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Sample records for interpreting serum paraoxonase-1

  1. Methodological constraints in interpreting serum paraoxonase-1 activity measurements: an example from a study in HIV-infected patients

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    Joven Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme that attenuates the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in vitro. Although oxidation and inflammation are closely related processes, the association between PON1 and MCP-1 has not been completely characterised due, probably, to that the current use of synthetic substrates for PON1 measurement limits the interpretation of the data. In the present study, we explored the relationships between the circulating levels of PON1 and MCP-1 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to the multifunctional capabilities of PON1. Methods We measured selected variables in 227 patients and in a control group of 409 participants. Serum PON1 esterase and lactonase activities were measured as the rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and of 5-(thiobutyl-butyrolactone, respectively. Oxidised LDL and MCP-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-density lipoproteins cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by standard automated methods. Results There were significant relationships between PON1 activity and several indices of oxidation and inflammation in control subjects and in infected patients. However, these relationships varied not only with disease status but also on the type of substrate used for PON1 measurement. Conclusion The present study is a cautionary tale highlighting that results of clinical studies on PON1 may vary depending on the methods used as well as the disease studied. Until more specific methods using physiologically-akin substrates are developed for PON1 measurement, we suggest the simultaneous employment of at least two different substrates in order to improve the reliability of the results obtained.

  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma and serum paraoxonase 1.

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    Metin, Z Boy; Aydin, S; Unur, M; Cakmakoglu, B; Toptas, B; Hafiz, G; İsbir, T

    2013-12-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 is involved in mechanisms that protect cells from oxidative stress damage. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Fifty-seven patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 59 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in blood samples were compared with results for polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism tests. Mean serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels were lower in patients than controls (mean ± standard deviation, 21.9 ± 5 units/l and 120.4 ± 2 units/l, respectively) (p = 0.001). The serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine polymorphism was more common in patients than controls. Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma had significantly lower serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels and a greater prevalence of the serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine allele, compared with controls. Serum paraoxonase 1 may play a role in the aetiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

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    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  4. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in acute pancreatitis of dogs.

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    Tvarijonaviciute, A; García-Martínez, J D; Caldin, M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Tecles, F; Pastor, J; Ceron, J J

    2015-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 is considered a marker of inflammation and oxidative damage. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs with acute pancreatitis, to correlate serum paraoxonase 1 activity and other analytes known to be altered in dogs with pancreatitis and to assess the relationship between serum paraoxonase 1 activity and disease severity in dogs with acute pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of dogs with acute pancreatitis and healthy dogs in which serum paraoxonase 1 activity was measured were compared. Median serum paraoxonase 1 activity was significantly lower in dogs with pancreatitis (n = 19) compared to healthy ones (n = 19). Serum paraoxonase 1 activity was negatively correlated with serum lipase and amylase activities, and C-reactive protein and haptoglobin concentrations and was positively correlated with total cholesterol and glucose concentration. Disease severity was negatively correlated with serum paraoxonase 1 activity and positively correlated with triglyceride and C-reactive protein concentration. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is lower in dogs with acute pancreatitis and together with triglyceride and C-reactive protein concentrations is a potential marker of disease severity. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Status in Patients with Liver Disorders

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    Kedage, Vivekananda; Muttigi, Manjunatha S.; Shetty, Mahesh S.; Suvarna, Renuka; Rao, Soumya S.; Joshi, Chitralekha; Prakash, Mungli

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14), cirrhosis with portal hypertension (33), leptospirosis (14), sepsis and multi organ failure (15), left ventricular failure (9), and falciparum malaria (10); and 53 healthy controls. Serum PON1 activity was measured manually using spectrophotometer. Liver function test parameters and fasting lipid profile were performed in clinical chemistry auto analyzer (Hitachi 912). Results: The serum PON1 activity in patients with acute viral hepatitis and sepsis decreased significantly (P<0.001) and moderately in falciparum malaria (P<0.05). However, in patients with cirrhosis, leptospirosis and left ventricular patients, its activity did not change significantly. On applying Pearson correlation, serum PON1 activity correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with sepsis (r=0.633, P<0.05), left ventricular failure patients (r=0.814, P<0.05) and negatively with acute viral hepatitis patients (r=– 0.528, P<0.05). Conclusion: PON1 activity has decreased significantly in acute viral hepatitis, sepsis with multi organ failure and falciparum malaria patients. Determination of PON1 activity may serve as a useful additional test in assessing these conditions. PMID:20339175

  6. Low Serum Paraoxonase-1 Lactonase and Arylesterase Activities in Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Sandor Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 binds mainly to high density lipoproteins (HDLs and protects low density lipoproteins (LDLs against oxidation. While paraoxonase and arylesterase activities are traditionally assayed, lactonase activity, accounting for protection against LDL oxidation, was less investigated in obese children and adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to measure lactonase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in obese children and adolescents.

  7. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

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    Bozoklu Akkar, Ozlem; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Imir Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca; Cetin, Ali

    2016-04-13

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. RESULTS The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (pparaoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth.

  8. Antiepileptic drugs: Impacts on human serum paraoxonase-1.

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    Beydemir, Şükrü; Demir, Yeliz

    2017-06-01

    Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme related to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol particle. It can prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL. The present article focuses on the in vitro inhibition role of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid, gabapentin, primidone, phenytoin, and levetiracetam on human paraoxonase (hPON1). Therefore, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3976.36 EU/mg and 13.96% yield by using simple chromatographic methods. The AEDs were tested at various concentrations, which showed reduced in vitro hPON1 activity. IC 50 values for gabapentin, valproic acid, primidone, phenytoin, and levetiracetam were found to be 0.35, 0.67, 0.87, 6.3, and 53.3 mM, respectively. K i constants were 0.261 ± 0.027, 0.338 ± 0.313, 0.410 ± 0.184, 10.3 ± 0.001, and 43.01 ± 0.003 mM, respectively. Gabapentin exhibited effective inhibitory activity as compared with the other drugs. The inhibition mechanisms of all compounds were noncompetitive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In vitro inhibition effect of some coumarin compounds on purified human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

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    Gokce, Basak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Karatas, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1; EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein associated, calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyses aromatic esters, organophosphates and lactones and can protect the low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. In this study, in vitro effect of some hydroxy and dihydroxy ionic coumarin derivatives (1-20) on purified PON1 activity was investigated. Among these compounds, derivatives 11-20 are water soluble. In investigated compounds, compounds 6 and 13 were found the most active (IC50 = 35 and 34 µM) for PON1, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that PON1 activity is very highly sensitive to studied coumarin derivatives.

  10. Paired Measurements of Paraoxonase 1 and Serum Amyloid A as Useful Disease Markers

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    Kazuhiko Kotani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and serum amyloid A (SAA are proteins carried by high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles. Among the HDL-associated protein molecules, SAA, an inflammation-related marker, and PON1, an antioxidant marker, tend to change in relatively clear opposite directions in physiological situations. In clinical chemistry, paired measurements of both markers may provide useful information to understand dysfunctional HDL in diseases with inflammation and oxidative stress conditions. Actually, limited clinical studies have suggested that the combined use of PON1 and SAA may be a tool for observing the pathophysiology of some disease entities. From the findings of experimental studies, PON1 appears to be cooperatively regulated by inflammation- and oxidative stress-related molecules linked with SAA regulation in humans. More studies remain to be performed to ascertain the value of paired measurements of both promising markers in clinical practice.

  11. Serum 8-isoprostane levels and paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with stage I multiple myeloma.

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    Faridvand, Yousef; Oskuyi, Ali Eishi; Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy comprising 15% of hematological malignancies. Many studies have assessed the relationship between free radicals and tumor progression or cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), arylesterase (ARE), and 8-isoprostane in patients with stage I MM. Spectrophotometric assays of serum PON1 and ARE activities in addition to serum 8-isoprostane level were performed in 34 patients newly diagnosed with stage I MM as compared to 35 age- and sex-matched individuals who comprised the healthy control group. A significant reduction was found in the activities of PON1 and ARE (for both, P < 0.001) in the patient group. The ratio of PON1/high-density lipoprotein was significantly lower in the MM patient group than in the control group (P < 0.001), while 8-isoprostane levels compared with the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.001), observations that may indicate an increase in oxidative stress in stage I MM patients. A decrease in PON1 activity and increase in 8-isoprostane serum activities in patients may indicate the importance of lipid peroxidation in MM disease. Oxidative stress and especially lipid peroxidation could reduce the antioxidant activity of PON1 and ARE in MM patients and could be considered as factors in the pathogenesis of MM disease.

  12. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

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    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients.

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    Meritxell Arenas

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism's anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT.

