. A multiplex bead-based suspension array assay for interrogation of phylogenetically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for Bacillus anthracis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thierry, Simon; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Girault, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and represent informative DNA markers extensively used to analyze phylogenetic relationships between strains. Medium to high throughput, open methodologies able to test many SNPs in a minimum time are therefore in great...... been modified and adapted for simultaneous interrogation of 13 biallelic canonical SNPs in a 13-plex assay. Changes made to the originally published method include the design of allele-specific dual-priming-oligonucleotides (DPOs) as competing detection probes (MOLigo probes) and use of asymmetric PCR...... laboratories. While cost-effective compared to other singleplex methods, the present MOL-PCR method offers a high degree of flexibility and scalability. It can easily accommodate newly identified SNPs to increase resolving power to the canSNP typing of B. anthracis....

  9. Re-Living Dangerous Memories: Online Journaling to Interrogate Spaces of "Otherness" in an Educational Administration Program at a Midwestern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jennifer; Caruthers, Loyce; McCarther, Shirley Marie

    2009-01-01

    This theoretical paper explores the use of online journaling in an educational administration program to interrogate spaces of "otherness"--the geographical spaces of cities where poor children and children of color live--and the dangerous memories prospective administrators may have about diversity. The cultures of most educational administration…

  10. Determination of Fissile Material by Neutron Transport Interrogation: Computer simulations of the neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, M.; Mandoki, R.; Van Iseghem, P.

    1994-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the performance and possible optimization of simple passive and active neutron assay systems for the determination of fissile material in waste packages. The active system uses external alpha-neutron or gamma-neutron sources -with mean neutron energies below 1 MeV- which continuously irradiates the waste sample. The discrimination between these source neutrons and the neutrons from induced fission in the detection process is based on the different transport properties of these neutrons. The detection limits obtained with the active system is of the order of 1 g 235 U in 1000 s measuring time

  11. A new method to measure the U-235 content in fresh LWR fuel assemblies via fast-neutron passive self-interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menlove, Howard; Belian, Anthony; Geist, William; Rael, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a solution to a decades old safeguards problem in the verification of the fissile concentration in fresh light water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies. The problem is that the burnable poison (e.g. Gd2O3) addition to the fuel rods decreases the active neutron assay for the fuel assemblies. This paper presents a new innovative method for the verification of the 235U linear mass density in fresh LEU fuel assemblies that is insensitive to the burnable poison content. The technique makes use of the 238U atoms in the fuel rods to self-interrogate the 235U mass. The innovation for the new approach is that the 238U spontaneous fission (SF) neutrons from the rods induces fission reactions (IF) in the 235U that are time correlated with the SF source neutrons. Thus, the coincidence gate counting rate benefits from both the nu-bar of the 238U SF (2.07) and the 235U IF (2.44) for a fraction of the IF reactions. Whereas, the 238U SF background has no time-correlation boost. The higher the detection efficiency, the higher the correlated boost because background neutron counts from the SF are being converted to signal doubles. This time-correlation in the IF signal increases signal/background ratio that provides a good precision for the net signal from the 235U mass. The hard neutron energy spectrum makes the technique insensitive to the burnable poison loading where a Cd or Gd liner on the detector walls is used to prevent thermal-neutron reflection back into the fuel assembly from the detector. We have named the system the fast-neutron passive collar (FNPC).

  12. Integrated Photonic Engine for Miniaturized Fiber Optics Sensor Interrogators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structural health monitoring is critical capability for NASA, and it is required for launch vehicles, space vehicles, re-entry vehicles, vehicle pressure systems,...

  13. Breast Cancer Tissue Bioreactor for Direct Interrogation and Observation of Response to Antitumor Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    initial concentration delivered into the system), and the lower right figure shows the spatial distribution of iso - concentration surfaces within the...No treatment Oxidized, 1 week dry 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 0 100 200 300 400 500 In te ns it y No treatment Oxidized

  14. System and Method for RFID-Enabled Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  15. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  16. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  17. A Chemical Biology Approach to Interrogate Quorum Sensing Regulated Behaviors at the Molecular and Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Colin A.; Matamouros, Susana; Niessen, Sherry; Zhu, Jie; Scolnick, Jonathan A.; Mee, Jenny M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Miller, Samuel I.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Janda, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Small molecule probes have been employed extensively to explore biological systems and elucidate cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we utilize an inhibitor of bacterial communication to monitor changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with the aim of discovering new processes regulated by AI-2-based quorum sensing (QS), a mechanism of bacterial intracellular communication that allows for the coordination of gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. In S. typhimurium, this system regulates the uptake and catabolism of intracellular signals and has been implicated in pathogenesis, including the invasion of host epithelial cells. We demonstrate that our QS antagonist is capable of selectively inhibiting the expression of known QS-regulated proteins in S. typhimurium, thus attesting that QS inhibitors may be used to confirm proposed and elucidate previously unidentified QS pathways without relying on genetic manipulation. PMID:23890008

  18. Directed Self-Assembly of Polystyrene- <i>b> -poly(propylene carbonate) on Chemical Patterns via Thermal Annealing for Next Generation Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guan-Wen [MOE Laboratory of; Wu, Guang-Peng [MOE Laboratory of; Chen, Xuanxuan [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States; Xiong, Shisheng [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Arges, Christopher G. [Cain Department; Ji, Shengxiang [Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials,; Nealey, Paul F. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lu, Xiao-Bing [State Key Laboratory of; Darensbourg, Donald J. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& amp,M University, 3255 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843, United States; Xu, Zhi-Kang [MOE Laboratory of

    2017-01-23

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) combines advantages of conventional photolithography and polymeric materials and shows competence in semiconductors and data storage applications. Driven by the more integrated, much smaller and higher performance of the electronics, however, the industry standard polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMM.A) in DSA strategy cannot meet the rapid development of lithography technology because its intrinsic limited Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi). Despite hundreds of block copolymers have been developed, these BCPs systems are usually subject to a trade-off between high chi and thermal treatment, resulting in incompatibility with the current nanomanufacturing fab processes. Here we discover that polystyrene-b-poly(propylene carbonate) (PS-b-PPC) is well qualified to fill key positions on DSA strategy for the next-generation lithography. The estimated chi-value for PS-b-PPC is 0.079, that is, two times greater than PS-b-PMMA (chi = 0.029 at 150 degrees C), while processing the ability to form perpendicular sub-10 nm morphologies (cylinder and lamellae) via the industry preferred thermal-treatment. DSA of lamellae forming PS-b-PPC on chemoepitaxial density multiplication demonstrates successful sub-10 nm long-range order features on large-area patterning for nanofabrication. Pattern transfer to the silicon substrate through industrial sequential infiltration synthesis is also implemented successfully. Compared with the previously reported methods to orientation control BCPs with high chi-value (including solvent annealing, neutral top-coats, and chemical modification), the easy preparation, high chi value, and etch selectivity while enduring thermal treatment demonstrates PS-b-PPC as a rare and valuable candidate for advancing the field of nanolithography.

  19. The approximate entropy concept extended to three dimensions for calibrated, single parameter structural complexity interrogation of volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Marchant, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Reconstructive volumetric imaging permeates medical practice because of its apparently clear depiction of anatomy. However, the tell tale signs of abnormality and its delineation for treatment demand experts work at the threshold of visibility for hints of structure. Hitherto, a suitable assistive metric that chimes with clinical experience has been absent. This paper develops the complexity measure approximate entropy (ApEn) from its 1D physiological origin into a three-dimensional (3D) algorithm to fill this gap. The first 3D algorithm for this is presented in detail. Validation results for known test arrays are followed by a comparison of fan-beam and cone-beam x-ray computed tomography image volumes used in image guided radiotherapy for cancer. Results show the structural detail down to individual voxel level, the strength of which is calibrated by the ApEn process itself. The potential for application in machine assisted manual interaction and automated image processing and interrogation, including radiomics associated with predictive outcome modeling, is discussed.

  20. Resumptive pronouns in wh-interrogatives and object relative clauses in L2 English: UG access or transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Simoiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether resumptive pronouns are attested in the English L2 of Romanian learners and whether their presence can be accounted for in terms of direct access to UG or in terms if transfer hypotheses. The results are also analysed in relation to the Interpretability Hypothesis (Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou 2007. Overall, the data provide evidence for transfer of resumptive pronoun use from L1 Romanian to L2 English in the case of object wh-interrogatives and relatives. Resumptives are accepted in the L2 in [d-linked] contexts that mirror the Romanian structures. However, resumptives are also accepted in [non-d-linked] contexts as well, in accordance with the target language. One possible account may be that there is an available position associated with resumptives in the verbal field which can be filled by resumptive material and this position remains available in the L2 as well. Learners have access to L1 and L2 parametric options at the same time, so they accept and produce both L1 and L2 structures. The Romanian data provide support in favour of the Interpretability Hypothesis i.e. there are animacy effects in the Romanian data. The subjects accepted more [-animate] than [+animate] resumptives.

  1. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Colleen J; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-25

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies.

  2. Interrogating the Conventional Boundaries of Research Methods in Social Sciences: The Role of Visual Representation in Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel Glass

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The author will propose that the use of performative social science is a means to deliberately interrogate long held conventions of established research. The innovative role of visual art representation in data collection, analysis and public engagement with research will be discussed. Examples will be drawn from two postmodern feminist ethnographic research which investigated academic professional development, resilience, hope and optimism in the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand from 1997-2005. Artwork was initially created as data collection and digitalised as representation to intentionally validate the voices of research participants, the researcher and viewers of the work. The research participants and viewers were given opportunities to actively engage with the visual work. Artwork complimented two additional research methods: critical conversational interviewing and reflective journaling. This paper will address the ways inclusion of art methods contributed and deepened data representation. The role of crafting artwork in the field, the artistic changes that represented the complexity of data analysis and engagement with the work will be explored. It will be argued that the creation and engagement with artwork in research is an empowering and dynamic process for researchers and participants. It is an innovative means of representing intersubjectivity that results in reciprocity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802509

  3. Somatic genetics empowers the mouse for modeling and interrogating developmental and disease processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F Landrette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in genomic technologies, candidate human disease genes are being mapped at an accelerated pace. There is a clear need to move forward with genetic tools that can efficiently validate these mutations in vivo. Murine somatic mutagenesis is evolving to fulfill these needs with tools such as somatic transgenesis, humanized rodents, and forward genetics. By combining these resources one is not only able to model disease for in vivo verification, but also to screen for mutations and pathways integral to disease progression and therapeutic intervention. In this review, we briefly outline the current advances in somatic mutagenesis and discuss how these new tools, especially the piggyBac transposon system, can be applied to decipher human biology and disease.

  4. Discrimination of chemical and high-explosive munitions by neutron interrogation for arms control treaty verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Cole, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C.; Krebs, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    For treaty verification purposes, due to the hazards of direct sampling of chemical and explosive munitions, non-destructive evaluation methods have important safety advantages. The authors assay method employs neutrons from a californium-252 radioisotopic source to induce capture and inelastic reactions in a munition under test, and the resulting gamma radiation is measured with an high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector. For field verification, a portable, battery-operated assay system has been developed that performs automatic spectrum analysis and agent identification in near-real time. In tests with actual chemical and high explosives munitions, the assay method reliably identifies nerve agents GB and VX, blister agents HD and L, white phosphorous, and high explosives

  5. Novel region of interest interrogation technique for diffusion tensor imaging analysis in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Y; Middleton, Dana M; Chen, Steven; White, Leonard; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Bradbury, Allison; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen. Average values of fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3) within each region in each specimen overall and within each individual image slice were compared between raters by calculating the percentage difference between raters for each metric. Results The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when pooled by each region and specimen was 1.44% (range: 0.01-5.17%). The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when compared by individual image slice was 2.23% (range: 0.75-4.58%) per hemisphere. Conclusion Our results indicate that the technique described is highly reproducible, even when applied to canine specimens of differing age, morphology, and image resolution. We propose this technique for future studies of diffusion tensor imaging analysis in canine brains and for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of canine brain models of human central nervous system disease.