  14. Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients

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    Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sabater, Sebastià; Bonet, Marta; Gascón, Marina; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Joven, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT) on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism’s anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT. PMID:29176871

  15. Assessment of the inhibitory effects and molecular docking of some sulfonamides on human serum paraoxonase 1.

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    Alim, Zuhal; Kilic, Deryanur; Koksal, Zeynep; Beydemir, Sukru; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an organophosphate hydrolyzer and antiatherogenic enzyme. Due to the PON1's crucial functions, inhibitors and activators of PON1 must be known for pharmacological applications. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of some sulfonamides compounds on human serum PON1 (hPON1). For this aim, we purified the hPON1 from human serum with high specific activity by using simple chromatographic methods, and after the purification processes, we investigated in vitro interactions between the enzyme and some sulfonamides (2-amino-5-methyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide, 2-chloro-4-sülfamoilaniline, 4-amino-3-methylbenzenesulfanilamide, sulfisoxazole, sulfisomidine, and 5-amino-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide). IC 50 , K i values, and inhibition types were calculated for each sulfonamide. 2-amino-5-methyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide and 2-chloro-4-sülfamoilaniline exhibited noncompetitive inhibition effect, whereas 4-amino-3-methylbenzenesulfanilamide, sulfisoxazole, and sulfisomidine exhibited mixed type inhibition. On the other hand, 5-amino-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide showed competitive inhibition and so molecular docking studies were performed for this compound in order to assess the probable binding mechanism into the active site of hPON1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Long term stability of paraoxonase-1 and high-density lipoprotein in human serum

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    Beekhof Piet K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.

  17. VX hydrolysis by human serum paraoxonase 1: a comparison of experimental and computational results.

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    Matthew W Peterson

    Full Text Available Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1 is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VX(ts in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VX(ts complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VX(ts coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX.

  18. Serum oxidative stress parameters and paraoxonase-1 in children and adolescents exposed to passive smoking.

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    Kahraman, Feyza Ustabaş; Torun, Emel; Osmanoğlu, Nurcan Keskin; Oruçlu, Suera; Özer, Ömer Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is too common in many countries. The mechanism of the detrimental effects of passive smoking on childhood health, however, is poorly described. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effect of passive smoking on total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and paraoxonase-1 in children compared with healthy non-passive smokers. This study included 40 children and adolescents passively exposed to cigarette smoke (as verified on urine cotinines) and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls not regularly exposed to cigarette smoke. TAS, TOS, and paraoxonase-1 were all measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) calculated for each child to determine the degree of oxidative stress. Age and gender distribution were not statistically different between the two groups (P = 0.619 and 0.712, respectively). Urine cotinine/creatinine was significantly higher in the passive smoking group (127.89 ± 57.14 ng/mL) compared with the controls (5.05 ± 16.66 ng/mL; P paraoxonase-1 was significantly lower than in the controls (P = 0.047). Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased paraoxonase-1 without any change in antioxidant status. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Vitamin E Improves Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity and Some Metabolic Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: No Effects on Nitrite/Nitrate Levels.

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    Rafraf, Maryam; Bazyun, Behnaz; Sarabchian, Mohammad Ali; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem

    2016-08-01

    It is known that markers of oxidative stress and nitrite/nitrate anion (NO x ) increase and activity of antioxidative enzyme paraoxonase-1 decline in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The effects of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity and NO x in patients with type 2 diabetes are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that vitamin E supplementation would affect paraoxonase-1 activity, metabolic factors, and NO x in patients with DM. This double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 83 patients with DM aged 30-60 years. Forty-two of the subjects had taken 400 IU/day vitamin E and 41 were given placebo over 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Vitamin E significantly increased serum vitamin E level, paraoxonase-1 activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) and decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS) compared to the control group (p 0.05). Vitamin E improved serum vitamin E level, paraoxonase-1 activity, TAS, and FBS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the outcome of these results in reducing complications of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. An alternative purification method for human serum paraoxonase 1 and its interaction with methidathion.

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    Gençer, Nahit; Yavuz, Emre

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an alternative purification method for human Paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) enzyme was developed using two-step procedures, namely ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-aminoanthracene hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme indicates a single band with an apparent MW of 43 kDa. The enzyme was purified 674-fold with a yield of 16%. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro effect of methidathion on the enzyme activity to understand the better inhibitory properties of the compound. Methidathion is a highly toxic insecticide used to control a broad spectrum of agricultural insect and mite pests. IC 50 value was found to be 0.130 mM for the pesticide. Methidathion showed a competitive inhibition with Ki of 0.119 mM for paraoxon.

  1. The effect of divalent metal chelators and cadmium on serum phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase 1.

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    Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2018-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium dependent enzyme involved in many functions in human body. PON1 is synthesized in the liver and secreted to the bloodstream where bounds high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Association of PON1 with HDL increases the enzyme stability and biological activities. PON1 have three different activities: phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase. Until now there is now commercial available kits to determine these three PON1 activities. Also there is no date about stability of PON1 in serum after storage condition. We have elaborated the optimal conditions for determination of PON1 activities in serum using manual procedure as well as the best storage temperature of human serum for determination of PON1 activities. We have also confirmed that PON1 in serum is associated with HDL. Additionally we have investigated the effect of D-penicillamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and cadmium chloride on PON1 activities in human serum. D-penicillamine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in therapeutic doses as well as cadmium chloride in toxic doses decrease PON1 activities in human serum when compared to non-treated serum. D-penicillamine as metal chelator inhibits much stronger PON1 activities than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphism and enzyme activity in patients with urolithiasis.

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    Atar, Arda; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Sonmezay, Erkan; Kiraz, Zeynep Kusku; Abbasoglu, Semra; Tasci, Ali Ihsan; Tugcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by protecting lipoproteins against peroxidation. PON1 has two genetic polymorphisms both due to amino acid substitution, one involving glutamine and arginine at position 192 and the other leucine and methionine at position 55. Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. Our study aimed to compare the effects of PON1 192, PON1 55 polymorphisms, and PON1 activity in patients with urolithiasis and controls. PON1's arylesterase/paraoxonase activities and phenotype were determined in 158 stone forming cases (Group 1) and 138 non-stone forming controls (Group 2). The PON1 192 and PON1 55 polymorphisms were studied by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Paraoxonase activity was significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 (112 ± 31.8 vs. 208 ± 53.1 IU/L) (p < 0.001). The PON1 L55M polymorphism was significantly higher in Group 1. The "M" allele coding for PON1 was higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). PON1 192 RR homozygotes had significantly higher PON1 activity than QR and QQ genotypes among all the patients (p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that the PON1 55 gene "M" allele is associated with renal stone disease. Individuals possessing the "M" allele have a higher incidence of urolithiasis. The results of this study provide genetic evidence that the PON1 gene may play a role in stone formation. PON1 genotype determination may provide a tool to identify individuals who are at risk of urolithiasis.

  3. Serum Paraoxonase-1 Concentration as a Potential Predictor of Urinary Bladder Cancer Recurrence. A Five Year Follow-Up Study.

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    Iftimie, Simona; García-Heredia, Anabel; Pujol-Bosch, Francesc; Pont-Salvadó, Antoni; López-Azcona, Ana Felisa; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Castro, Antoni; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2018-04-23

    This study provides preliminary information on the usefulness of measuring serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) concentration and activity (and other inflammatory markers) to predict tumor recurrence in patients with urinary bladder cancer. We studied a total of 39 hospitalized patients in whom the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer was confirmed by transurethral resection. After five years of follow-up, 29 patients presented with tumor recurrence. As control subjects, we also studied 61 healthy subjects and a further 132 hospitalized patients who had a urinary catheter-related infection due to causes other than cancer. Results showed that urinary bladder patients had lower serum PON1 concentration and activity, and higher chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin concentrations than the control individuals. Patients with tumor recurrence had significantly lower serum PON1 concentration than patients without tumor recurrence. The mean area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics plot for serum PON1 concentration in discriminating patients with and those without tumor recurrence was 0.755 and the best combination of sensitivity and specificity was obtained at PON1 = 100 mg/L (0.72 and 0.80, respectively). Establishing this value as a cut-off, positive predictive value was = 0.91, and negative predictive value was = 0.50. These results suggest that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration may be a high-sensitivity marker of tumor recurrence in urinary bladder cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Elahe Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa-tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure-ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con-centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048 compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.

  5. Alterations in serum paraoxonase-1 activity and lipid profile in chronic alcoholic patients infected with Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Inês, Elizabete; Sampaio Silva, Mônica Lopes; de Souza, Joelma Nascimento; Galvão, Alana Alcântara; Aquino Teixeira, Márcia Cristina; Soares, Neci Matos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, cortisol levels, and the lipid profile in the sera of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Strongyloides stercoralis-infected and uninfected individuals in a sample of 276 individuals attended at the National Health System in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The activity of PON1 was measured by the Beltowski method, serum lipids, and cortisol levels using commercial kits. PON1 activity was low in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals infected with S. stercoralis. A positive correlation was observed between PON1 activity and cortisol concentration in alcoholic individuals who were not infected with S. stercoralis; whereas a negative correlation occurred in S. stercoralis-infected nonalcoholic individuals. The levels of triglycerides, LDL-C, and VLDL-C in S. stercoralis-infected alcoholic individuals were significantly lower than in uninfected alcoholic individuals. The high level of HDL-C and the low level of LDL-C, VLDL, triglycerides and PON1 activity in alcoholic patients infected with S. stercoralis evidenced an anti-atherogenic pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods for measuring serum activity levels of the 192 Q and R isoenzymes of paraoxonase 1 in QR heterozygous individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiber, John F; Kramer, Gerald L; Haley, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an esterase that hydrolyzes toxic organophosphates and has antioxidative and antiatherogenic properties, contains a common polymorphism at position 192: glutamine (Q) or arginine (R). The Q and R isoenzymes exhibit different physical and protective properties. We describe 2 methods for quantifying their serum activity levels. We measured serum hydrolytic activity with paraoxon [paraoxonase (PXN) activity], phenylacetate [arylesterase (AE) activity], and diazoxon [diazoxonase (DZN) activity] with standard automated assays. We determined PON1 Q192R genotypes with PCR and Q192R phenotypes using the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios. Interpolation equations were empirically derived to predict the percentage of total PON1 hydrolytic activity due to the Q isoenzyme (%Q) from the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios; %R is 100 - %Q. We estimated Q and R isoenzyme activity levels in sera from 2095 veterans by multiplying AE activity, a measure of total PON1 hydrolytic activity, by %Q and %R. In all 2095 samples, the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios predicted Q192R phenotypes with nearly identical accuracy (κ = 0.997). In the 925 QR heterozygotes, the 2 interpolation methods predicted Q and R isoenzyme activity levels with excellent agreement (intraclass correlation 0.94). After excluding a few genotype/phenotype-discordant samples, the percentage of total PON1 activity due to the Q isoenzyme ranged from 22% to 70%. These new interpolation methods allow accurate estimation of PON1 192 Q and R isoenzyme activity levels, increasing specificity and power for studying susceptibility to disease.

  7. The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum Paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Halide S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis has been increasingly discussed. Although the seroepidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and atherosclerosis; the issue is still controversial. It is well known that abnormal lipid profil is related to atherosclerosis and the measurement of carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT is one of the surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C has been known to have an inverse correlation with the development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a major anti-atherosclerotic component of HDL-C. PON1 activity is related to lipid peroxidation and prospective cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate CIMT and serum PON1 activities along with lipid parameters in H. pylori positive and negative subjects. Methods Thirty H. pylori positive subjects and thirty-one negative subjects were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the presence of positivity of stool H. pylori antigen test or Carbon 14 labeled urea breath test. Serum PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated and laboratory analysis included measurement of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We assessed CIMT by high-resolution ultrasound of both common carotid arteries. Results We found that the mean and maximum values of right and overall CIMT in H. pylori positive subjects were significantly thicker than those of H. pylori negative subjects. There was no significant differences in serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC levels and TC/HDL-C ratios between two groups. Serum TG levels of H. pylori positive subjects were significantly higher than those of H. pylori negative subjects (p = 0.014. We found that PON1

  8. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms and enzyme activities in coronary artery disease and its relationship to serum lipids and glycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Osvaldo; Gariglio, Luis; Riviere, Stephanie; Porcile, Rafael; Fuchs, Alicia; Potenzoni, Miguel

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a bioscavenger enzyme associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We evaluate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PON1 gene, and enzyme activities with lipid profile and glycemia. This case-control study consisted of 126 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 203 healthy controls. PON Q192R and L55M polymorphisms were detected by real-time PCR. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL were measured. PON1 QR192 polymorphism had a major effect on paraoxonase but no effect on arylesterase serum activities. Paraoxonase activity was higher in RR genotype and lowest in QQ genotype. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were higher in LL and lower in MM genotypes of PON1 LM55 polymorphism. RQ and LM variants showed intermediate activities between respective homozygous. Elevated concentrations of triglycerides in cases correlate with QQ variant or the presence of M allele. Glucose levels were elevated in cases with QQ variant or with the presence of M allele. Cholesterol and LDL did not show variations in control and cases with any variant of both polymorphisms. HDL is lower in cases with respect to controls independently of genotypes. All differences were significant with p<0.05. Our results confirm the relationship between variations in PON1 activities and lipid metabolism, and showed that genetically programmed low PON1 activities would have certain responsibility in the increase in glycemia and concomitantly the aggravation of atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Some Anticancer Agents Act on Human Serum Paraoxonase-1 to Reduce Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Zuhal; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase (hPON1) is an important antioxidant enzyme. It protects low-density lipoproteins against oxidative stress and prevents atherosclerosis development. Anticancer agents have cardiotoxic effects, and this situation can lead to significant complications. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro effects of some of the anticancer agents such as cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide on the activity of hPON1 in this study. For this reason, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3654.2 EU/mg and 16.84% yield using simple chromatographic methods. The five chemotherapeutic agents dose dependently decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. IC50 values for cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were 0.0111, 0.042, 0.226, 0.665, and 23.3 mm, respectively. Ki constants were 0.0194, 0.0165, 0.131, 0.291, and 8.973 mm, respectively. The inhibition mechanisms of cetuximab, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were non-competitive, and for paclitaxel was competitive. Consequently, inhibition of hPON1 by these anticancer agents may explain some of the cardiotoxic actions of these drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Relationship of serum resistin level to traits of metabolic syndrome and serum paraoxonase 1 activity in a population with a broad range of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnok, L; Seres, I; Varga, Z; Jeges, S; Peti, A; Karanyi, Z; Juhasz, A; Csongradi, E; Mezosi, E; Nagy, E V; Paragh, G

    2008-11-01

    The relationship between resistin, one of the adipokines, and metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. Altered activity of the HDL-associated antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) that participates in the antioxidant defense mechanisms of HDL may have an important role in the obesity-related accelerated atherosclerosis. Inverse associations of PON1 with obesity and serum levels of leptin have been demonstrated. Our aim was to investigate the association of serum levels of resistin with (i) PON1 activity, and (ii) parameters of metabolic syndrome, including some that are additional for research. A total of 74 Caucasian subjects were recruited into the study and divided into 3 age and sex-matched groups. Group 1, 25 non-diabetic overweight/obese subjects with BMI of 28-39.9 kg/m (2); group 2, 25 non-diabetic obese patients with BMI >or=40 kg/m (2); and the control group 3, 24 healthy, normal-weight control subjects. Serum levels of resistin were correlated negatively with BMI (r=-0.27, Pcorrelated positively with PON1 (r=0.24, PHDL-C. During multiple regression analyses BMI and TBARS were independent predictors of PON1, while age, gender, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, HDL-C, and resistin were not. Among the study subjects, serum levels of resistin showed a positive, although not independent correlation with serum PON1, and a negative correlation with numerous parameters of the metabolic syndrome (i.e. adiposity, blood pressure, levels of leptin, free fatty acid, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid peroxidation). BMI and TBARS are independent predictors of PON1 activity.

  11. Preliminary study on serum paraoxonase-1 status and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 in hospitalized elderly patients with catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, S; García-Heredia, A; Pujol, I; Ballester, F; Fort-Gallifa, I; Simó, J M; Joven, J; Camps, J; Castro, A

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common among elderly patients in residential care facilities, as well as in the hospital setting. Identifying new biochemical markers of UTI is an active line of research since UTI management is resource intensive. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) forms part of the patient's immune system, the response-to-injury and inflammation. Our study sought to evaluate alterations in inflammation-related paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in patients with an indwelling catheter to assess their potential usefulness as biomarkers of infection. Patients (n = 142) who had had the urinary catheter removed and 100 healthy volunteers were recruited. In all participants we measured serum PON1 activity, PON1 concentration, CCL2, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results indicated that patients had higher CCL2, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations than the control group, and lower paraoxonase activity. There were no significant differences in PON1 concentrations. When comparing the diagnostic accuracy of CRP, procalcitonin, CCL2 and the PON1-related variables in discriminating between patients with and those without UTI, we found a considerable degree of overlap between groups, i.e., a low diagnostic accuracy. However, there were significant inverse logarithmic correlations between serum paraoxonase activity and the number of days the urinary catheter had been in situ. Our results suggest that measurement of these biochemical variables may be useful in investigating complications of long-term use of these devices and help to improve the economic and clinical investment required in the management of the often-associated infection.

  12. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  13. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), mild cognitive impairment, and 2-year conversion to dementia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellati, Carlo; Trentini, Alessandro; Romani, Arianna; Bellini, Tiziana; Bosi, Cristina; Ortolani, Beatrice; Zurlo, Amedeo; Passaro, Angelina; Seripa, Davide; Zuliani, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) may confer protection against inflammatory and oxidative challenge which, in turn, plays a key-role in the onset and progression of dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum PON-1 paraoxonase/arylesterase activities might predict the clinical conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or vascular dementia (VAD). Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric assays at baseline in 141 MCI patients (median age: 77 years; interquartile range 71-81) and in 78 healthy controls (median age: 76 years; interquartile range 73-79). After 2 years of follow-up, 86 MCI remained stable (MCI/MCI), 34 converted to LOAD (MCI/LOAD), whereas 21 converted to VAD (MCI/VAD). Baseline arylesterase activity was lower in all MCI groups compared with controls (all p paraoxonase activity was lower in MCI/VAD group compared to controls (p paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (I quartile) were associated to higher risk of conversion to VAD (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.37-10.25 and OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17-8.56, respectively). Our results suggest that in MCI patients low PON-1 activity might contribute to identify individuals susceptible to develop vascular dementia. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Increased Levels of Human Carotid Lesion Linoleic Acid Hydroperoxide in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients Is Inversely Correlated with Serum HDL and Paraoxonase 1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human carotid plaque components interact directly with circulating blood elements and thus they might affect each other. We determined plaque paraoxonase1 (PON1 hydrolytic-catalytic activity and compared plaque and blood levels of lipids, HDL, PON1, and HbA1c, as well as plaque-oxidized lipids in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Human carotid plaques were obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients undergoing routine endarterectomy, and the lesions were ground and extracted for PON activity and lipid content determinations. Plaque PONs preserved paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lactonase activities. The PON1-specific inhibitor 2-hydroxyquinoline almost completely inhibited paraoxonase and lactonase activities, while only moderately inhibiting arylesterase activity. Oxysterol and triglyceride levels in plaques from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients did not differ significantly, but plaques from symptomatic patients had significantly higher (135% linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LA-13OOH levels. Their serum PON1 activity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly, but symptomatic patients had significantly lower (28% serum HDL levels and higher (18% HbA1c levels. Thus LA-13OOH, a major atherogenic plaque element, showed significant negative correlations with serum PON1 activity and HDL levels, and a positive correlation with the prodiabetic atherogenic HbA1c. Plaque PON1 retains its activity and may decrease plaque atherogenicity by reducing specific oxidized lipids (e.g., LA-13OOH. The inverse correlation between plaque LA-13OOH level and serum HDL level and PON1 activity suggests a role for serum HDL and PON1 in LA-13OOH accumulation.