  6. Development of Methodology and Field Deployable Sampling Tools for Spent Nuclear Fuel Interrogation in Liquid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  7. Computational Investigation of On-Line Interrogation of Pebble Bed Reactor Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, A. I.; Chen, Jianwei

    2005-10-01

    Pebble bed reactors are characterized by multipass fuel systems in which spherical fuel pebbles are circulated through the core until they reach a proposed burnup limit (80000-100000 MWD/MTU). For such reactors, the fuel is assayed on-line to ensure that the burnup limit is not breached. We considered assaying the fuel using an HPGe detector to perform passive gamma-ray spectrometry of fission products. Since neither fresh nor irradiated fuel is readily available, computer simulations were utilized to identify the radionuclides that can be used as burnup indicators, and to visualize the gamma-ray spectra at various levels of burnup. Specifically, we used the ORIGEN-MONTEBURNS-MCNP code system. This allowed the establishment of the burnup dependent one-group gas reactor cross-sections for the radionuclides of interest. Subsequently, ORIGEN was used to simulate in-core pebble depletion to establish the irradiated pebble isotopics. Finally, the codes MCNP and SYNTH were used to simulate the response of the HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results show that absolute and relative indicators can be used on-line to determine unambiguously the enrichment and burnup on a pebble-by-pebble basis. The activity of Cs-137 or the activity ratio of Co-60/Cs-134 can be combined with the activity ratio of Np-239/I-132 to yield the enrichment and burnup information. To use the relative indicators, a relative efficiency calibration of the gamma-ray spectrometer can be performed using the La-140 gamma lines that are emitted by the irradiated pebble. I-132, Cs-134, Cs-137, La-140, and Np-239 are produced upon the irradiation of the fuel. Co-60 is produced by doping the fuel with a small amount (/spl sim/100 ppm) of Co-59. Using this approach, the uncertainty in burnup determination due to factors such as power history variation, detector efficiency calibration, and counting statistics is expected to remain in the range of /spl plusmn/5% to /spl plusmn/10%.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  9. Electrochemical Interrogation of G3-Poly(propylene thiophenoimine Dendritic Star Polymer in Phenanthrene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlamulo R. Makelane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel dendritic star-copolymer, generation 3 poly(propylene thiophenoimine (G3PPT-co-poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT star co-polymer on gold electrode (i.e., Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT was used as a sensor system for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE. The G3PPT-co-P3HT star co-polymer was synthesized via in situ electrochemical co-polymerization of generation 3 poly (propylene thiophenoimine and poly (3-hexylthiophene on gold electrode. 1HNMR spectroscopy was used to determine the regioregularity of the polymer composites, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study their structural and morphological properties. Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT in the absence of PHE, exhibited reversible electrochemistry attributable to the oligo (thiophene ‘pendants’ of the dendrimer. PHE produced an increase in the voltammetric signals (anodic currents due to its oxidation on the dendritic material to produce catalytic current, thereby suggesting the suitability of the Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT electrode as a PHE sensor. The electrocatalysis of PHE was made possible by the rigid and planar oligo-P3HT species (formed upon the oxidation of the oligo (thiophene pendants of the star-copolymer, which allowed the efficient capture (binding and detection (electrocatalytic oxidation of PHE molecules.

  10. Foraminifera Models to Interrogate Ostensible Proxy-Model Discrepancies During Late Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Dowsett, H. J.; de Mutsert, K.

    2017-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera faunal assemblages have been used in the reconstruction of past oceanic states (e.g. the Last Glacial Maximum, the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period). However these reconstruction efforts have typically relied on inverse modeling using transfer functions or the modern analog technique, which by design seek to translate foraminifera into one or two target oceanic variables, primarily sea surface temperature (SST). These reconstructed SST data have then been used to test the performance of climate models, and discrepancies have been attributed to shortcomings in climate model processes and/or boundary conditions. More recently forward proxy models or proxy system models have been used to leverage the multivariate nature of proxy relationships to their environment, and to "bring models into proxy space". Here we construct ecological models of key planktic foraminifera taxa, calibrated and validated with World Ocean Atlas (WO13) oceanographic data. Multiple modeling methods (e.g. multilayer perceptron neural networks, Mahalanobis distance, logistic regression, and maximum entropy) are investigated to ensure robust results. The resulting models are then driven by a Late Pliocene climate model simulation with biogeochemical as well as temperature variables. Similarities and differences with previous model-proxy comparisons (e.g. PlioMIP) are discussed.

  11. Early childhood development in Africa: interrogating constraints of prevailing knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan R; Marfo, Kofi

    2008-04-01

    The past two decades have been characterized by renewed attention to the importance of early childhood development (ECD) policies and services in the world's richest and most industrialized countries. During the same period, we have witnessed unprecedented efforts to place ECD policies on the national development planning agenda of the economically less advantaged countries of the Majority World. This paper is premised on the concern that the purposes that have led bilateral and multilateral international agencies to promote and support ECD services in Africa may also be paving the way for uncritical adoption of program and service delivery models grounded in value systems and knowledge bases that may not be appropriate for the continent. We present two critiques to highlight the dangers of ignoring the sociocultural contexts of the knowledge bases that inform ECD policies and practices. We describe one capacity-building effort, under the auspices of the Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU), to promote culturally relevant knowledge and prepare leadership personnel for Africa's emerging ECD movement. Finally, based on an exercise designed for an ECDVU cohort to engage and reflect on critiques of mainstream research and theorizing on child development, we share insights that are suggestive of the ways in which African perspectives can contribute to and enrich a global knowledge base on child development.

  12. Single-molecule interrogation of a bacterial sugar transporter allows the discovery of an extracellular inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbing; Harrington, Leon; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Davis, Benjamin G.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-08-01

    Capsular polysaccharides form the outermost protective layer around many Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics aimed directly at weakening this layer are not yet available. In pathogenic Escherichia coli E69, a protein, Wza, forms a pore in the outer membrane that transports K30 capsular polysaccharide from its site of synthesis to the outside of the cell. This therefore represents a prospective antibiotic target. Here we test a variety of grommet-like mimics of K30 capsular polysaccharide on wild-type Wza and on mutant open forms of the pore by electrical recording in planar lipid bilayers. The most effective glycomimetic was the unnatural cyclic octasaccharide octakis(6-deoxy-6-amino)cyclomaltooctaose (am8γCD), which blocks the α-helix barrel of Wza, a site that is directly accessible from the external medium. This glycomimetic inhibited K30 polysaccharide transport in live E. coli E69. With the protective outer membrane disrupted, the bacteria can be recognized and killed by the human immune system.

  13. Interrogation of possible imaging conditions for radiation sensitive metal organic frameworks in transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harinkumar Rajendrabhai

    One of the main area of research currently in air-breathing propulsion is increasing the fuel efficiency of engines. Increasing fuel efficiency of an air-breathing engine will be advantageous for civil transport as well as military aircraft. This objective can be achieved in several ways. Present design models are developed based on their uses: commercial transport, high range rescue aircraft, military aircraft. One of the main property of military aircraft is possessing high thrust but increasing fuel efficiency will also be advantageous resulting in more time in combat. Today's engine design operates best at their design point and has reduced thrust and high fuel consumption values in off-design. The adaptive cycle engine concept was introduced to overcome this problem. The adaptive cycle engine is a variable cycle engine concept equipped with an extra bypass (3rd bypass) stream. This engine varies the bypass ratio and the fan pressure ratio, the two main parameters affecting thrust and fuel consumption values of the engine. In cruise, more flow will flow through the third stream resulting in the high bypass engine giving lower fuel consumption. on the other hand, the engine will act as a low bypass engine producing more thrust by allowing more air to flow through core while in combat. The simulation of this engine was carried out using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) software. The effect of the bypass ratio and the fan pressure ratio along with Mach number were studied. After the parametric variation study, the mixture configuration was also studied. Once the effect of the parameters were understood, the best design operating point configuration was selected and then the engine performance for off-design was calculated. Optimum values of bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio were also obtained for each altitude selected for off-design performance.

  14. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Góngora-Castillo

    for understanding plant specialized metabolism, and promotes realization of innovative production systems for plant-derived pharmaceuticals.

  15. Gas-phase metalloprotein complexes interrogated by ion mobility-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Peter A.; Korkeila, Karoliina E.; Kalapothakis, Jason M.; Gray, Andrew; McCullough, Bryan J.; Barran, Perdita E.

    2009-06-01

    Gas-phase biomolecular structure may be explored through a number of analytical techniques. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) continues to prove itself as a sensitive and reliable bioanalytical tool for gas-phase structure determination due to intense study and development over the past 15 years. A vast amount of research interest, especially in protein and peptide conformational studies has generated a wealth of structural information for biological systems from small peptides to megadalton-sized biomolecules. In this work, linear low field IM-MS has been used to study gas-phase conformations and determine rotationally averaged collision cross-sections of three metalloproteins--cytochrome c, haemoglobin and calmodulin. Measurements have been performed on the MoQToF, a modified QToF 1 instrument (Micromass UK Ltd., Manchester, UK) modified in house. Gas-phase conformations and cross-sections of multimeric cytochrome c ions of the form [xM + nH+]n+ for x = 1-3 (monomer to trimer) have been successfully characterised and measured. We believe these to be the first reported collision cross-sections of higher order multimeric cytochrome c. Haemoglobin is investigated to obtain structural information on the associative mechanism of tetramer formation. Haemoglobin molecules, comprising apo- and holo-monomer chains, dimer and tetramer are transferred to the gas phase under a range of solution conditions. Structural information on the proposed critical intermediate, semi-haemoglobin, is reported. Cross-sections of the calcium binding protein calmodulin have been obtained under a range of calcium-bound conditions. Metalloprotein collision cross-sections from ion mobility measurements are compared with computationally derived values from published NMR and X-ray crystallography structural data. Finally we consider the change in the density of the experimentally measured rotationally averaged collision cross-section for compact geometries of the electrosprayed proteins.

  16. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Interrogator In A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens contrasted the horrors of Paris during the French Revolution with ordinary life in law-bound...Fowler, and General Charles A. Horner, "Final Report of the Independent Panel to Review DoD Detention Operations, " August 23, 2004, United States...Tillie K. Fowler, and General Charles A. Horner, "Final Report of the Independent Panel to Review DoD Detention Operations, August 23, 2004

  17. Questions about the future of the nuclear energy; Les interrogations sur l'avenir de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    The nuclear energy became a society subject much debated. This analysis discusses in three chapters the different interrogations concerning the nuclear energy: the comparison between the different energy sources to justify the preservation of the nuclear energy in France and in the world, the compatibility of the nuclear energy with the different socio-economic choices as the main condition of its development, and the role of the Government to transform the energy policy on the society choice. (A.L.B.)

  18. MODALITÉS INJONCTIVE ET INTERROGATIVE DANS LE DISCOURS RAPPORTÉ: LE FRANÇAIS BASILECTAL À MAROUA, LANGUE DE TRANSACTION COMMERCIALE DU SECTEUR INFORMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul BALGA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the morphosyntactic structures of the popular French language from the extreme North of Cameroon (Maroua region. The corpus offers coherence and regularity, but also a true variety in choosing those illustrative examples of the injunctive and interrogative modalities from the related discourse. Syntactic schemes traceable in North-Cameroon popular French are all proof of an in-depth restructuring of the French language.

  19. Image-preprocessing method for near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV) image interrogation with very large in-plane displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yiding; Yuan, Huijing; Zhang, Chuanhong; Lee, Cunbiao

    2013-01-01

    Accurate particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements very near the wall are still a great challenge. The problem is compounded by the very large in-plane displacement on PIV images commonly encountered in measurements in hypersonic boundary layers. An improved image-preprocessing method is presented in this paper which expands the traditional window deformation iterative multigrid scheme to PIV images with very large displacement. Before the interrogation, stationary artificial particles of uniform size are added homogeneously in the wall region. The mean squares of the intensities of signals in the flow and in the wall region are postulated to be equal when half the initial interrogation window overlaps the wall region. The initial estimation near the wall is then smoothed by data from both sides of the shear layer to reduce the large random uncertainties. Interrogations in the following iterative steps then converge to the correct results to provide accurate predictions for particle tracking velocimetries. Significant improvement is seen in Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests. The algorithm successfully extracted the small flow structures of the second-mode wave in the hypersonic boundary layer from PIV images with low signal-noise-ratios when the traditional method was not successful. (paper)

  20. Iliac Vein Interrogation Augments Venous Ulcer Healing in Patients Who Have Failed Standard Compression Therapy along with Pathological Venous Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Albeir Y; Broce, Mike; Yacoub, Michael; AbuRahma, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of venous ulcers is demanding for patients, as well as clinicians, and the investigation of underlying venous hypertension is the cornerstone of therapy. We propose that occult iliac vein stenosis should be ruled out by iliac vein interrogation (IVI) in patients with advanced venous stasis. We conducted a systematic retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients who presented with CEAP (clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological) 6 venous disease. All patients had great saphenous vein ablation, compressive treatment, wound care (including Unna boot compression), and perforator closure using ablation therapy. Iliac vein stenosis was defined as ≥50% stenosis in cross-sectional surface area on intravascular ultrasound. Primary outcomes include time of venous ulcer healing and/or measurable change in the Venous Clinical Severity Score. Twenty-two patients with CEAP 6 venous disease met the inclusion criteria (active ulcers >1.5 cm in diameter). The average age and body mass index were 62.2 ± 9.2 years and 41.7 ± 16.7, respectively. The majority were female (72.7%) with common comorbidities, such as hyperlipidemia (54.5%), hypertension (36.4%), and diabetes mellitus (27.3%). Twenty-nine ulcers with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 1.9 cm and a depth of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm were treated. The majority of the ulcers occurred on the left limb (n = 17, 58.6%). Average perforator venous reflux was 3.6 ± 0.8 sec, while common femoral reflux was 1.8 ± 1.6. The majority (n = 19, 64.5%) of the perforator veins were located at the base of the ulcer, while the remainder (n = 10, 34.5%) were within 2 cm from the base. Of the 13 patients who underwent IVI, 8 patients (61.5%) had stenosis >50% that was corrected with iliac vein angioplasty and stenting (IVAS). There was a strong trend toward shorter healing time in the IVI group (7.9 ± 9.5 weeks) than for patients in the no iliac vein interrogation (NIVI) group (20.2 ± 15

  1. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Julian; de Kok, Theo M; Schomaker, Shelli J; Gosink, Mark; Burt, Deborah A; Chandler, Patricia; Warner, Roscoe L; Johnson, Kent J; Caiment, Florian; Kleinjans, Jos C; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  2. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Krauskopf

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  3. Monitoring voltage-dependent charge displacement of Shaker B-IR K+ ion channels using radio frequency interrogation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Dharia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a new technique that probes voltage-dependent charge displacements of excitable membrane-bound proteins using extracellularly applied radio frequency (RF, 500 kHz electric fields. Xenopus oocytes were used as a model cell for these experiments, and were injected with cRNA encoding Shaker B-IR (ShB-IR K(+ ion channels to express large densities of this protein in the oocyte membranes. Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC was applied to command whole-cell membrane potential and to measure channel-dependent membrane currents. Simultaneously, RF electric fields were applied to perturb the membrane potential about the TEVC level and to measure voltage-dependent RF displacement currents. ShB-IR expressing oocytes showed significantly larger changes in RF displacement currents upon membrane depolarization than control oocytes. Voltage-dependent changes in RF displacement currents further increased in ShB-IR expressing oocytes after ∼120 µM Cu(2+ addition to the external bath. Cu(2+ is known to bind to the ShB-IR ion channel and inhibit Shaker K(+ conductance, indicating that changes in the RF displacement current reported here were associated with RF vibration of the Cu(2+-linked mobile domain of the ShB-IR protein. Results demonstrate the use of extracellular RF electrodes to interrogate voltage-dependent movement of charged mobile protein domains--capabilities that might enable detection of small changes in charge distribution associated with integral membrane protein conformation and/or drug-protein interactions.