  15. Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang Anh Tuan; Kim, Seonghoon; Chang, Rakwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-07-30

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a versatile enzyme for the hydrolysis of various substrates (e.g., lactones, phosphotriesters) and for the formation of a promising chemical platform γ-valerolactone. Elucidation of the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction mechanism is very important for understanding the enzyme function and for engineering this enzyme for specific applications. Kinetic study and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method were used to investigate the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and (R)-γ-valerolactone (GVL). The activation energies obtained from the QM/MM calculations were in good agreement with the experiments. Interestingly, the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/3-21G(d,p) level for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were respectively 14.3-16.2 and 11.5-13.1 kcal/mol, consistent with the experimental values (15.57 and 14.73 kcal/mol derived from respective kcat values of 36.62 and 147.21 s(-1)). The QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d,p) levels were also in relatively good agreements with the experiments. Importantly, the difference in the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2 level with all investigated basis sets for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were in excellent agreement with the experiments (0.9-3.1 and 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively). A detailed mechanism for the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction was also proposed in this study.

  16. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

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    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  17. Paraoxonase 1 activity and genotyping in systemic lupus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by an enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme closely associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL), has been implicated in the prevention of low density ...

  18. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and serum oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof 130 MDR-TB patients who were treated with moxifloxacin from October 2014 to October 2010 in Eastern Medical District of Linyi ...

  19. Positive correlation of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity with serum insulin level and HOMA-IR in dementia. A possible advantageous role of PON1 in dementia development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska-Makaruk, Małgorzata; Graban, Ałła; Lipczyńska-Łojkowska, Wanda; Bochyńska, Anna; Rodo, Maria; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Wehr, Hanna

    2013-01-15

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and metabolic syndrome traits were evaluated in 169 demented patients (81 recognized as AD, 32 as VaD, 56 as MD) and in 64 control individuals. Paraoxonase activity was determined spectrophotometrically using phenyloacetate as substrate. Metabolic syndrome was recognized according to AHA/NHLBI criteria. In the whole group with dementia significant positive correlation between PON1 activity/HDL cholesterol ratio (i.e. HDL corrected PON1 activity) and insulin level as well as HOMA IR index, was observed. The multivariate analysis showed that the PON1/HDL-C ratio was also significantly positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (with insulin resistance as a major underlying trait) both in dementia and in control group. High insulin level and HOMA-IR are considered to be the traits of insulin resistance. It has however to be taken into account that they both could also depend on insulin production and release which, as was recently stated in cell experiments, are enhanced by PON1. The observed positive correlation suggests an advantageous role of the enzyme in metabolic syndrome influence on dementia development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solubilization and Humanization of Paraoxonase-1

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    Mohosin Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a serum protein, the activity of which is related to susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and intoxication by organophosphorus (OP compounds. It may also be involved in innate immunity, and it is a possible lead molecule in the development of a catalytic bioscavenger of OP pesticides and nerve agents. Human PON1 expressed in E. coli is mostly found in the insoluble fraction, which motivated the engineering of soluble variants, such as G2E6, with more than 50 mutations from huPON1. We examined the effect on the solubility, activity, and stability of three sets of mutations designed to solubilize huPON1 with fewer overall changes: deletion of the N-terminal leader, polar mutations in the putative HDL binding site, and selection of the subset of residues that became more polar in going from huPON1 to G2E6. All three sets of mutations increase the solubility of huPON1; the HDL-binding mutant has the largest effect on solubility, but it also decreases the activity and stability the most. Based on the G2E6 polar mutations, we “humanized” an engineered variant of PON1 with high activity against cyclosarin (GF and found that it was still very active against GF with much greater similarity to the human sequence.

  1. Comparison of serum acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) values between prostate cancer patients and a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Erdal; Bayrak, Ahmet; Cirakoglu, Abdullah; Bayrak, Tulin; Noyan, Tevfik

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to measure platelet-activating factor acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme activity levels in patients with high Psa values to compare with healthy peers and also to determine the efficacy of these parameters in predicting pathologic results of patients with high Psa values. This study included 66 patients with Psa value > 4 ng/dl (Group 1) and 44 patients with Psa PAF-AH, and MDA were compared between the groups. Additionally the same parameters were compared between patients with prostate biopsy performed due to high Psa and diagnosed with cancer and the control group with normal Psa values. The PAF-AH activity in Group 1 was 125.17 ± 8.64 and in Group 2 was 120.08 ± 9.23 U/ml (p = 0.003). The PON1 activity was 63.12 ± 6.74 and 65.91 ± 7.77 U/ml in the groups, respectively (p = 0.04). Additionally, there were significant differences identified between the control group and PCa diagnosis group in terms of PAF-AH and PON1 activities (p = 0.004 and p = 0.02, respectively). The enzyme activity of PAF-AH and PON1 measured in serum of patients with high Psa value and patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) were identified to have changed by a significant amount compared to healthy peers with normal Psa value. It was concluded that these parameters may be beneficial markers for use in assessment of patients with high Psa value. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Paraoxonase-1 activities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Elena C; Leucuta, Daniel C; Rusu, Razvan L; David, Bianca A; Cret, Victoria; Dronca, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 is an HDL-associated esterase that acts as an anti-atherogenic agent by protecting LDL from oxidation. This study investigates paraoxonase-1 activities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and possible associations with other biochemical markers. The study enrolled 82 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 41 controls with similar age and gender distribution. Serum paraoxonase-1 arylesterase and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activities were assessed by measuring the rates of phenyl acetate and paraoxon hydrolysis, respectively; paraoxonase-1 lactonase activity and oxidized LDL were assessed by a pH-sensitive colorimetric assay and ELISA, respectively. Glycated haemoglobin HbA1c and lipid profile were assayed with an immunoturbidimetric method and commercially available kits, respectively. We found lower paraoxonase-1 activities in diabetics when compared to controls. The decrease was statistically significant only for the lactonase activity, the difference being higher when referring to the subgroup with poor glycaemic control. The lactonase activity/HDL ratio was also lower in diabetics vs. controls, but without statistical significance. Both lactonase and arylesterase activities were negatively correlated with HbA1c in diabetics, but only the latter was statistically significant (ρ = -0.21, P = 0.055; ρ = -0.24, P = 0.03, respectively). A correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.196 (P = 0.078) was found between oxidized LDL and HbA1c. All paraoxonase-1 activities were lower in diabetic children and adolescents, but only the decrease in the lactonase activity was statistically significant. Although lipid profile and glycaemic control were altered in diabetics, no differences were observed between groups regarding oxidized LDL level.

  3. Paraoxonase 1 and cytochrome P450 polymorphisms in susceptibility to acute organophosphorus poisoning in Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Abeer Ahmed; Ahmed, Asmaa Ismail; Khattab, Amr Mohamed Tawfik; Mekdad, Alaa AbdeHamid; AbdelAal, Aly Gamaleldin

    2015-12-01

    Organophosphates are the basis of many insecticides, herbicides, and nerve agents. They were listed as highly acutely toxic agents. Findings in knockout mice suggest that paraoxonase 1 may modulate the toxicity resulting from exposure to organophosphorus compounds. In human, there is no enough data about genetic modulation of acute organophosphorus intoxication. CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of about 30% of xenobiotics. Prompt accurate management of OP acute intoxication can promote patient's survival. Forty acute organophosphorus intoxicated patients were divided according to presence of clinical toxicity manifestations and serum level of pseudo-cholinesterase into two groups of acute symptomatic and acute asymptomatic patients. A third group of 29 healthy volunteers served as control. Paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2D6 G1934A polymorphisms, (QQ, QR, and RR for PON1) and (GG, GA, and AA for CYP2D6), were studied using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Serum paraoxonase 1 and pseudo-cholinesterase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum pseudo-cholinesterase was significantly reduced in both acute intoxication groups compared to the controls (p=0.000). Paraoxonase 1 was significantly reduced in the symptomatic acute intoxication patients in comparison to the asymptomatic group (p=0.002). There was a significant increase in paraoxonase 1 192 RR genotype and R allele in the symptomatic patients in comparison to the controls and asymptomatic patients (p=0.006 and p=0.01, respectively). For CYP2D6 G1934A genotypes and alleles, no significant difference was found between groups (p=0.3 and p=0.18, respectively). However, one case of the two recorded fatalities was for a symptomatic female patient with the only traced AA genotype. The combination of both single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed a significant distribution difference between groups, with QQ+GG genotypes being more represented in the controls

  4. Paraoxonase-1 Is Not Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the PREDICT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Mackness

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine any association between serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity, protein and coding region genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery calcification (CACS and to determine factors which modulate serum PON1 in type 2 diabetes (T2DM.

  5. Paraoxonase-1 status in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; García-Heredia, Anabel; Roca, Helena; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Busti, Fabiana; Aragonès, Gerard; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pedica, Federica; Cataldo, Ivana; Marsillach, Judit; Joven, Jorge; Girelli, Domenico; Camps, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is characterized by accumulation of iron, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrogenesis in liver tissue. In this setting, research on the protection afforded by intracellular antioxidants is of clinical relevance. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that degrades lipid peroxides. This study investigates the alterations in serum PON1 status, PON1 gene polymorphisms, and PON1 hepatic expression in patients with HH. We performed a case-control study in 77 patients with HH (80.5% men, 22–70 years of age) and 408 healthy individuals (43.1% men, 26–74 years of age). Serum PON1 activities against different substrates and PON1192 and PON155 polymorphisms were analyzed. PON1 protein expression was investigated in 20 liver biopsies. HH patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activity, which was inversely correlated with ferritin (marker of iron stores) and serum 8-isoprostane concentrations (index of oxidative stress). PON1 protein expression in liver tissue was higher in patients and showed stronger staining in hepatocytes surrounding the areas of inflammation. Our study provides preliminary evidence that PON1 may play a role in protecting against iron-induced oxidative stress in hereditary hemochromatosis. PMID:23471031

  6. Some coumarins and benzoxazinones as potent paraoxonase 1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Alıcı, Bülent; Gökçe, Başak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of some coumarin and benzoxazinone derivatives on the activity of human PON1. Human serum paraoxonase 1 was purified from fresh human serum blood by two-step procedures that are ammonium sulfate precipitation (60-80%) and then hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Sepharose 4B, L-tyrosine and 1-napthylamine). The enzyme was purified 232-fold with a final specific activity of 27.1 U/mg. In vitro effects of some previously synthesized ionic coumarin or benzoxazinone derivatives (1-21) on purified PON1 activity were investigated. Compound 14 (1-(2,3,4,5,6)-pentamethylbenzyl-3-(6,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one-4-yl))benzimidazolium chloride was found out as the strongest inhibitor (IC50 = 7.84 μM) for PON1 among the compounds. Kinetic investigation and molecular docking study were evaluated for one of the most active compounds (compound 12) and obtained data showed that this compound is competitive inhibitor of PON1 and interact with Leu262 and Ser263 in the active site of PON1. Moreover, coumarin derivatives were found out as the more potent inhibitors for PON1 than benzoxazinone derivatives.

  7. Dietary cholesterol increases paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Richter, Rebecca J.; Marshall, Julieann K.; Nakayama, Karen S.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Eintracht, Jason F.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2012-01-01

    HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity has been consistently associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. Vitamins C and E intake have previously been positively associated with PON1 in a subset of the Carotid Lesion Epidemiology and Risk (CLEAR) cohort. The goal of this study was to replicate these findings and determine whether other nutrient intake affected PON1 activity. To predict nutrient and mineral intake values, 1,402 subjects completed a standardized food frequency survey of their dietary habits over the past year. Stepwise regression was used to evaluate dietary and covariate effects on PON1 arylesterase activity. Five dietary components, cholesterol (P < 2.0 × 10−16), alcohol (P = 8.51 × 10−8), vitamin C (P = 7.97 × 10−5), iron (P = 0.0026), and folic acid (0.037) were independently predictive of PON1 activity. Dietary cholesterol was positively associated and predicted 5.5% of PON1 activity, second in variance explained. This study presents a novel finding of dietary cholesterol, iron, and folic acid predicting PON1 activity in humans and confirms prior reported associations, including that with vitamin C. Identifying and understanding environmental factors that affect PON1 activity is necessary to understand its role and that of HDL in human disease. PMID:22896672

  8. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  9. Paraoxonase-1 and adipokines: Potential links between obesity and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Péter; Harangi, Mariann; Seres, Ildikó; Paragh, György

    2016-11-25

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation are major characteristics of obesity-related disorders. The dominance of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms triggers insulin resistance and enhances the progression of atherosclerosis. Discovered first as an esterase that hydrolyze organophosphates, human paraoxonase-1 is bound to high-density lipoprotein and inhibits the oxidation of lipoproteins and reduces the degree of inflammation, hence it is considered to act against atherosclerosis. In contrast, the majority of the adipokines secreted from the enlarged white adipose tissue promote the atherosclerotic process; and altered adipokine secretion is now regarded as one of the major contributors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in obesity. In this review, we detail the correlations between paraoxonase-1 and some selected adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and chemerin. Adipokine imbalance leads to decreased paraoxonase-1 activity that results in enhanced atherosclerosis; therefore, altered adipokine secretion may be predictive of cardiovascular complications in obesity. As an active organ secreting biological active substances, white adipose tissue may also act as a "fine-tuner" of immune and endocrine actions attenuating or enhancing reactions triggered by pathogens, inflammation and metabolic stimuli; and obesity, as a chronic noxious state may perturb the proper functioning of this fine-tuning process. Further investigations are of major importance to elucidate the associations between adipokines and paraoxonase-1 and to establish accurate interventions against obesity-related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic changes of paraoxonase 1 activity towards paroxon and phenyl acetate during coronary artery surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Anna; Cybulski, Marek; Berbeć, Henryk; Wysokiński, Andrzej; Stążka, Janusz; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Zapolski, Tomasz

    2017-04-04

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high - density lipoproteins (HDL) particles, inhibits the oxidation of serum lipoproteins and cell membranes. PON1 activity is lower in patients with atherosclerosis and in inflammatory diseases. The systemic inflammatory response provoked during cardiopulmonary bypass grafting may contribute to the development of postoperative complications. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dynamic changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity towards paraoxon and phenyl acetate during and after coronary artery surgery. Twenty six patients with coronary heart disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were enrolled into the study. Venous blood samples were obtained preoperatively, after aortic clumping, after the end of operation, at 6, 18, 30 and 48 h after operation. Paraoxonase activity was measured spectrophotometrically in 50 mM glycine/NaOH buffer (pH 10.5) containing 1.0 mM paraoxon, and 1.0 mM CaCl 2 . Arylesterase activity was measured in 20 mM TrisCl buffer (pH 8.0) containing 1 mM phenyl acetate and 1 mM CaCl 2 . PON1 activity toward paraoxon and phenyl acetate significantly decreased after aorta cross clumping and increased directly after operation. PON1 activity towards paraoxon in preoperative period and PON1 activity towards phenyl acetate in seventh stage of experiment tended to inversely correlate with the occurrence of postoperative complications. The paraoxonase 1 plasma activity is markedly reduced during CABG surgery.

  11. Paraoxonase 1 in Chronic Kidney Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gugliucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we summarize the findings from the literature and our own laboratory on the decreased PON1 activity in renal failure, the mechanisms proposed and the effect of interventions. In addition to profound alterations in lipoproteins, reduced serum PON1 activity has been clearly established in the past decade and could contribute to accelerated development of atherosclerosis in ESRD and in HD. PON1 lactonase activity is lower in ESRD patients. Hemodialysis partially restores PON1 lactonase and the other activities. PON1 activity recovery after dialysis suggests that uremic toxins may play a mechanistic role in PON1 inactivation. Lower PON1 activity in CRF patients is associated with low thiol concentration, high CRP, and is beneficially enhanced with vitamin C and flavonoids. Changes in HDL subclasses, namely lower HDL3 in these patients may also play a role in PON1 lower activity. Future research should focus on: (1 mechanistic studies on causes for low PON1 activity and mass; (2 prospective studies focusing on whether there is an added predictive value in measuring PON1 activity (and PON1 activity in HDL3 in this patient population; (3 intervention studies attempting to increase PON1 activity.