  4. Monitoring voltage-dependent charge displacement of Shaker B-IR K+ ion channels using radio frequency interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharia, Sameera; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2011-02-28

    Here we introduce a new technique that probes voltage-dependent charge displacements of excitable membrane-bound proteins using extracellularly applied radio frequency (RF, 500 kHz) electric fields. Xenopus oocytes were used as a model cell for these experiments, and were injected with cRNA encoding Shaker B-IR (ShB-IR) K(+) ion channels to express large densities of this protein in the oocyte membranes. Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) was applied to command whole-cell membrane potential and to measure channel-dependent membrane currents. Simultaneously, RF electric fields were applied to perturb the membrane potential about the TEVC level and to measure voltage-dependent RF displacement currents. ShB-IR expressing oocytes showed significantly larger changes in RF displacement currents upon membrane depolarization than control oocytes. Voltage-dependent changes in RF displacement currents further increased in ShB-IR expressing oocytes after ∼120 µM Cu(2+) addition to the external bath. Cu(2+) is known to bind to the ShB-IR ion channel and inhibit Shaker K(+) conductance, indicating that changes in the RF displacement current reported here were associated with RF vibration of the Cu(2+)-linked mobile domain of the ShB-IR protein. Results demonstrate the use of extracellular RF electrodes to interrogate voltage-dependent movement of charged mobile protein domains--capabilities that might enable detection of small changes in charge distribution associated with integral membrane protein conformation and/or drug-protein interactions.

  5. Dielectric RheoSANS - Simultaneous Interrogation of Impedance, Rheology and Small Angle Neutron Scattering of Complex Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeffrey J; Gagnon, Cedric V L; Krzywon, Jeffery R; Wagner, Norman J; Butler, Paul D

    2017-04-10

    A procedure for the operation of a new dielectric RheoSANS instrument capable of simultaneous interrogation of the electrical, mechanical and microstructural properties of complex fluids is presented. The instrument consists of a Couette geometry contained within a modified forced convection oven mounted on a commercial rheometer. This instrument is available for use on the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) beamlines at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). The Couette geometry is machined to be transparent to neutrons and provides for measurement of the electrical properties and microstructural properties of a sample confined between titanium cylinders while the sample undergoes arbitrary deformation. Synchronization of these measurements is enabled through the use of a customizable program that monitors and controls the execution of predetermined experimental protocols. Described here is a protocol to perform a flow sweep experiment where the shear rate is logarithmically stepped from a maximum value to a minimum value holding at each step for a specified period of time while frequency dependent dielectric measurements are made. Representative results are shown from a sample consisting of a gel composed of carbon black aggregates dispersed in propylene carbonate. As the gel undergoes steady shear, the carbon black network is mechanically deformed, which causes an initial decrease in conductivity associated with the breaking of bonds comprising the carbon black network. However, at higher shear rates, the conductivity recovers associated with the onset of shear thickening. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of the simultaneous measurement of the rheo-electro-microstructural properties of these suspensions using the dielectric RheoSANS geometry.

  6. Interrogating Planar Cyclooctatetraenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensel, Thomas

    and non-covalent approaches were not successful. In an application oriented research project, water soluble hetero[8]circulenes have been investigated by temperature dependent CD spectroscopy regarding their ability to stabilize DNA G-quadruplexes. The data did not indicate any stabilization of G......,6-dihydroxycarbazoles as precursors. The most promising pathway involved a direct dimerization of benzylated 3,6-dihydroxycarbazole, followed by a debenzylation and substitution of the pyrrole nitrogen, realized in a small amount of steps and with great yields. The substituents introduced through this pathway included...

  7. Interrogation of side chain biases for oligomannose recognition by antibody 2G12 via structure-guided phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yi; Lai, Jonathan R

    2017-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are essential reagents for deciphering gene or protein function and have been a fruitful source of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. However, developing anticarbohydrate antibodies to target glycans for those purposes has been less successful because the molecular basis for glycan-mAb interactions is poorly understood relative to protein- or peptide-binding mAbs. Here, we report our investigation on glycan-mAb interactions by using the unique architectural scaffold of 2G12, an antibody that targets oligomannoses on the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120, as the template for engineering highly specific mAbs to target glycans. We first analyzed 24 different X-ray structures of antiglycan mAbs from the Protein Data Bank to determine side chain amino acid distributions in of glycan-mAb interactions. We identified Tyr, Arg, Asn, Ser, Asp, and His as the six most prevalent residues in the glycan-mAb contacts. We then utilized this information to construct two phage display libraries ("Lib1" and "Lib2") in which positions on the heavy chain variable domains of 2G12 were allowed to vary in restricted manner among Tyr, Asp, Ser, His, Asn, Thr, Ala and Pro to interrogate the minimal physicochemical requirements for oligomannose recognition. We analyzed the sequences of 39 variants from Lib1 and 14 variants from Lib2 following selection against gp120, the results showed that there is a high degree of malleability within the 2G12 for glycan recognitions. We further characterized five unique phage clones from both libraries that exhibited a gp120-specific binding profile. Expression of two of these variants as soluble mAbs indicated that, while specificity of gp120-binding was retained, the affinity of these mutants was significantly reduced relative to WT 2G12. Nonetheless, the results indicate these is some malleability in the identity of contact residues and provide a novel insight into the nature of glycan-antibody interactions and how they may differ

  8. Radiation Generation from Ultra Intense Laser Plasma Interactions with Solid Density Plasmas for Active Interrogation of Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulick, Calvin Andrew

    The development of short pulse high power lasers has led to interest in laser based particle accelerators. Laser produced plasmas have been shown to support quasi-static TeV/m acceleration gradients which are more than four orders of magnitude stronger than conventional accelerators. These high gradients have the potential to allow compact particle accelerators for active interrogation of nuclear material. In order to better understand this application, several experiments have been conducted at the HERCULES and Lambda Cubed lasers as the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science at the University of Michigan. Electron acceleration and bremsstrahlung generation were studied on the Lambda Cubed laser. The scaling of the intensity, angular, and material dependence of bremsstrahlung radiation from an intense (I > 10 18 W/cm2 ) laser-solid interaction has been characterized at energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. These were the first high resolution (lambda / d lambda > 100) measurements of bremsstrahlung photons from a relativistic laser plasma interaction. The electron populations and bremsstrahlung temperatures were modeled in the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS and the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and were in good agreement with the experimental results. Proton acceleration was studied on the HERCULES laser. The effect of three dimensional perturbations of electron sheaths on proton acceleration was investigated through the use of foil, grid, and wire targets. Hot electron density, as measured with an imaging Cu Kalpha crystal, increased as the target surface area was reduced and was correlated to an increase in the temperature of the accelerated proton beam. Additionally, experiments at the HERCULES laser facility have produced directional neutron beams with energies up to 16.8 (+/-0.3) MeV using (d,n) and (p,n) reactions. Efficient (d,n) reactions required the selective acceleration of deuterons through the introduction of a deuterated plastic or cryogenically frozen D2O layer

  9. Metodologia de avaliação das condições sanitárias de vendedores ambulantes de alimentos no Município de Ibiúna-SP Evaluation methods of sanitary conditions among street food vendors in the Municipality of Ibiuna, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo a aplicação de uma metodologia de inspeção sanitária para estabelecimentos ambulantes de alimentos da zona urbana do Município de Ibiúna-SP. A pesquisa foi realizada no período de maio a novembro de 2006, com 57 vendedores ambulantes de alimentos de feiras livres e vias públicas, a partir da elaboração de roteiro de inspeção sanitária para vendedores ambulantes (RISVA, sua aplicação, realização de curso teórico específico e retorno aos estabelecimentos inspecionados. Os resultados obtidos na primeira inspeção em pontos médios foram de 46,28, e após as intervenções de 57,60. O desenvolvimento e a aplicação do RISVA permitiram a padronização das inspeções nos estabelecimentos ambulantes de alimentos.The objective of this work was to design and apply an inspection model to street food vendors of the urban area of the Municipality of Ibiúna, São Paulo Brazil. The research was developed from May to October, 2006 with 57 street food vendors at street markets or outdoors, with the design of an inspection routine for street food vendors (RISVA, its establishment, organization of a specific course, and return to the initially-inspected vendor. The result obtained from the first inspection in mean points was 46.28 and after the intervention it was 57.60. The design and establishment of RISVA allowed for the standardization of an inspection routine for street food vendors.

  10. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, F.

    2007-10-01

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ( 239 Pu in fission, 235 U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  11. Interrogating the Spatiotemporal Landscape of Neuromodulatory GPCR Signaling by Real-Time Imaging of cAMP in Intact Neurons and Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S. Muntean

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Modulation of neuronal circuits is key to information processing in the brain. The majority of neuromodulators exert their effects by activating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that control the production of second messengers directly impacting cellular physiology. How numerous GPCRs integrate neuromodulatory inputs while accommodating diversity of incoming signals is poorly understood. In this study, we develop an in vivo tool and analytical suite for analyzing GPCR responses by monitoring the dynamics of a key second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP, with excellent quantitative and spatiotemporal resolution in various neurons. Using this imaging approach in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 editing and optogenetics, we interrogate neuromodulatory mechanisms of defined populations of neurons in an intact mesolimbic reward circuit and describe how individual inputs generate discrete second-messenger signatures in a cell- and receptor-specific fashion. This offers a resource for studying native neuronal GPCR signaling in real time. : Muntean et al. develop an in vivo reagent to study processing of neurotransmitter GPCR signals by monitoring real-time dynamics of cAMP responses. They demonstrate application of this approach, in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and optogenetics, to interrogate the functional organization of a striatal circuit. Keywords: cAMP, GPCR, neuromodulation, dopamine, striatum, imaging, optogenetics

  12. Optoelectronic system and apparatus for connection to biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2018-03-06

    The present invention relates to a biological probe structure, as well as apparatuses, systems, and methods employing this structure. In particular embodiments, the structure includes a hermetically sealed unit configured to receive and transmit one or more optical signals. Furthermore, the structure can be implanted subcutaneously and interrogated externally. In this manner, a minimally invasive method can be employed to detect, treat, and/or assess the biological target. Additional methods and systems are also provided.

  13. INTERROGATION DU MYTHE DE L'ENTREPRENEUR A TRAVERS LA TRAJECTOIRE INÉGALE D'UN CRÉATEUR PERSISTANT

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarde , Vincent

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Le créateur persistant, archétype de l'entrepreneur, a fait l'objet de plusieurs descriptions théoriques, mais a été peu observé durablement. L'étude des trajectoires double-décennales d'un échantillon d'entrepreneurs agricoles atypiques, a été l'occasion de rechercher et d'analyser des comportements de créateurs persistants. La situation du seul cas résistant à l'analyse sur les 20 années, révèle quelques paradoxes qui interrogent la théorie. Les changements fréquents...

  14. Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation using an electron accelerator in order to quantify actinides in encapsulated radioactive wastes; Double interrogation simultanee neutrons et photons utilisant un accelerateur d'electrons pour la caracterisation separee des actinides dans les dechets radioactifs enrobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F

    1999-09-24

    Measuring out alpha emitters, such as ({sup 234,235,236,238}U {sup 238,239,240,242,}2{sup 44P}u, {sup 237}Np {sup 241,243}Am...), in solid radioactive waste, allows us to quantify the alpha activity in a drum and then to classify it. The SIMPHONIE (SIMultaneous PHOton and Neutron Interrogation Experiment) method, developed in this Ph.D. work, combines both the Active Neutron Interrogation and the Induced Photofission Interrogation techniques simultaneously. Its purpose is to quantify in only one measurement, fissile ({sup 235}U, {sup 239,241}Pu...) and fertile ({sup 236,238}U, {sup 238,240}Pu...) elements separately. In the first chapter of this Ph.D. report, we present the principle of the Radioactive Waste Management in France. The second chapter deals with the physical properties of neutron fission and of photofission. These two nuclear reactions are the basis of the SIMPHONIE method. Moreover, one of our purposes was to develop the ELEPHANT (ELEctron PHoton And Neutron Transport) code in view to simulate the electron, photon and neutron transport, including the ({gamma}, n), ({gamma}, 2n) and ({gamma}, f) photonuclear reactions that are not taken into account in the MCNP4 (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code. The simulation codes developed and used in this work are detailed in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter gives the experimental results of SIMPHONIE obtained by using the DGA/ETCA electron linear accelerators located at Arcueil, France. Fissile ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu) and fertile ({sup 238}U) samples were studied. Furthermore, comparisons between experimental results and calculated data of photoneutron production in tungsten, copper, praseodymium and beryllium by using an electron LINear Accelerator (LINAC) are given. This allows us to evaluate the validity degree of the ELEPHANT code, and finally the feasibility of the SIMPHONIE method. (author)

  15. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report 1990-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Maynard, D.J.; Downing, S.L. (and others)

    1994-01-01

    In 1983, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a multiyear cooperative research program with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to evaluate a new miniaturized identification system that could be used with salmonids. The system is referred to as the passive-integrated-transponder (PIT) tagging and interrogation system. The program has focused on determining the effects of PIT tags on juvenile and adult salmonids, as well as the development and evaluation of tagging and interrogation methods. Earlier results of the program have been reported in annual reports and journal articles cited in this report. This report covers the work per formed from 1990 through 1993. For convenience, the report is divided into three sections: (1) Interrogation and separation systems at Columbia River Basin dams; (2) Systems development and evaluation; and (3) Information and technology transfer.

  16. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry; Etude et developpement d'une technique de dosage des actinides dans les colis de dechets radioactifs par interrogation photonique ou neutronique active et spectrometrie des gamma retardes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, F

    2007-10-15

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ({sup 239}Pu in fission, {sup 235}U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  17. Aspects of the Negation Systems of English and Urhobo: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contrastive analysis of aspects of the negation systems of English and Urhobo was undertaken to reveal areas of difference and similarity. Negation in English and Urhobo was examined in the sentence types – declarative, interrogative and imperative. Data for the study were collected from texts written in English by ...

  18. Discrimination Using the Geonics EM63 in a Cued Interrogation Mode at Fort McClellan, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    faulty. We therefore decided to use an alternative sensor. For the static data collection envisioned we used the Geomechanics MD900-TS Digital/Analog...target location. Orientation Sensors Geomechanics MD900-TS Digital/Analog Clinometer Measures pitch and roll Data Acquisition System Sky

  19. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for improved interrogation of microbial transcriptomes: case study with the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Pamela A; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Jedlicki, Eugenia; Holmes, David S; Quatrini, Raquel

    2009-06-25

    Normalization is a prerequisite for accurate real time PCR (qPCR) expression analysis and for the validation of microarray profiling data in microbial systems. The choice and use of reference genes that are stably expressed across samples, experimental conditions and designs is a key consideration for the accurate interpretation of gene expression data. Here, we evaluate a carefully selected set of reference genes derived from previous microarray-based transcriptional profiling experiments performed on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and identify a set of genes with minimal variability under five different experimental conditions that are frequently used in Acidithiobacilli research. Suitability of these and other previously reported reference genes to monitor the expression of four selected target genes from A. ferrooxidans grown with different energy sources was investigated. Utilization of reference genes map, rpoC, alaS and era results in improved interpretation of gene expression profiles in A. ferrooxidans. This investigation provides a validated set of reference genes for studying A. ferrooxidans gene expression under typical biological conditions and an initial point of departure for exploring new experimental setups in this microorganism and eventually in other closely related Acidithiobacilli. The information could also be of value for future transcriptomic experiments in other bacterial systems.

  20. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for improved interrogation of microbial transcriptomes: case study with the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes David S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization is a prerequisite for accurate real time PCR (qPCR expression analysis and for the validation of microarray profiling data in microbial systems. The choice and use of reference genes that are stably expressed across samples, experimental conditions and designs is a key consideration for the accurate interpretation of gene expression data. Results Here, we evaluate a carefully selected set of reference genes derived from previous microarray-based transcriptional profiling experiments performed on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and identify a set of genes with minimal variability under five different experimental conditions that are frequently used in Acidithiobacilli research. Suitability of these and other previously reported reference genes to monitor the expression of four selected target genes from A. ferrooxidans grown with different energy sources was investigated. Utilization of reference genes map, rpoC, alaS and era results in improved interpretation of gene expression profiles in A. ferrooxidans. Conclusion This investigation provides a validated set of reference genes for studying A. ferrooxidans gene expression under typical biological conditions and an initial point of departure for exploring new experimental setups in this microorganism and eventually in other closely related Acidithiobacilli. The information could also be of value for future transcriptomic experiments in other bacterial systems.

  1. Fiber Bragg grating interrogation using a wavelength modulated 1651-nm tunable distributed feedback laser and a fiber ring resonator for wearable biomedical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Jha, Chandan Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating with a flat-topped reflection spectrum centred on 1649.55 nm using only a single mode tunable 1651.93 nm semiconductor laser and a fiber ring resonator. The Bragg shift is accurately measured with the fiber-optic ring resonator that has a free spectral range (FSR) of 0.1008 GHz and a broadband photo-detector. Laser wavelength modulation and harmonic detection are used to transform the gentle edges of the flat-topped FBG spectrum into prominent leading and trailing peaks, either of which can be used to accurately measure spectral shifts of the FBG reflection spectrum with a resolution of 0.9 pm. A Raspberry Pi-based low-cost embedded processor is used to measure the temperature-induced spectral shifts over the range 30˚C - 80˚C. The shift was linear with a temperature sensitivity of 12.8 pm/˚C. This technique does not use an optical spectrum analyzer at any stage of its design or operation. The laser does not need to be pre-characterized either. This technique can be readily extended to all types of tunable diode lasers and is ideally suited for compact field instruments.

  2. Accurate interrogation of FCGR3A rs396991 in European and Asian populations using a widely available TaqMan genotyping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kay E; Niederer, Heather A; King, Karen S; Harris, Elizabeth C; Glass, Sarah M; Cox, Charles J

    2015-11-01

    A polymorphism in the receptor for the Fc region of IgG, Fc γ-receptor IIIa (FcγRIIIa, FCGR3A rs396991), has been inconsistently shown in the literature to have an effect on response to monoclonal antibody therapy in several indications. The rs396991 (T/G) polymorphism leads to an F176V substitution and increased affinity for IgG. This variant has proven difficult to genotype accurately, primarily because of extensive homology between the FCGR3A and FCGR3B genes. We have shown that rs396991 can be genotyped by PCR amplification, followed by direct Sanger sequencing of the product, without coamplification of FCGR3B, and that the rs396991 TaqMan assay (C__25815666_10) agrees with Sanger sequencing results in 100% of European and Asian samples tested, but it has a small error rate in African and American populations. C__25815666_10 is therefore suitable to interrogate rs396991 in studies involving Europeans and Asians; however for other populations, the default genotyping method should be PCR followed by Sanger sequencing.

  3. Don Quijote et Dulcinea, ou quand l’univers fictionnel interroge la réalité de l’amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Lasserre Dempure

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaste mise en miroir d’une fiction qui n’en finit pas d’interroger son rapport ambigu au réel, le chef d’œuvre de Cervantès place le mouvement dialectique entre univers fictionnel et réalité au cœur même de son écriture. Au sein de cette dialectique, l’amour multiplement fictionnel de don Quichotte pour Dulcinée joue cependant un rôle majeur que ce travail se propose d’examiner. Lieu d’épanouissement privilégié d’un questionnement du rapport entre fiction et réalité, la mise en écriture de cet amour participe en effet de la vaste entreprise de révision des concepts menée par la pensée humaniste : c’est une exploration de la notion même d’amour, de sa réalité, de sa vérité, que permet le voyage au pays de l’amour auquel le Quichotte de Cervantès invite le lecteur.

  4. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 43 - Altimeter System Test and Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... associated computing systems, or which incorporate air data correction internally, may be tested in a manner...) Automatic Pressure Altitude Reporting Equipment and ATC Transponder System Integration Test. The test must...). Measure the automatic pressure altitude at the output of the installed ATC transponder when interrogated...

  5. Characterization Test Report for the Mnemonics-UCS Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Joshua J.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this testing includes the Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System delivered to KSC: two interrogator (transceiver) systems, four temperature sensors, with wooden mounting blocks, two antennas, two power supplies, network cables, and analysis software. Also included are a number of additional temperature sensors and newly-developed hydrogen sensors

  6. Control of radioactive wastes and coupling of neutron/gamma measurements: use of radiative capture for the correction of matrix effects that penalize the fissile mass measurement by active neutron interrogation; Controle des dechets radioactifs et couplage de mesures neutron/gamma: exploitation de la capture radiative pour corriger les effets de matrice penalisant la mesure de la masse fissile par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loche, F

    2006-10-15

    In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,{gamma}) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the {gamma} ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)

  7. Physics of enriched uranyl fluoride deposit characterizations using active neutron and gamma interrogation techniques with 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, M.S.; Hannon, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed and successfully applied to characterize large uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 21 ) deposits at the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These deposits were formed by a wet air in-leakage into the UF 6 process gas lines over a period of years. The resulting UO 2 F 2 is hygroscopic, readily absorbing moisture from the air to form hydrates as UO 2 F 2 -nH 2 O. The ratio of hydrogen to uranium, denoted H/U, can vary from 0--16, and has significant nuclear criticality safety impacts for large deposits. In order to properly formulate the required course of action, a non-intrusive characterization of the distribution of the fissile material within the pipe, its total mass, and amount of hydration was needed. The Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) previously developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for identification of uranium weapons components in storage containers was used to successfully characterize the distribution, hydration, and total mass of these deposits

  8. High-throughput interrogation of PIK3CA, PTEN, KRAS, FBXW7 and TP53 mutations in primary endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dios, Diego A; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Vandenput, Ingrid; Capoen, An; Webb, Penelope M; Ferguson, Kaltin; Akslen, Lars A; Claes, Bart; Vergote, Ignace; Moerman, Philippe; Van Robays, Johan; Marcickiewicz, Janusz; Salvesen, Helga B; Spurdle, Amanda B; Amant, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial cancer patients may benefit from systemic adjuvant chemotherapy, alone or in combination with targeted therapies. Prognostic and predictive markers are needed, however, to identify patients amenable for these therapies. Primary endometrial tumors were genotyped for >100 hot spot mutations in genes potentially acting as prognostic or predictive markers. Mutations were correlated with tumor characteristics in a discovery cohort, replicated in independent cohorts and finally, confirmed in the overall population (n=1063). PIK3CA, PTEN and KRAS mutations were most frequently detected, respectively in 172 (16.2%), 164 (15.4%) and 161 (15.1%) tumors. Binary logistic regression revealed that PIK3CA mutations were more common in high-grade tumors (OR=2.03; P=0.001 for grade 2 and OR=1.89; P=0.012 for grade 3 compared to grade 1), whereas a positive TP53 status correlated with type II tumors (OR=11.92; P<0.001) and PTEN mutations with type I tumors (OR=19.58; P=0.003). Conversely, FBXW7 mutations correlated with positive lymph nodes (OR=3.38; P=0.045). When assessing the effects of individual hot spot mutations, the H1047R mutation in PIK3CA correlated with high tumor grade and reduced relapse-free survival (HR=2.18; P=0.028). Mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN and FBXW7 correlate with high tumor grade, endometrial cancer type and lymph node status, whereas PIK3CA H1047R mutations serve as prognostic markers for relapse-free survival in endometrial cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A 3-Dimensional Biomimetic Platform to Interrogate the Safety of Autologous Fat Transfer in the Setting of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yoshiko; Celie, Karel-Bart; Xu, Jonathan T; Buro, Justin S; Jin, Julia; Lin, Alexandra J; Brown, Kristy A; Spector, Jason A

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development and prognosis of breast cancer. Adipocytes have been identified as a source of exogenous lipids in other cancer types and may similarly provide energy to fuel malignant survival and growth in breast cancer. This relationship is of particular relevance to plastic surgery, because many reconstructions after oncologic mastectomy achieve optimal aesthetics and durability using adjunctive autologous fat transfer (AFT). Despite the increasing ubiquity and promise of AFT, many unanswered questions remain, including safety in the setting of breast cancer. Clinical studies to examine this question are underway, but an in vitro system is critical to elucidate the complex interplay between the cells that normally reside at the surgical recipient site. To study these interactions and characterize possible lipid transfer between adipocytes to breast cancer cells, we designed a 3-dimensional in vitro model using primary patient-derived tissues. Breast adipose tissue was acquired from patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. The tissue was enzymatically digested and sorted to retrieve adipocytes and adipose stromal cells. Polydimethylsiloxane wells were filled with type I collagen-encapsulated adipocytes labeled with the fluorescent lipid dye boron dipyrromethene, as well as unlabeled adipose stromal cells. A monolayer of red fluorescently labeled MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells was seeded on the surface of the construct. Lipid transfer at the interface between adipocytes and breast cancer cells was analyzed. Confocal microscopy revealed a dense culture of native adipocytes containing fluorescent lipid droplets in the 3-dimensional collagen culture platform. RFP-positive breast cancer cells were found in close proximity to lipid-laden adipocytes. Lipid transfer from adipocytes to breast cancer cells was observed by the presence of boron dipyrromethene-positive lipid droplets within RFP-labeled breast cancer

  10. Remote System for Detection of Low-Levels of Methane Based on Photonic Crystal Fibres and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described an optical fibre sensing system for detecting low levels of methane. The properties of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres are explored to have a sensing head with favourable characteristics for gas sensing, particularly in what concerns intrinsic readout sensitivity and gas diffusion time in the sensing structure. The sensor interrogation was performed applying the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy technique, and a portable measurement unit was developed with performance suitable for remote detection of low levels of methane. This portable system has the capacity to simultaneously interrogate four remote photonic crystal fibre sensing heads.

  11. Observables and Entanglement in the Two-Body System

    OpenAIRE

    Harshman, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using the quantum two-body system as a familiar model, this talk will describe how entanglement can be used to select preferred observables for interrogating a physical system. The symmetries and dynamics of the quantum two-body system provide a backdrop for testing the relativity of entanglement with respect to observable-induced tensor product structures. We believe this exploration leads us to a general statement: the physically-meaningful observable subalgebras are the ones that minimize ...