  12. Association of paraoxonase 1 and oxidative stress with acute kidney injury in premature asphyxiated neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanišević, Jasmina; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Miljković, Milica; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana; Pejović, Biljana; Peco-Antić, Amira

    2017-06-25

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a decrease in glomerular filtration rate with an increase in serum creatinine (sCr). Perinatal asphyxia (PNA) may be etiological factor for AKI with oxidative stress also implicated. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity has been reported to be decreased in renal disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and oxidative stress during the first hours and first days of life and to determine if these parameters could discriminate neonates having AKI from those who do not. Serum samples at different time points after birth were obtained from 64 preterm newborns with PNA (45 defined as having AKI, 19 as non-AKI). Clinical markers, sCr, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and PON1 activity were measured. The AKI group had more newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, significantly higher serum creatinine (sCr) at 3 and 7d, total antioxidant status (TAS) at 7d; decreased PON1 at 4h, 6h and 7d than the non-AKI group. Within the AKI group, significant positive correlations were found between PON1 activity at 2h and TAS at 2h, PON1 activity at 4h and base deficit (BD); whereas negative correlations between PON1 activity at 2h and ΔsCr (at 24h and at 3d), PON1 activity at 7d and ΔsCr (at 24h and 3d). Oxidative stress status parameters indicated excellent discriminative potential at 4h, 6h and 7d. AKI neonates were characterised by a marked decrease in PON1 activity. PON1 activity may be an important factor for discrimination of newborns having AKI from those that do not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism and enzyme activity with carotid plaque in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Schoeman, Christina; Lee, Yuen Yin; Shahbazian, Ani; Gorn, Alan H; Fitzgerald, John; Ranganath, Veena K; Taylor, Mihaela; Ragavendra, Nagesh; McMahon, Maureen; Elashoff, David; Reddy, Srinivasa T

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of genetic and biochemical determinants of paraoxonase 1 activity to carotid plaque as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The relationships between paraoxonase 1 activity, PON1 genotype (for the functional polymorphism at position 192), and carotid plaque presence were determined in 168 RA patients. After an overnight fast, blood was collected for lipoprotein analysis, and paraoxonase 1 activity was measured using paraoxon as the substrate. The PON1 Q192R genotype was determined for all patients. Lipoprotein cholesterol levels, traditional CV risk factors, medication use, and RA disease characteristics were assessed for all patients. Paraoxonase 1 activity values in the RA patients were highest for the RR genotype, intermediate for the QR genotype, and lowest for the QQ genotype (P paraoxonase 1 activity with carotid plaque in RA patients. Lower plasma paraoxonase 1 activity was associated with increased risk of carotid plaque (P paraoxonase 1 to CV risk in RA patients, as assessed by the presence or absence of carotid plaque. Further CV outcome studies are warranted to validate the utility of paraoxonase 1 as a biomarker of CV risk in patients with RA. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. A preliminary study of paraoxonase-1 in infected patients with an indwelling central venous catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, Simona; García-Heredia, Anabel; Pujol, Isabel; Ballester, Frederic; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Simó, Josep M; Joven, Jorge; Castro, Antoni; Camps, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Identification of biochemical markers to diagnose bloodstream infections in patients with a central venous catheter (CVC) inserted is an active research pursuit. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme participating in the innate immune system protecting against toxic substances and infectious agents. We investigated the relationships between serum PON1 alterations and the characteristics of infection in a group of patients with a CVC implant. Patients (n=114) who had had an inserted CVC removed because of infection or because the usefulness was at an end, and 407 healthy volunteers were recruited. In all participants we measured serum PON1 lactonase and paraoxonase activities, PON1 concentration and genetic polymorphisms, together with levels of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with an acute concomitant infection (ACI) had higher CCL2, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations than the control group, together with lower paraoxonase and lactonase activities and specific activities. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic plots for paraoxonase and lactonase specific activities in the discrimination between patients with or without and ACI were 0.81 (0.73-0.89) and 0.81 (0.71-0.89), respectively, indicating the high diagnostic accuracy of these parameters. This preliminary study suggests that the measurement of PON1 may be useful as a tool for the diagnosis of ACI in patients with an indwelling CVC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1, and HDL form a functional ternary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Zhiping; Riwanto, Meliana; Gao, Shengqiang; Levison, Bruce S.; Gu, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoming; Wagner, Matthew A.; Besler, Christian; Gerstenecker, Gary; Zhang, Renliang; Li, Xin-Min; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Gogonea, Valentin; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Smith, Jonathan D.; Plow, Edward F.; Fox, Paul L.; Shih, Diana M.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Fisher, Edward A.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Landmesser, Ulf; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein–associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other’s function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function. PMID:23908111

  16. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status and Risk of Insecticide Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlong, Clement E.; Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2005-06-23

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme that catalyzes a number of different reactions including the hydrolysis of the toxic oxon metabolites of the insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 has also been implicated in the detoxication of oxidized lipids and the metabolism of a number of drugs, activating some, while inactivating others. There are two common PON1 coding region polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R). The latter determines the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of a number of substrates including chlorpyrifos oxon, but not diazoxon. Evidence for the physiological importance of PON1 in modulating exposures to these two insecticides comes from several different studies. Early studies noted that species with high levels of PON1 were much more resistant to certain organophosphorus (OP) insecticides than were species with low levels. Another early study by Main demonstrated that injected rabbit paraoxonase protected rats from paraoxon toxicity. Our research group began the development of a mouse model system for examining the importance of PON1 in the detoxication of OP insecticides.

  17. Paraoxonase1 Genetic Polymorphisms in a Mixed Ancestry African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity is markedly influenced by coding polymorphisms, Q/R at position 192 and M/L at position 55 of the PON1 gene. We investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their effects on PON1 and antioxidant activities in 844 South African mixed ancestry individuals. Genotyping was done using allele-specific TaqMan technology, PON1 activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate, oxidative status was determined by measuring the antioxidant activities of ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers included malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. The frequencies of Q192R and L55M were 47.6% and 28.8%, respectively, and the most common corresponding alleles were 192R (60.4% and 55M (82.6%. The Q192 was significantly associated with 5.8 units’ increase in PON1 concentration and 15.4 units’ decrease in PONase activity after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes, with suggestion of differential effects by diabetes status. The PON1 L55 variant was associated with none of the measured indices. In conclusion, we have shown that the Q192R polymorphism is a determinant of both PON1 concentration and activity and this association appeared to be enhanced in subjects with diabetes.

  18. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes - the carriers of different genotypes of paraoxonase 1 gene. Known that the enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1 plays a key role in the regulation of lipid peroxidation and its activity is genetically determined. The investigation revealed that the PON1 gene's polymorphic variants may determine the formation of atherogenic changes in lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2.

  19. Positive clinical response to clopidogrel is independent of paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2C19 genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Medina-Gil, José M; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Limiñana, José M; Saavedra, Pedro; Tugores, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing controversy about the influence of serum paraoxonase type 1 and cytochrome CYP2C19 in the conversion of clopidogrel to its pharmaceutically active metabolite. The effect of concomitant medication with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole has been also subject of intense scrutiny. We present a cohort of 263 patients receiving anti-platelet aggregation treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin for 1 year. The paraoxonase 1 gene Q192R variant along with the presence of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss of function alleles, concomitant medication with proton pump inhibitors and known cardiovascular risk factors were examined to determine their influence in disease relapse due to an ischaemic event during the 12 month treatment period. The low number of patients suffering a relapse (20 out of 263), indicates that double anti-aggregation therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was very effective in our patients. Among the relapsers, evidence of coronary heart disease was the most influencial factor affecting response to therapy, while the presence of the paraoxonase 1 Q192R variant, loss of function of CYP2C19, and concomitant medication with omeprazole were non-significant. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumora, Lada; Rajković, Marija Grdić; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Pancirov, Dolores; Čepelak, Ivana; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidative enzyme manly associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) in the peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We also aimed to determine the concentration of reduced thiol groups as a marker of protein oxidation. The study included 105 patients with stable COPD and 44 healthy controls. PON1 activities and thiols concentration were assayed in sera by spectrophotometry. PON1 basal (POX) and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity (POX1) as well as arylesterase activity (ARE) were significantly reduced in COPD patients. In addition, concentration of reduced thiol groups was significantly decreased in COPD group. PON1 activities were similar in patients with different disease severity (GOLD stages). However, a significant reduction in POX, POX1 and ARE was observed already in GOLD II stage when compared to controls. POX and POX1 showed modest while ARE yielded very good power for discrimination between healthy subjects and COPD patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that ARE is a good COPD predictor. Reduction of PON1 activity observed in COPD patients could be partly caused by oxidative environment. Lower concentrations of reduced thiol groups in COPD patients suggest that a decrease in PON1 activity could reflect oxidative changes of enzyme free cysteine residues. Furthermore, decreased PON1 arylesterase activity might indicate a down-regulation of PON1 concentration. Our results suggest that ARE could be considered as potential biomarker for COPD diagnosis.

  1. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) status and substrate hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Rebecca J.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2009-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) hydrolyzes a number of organophosphorus (OP) compounds including insecticides and nerve agents. The in vivo efficacy of PON1 to protect against a specific OP exposure depends on the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis. The Q192R polymorphism affects the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of some substrates and not others. While PON1 R192 hydrolyzes paraoxon approximately 9-times as efficiently as PON1 Q192 , the efficiency is insufficient to provide in vivo protection against paraoxon/parathion exposure. The two PON1 192 alloforms have nearly equivalent but higher catalytic efficiencies for hydrolyzing diazoxon (DZO) and provide equivalent in vivo protection against DZO exposures. On the other hand, PON1 R192 is significantly more efficient in hydrolyzing chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) than PON1 Q192 and provides better protection against CPO exposure. Thus, for some exposures it is only the level of plasma PON1 that is important, whereas for others it is both plasma level and the PON1 192 alloform(s) present in plasma that are important. In no case is the plasma level of PON1 unimportant, provided that the catalytic efficiency is sufficient to protect against the exposure. Two-substrate enzyme assay/analysis protocols that reveal both PON1 plasma levels and PON1 192 phenotype (QQ; QR; RR) are designed to optimize the separation of PON1 192 phenotypes; however, they have not been optimized for evaluating in vivo rates of OP detoxication. This study describes the adaptation of a non-OP, two-substrate determination of PON1 status to the conversion of the PON1 status data to physiologically relevant rates of DZO and CPO detoxication. Conversion factors were generated for rates of hydrolysis of different substrates

  2. Towards Understanding the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Paraoxonase 1: Experimental and In Silico Mutagenesis Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Bajaj, Priyanka; Kathuria, Deepika; Bharatam, Prasad V; Pande, Abhay H

    2017-08-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is a ~45-kDa serum enzyme that can hydrolyze a variety of substrates, including organophosphate (OP) compounds. It is a potential candidate for the development of antidote against OP poisoning in humans. However, insufficient OP-hydrolyzing activity of native enzyme affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) having enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity. The crystal structure of h-PON1 remains unsolved, and the molecular details of how the enzyme catalyses hydrolysis of different types of substrates are also not clear. Understanding the molecular details of the catalytic mechanism of h-PON1 is essential to engineer better variant(s) of enzyme. In this study, we have used a random mutagenesis approach to increase the OP-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant h-PON1. The mutants not only showed a 10-340-fold increased OP-hydrolyzing activity against different OP substrates but also exhibited differential lactonase and arylesterase activities. In order to investigate the mechanistic details of the effect of observed mutations on the hydrolytic activities of enzyme, molecular docking studies were performed with selected mutants. The results suggested that the observed mutations permit differential binding of substrate/inhibitor into the enzyme's active site. This may explain differential hydrolytic activities of the enzyme towards different substrates.

  3. Paraoxonase-1 and Simvastatin Treatment in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Januszek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is the crucial antioxidant marker of high-density lipoproteins. The present study is aimed at assessing the effect of simvastatin treatment on PON1 activity and its relationship to Q192R and M55L polymorphisms in subjects with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The patient group was composed of 53 individuals with stable CAD, and the control group included 53 sex-matched police officers without CAD. CAD patients were treated with simvastatin 40mg/day for 12 months. Respectively, flow mediated dilatation (FMD, serum hs-CRP and TNF-α levels, urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations, and PON1 activity were evaluated in definitive intervals. Results. There was no effect of simvastatin treatment on urinary 8-iso-PGF2α. Simvastatin treatment significantly increased FMD value, decreased CRP and TNF-α concentration. After adjusting for PON1 genotypes, significantly higher PON1 activity was noted in the 192R allele carriers, in both groups. Regardless of genotype, PON1 activity remained stable after simvastatin treatment. Conclusions. The present study confirms a positive effect of simvastatin therapy on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in secondary prevention. Simvastatin treatment shows no effects on PON1 activity and 8-isoprostanes level. The effect of simvastatin therapy on PON1 activity is not modulated by Q192R and M55L polymorphisms.

  4. Paraoxonase-1 and myeloperoxidase correlate with vascular biomarkers in overweight patients with newly diagnosed untreated hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentpéteri, Anita; Zsíros, Noémi; Varga, Viktória E; Lőrincz, Hajnalka; Katkó, Mónika; Seres, Ildikó; Fülöp, Péter; Paragh, György; Harangi, Mariann

    2017-08-01

    In hyperlipidaemic state, increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity have been reported; however, their relationships with other atherosclerotic biomarkers have not been completely clarified. Serum concentrations of lipid and inflammatory parameters, MPO levels, and PON1 activities were investigated in 167 untreated hyperlipidaemic patients with and without vascular complications and in 32 healthy controls. Additionally, levels of CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and oxidized LDL were determined. We found elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), ADMA, sCD40L, sICAM-1 concentrations, and higher MPO levels in patients with vascular complications compared to those without. The PON1 arylesterase activity correlated negatively with sCD40L, ADMA, and sICAM-1 levels, respectively. In contrast, MPO concentrations showed positive correlations with sCD40L, ADMA, and sICAM-1 levels, respectively. It can therefore be stated that PON1 activity and MPO level correlate strongly with the vascular biomarkers, highlighting the importance of the HDL-associated pro- and antioxidant enzymes in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis.

  5. Paraoxonase-1 is related to inflammation, fibrosis and PPAR delta in experimental liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackness Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme synthesized by the liver. It protects against liver impairment and attenuates the production of the pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. We investigated the relationships between hepatic PON1 and MCP-1 expression in rats with liver disease and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Methods CCl4 was administered for up to 12 weeks to induce liver damage. Serum and hepatic levels of PON1 and MCP-1, their gene and protein expression, nuclear transcription factors, and histological and biochemical markers of liver impairment were measured. Results High levels of PON1 and MCP-1 expression were observed at 12th week in the hepatocytes surrounding the fibrous septa and inflammatory areas. CCl4-administered rats had an increased hepatic PON1 concentration that was related to decreased gene transcription and inhibited protein degradation. Decreased PON1 gene transcription was associated with PPARδ expression. These changes were accompanied by increased hepatic MCP-1 concentration and gene expression. There were significant direct relationships between hepatic PON1 and MCP-1 concentrations (P = 0.005 and between PON1 and the amount of activated stellate cells (P = 0.001. Conclusion Our results from this experimental model suggest a hepato-protective role for PON1 against inflammation, fibrosis and liver disease mediated by MCP-1.

  6. The paraoxonase-1 pathway is not a major bioactivation pathway of clopidogrel in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancrenaz, V; Desmeules, J; James, R; Fontana, P; Reny, J-L; Dayer, P; Daali, Y

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Clopidogrel is a prodrug bioactivated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). More recently, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) has been proposed as a major contributor to clopidogrel metabolism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of CYPs and PON1 to clopidogrel metabolism in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Clopidogrel metabolism was studied in human serum, recombinant PON1 enzyme (rePON1), pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), HLMs with the CYP2C19*1/*1 genotype and HLMs with the CYP2C19*2/*2 genotype. Inhibition studies were also performed using specific CYP inhibitors and antibodies. Clopidogrel and its metabolites were measured using LC/MS/MS method. KEY RESULTS PON1 activity was highest in the human serum and there was no difference in PON1 activity between any of the HLM groups. The production of clopidogrel's active metabolite (clopidogrel-AM) from 2-oxo-clopidogrel in pooled HLMs was approximately 500 times that in serum. When 2-oxo-clopidogrel was incubated with rePON1, clopidogrel-AM was not detected. Clopidogrel-AM production from 2-oxo-clopidogrel was lower in CYP2C19*2/*2 HLMs compared with CYP2C19*1/*1 HLMs, while PON1 activity in HLMs with both genotypes was similar. Moreover, incubation with inhibitors of CYP3A, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 significantly reduced clopidogrel bioactivation while a PON1 inhibitor, EDTA, had only a weak inhibitory effect. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS This in vitro study shows that the contribution of PON1 to clopidogrel metabolism is limited at clinically relevant concentrations. Moreover, CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP3A play important roles in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. PMID:22428615

  7. Association of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Panneerselvam; Iyer, Anandi Chandramouli; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Raj, Nancy Bright Arul Joseph; Ganesan, Divya; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Murugan, Maruthamuthu; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2018-04-15

    Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, paraoxonase-1(PON1) is reported to have an ability to reduce insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in vitro. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PON1 is associated with variability in enzyme activity and concentration. Based on this we aimed to investigate the association of PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms with the risk of developing insulin resistance in adult South Indian population. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) Type 2 diabetes patients and 293 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All the study subjects were genotyped for PON1 (Q192R and L55M) missense polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method. Fasting serum insulin level was measured by ELISA. The distribution of QR/RR and LM/MM genotypes were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the R and M alleles were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes with an Odds Ratio of 1.68 (P  R genotypes were found to be significantly associated with higher BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Further, the mutant allele or genotypes of PON1 L55M were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR among adult type 2 diabetes patients. PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms may play a crucial role in pathogenesis and susceptibility of insulin resistance thus leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms on heart diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Rodríguez-Pérez, Candelario; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Cámara-Álvarez, José Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Associations between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms and heart diseases (HD) risk remain inconsistent. In order to obtain address this issue we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between the L55M and Q192R polymorphisms of PON1 gene and heart diseases risk. Methods: Relevant studies were enrolled by searching databases systematically. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association. Subgroup analyses were conducted for diagnostic and ethnicity. The heterogeneity among each of the studies was calculated by using Cochran Qtest and the inconsistency index (I2), and Begg's funnel plot and Egger's tests were performed to evaluate publication bias. Result: Sixty four studies involving a total of 19,715 cases and 33,397 controls were included in this meta-analysis. We found that the L55M polymorphism showed a significant association with heart diseases in Europeans (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.33–1.56) and Asians (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.03–1.35). This meta-analysis also showed a protective association of Q192R polymorphism with HD in Asian (OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.37–0.66) and African populations (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.53–0.84). The 192R allele significantly decreased the risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.57–0.99) and coronary artery disease (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.84–0.98); however, individuals with 192Q allele had a markedly increased risk of coronary artery disease development (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.22–1.56). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the genetic risk for heart diseases is associated with the PON1 gene polymorphisms. L55M polymorphism is a risk factor and Q192R polymorphism is protective in certain populations. It is worth noting that the 192Q allele may be a risk factor to develop coronary artery disease. PMID:27858903