  12. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  13. Interrogating Biosensing in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrill, Nick; Wong, Richmond; Howell, Noura

    2017-01-01

    This workshop seeks to expand our understanding and imaginations regarding the possible roles biosensors (sensors measuring humans) can-and should-play in everyday life. By applying a critical lens to issues of interpretation, representation, and experience around biosensing and biosensors, we ai...... to shape research agendas within DIS, and generate new recommendations for designers working with biosensors or their data....

  14. Proteomic interrogation of human chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P Torrente

    Full Text Available Chromatin proteins provide a scaffold for DNA packaging and a basis for epigenetic regulation and genomic maintenance. Despite understanding its functional roles, mapping the chromatin proteome (i.e. the "Chromatome" is still a continuing process. Here, we assess the biological specificity and proteomic extent of three distinct chromatin preparations by identifying proteins in selected chromatin-enriched fractions using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. These experiments allowed us to produce a chromatin catalog, including several proteins ranging from highly abundant histone proteins to less abundant members of different chromatin machinery complexes. Using a Normalized Spectral Abundance Factor approach, we quantified relative abundances of the proteins across the chromatin enriched fractions giving a glimpse into their chromosomal abundance. The large-scale data sets also allowed for the discovery of a variety of novel post-translational modifications on the identified chromatin proteins. With these comparisons, we find one of the probed methods to be qualitatively superior in specificity for chromatin proteins, but inferior in proteomic extent, evidencing a compromise that must be made between biological specificity and broadness of characterization. Additionally, we attempt to identify proteins in eu- and heterochromatin, verifying the enrichments by characterizing the post-translational modifications detected on histone proteins from these chromatin regions. In summary, our results provide insights into the value of different methods to extract chromatin-associated proteins and provide starting points to study the factors that may be involved in directing gene expression and other chromatin-related processes.

  15. Interrogating education of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Willis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports students’ responses to a curriculum focused on integrating critical approaches, and evidence-based knowledge, with an education of the heart pedagogy. A focus group was conducted with 12 student representatives from a large first year undergraduate sociology of health and illness topic taught to a number of health professional students. Discussion centred on student views and feelings about the emotional or lived experience components of the topic portrayed through films, plays and poetry as well as the arts-based assessment exercise. Student responses indicate that they found the arts-based portrayals of the lived experience insightful for developing their own theory of care, but this was tempered by feelings of insecurity in completing these forms of assessment in the competitive environment where grades are important for achieving transfer to their program of choice. 

  16. Season: Shelving Interference and Joint Identification in Large-scale RFID Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Han, Jinsong; Qi, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Prior work on anti-collision for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) systems usually schedule adjacent readers to exclusively interrogate tags for avoiding reader collisions. Although such a pattern can effectively deal with collisions, the lack of readers’ collaboration wastes numerous time...

  17. Crystal structure of <i>B> acillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity: AtxA multimerization, phosphorylation and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Lori, Horton B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2014-12-30

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthetic operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (HisAsp) and phosphoablative (HisAla) amino acid changes for activity in B.anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (i) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (ii) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. The AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator, and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism.

  18. "Money talks, bullshit walks" interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2013-07-18

    Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing

  19. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  20. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  1. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  2. Patterns of Use of an Agent-Based Model and a System Dynamics Model: The Application of Patterns of Use and the Impacts on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate; Reimann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A classification system that was developed for the use of agent-based models was applied to strategies used by school-aged students to interrogate an agent-based model and a system dynamics model. These were compared, and relationships between learning outcomes and the strategies used were also analysed. It was found that the classification system…

  3. Ibis: a Flexible and Efficient Java based Grid Programming Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.; Maassen, J.; Wrzesinska, G.; Hofman, R.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; Kielmann, T.; Bal, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    In computational Grids, performance-hungry applications need to simultaneously tap the computational power of multiple, dynamically available sites. The crux of designing Grid programming environments stems exactly from the dynamic availability of compute cycles: Grid programming environments (a)

  4. Ibi: An Examination of the Yoruba Traditional-Existentialist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Yoruba oral tradition, it posits that for the Yoruba evil is the creation of each individual, so that God cannot be blamed for its existence. I conclude the article with my own personal view that given the individual as a carrier of evil seed, the best existential outlook is to be ready to face, with stoic courage, whatever life ...

  5. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    classified as stationary, flying, foraging, or vigilant, while large mammal activity was classified as resting, walking or vigilant. Fifty-three transects were undertaken in. LMNP, 97 in MR, and 63 in the human-use areas. Cattle Egrets within 50 m of a large mammal (Heatwole 1965) and seemingly responding to the animal were ...

  6. Parasites of cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ) and the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, 92.5% of the cattle egrets had at least one of the different parasites while a combined infection of both Ectoparasite and endoparasite had the highest co-infection prevalence (25%). The study also showed that there was a significantly higher risk of co-infection of the different types of parasites in cattle egrets.

  7. Un programme de conservation pour l'ibis chauve (Geronticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (SEO), a permis d'obtenir des résultats au niveau de la productivité et de la connaissance de l'écologie de l'espèce. La taille de la population a connu une augmentation grâce aux efforts entrepris pour assurer le succès de la reproduction. Le régime alimentaire ainsi que les sites d'alimentation convenables sont identifiés ...

  8. Reproductive ecology of the Cattle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis ) at Sidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0.18 chicks per nest survived to 12–15d of age. Growth curves of developing nestlings were estimated from repeated measurements of mass, tarsus, head and beak length, and wingspan. The last chicks (C- and D-chicks) to hatch had lower growth rates and/or survivorship than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chicks.

  9. Ibie'ka (Ideographs): Developing Visual Signs for Expressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual signs (ideographs) are artistic codified expressions that promote social and cultural integration. They are normally based on popular conventions which over a period of time become generally accepted. In pre-western literate Africa, apart from oral communication, visual codes were employed within social groups.

  10. « Depuis quand le requin est un mammifère ?!?!?! » La pragmaticalisation de la séquence interrogative depuis quand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail aborde les emplois non temporels de la séquence interrogative depuis quand dans des énoncés du type « Depuis quand le requin est un mammifère ?!?!?! », emplois expressifs fréquents en contextes dialogiques. Sans étude particulière dans la littérature, de tels cas peuvent être caractérisés, dans le cadre d’une approche cognitive, comme étant pragmaticalisés (Dostie 2004 i.e. laissant transparaître la subjectivité du locuteur (Traugott 2010. Depuis quand devient ainsi un marqueur discursif (Traugott, Dasher 2004, Dostie, Pusch 2007 autant dans des structures phrastiques (« Depuis quand l’opinion personnelle d’un obscur politicien est-elle vérité ? » que comme mot-phrase (« Le verbe peinturer existe ? Depuis quand ? ». Sur la base d’une grammaire émergeant du discours (Hopper 1987, nous décrivons l’emploi de cette formule à partir de l’analyse d’un corpus d’énoncés relevés sur des sites internet recueillant l’opinion des internautes. Dans ces emplois, nettement subjectifs, depuis quand joue le rôle d’un marqueur de discordance, cette notion se prêtant, en discours, à des modulations contextuelles. Ce sont ces variations qui nous permettront de proposer une première typologie des emplois subjectivisés de depuis quand en tant que marqueur de discordance : (i manifestation de l’étonnement (« Depuis quand doit-on prouver son innocence ? », (ii expression de la désapprobation (« Depuis quand faut-il manifester sa liberté d’expression en critiquant ceux qui vous ont soutenu et promu ? », (iii mise en scène de l’incongru (« Depuis quand les morts consomment-ils de l’eau ? ». Notre analyse prend en compte, également, des aspects caractéristiques de tels emplois à savoir les questions rhétoriques et l’ironie. Une attention particulière est accordée à des emplois tels que « Depuis quand un procureur s’appelle lui-même comme témoin ? », analysés en termes

  11. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Barbu; Georgeta Vintila

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must...

  12. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  13. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  14. Practical experience with a local verification system for containment and surveillance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    With the growing number of nuclear facilities and a number of large commercial bulk handling facilities steadily coming into operation the International Atomic Energy Agency is faced with increasing requirements as to reducing its inspection efforts. One means of meeting these requirements will be to deploy facility based remote interrogation methods for its containment and surveillance instrumentation. Such a technical concept of remote interrogation was realized through the so-called LOVER system development, a local verification system for electronic safeguards seal systems. In the present investigations the application was extended to radiation monitoring by introducing an electronic interface between the electronic safeguards seal and the neutron detector electronics of a waste monitoring system. The paper discusses the safeguards motivation and background, the experimental setup of the safeguards system and the performance characteristics of this LOVER system. First conclusions can be drawn from the performance results with respect to the applicability in international safeguards. This comprises in particular the definition of design specifications for an integrated remote interrogation system for various types of containment and surveillance instruments and the specifications of safeguards applications employing such a system

  15. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  16. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  17. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  18. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  19. An optical system with potential for remote health monitoring of subsea machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D A

    2009-01-01

    A prototype fibre-optic sensing system is described with potential to remotely monitor the condition of three-phase variable frequency subsea motors and electric submersible pumps. An indication that the integrity of a powerful electric motor may be compromised can be gained by spectral analysis of the stator drive current, the phases of the currents, the measurement of vibration at specific locations on the motor and the temperature of the bearings. The optical interrogation system is based on an imbalanced Mach–Zehnder fibre interferometer, illuminated with a broadband source with fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) used as the basic transducers for the current and vibration measurements. Signals were recovered at a distance of 7 km, for the 'in house' current sensor at an effective ac current of 500 A at frequencies from 10 to 1000 Hz with a S/N ratio of 45 dB, together with the relative phases between the currents. These signals were generated with a simulated high power three-phase electric motor. A commercial accelerometer was incorporated into the system which demonstrated a sensitivity of 1 mg Hz −1/2 also from 10 to 1000 Hz. As the interrogation system can only be used to detect dynamic signals, a second interrogation for quasi-static temperature measurements is required; although this was not deployed, possible applications other than bearing temperature measurement are considered

  20. Fiber-Optic Sensing System: Overview, Development and Deployment in Flight at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Richards, W. Lance

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the research and technological development of the fiber-optic sensing system (FOSS) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA AFRC) is presented. Theory behind fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, as well as interrogation technique based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) is discussed. Assessment and validation of FOSS as an accurate measurement tool for structural health monitoring is realized in the laboratory environment as well as large-scale flight deployment.

  1. Anthropological - philosophical reflections for a critical study of educational management: From the shift from thinking to interrogation by making us human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This idea, in the field of critical studies of educational management, stresses the sociotechnical dispositions of national and transnational educational policies, which, in the field of management societies, propose the same thing in the same way, is To say, the instrumentalization of existence from various forms of alienation, even from those that from the fascism of the market sell freedom as one more commodity. It will be vital for critical thinking in Latin America to engage in dialogue with other forms of education, which are reluctant to be co-opted by the school's banking system.

  2. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litian Duan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  3. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  4. A structural health monitoring system with ultrasonic MEMS transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, Rasim O.; Onen, Onursal; Gul, Mustafa; Catbas, F. Necati

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we will summarize our efforts on exploring guided acoustic waves generated by MEMS ultrasonic transducers enabling a non-destructive, ultra-low powered, wireless SHM system. State-of-the-art SHM systems employ bulk piezoelectric transducers. However, they are not environmentally benign (contain lead), not cost feasible for monitoring every bridge in the U.S., require significant power for operation, lack integration capability for wireless interrogation, need precise matching layers, and have only 25-50 percent fractional bandwidth, limiting the detection resolution. To alleviate most of these shortcomings, a low impedance MEMS transducer, called a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), is explored.

  5. Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real-Time, Dynamic Decision-Making Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Catherine; Gray, Wayne D; Lindstedt, John K

    2017-04-01

    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, (a) choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and (b)a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid (i.e., Tetris piece) so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning (CERL) models (Szita & Lorincz, 2006) to determine whether different goals result in different feature weights. Two of these optimization strategies quickly rise to performance plateaus, whereas two others continue toward higher but more jagged (i.e., variable) heights. In Study 2, we compare the zoid placement decisions made by our best CERL models with those made by 67 human players. Across 370,131 human game episodes, two CERL models picked the same zoid placements as our lowest scoring human for 43% of the placements and as our three best scoring experts for 65% of the placements. Our findings suggest that people focus on maximizing points, not number of lines cleared or number of levels reached. They also show that goal choice influences the choice of zoid placements for CERLs and suggest that the same is true of humans. Tetris has a repetitive task structure that makes Tetris more tractable and more like a traditional experimental psychology paradigm than many more complex games or tasks. Hence, although complex, Tetris is not overwhelmingly complex and presents a right-sized challenge to cognitive theories, especially those of integrated cognitive systems. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. An S-FSCW Based Multi-Channel Reader System for Beamforming Applications using Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfeffer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interrogating multiple surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors located within the same radar beam require techniques to separate the multiple superposing SAW sensor responses. The presented multi-channel reader features four parallel transceiver channels, which are based on the switched frequency-stepped continuous-wave principle and high-speed parallelized baseband electronics. Thus classical beamforming applications including angle of arrival measurement of single SAW tags and the angular separation of multiple SAW sensors are presented and compared to a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO approach. Due to the larger virtual array in the MIMO approach a larger aperture can be synthesized, which leads to significantly better angular separation results. The level analysis for the given system is verified by baseband-power measurements at different readout distances, considering the hardware parameters as well as the free-space propagation aspects. Finally measurements assess the maximum interrogation distance for the system.

  7. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  8. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  9. A Safe, Self-Calibrating, Wireless System for Measuring Volume of Any Fuel at Non-Horizontal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    A system for wirelessly measuring the volume of fluid in tanks at non-horizontal orientation is predicated upon two technologies developed at Langley Research Center. The first is a magnetic field response recorder that powers and interrogates magnetic field response sensors [ Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System, (LAR-16908), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28]. Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields and when electrically active respond with their own magnetic fields whose attributes are dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. The response recorder facilitates the use of the second technology, which is a magnetic field response fluid-level sensor ["Wireless Fluid- Level Sensors for Harsh Environments," (LAR-17155), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 4 (April 2009), page 30]. The method for powering and interrogating the sensors allows them to be completely encased in materials (Fig. 1) that are chemically resilient to the fluid being measured, thereby facilitating measurement of substances (e.g., acids, petroleum, cryogenic, caustic, and the like) that would normally destroy electronic circuitry. When the sensors are encapsulated, no fluid (or fluid vapor) is exposed to any electrical component of the measurement system. There is no direct electrical line from the vehicle or plant power into a fuel container. The means of interrogating and powering the sensors can be completely physically and electrically isolated from the fuel and vapors by placing the sensor on the other side of an electrically non-conductive bulkhead (Fig. 2). These features prevent the interrogation system and its electrical components from becoming an ignition source.

  10. Interrogating Recuperative Masculinity Politics in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the continuing impact of recuperative masculinity politics in the schooling of economically advantaged boys (elite and middle class); yet, it also indicates resistance to this politics. An understanding that the gender order is unstable and that variants of hegemonic masculinity continue to morph in the context of…

  11. Meanings of health: interrogating structure and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basu, Ambar

    2008-11-01

    Based on the argument that context ought to be centralized in discourses of health communication, this article applies the culture-centered approach to engage in dialogue about issues of health with 18 men in rural West Bengal. The culture-centered approach is based on dialogue between the researcher and the community members, with the goals of listening to the voices of cultural members in suggesting culture-based health solutions. In this project, our discursive engagement with the participants suggests that health is primarily constructed as an absence, framed in the realm of minimal access to healthcare resources. In a situation where the resources are limited, the participants discussed the importance of trust in their relationship with the local provider. Health was also seen as a collective resource that was both an asset of the collective and a responsibility of the collective. Finally, the participants also pointed out the ways in which corruption in the structure introduced a paradox in policy discourse and the material conditions of the participants.

  12. INTERROGATIONAL TORTURE AS AN ABUSE OF HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    the water.9. One major factor that ran through eyewitnesses or victims of military abuse reports is that, the victims were mostly tortured to admit their membership to the sect. The tortures were also aimed at eliciting information that will help the military foil future attacks from the Boko Haram sect. Before we can evaluate these ...

  13. Interrogating the druggable genome with structural informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Kevin; Danzer, Joseph; Muskal, Steven; Debe, Derek A

    2006-08-01

    Structural genomics projects are producing protein structure data at an unprecedented rate. In this paper, we present the Target Informatics Platform (TIP), a novel structural informatics approach for amplifying the rapidly expanding body of experimental protein structure information to enhance the discovery and optimization of small molecule protein modulators on a genomic scale. In TIP, existing experimental structure information is augmented using a homology modeling approach, and binding sites across multiple target families are compared using a clique detection algorithm. We report here a detailed analysis of the structural coverage for the set of druggable human targets, highlighting drug target families where the level of structural knowledge is currently quite high, as well as those areas where structural knowledge is sparse. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of TIP's intra- and inter-family binding site similarity analysis using a series of retrospective case studies. Our analysis underscores the utility of a structural informatics infrastructure for extracting drug discovery-relevant information from structural data, aiding researchers in the identification of lead discovery and optimization opportunities as well as potential "off-target" liabilities.

  14. Forging national integrarion through philosophic interrogation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the recipe is philosophical re-orientation towards instituting liberalism (in the original sense of the word) as national ethos. It is also argued that liberalism is a philosophy of freedom and justice upon which anvil great civilizations have been forged and great civilizations broken when they turned ...

  15. Discussing Comedy--An Interrogative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Rather than propose or endorse a single theory of comedy, this essay explores a wide variety of implications in sometimes-conflicting ideas on the subject. It groups questions under such topics as types of comedy, plot, social morality, and identity. These questions are drawn from a wide range of viewpoints both ancient and modern. It concludes…

  16. Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    War II, he soft ened them with gift s of magazines, cig- arettes, and chocolates . He broke through their reserve with humor. And he spoke to them in...109. 208 Camp 020, 107. 96 | such as personality, mood , and acting ability.209 Noting that some interroga- tors would necessarily be incompatible with

  17. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  18. An interrogation of the gospel tradition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Louis W. Ndekha. Abstract. The paper is an analysis of Jesus and human development in the gospel tradition. It argues that while human development is a modern term, Jesus' life and work, death and resurrection represented an embodiment of the term in all its totality. Through conscientisation Jesus was able to both ...

  19. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case.

  20. Visual interrogation of gyrokinetic particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Chad; Ma, K-L; Sanderson, Allen; Myers, Lee Roy Jr

    2007-01-01

    Gyrokinetic particle simulations are critical to the study of anomalous energy transport associated with plasma microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion experiments. The simulations are conducted on massively parallel computers and produce large quantities of particles, variables, and time steps, thus presenting a formidable challenge to data analysis tasks. We present two new visualization techniques for scientists to improve their understanding of the time-varying, multivariate particle data. One technique allows scientists to examine correlations in multivariate particle data with tightly coupled views of the data in both physical space and variable space, and to visually identify and track features of interest. The second technique, built into SCIRun, allows scientists to perform range-based queries over a series of time slices and visualize the resulting particles using glyphs. The ability to navigate the multiple dimensions of the particle data, as well as query individual or a collection of particles, enables scientists to not only validate their simulations but also discover new phenomena in their data

  1. Interrogating patient-centredness in undergraduate medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching and learning of such a multidimensional construct require a comprehensive approach in order to be effective and the IBM seems to be a useful and applicable theoretical model to apply. Keywords: integrated behaviour model, patient-centredness, teaching and learning, undergraduate medical curriculum ...

  2. Ultra-stable clock laser system development towards space applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerad, Dariusz; Häfner, Sebastian; Vogt, Stefan; Venon, Bertrand; Holleville, David; Bize, Sébastien; Kulosa, André; Bode, Sebastian; Singh, Yeshpal; Bongs, Kai; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Lodewyck, Jérôme; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

    2016-09-26

    The increasing performance of optical lattice clocks has made them attractive for scientific applications in space and thus has pushed the development of their components including the interrogation lasers of the clock transitions towards being suitable for space, which amongst others requires making them more power efficient, radiation hardened, smaller, lighter as well as more mechanically stable. Here we present the development towards a space-compatible interrogation laser system for a strontium lattice clock constructed within the Space Optical Clock (SOC2) project where we have concentrated on mechanical rigidity and size. The laser reaches a fractional frequency instability of 7.9 × 10 -16 at 300 ms averaging time. The laser system uses a single extended cavity diode laser that gives enough power for interrogating the atoms, frequency comparison by a frequency comb and diagnostics. It includes fibre link stabilisation to the atomic package and to the comb. The optics module containing the laser has dimensions 60 × 45 × 8 cm 3 ; and the ultra-stable reference cavity used for frequency stabilisation with its vacuum system takes 30 × 30 × 30 cm 3 . The acceleration sensitivities in three orthogonal directions of the cavity are 3.6 × 10 -10 /g, 5.8 × 10 -10 /g and 3.1 × 10 -10 /g, where g ≈ 9.8 m/s 2 is the standard gravitational acceleration.

  3. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  4. SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.

  5. X-ray intensification and minification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification discloses an apparatus for intensifying and minifying x-ray images including a rectangular housing with opposed front and rear ends. A phosphorous screen is disposed in the front end of the housing for receiving x-ray images of an object irradiated by x-rays and in response thereto generating light images corresponding to the x-ray images. A mirror system is mounted within the housing adjacent the rear end for reflecting the light images back toward the front end of the housing. An image intensifying assembly is provided along one side of the housing for amplifying and minifying the reflected light images. A camera is located in the front end of the housing for recording the amplified and minified light images. Circuitry is provided for interrogating the operation of the camera and of various electronic circuits of the system in order to provide a visual indication of malfunction of the system

  6. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  7. Enhanced FBG sensor-based system performance assessment for monitoring strain along a prestressed CFRP rod in structural monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrouche, A.; Boyle, W.J.O.; Sun, T.

    2009-01-01

    of the existing FBG-based system and the evaluation of the software developed to be compatible with a resolution reaching as high as +/- 0.15 mu epsilon is presented. The system has been tested under particular conditions where a prestressed CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) rod to which a FBG sensor......Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-based systems have been widely used for many engineering applications including most recently a number of applications in structural health monitoring. It is well known that strain and temperature both affect the FBG spectrum which in the interrogation system...

  8. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium γ-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material

  9. LHCb: The LHCb data bookkeeping system

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanciotti, E

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb Bookkeeping is a system for the storage and retrieval of meta data associated with LHCb datasets. e.g. whether it is real or simulated data, which running period it is associated with, how it was processed and all the other relevant characteristics of the files. etc. The meta data is stored in an oracle database which is interrogated using services provided by the LHCb DIRAC3 infrastructure, that provides security, data streaming, and multi threading connections. Users can browse the bookkeeping database through a command line interface or Graphical User Interface (GUI). The command line presents a view similar to a file system and the GUI is implemented on top of this.

  10. THE ARCHITECTURAL INFORMATION SYSTEM SIARCH3D-UNIVAQ FOR ANALYSIS AND PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Centofanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research group of L'Aquila University defined a procedure to create an architectonical Information System called SIArch- Univaq. This information system can be integrated with "Risk Map" Italian database. The SIArch-Univaq is based on importation of architectonical three-dimensional photorealistic models in GIS environment. 3D models are realised according to building constructive elements, derived by a critical architectonic surveying; the importation of models into GIS allows the interrogation of the constructive elements (i.e. beam, window, door, etc.: this favour the knowledge of the architectonical heritage, indispensable requirement to plan processes of restoration, maintenance and management.

  11. On-Chip Correlator for Passive Wireless SAW Multisensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For decoding the asynchronous superposition of response signals from different sensors, it is a challenge to achieve correlation in a code division multiplexing (CDM based passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW multisensor system. Therefore, an on-chip correlator scheme is developed in this paper. In contrast to conventional CDM-based systems, this novel scheme enables the correlations to be operated at the SAW sensors, instead of the reader. Thus, the response signals arriving at the reader are the result of cross-correlation on the chips. It is then easy for the reader to distinguish the sensor that is matched with the interrogating signal. The operation principle, signal analysis, and simulation of the novel scheme are described in the paper. The simulation results show the response signals from the correlations of the sensors. A clear spike pulse is presented in the response signals, when a sensor code is matched with the interrogating code. Simulations verify the feasibility of the on-chip correlator concept.

  12. The role of the opioid system in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2014-01-01

    The role of the brain opioid system in alcohol dependence has been the subject of much research for over 25 years. This review explores the evidence: firstly describing the opioid receptors in terms of their individual subtypes, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and ligands; secondly, summarising emerging data from specific neurochemical, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, explaining the characteristics of addiction with a focus on alcohol dependence and connecting the opioid system with alcohol dependence; and finally reviewing the known literature regarding opioid antagonists in clinical use for alcohol dependence. Further interrogation of how modulation of the opioid system, via use of MOP (mu), DOP (delta) and KOP (kappa) agents, restores the balance of a dysregulated system in alcohol dependence should increase our insight into this disease process and therefore guide better methods for understanding and treating alcohol dependence in the future.

  13. Development of a Transportation System in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    carefully-graded metalled road from Khanacin on the Iraq-Iranian frontier I I 27 to Kermanshah and improved the existing cart rack from there to...road Jfrom Hamadan to Bandar Pahlavi through Qazvin and the metalled road connecting Hamadan with Kermanshah and Iraq which had been constructed Iby...fifteen principal cities were not served by the railway including such major cities as Tabriz, Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Hamadan, and Kermanshah .6 The

  14. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    Risk-phenotypes and diseases are oen caused by perturbed cellular networks, as biological processes depend on an overwhelming number of heavily intertwined components. e impact of a genetically altered gene may ripple through its molecular neighborhood instead of being confined to the gene...... product itself. My doctoral studies have been focused on the development of integrative approaches to identify systemic risk-modifying and disease-causing patterns. ey have been rooted in the hypothesis that data integration of complementary data sets may yield additional etiologic insights compared...... to analyses conducted within a single type of data. e first line of research presented here outlines two integrative methodologies designed to identify etiological pathways and susceptibility genes. In Paper I, my coworkers and I present an integrative approach that interrogates protein complexes...

  15. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynami....... The calculation of the velocity distribution is then explainedalong with the different physical effects influencing the estimation.The estimation of mean velocities using auto- andcross-correlation for color flow mapping is also described....... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood...

  16. Optimum Power Distance Clustering for the EPC Class-1 Gen2 Standard in RFID Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Sanchez; Victor Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Tag collision is one of the main issues impacting the performance of radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems. Several research efforts have been done in order to solve such problem. Current RFID standards, such as EPCGen2 and ISO-18000-7, adopt ALOHA-based protocols as the basis to solve collisions. In recent years, there has been a trend on designing schemes that split the interrogation zone into smaller regions with the aim of improving the system’s performance. In this paper, we eval...

  17. Design, fabrication and systems integration of a satellite tracked, free-drifting ocean data buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Cox, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering details are presented of a small free-drifting buoy configuration designed for use in the study of continental shelf water circulation patterns in the Chesapeake Bight of the Western North Atlantic Ocean. The buoy incoporated French instrumentation and was interrogated by the French EOLE satellite to provide position and four channels of temperature data. The buoy design included a variable depth drogue and a power supply sufficient for six weeks of continuous operations. Proof tests of the configuration indicated an adequate design and subsequent field experiments verified the proper functioning of the system.

  18. Application of neutron/gamma transport codes for the design of explosive detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, E.; Shayer, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of neutron and gamma transport codes to the design of nuclear techniques for detecting concealed explosives material are discussed. The methodology of integrating radiation transport computations in the development, optimization and analysis phases of these new technologies is discussed. Transport and Monte Carlo codes are used for proof of concepts, guide the system integration, reduce the extend of experimental program and provide insight into the physical problem involved. The paper concentrates on detection techniques based on thermal and fast neutron interactions in the interrogated object. (authors). 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  19. Qualidade do solo em sistemas de produção de hortaliças orgânico e convencional Soil quality in organic and conventional vegetables production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Valarini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sendo o solo um dos principais pilares de sustentabilidade de todo sistema de produção, a análise integrada dos atributos edafobiológicos pode constituir-se em ferramenta importante para avaliar a qualidade do mesmo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade do solo em função das práticas agrícolas adotadas, mediante a análise integrada de atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2006 e 2007 nas microrregiões de Ibiúna e Socorro, no estado de São Paulo, em pequenas propriedades familiares orgânicas e convencionais. Foram avaliados os atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos, mediante coletas de amostras de solos sob cultivo de hortaliças e em solos de mata ou pastagem. O levantamento de dados sobre as práticas agrícolas foi realizado em cada sistema de produção. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP. A ACP identificou maior grau de similaridade entre os solos sob cultivo em Socorro e suas respectivas testemunhas que os solos de Ibiúna, nitidamente separados em função do seu uso (mata ou cultivo e indicando melhor manejo dos mesmos em Socorro. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que as práticas agrícolas utilizadas na maioria das propriedades orgânicas e convencionais favoreceram a degradação do solo, devida principalmente ao revolvimento intensivo e à ausência de cobertura do solo. Estes fatores provocaram redução dos teores de matéria orgânica do solo, da biomassa microbiana, da emergência de plântulas e da estabilidade de agregados nas áreas de cultivo em relação às áreas testemunhas.The soil is one of the most important sustainability columns of the production system. The integrated analysis of the edaphobiological attributes can be an important tool for soil quality evaluation. We evaluated the soil quality regarding the adopted agriculture practices, using the integrated analysis of physical, chemical and biological attributes

  20. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  1. A calorimeter trigger system for the ISR axial field spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, L.

    1981-01-01

    A fast and flexible trigger processor system designed to run in parallel up to 51 different types of trigger is used in a large hadron calorimeter experiment at CERN-ISR. A very fast data bus connected to 255 10 bit address ECE memory chips allows programmable selection of events according to their topology and energy pattern in less than 150 ns. In addition this system can interrogate two programmable processors (ESOP) to isolate events characterized by a large energy flow in the central drift chamber (< 500 μs). All functions of the trigger processor can be checked externally by a computer through injecting in parallel simulated input signals into various stages of the system. Salient features and performances will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed

  3. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  4. Separating Adaptive Maintenance (Resilience and Transformative Capacity of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many rural communities are vulnerable social-ecological systems (SES that must do more than become resilient to future environmental and social shocks: they must transform to achieve sustainability. We aimed first to conceptually explore the proposition that SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions necessary for transformation may be distinct from those necessary for adaptive maintenance or resilience, and second, to propose metrics that may be used to assess these two types of system changes. We did this by interrogating literature and by investigating two rural towns in Australia using a combination of quantitative methods and focus groups to interrogate community social networks, capitals (human, natural, built, and social and future scenarios. Results indicated that (1 it is practicable to carry out a holistic assessment of SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions, and (2 purposeful, positive transformation is supported by vision, identification with place, unhappiness (with the status quo, high personal contribution to social capital, open social networks, and latent capital(s. We conclude that rural communities possess capacities for adaptive maintenance (resilience and for system-wide transformation, and that the metrics used to assess each are sometimes discrete, sometimes common.

  5. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented...... here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation......, droplet packing, imaging and amplification (heating). The project has been broken into sub-projects, in which several devices of simpler application have been developed. Most of these employ gravity for concentrating and packing droplets, which has been made possible by the use of large area chambers...

  6. Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating dynamic pressure sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Zhao, Qida; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Chunshu; Huang, Guiling; Xue, Lifang; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2006-08-01

    Temperature-insensitive dynamic pressure measurement using a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on reflection spectrum bandwidth modulation and optical power detection is proposed. A specifically designed double-hole cantilever beam is used to provide a pressure-induced axial strain gradient along the sensing FBG and is also used to modulate the reflection bandwidth of the grating. The bandwidth modulation is immune to spatially uniform temperature effects, and the pressure can be unambiguously determined by measuring the reflected optical power, avoiding the complex wavelength interrogation system. The system acquisition time is up to 85 Hz for dynamic pressure measurement, and the thermal fluctuation is kept less than 1.2% full-scale for a temperature range of -10 degrees C to 80 degrees C.

  7. IBIS UvA: research and consultancy in Lean Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma is an advanced process improvement methodology. Initially, Six Sigma focused on the reduction of the number of defects in manufacturing. It was introduced at Motorola in 1986, and it incorporates previous methodologies, such as Statistical Process Control, Total Quality Management,

  8. Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of prey items was not correlated to their occurrence in the diet, suggesting that the Cattle Egret is a selective predator, with adults selecting prey species for their chicks. A drought in the spring of 2006 increased the availability of fish and lizards to the Cattle Egrets. OSTRICH 2012, 83(2): 99–104 ...

  9. Virulence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus Ibis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for insect control in households. In this study, six Cattle Egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) A/duck/Vietnam/40D/04 (H5N1) to investigate a possible epidemiologic role for Cattle Egrets in outbreaks of H5N1 AI in Vietnam. The Cattle Egrets were...... highly susceptible to the infection and either died within a week or had to be euthanized. Five uninfected chickens housed with the inoculated Cattle Egrets from day 1 to day 8 postinfection showed no signs of disease or mortality. This observation was most probably due to the low-level virus shedding...

  10. Feeding association between cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis and mammal hosts in the central Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.B. Butler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Field observations undertaken during October 1995 to April 2001 in agricultural areas and nature reserves of the central Free State, indicate that cattle egrets mainly feed in commensalistic association with ungulates or even farm implements. A higher percentage farm animals than game was involved herewith. Based on calculated preference indices only three species, namely cattle, buffalo and white rhino, qualified as key hosts. Eland, gemsbok, impala and horses were classified as major hosts, while the rest of the thirteen observed host species were identified as minor hosts. More than half of all feeding associations (58,4% occurred during the early mornings followed by a decrease during the middle of the day with a slight increase again later in the afternoon. Depending on the host species involved, notable differences occurred in the time of association. Cattle were the only host species with which cattle egrets associated during any time of the day. Evidently, cattle egrets associated most often with larger host species which were actively grazing. In grassland habitats the birds mainly fed in front of grazing hosts, but behind those that moved too fast.

  11. Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Forbes, John F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors effectively prevent breast cancer recurrence and development of new contralateral tumours in postmenopausal women. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high ri...... cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, the National Health and Medical Research Council Australia, Sanofi-Aventis, and AstraZeneca....

  12. Virulence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus Ibis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for insect control in households. In this study, six Cattle Egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) A/duck/Vietnam/40D/04 (H5N1) to investigate a possible epidemiologic role for Cattle Egrets in outbreaks of H5N1 AI in Vietnam. The Cattle Egrets were...

  13. Mortality in South African Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis from 1951 to 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Of 46,160 birds ringed in South African heronries from 1951 through 1987, 481 were subsequently recovered (recovery rate: 1.04%. Most of these birds were ringed in the Western Cape (N = 173, KwaZulu-Natal (N = 142 and Gauteng (N = 106. The age of the recovered birds ranged from 0 to 23 years. Almost two thirds were 0-2 years old, and only 1.2% were 15 years or older. The average age of the recovered birds was 4.9 years (N = 465. The mortality rate was highest in their first and second year (31-36%. Nearly one third of the birds recovered (N = 134 were sick or injured, and 30.6% had been shot. Relatively low mortality, a long life span and relatively low predation pressure may contribute to the great success of the Cattle Egret in colonising various parts of the world. The paper presents the initial state for the likely future evolution of the distribution of the species.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Firearms/Toolmarks Interpretation of Cartridge Case Evidence Using IBIS and Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    Taroni, F, Aitken, C, Garbolino, P, Biedermann, A, Bayesian Networks and Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science (Statistics in Practice), Wiley...were transformed into a Bayesian network . Bayesian networks allow for the assessment of evidence based upon two propositions (same gun or different...gun). This allows a forensic scientist to provide insight to courts and investigators as to the value of the evidence. The breech face (BF) and

  15. The increasingly urban status of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bush-crickets, grasshoppers and other insects is presumably beneficial to farmers. Overall, for breeding and roosting, and to some extent feeding, Cattle Egrets can now be considered as urbanized in this near-equatorial city. Introduction. The process of urbanization in birds is generating increasing interest around the.

  16. The increasingly urban status of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some birds may always have fed in the area that is now Kampala. Today, some feed at the city's main land-fill site, but most go to the countryside where their consumption of bush-crickets, grasshoppers and other insects is presumably beneficial to farmers. Overall, for breeding and roosting, and to some extent feeding, ...

  17. The Hermit Ibis (Geronticus eremita in Moravia in Gallaš’s manuscript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudeček Jiří J.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available J. H. A. Gallaš (1756-1840 mentioned in his manuscript the occurrence of Corvus eremita L. in Moravia. Mlíkovský (2007 says incorrectly that Hudeček & Hanák (2004 had stated in was a discovery from the 19 th century. We have not written anything of this sort. Nevertheless, the author of his text persists on its potential occurrence in the 18 th century. The species Corvus eremita L. (= Geronticus eremita has been taken as made-up and non-existent since the beginning of the 19 th century but its application in relation to the species Corvus graculus L. (= Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax

  18. Evaluating the spatiotemporal variations of water budget across China over 1951-2006 using IBIS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, H.; Liu, J.; Wei, X.; Peng, C.; Fang, X.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Yu, S.; Ju, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Biosphere Simulator is used to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of the crucial hydrological variables [run-off and actual evapotranspiration (AET)] of the water balance across China for the period 1951–2006 including a precipitation analysis. Results suggest three major findings. First, simulated run-off captured 85% of the spatial variability and 80% of the temporal variability for 85 hydrological gauges across China. The mean relative errors were within 20% for 66% of the studied stations and within 30% for 86% of the stations. The Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients indicated that the quantity pattern of run-off was also captured acceptably except for some watersheds in southwestern and northwestern China. The possible reasons for underestimation of run-off in the Tibetan plateau include underestimation of precipitation and uncertainties in other meteorological data due to complex topography, and simplified representations of the soil depth attribute and snow processes in the model. Second, simulated AET matched reasonably with estimated values calculated as the residual of precipitation and run-off for watersheds controlled by the hydrological gauges. Finally, trend analysis based on the Mann–Kendall method indicated that significant increasing and decreasing patterns in precipitation appeared in the northwest part of China and the Yellow River region, respectively. Significant increasing and decreasing trends in AET were detected in the Southwest region and the Yangtze River region, respectively. In addition, the Southwest region, northern China (including the Heilongjiang, Liaohe, and Haihe Basins), and the Yellow River Basin showed significant decreasing trends in run-off, and the Zhemin hydrological region showed a significant increasing trend.

  19. Time-domain multiplexed high resolution fiber optics strain sensor system based on temporal response of fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-09-04

    We developed a multiplexed strain sensor system with high resolution using fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FFPI) as sensing elements. The temporal responses of the FFPIs excited by rectangular laser pulses are used to obtain the strain applied on each FFPI. The FFPIs are connected by cascaded couplers and delay fiber rolls for the time-domain multiplexing. A compact optoelectronic system performing closed-loop cyclic interrogation is employed to improve the sensing resolution and the frequency response. In the demonstration experiment, 3-channel strain sensing with resolutions better than 0.1 nε and frequency response higher than 100 Hz is realized.

  20. Evaluation of cumulative effects of MR imaging on pacemaker systems at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naehle, Claas P; Zeijlemaker, Volkert; Thomas, Daniel; Meyer, Carsten; Strach, Katharina; Fimmers, Rolf; Schild, Hans; Sommer, Torsten

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible cumulative effects of repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations on pacemaker systems in patients with cardiac pacemakers. The records of pacemaker patients who underwent repetitive MRI examinations in our institution were reviewed to identify patients who underwent two or more MRI examinations at 1.5T of any anatomical region. Using these criteria, a total of 47 patients who underwent a total 171 MRI examinations were identified and included in this study. Institutional Review Board approval for all pacemaker investigations was obtained. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Pacemakers were interrogated immediately before and after MR imaging, and after 3 months, including measurement of pacing capture threshold (PCT), lead impedance (LI), and battery voltage (BV). PCT, LI, and BV were analyzed for changes dependant on the number of MRI exams performed. Mean changes over time and changes between first and last pacemaker interrogation of PCT, LI, and BV were calculated. A statistically significant (P < 0.05), but clinically irrelevant trend for decrease in PCT and BV was found. No significant or clinically relevant changes in LI were observed. In this first study, no clinically relevant, cumulative changes in PCT, LI, or BV could be detected in PM patients who underwent two or more MRI examinations. However, a careful benefit/risk evaluation, among other MRI- and pacemaker-related safety precautions, remains mandatory, as clinically relevant alterations to the PM system cannot be excluded by all means.

  1. Detection of flaws on surface of civil infrastructures and their profiling using imaging system with laser displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Paritosh; Kharkovsky, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Civil infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, roads and pipelines are the integral part of people's lives and their failure can have large public safety and economic consequences. Early detection of flaws in civil infrastructures and their appropriate retrofitting will aid in preventing this failure. Flaws such as cracks and impact damages initially occur on the surface and propagate inside the materials causing further degradation. There is a need to develop systems that can detect these surface flaws. Developing a system with one sensing technique which can detect the flaws is a challenging task since infrastructures are made up of diverse materials such as concrete, metal, plastics, composite and timber that have different electrical and mechanical properties. It is also desired that non-plain surfaces with complex profiles can be interrogated and surface flaws can be detected. We have proposed an imaging system capable of interrogating structures with complex surface profiles for the purpose of detection and evaluation of surface flaws such as cracks and impact damages using laser displacement sensor (LDS). The developed system consists of LDS mounted on the scanner which is able to perform raster scan over the specimen under test. The reading of displacement from the sensor head to the laser spot on the surface of the test material is then used to generate images which can be used to detect the surface flaws. The proof of concept is given by testing specimens made of metal, concrete and plastics with complex surface profiles.

  2. An MILP-Based Cross-Layer Optimization for a Multi-Reader Arbitration in the UHF RFID System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaewoo Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design.

  3. An MILP-Based Cross-Layer Optimization for a Multi-Reader Arbitration in the UHF RFID System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinchul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2011-01-01

    In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design. PMID:22163743

  4. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  5. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  6. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  7. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  8. Laboratory information management system: an example of international cooperation in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Patrizia; Ferrilli, Monica; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Malizia, Elio; Mbulu, Rosa-Stella; Mukete, Esther; Iipumbu, Lukas; Kamhulu, Anna; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Di Francesco, Cesare; Lelli, Rossella; Scacchia, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the project undertaken by the Istituto G. Caporale to provide a laboratory information management system (LIMS) to the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) in Windhoek, Namibia. This robust laboratory management tool satisfies Namibia's information obligations under international quality standard ISO 17025:2005. The Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for Africa was designed to collect and manage all necessary information on samples, tests and test results. The system involves the entry of sample data on arrival, as required by Namibian sampling plans, the tracking of samples through the various sections of the CVL, the collection of test results, generation of test reports and monitoring of outbreaks through data interrogation functions, eliminating multiple registrations of the same data on paper records. It is a fundamental component of the Namibian veterinary information system.

  9. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA; Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Benzel, David M [Livermore, CA; Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Spiridon, Alex [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  10. Laboratory information management system: an example of international cooperation in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Colangeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the project undertaken by the Istituto G. Caporale to provide a laboratory information management system (LIMS to the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL in Windhoek, Namibia. This robust laboratory management tool satisfies Namibia’s information obligations under international quality standard ISO 17025:2005. The Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS for Africa was designed to collect and manage all necessary information on samples, tests and test results. The system involves the entry of sample data on arrival, as required by Namibian sampling plans, the tracking of samples through the various sections of the CVL, the collection of test results, generation of test reports and monitoring of outbreaks through data interrogation functions, eliminating multiple registrations of the same data on paper records. It is a fundamental component of the Namibian veterinary information system.

  11. Miniaturized Blood Pressure Telemetry System with RFID Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Caldara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development and characterization of a potentially implantable blood pressure telemetry system, based on an active Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID tag, International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15693 compliant. This approach aims to continuously measure the average, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the small/medium animals. The measured pressure wave undergoes embedded processing and results are stored onboard in a non-volatile memory, providing the data under interrogation by an external RFID reader. In order to extend battery lifetime, RFID energy harvesting has been investigated. The paper presents the experimental characterization in a laboratory and preliminary in-vivo tests. The device is a prototype mainly intended, in a future engineered version, for monitoring freely moving test animals for pharmaceutical research and drug safety assessment purposes, but it could have multiple uses in environmental and industrial applications.

  12. The Dense Plasma Focus Opportunities in Detection of Hidden Objects by Using Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.; Karpinski, L.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; Strzyzewski, P.; Tomaszewski, K.; Dubrovsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    Dense Plasma Focus device is proposed for use as a neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration. Our devices PF-6, recently put into operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland, and PF-10 belonging to the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia, have energy storages in its capacitor banks 7.4 kJ and 13 kJ as a maximum. Operated with the DPF chambers of a special design they have a current maximum up to ∼760 kA with a quarter period of the discharge equal to 1 microsecond. They generate circa 109 of 2.5-MeV neutrons in one pulse of congruent with 10-ns duration when working with deuterium, what permit to expect 1011 14-MeV neutrons at their operation with DT-mixture. This feature gives a principal possibility to create a ''single-shot detection system'' for interrogation of hidden objects. It means that all necessary information will be received during a single bright pulse of neutrons having duration in a nanosecond range by means of the time-of-flight technique with a short flight base. It might be a base for the creation of the Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS). These characteristics of the neutron source open a number of opportunities while interrogation time in this case would now depend only on the data-processing system

  13. The Dense Plasma Focus Opportunities in Detection of Hidden Objects by Using Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V.; Dubrovsky, A.; Karpiński, L.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; StrzyŻewski, P.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2006-12-01

    Dense Plasma Focus device is proposed for use as a neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration. Our devices PF-6, recently put into operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland, and PF-10 belonging to the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia, have energy storages in its capacitor banks 7.4 kJ and 13 kJ as a maximum. Operated with the DPF chambers of a special design they have a current maximum up to ˜760 kA with a quarter period of the discharge equal to 1 microsecond. They generate circa 109 of 2.5-MeV neutrons in one pulse of ≅ 10-ns duration when working with deuterium, what permit to expect 1011 14-MeV neutrons at their operation with DT-mixture. This feature gives a principal possibility to create a "single-shot detection system" for interrogation of hidden objects. It means that all necessary information will be received during a single bright pulse of neutrons having duration in a nanosecond range by means of the time-of-flight technique with a short flight base. It might be a base for the creation of the Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS). These characteristics of the neutron source open a number of opportunities while interrogation time in this case would now depend only on the data-processing system.

  14. RFID Torque Sensing Tag System for Fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an RFID-based torque sensor that can be used to quickly monitor off the shelf fasteners including fasteners that are used in expensive satellites or other uses where fastener failure can be very costly. In one embodiment, an antenna, RFID ring and spring comprise a sensor tag that can be interrogated with an interrogation signal produced by an interrogator device. When sufficient torque is applied to the fastener, an RFID circuit is connected, and produces a radio frequency (RF) signal that can be read by the interrogator. In one embodiment, the RFID circuit does not transmit when the spring member is not compressed, thereby indicating insufficient tensioning of the fastener. The present invention offers the ability to remotely, quickly, and inexpensively verify that any number of fasteners are torqued properly upon initial installation. Where applicable, the present invention allows low cost monitoring over the life of the fastener.

  15. TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Somboonkaew, Armote

    2010-11-01

    Interrogation is an important step for seeking truth from the suspect. With the limit of the intrusive nature of the current polygraph, we show here a highly-sought-after non-intrusive lie detection system with a user-friendly interface called TAD2. The key idea behind our TAD2 is based on the analysis of far-infrared data obtained remotely from the periorbital and nostril areas of the suspect during the interrogation. In this way, measured change in skin temperature around two periorbital areas is converted to a relative blood flow velocity while a respiration pattern is simultaneously determined from the measured change in temperature around the nostril region. In addition, TAD2 is embedded with our automatic baseline assignment that is used for distinguishing the subject's response into normal or abnormal stage. In our TAD2, the officer can choose to perform one of the three standard lie detection tests, namely, a modified zone comparison test, a modified general question test, and an irrelevant & relevant test. Field test results from suspects in real crime cases are discussed.

  16. Inclusive education and training systems: Illusion or reality? The story of Nothemba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebusa A. Monyooe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the challenges facing the South African National Department of Education in its commitment to provide equal educational opportunities for all. The Story of Nothemba is central to the theme of this paper. It describes the story of a South African girl born in eQebe, whose physical disability and systematic disregard for her constitutional rights dashed her life time dream and passion to become a lawyer in a democratic South Africa. The paper argues for a critical interrogation of the following dynamics that have the potential to complicate both the implementation and optimization of the Inclusive Education Policy: (i Understanding the social stereotypes about disability, (ii Teacher empowerment, (iii Systemic imbalance between support and expectations, (iv Adopting relevant curriculum policy and assessment strategies and practices, and (v Utilizing the research logic to inform policy implementation. The paper further calls for a robust interrogation at conceptual level about ‘disability' to inform the current policies on education and training, teacher training and development, curriculum and assessment strategies.

  17. An Advanced Multi-Sensor Acousto-Ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring System: Development and Aerospace Demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Smithard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A key longstanding objective of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM research community is to enable the embedment of SHM systems in high value assets like aircraft to provide on-demand damage detection and evaluation. As against traditional non-destructive inspection hardware, embedded SHM systems must be compact, lightweight, low-power and sufficiently robust to survive exposure to severe in-flight operating conditions. Typical Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS systems can be bulky, costly and are often inflexible in their configuration and/or scalability, which militates against in-service deployment. Advances in electronics have resulted in ever smaller, cheaper and more reliable components that facilitate the development of compact and robust embedded SHM systems, including for Acousto-Ultrasonics (AU, a guided plate-wave inspection modality that has attracted strong interest due mainly to its capacity to furnish wide-area diagnostic coverage with a relatively low sensor density. This article provides a detailed description of the development, testing and demonstration of a new AU interrogation system called the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module+ (AUSAM+. This system provides independent actuation and sensing on four Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensor (PWAS elements with further sensing on four Positive Intrinsic Negative (PIN photodiodes for intensity-based interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG. The paper details the development of a novel piezoelectric excitation amplifier, which, in conjunction with flexible acquisition-system architecture, seamlessly provides electromechanical impedance spectroscopy for PWAS diagnostics over the full instrument bandwidth of 50 KHz–5 MHz. The AUSAM+ functionality is accessed via a simple hardware object providing a myriad of custom software interfaces that can be adapted to suit the specific requirements of each individual application.

  18. An Advanced Multi-Sensor Acousto-Ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring System: Development and Aerospace Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithard, Joel; Rajic, Nik; van der Velden, Stephen; Norman, Patrick; Rosalie, Cedric; Galea, Steve; Mei, Hanfei; Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2017-07-20

    A key longstanding objective of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) research community is to enable the embedment of SHM systems in high value assets like aircraft to provide on-demand damage detection and evaluation. As against traditional non-destructive inspection hardware, embedded SHM systems must be compact, lightweight, low-power and sufficiently robust to survive exposure to severe in-flight operating conditions. Typical Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems can be bulky, costly and are often inflexible in their configuration and/or scalability, which militates against in-service deployment. Advances in electronics have resulted in ever smaller, cheaper and more reliable components that facilitate the development of compact and robust embedded SHM systems, including for Acousto-Ultrasonics (AU), a guided plate-wave inspection modality that has attracted strong interest due mainly to its capacity to furnish wide-area diagnostic coverage with a relatively low sensor density. This article provides a detailed description of the development, testing and demonstration of a new AU interrogation system called the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module⁺ (AUSAM⁺). This system provides independent actuation and sensing on four Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensor (PWAS) elements with further sensing on four Positive Intrinsic Negative (PIN) photodiodes for intensity-based interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG). The paper details the development of a novel piezoelectric excitation amplifier, which, in conjunction with flexible acquisition-system architecture, seamlessly provides electromechanical impedance spectroscopy for PWAS diagnostics over the full instrument bandwidth of 50 KHz-5 MHz. The AUSAM⁺ functionality is accessed via a simple hardware object providing a myriad of custom software interfaces that can be adapted to suit the specific requirements of each individual application.

  19. Creep life management system for a turbine engine and method of operating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Miller, Harold Edward; Badami, Vivek Venugopal; Vittal, Sameer; Sexton, Daniel White

    2016-11-15

    A creep life management system includes at least one sensor apparatus coupled to a first component. The at least one sensor apparatus is configured with a unique identifier. The creep life management system also includes at least one reader unit coupled to a second component. The at least one reader unit is configured to transmit an interrogation request signal to the at least one sensor apparatus and receive a measurement response signal transmitted from the at least one sensor apparatus. The creep life management system further includes at least one processor programmed to determine a real-time creep profile of the first component as a function of the measurement response signal transmitted from the at least one sensor apparatus.

  20. Potential capabilities for compression of information of certain data processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarev, Y. K.; Yevdokimov, V. P.; Pokras, V. M.

    1974-01-01

    This article undertakes to study a generalized block diagram of a data collection and processing system of a spacecraft in which a number of sensors or outputs of scientific instruments are cyclically interrogated by a commutator, methods of writing the supplementary information in a frame on the example of a certain hypothetical telemetry system, and the influence of statistics of number of active channels in a frame on frame compression factor. The separation of the data compression factor of the collection and processing system of spacecraft into two parts used in this work allows determination of the compression factor of an active frame depending not only on the statistics of activity of channels in the telemetry frame, but also on the method of introduction of the additional address and time information to each frame.