  9. Paraoxonases-1, -2 and -3: What are their Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Clement E.; Marsillach, Judit; Jarvik, Gail P.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase/lactonase primarily associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was the first member of this family of enzymes to be characterized. Its name was derived from its ability to hydrolyze paraoxon, the toxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Related enzymes PON2 and PON3 were named from their evolutionary relationship with PON1. Mice with each PON gene knocked out were generated at UCLA and have been key for elucidating their roles in organophosphorus (OP) metabolism, cardiovascular disease, innate immunity, obesity, and cancer. PON1 status, determined with two-substrate analyses, reveals an individual’s functional Q192R genotype and activity levels. The three-dimensional structure for a chimeric PON1 has been useful for understanding the structural properties of PON1 and for engineering PON1 as a catalytic scavenger of OP compounds. All three PONs hydrolyze microbial N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing factors, quenching Pseudomonas aeruginosa’s pathogenesis. All three PONs modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. PON2 is localized in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. PON2 has potent antioxidant properties and is found at 3- to 4-fold higher levels in females than males, providing increased protection against oxidative stress, as observed in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes from female mice compared with male mice. The higher levels of PON2 in females may explain the lower frequency of neurological and cardiovascular diseases in females and the ability to identify males but not females with Parkinson’s disease using a special PON1 status assay. Less is known about PON3; however, recent experiments with PON3 knockout mice show them to be susceptible to obesity, gallstone formation and atherosclerosis. Like PONs 1 and 2, PON3 also appears to modulate oxidative stress. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and on HDL. Both PON2 and PON3 are upregulated in cancer

  10. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity, thyroid hormone concentration and oxidant status in neural tube defects.

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    Sak, Sibel; Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Findik, Fatih Mehmet; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Gul, Talip

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between neural tube defects and paraoxonase-1 activity in amniotic fluid. We studied total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone amniotic fluid concentration in fetuses with neural tube defects. The present study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Dicle University between September 2011 and June 2013. The study group included 37 amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women (16-20 weeks of gestation) with fetuses affected by neural tube defects. The control group consisted of 36 pregnant women who were diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy according to first or second trimester aneuploidy screening and were later confirmed on amniocentesis to have genetically normal fetuses. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity and total oxidant status were significantly higher (P = 0.023, P = 0.029, respectively) whereas free T4 was significantly lower (P = 0.022) in fetuses with neural tube defects compared with control subjects. In fetuses with neural tube defects, amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity correlated positively with total oxidant status (r = 0.424**, P = 0.010), and amniotic fluid total antioxidant capacity correlated positively with free t4 (r = 0.381*, P = 0.022). This is the first study in the literature to show an association between paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone concentration and neural tube defects. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. The human paraoxonase-1 phenotype modifies the effect of statins on paraoxonase activity and lipid parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, Hossein Z; Sztanek, Ferenc; Derdak, Zoltan; Seres, Ildiko; Harangi, Mariann; Paragh, György

    2008-01-01

    Aims Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) protects lipoproteins against oxidation by hydrolysing lipid peroxides in oxidized low-density lipoprotein, therefore it may protect against atherosclerosis. One of the two common PON1 gene polymorphisms within the PON1 gene is the Q192R, whose prevalence can be estimated by phenotype distribution analysis. The goal of this study was to clarify the role of PON1 phenotypes on the effect of three different statins on paraoxonase activity and lipid parameters. Methods One hundred and sixty-four patients with type IIb hypercholesterolaemia were involved in the study. We examined the effect of 10 mg day−1 atorvastatin, 10/20 mg day−1 simvastatin and 80 mg day−1 extended-release fluvastatin treatment on lipid levels and paraoxonase activity in patients with different PON1 phenotypes. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined by the dual substrate method. Results Three months of statin treatment significantly increased paraoxonase activity in every statin-treated group. In patients with AB+BB phenotype, statin treatment was significantly more effective on paraoxonase activity than in the AA group. Statin treatment more effectively decreased triglyceride levels in the AB+BB group compared with the AA group in the whole study population and in the simvastatin-treated group. Atorvastatin treatment was significantly more effective on apolipoprotein B levels in patients with AB+BB phenotype than in the AA phenotype group. Conclusions The PON1 phenotype may be a novel predictive factor for the effectiveness of statin treatment on PON1 activity and serum lipid levels; however, different types of statins may exert different effects on these parameters. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT It has been suggested that the human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) genotype is an important determinant of the therapeutic response given to statin treatment. It is also known that the PON1 activity status is a better predictor of coronary heart

  12. Impaired paraoxonase-1 status in obese children. Relationships with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

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    Ferré, Natàlia; Feliu, Albert; García-Heredia, Anabel; Marsillach, Judit; París, Neus; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Escribano, Joaquín; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood obesity. We studied 110 obese children and 36 non-obese children with a similar gender and age distribution. We measured serum PON1 activity against 5-thiobutyl butyrolactone (TBBLase) and against paraoxon (paraoxonase). PON1 concentration was measured separately as were the levels of several standard metabolic variables. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated as an estimate of insulin resistance. TBBLase was significantly decreased in obese children (P=0.008), while paraoxonase activity and PON1 concentrations showed non-significant trends towards decrease and increase, respectively (P=0.054 and P=0.060). TBBLase and paraoxonase specific activities were significantly decreased (P=0.004 and P=0.018, respectively). TBBLase specific activity was inversely associated with BMI, percentage body fat, insulin, HOMA, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein, and directly associated with HDL-cholesterol. Paraoxonase specific activity showed similar associations with BMI, percentage fat, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Obese children with MetS had lower TBBLase activities than obese children without MetS (P=0.018). Linear regression analyses showed that TBBLase was independently associated with HDL-cholesterol, BMI, percentage body fat and PON155 polymorphism, but paraoxonase activity was associated only with PON1192 polymorphism. Our results suggest that PON1 may play a role in the onset and development of metabolic alterations in childhood obesity leading to diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. However, being derived from statistical association study, this finding cannot be seen as showing cause-effect. © 2013.

  13. Potential association of paraoxonase-1, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis.

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    Noack, Barbara; Aslanhan, Zeynep; Boué, Julia; Petig, Christin; Teige, Madlen; Schaper, Frank; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hannig, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM), has been recognized repeatedly. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is involved in the prevention of atherosclerosis, and decreased enzyme activity in patients with DM has been shown. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible correlation between decreased PON-1 activity and the association between impaired glucose metabolism or DM and periodontitis. PON-1 phenotype distribution and enzyme activities were characterized by measuring the hydrolysis of phenylacetate and paraoxon in serum samples of 87 patients with type 2 DM and 46 patients with pre-DM showing impaired fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired oral glucose tolerance. The control group comprised 64 individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose and normal glucose tolerance. Altogether, 154 study participants were available for complete clinical periodontal examination. No difference in periodontitis prevalence existed between the study groups. However, patients with DM had an increased risk of suffering from generalized periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio = 4.05; 95% confidence interval = 1.24 to 13.18; P = 0.02), and their PON-1 activity was reduced compared to controls. In contrast, patients with pre-DM showed neither an increased periodontitis risk nor an impaired paraoxonase status. PON-1 was not associated directly with periodontitis. Nevertheless, concerning patients with DM, poor oral hygiene, male sex, and PON-1 phenotype were found to be significant predictors for periodontitis extent. Type 2 DM, but not a prediabetic state, increases the risk of generalized periodontitis. PON-1 status in patients with type 2 DM may contribute to this association.

  14. Association of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms and concentration with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut Cosan, Didem; Colak, E; Saydam, F; Yazıcı, H U; Degirmenci, I; Birdane, A; Colak, E; Gunes, H V

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is carried by high-density lipoprotein in blood circulation and is shown to be effective in preventing oxidized phospholipids carried by low-density lipoprotein particles, thus it acts as an antioxidant. Polymorphism in this gene has been investigated for many metabolic diseases, but it is not thought to be a genetic risk factor for essential hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an association between PON1 gene polymorphisms and concentration with essential hypertension. The study population was comprised of 100 patients with essential hypertension and 100 healthy controls. One promoter region [C(-108)T] and two coding region (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms in the PON1 gene were genotyped in individuals by using the TaqMan assay. Plasma PON1 concentration in all volunteers was also measured spectrophotometrically by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The genotype and allele frequencies of the PON1 C(-108)T polymorphism showed significant differences between the essential hypertensive and control groups (CT vs. CC: p<0.001; T allele vs. C allele: p<0.001). There was no significant difference for the PON1 L55M polymorphism between the groups, while the heterozygote genotype of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism showed significant difference (p = 0.03). The PON1 concentration was also found to be significantly lower in hypertensive patients (p < 0.001). Decline in the level of PON1 gene may be one of the main factors in the development of essential hypertension, and the PON1 C(-108)T polymorphism may have a prognostic value in the patients with essential hypertension.

  15. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  16. Two common nonsynonymous paraoxonase 1 (PON1 gene polymorphisms and brain astrocytoma and meningioma

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    Martínez Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1 plays a major role in the metabolism of several organophosphorus compounds. The enzyme is encoded by the polymorphic gene PON1, located on chromosome 7q21.3. Aiming to identify genetic variations related to the risk of developing brain tumors, we investigated the putative association between common nonsynonymous PON1 polymorphisms and the risk of developing astrocytoma and meningioma. Methods Seventy one consecutive patients with brain tumors (43 with astrocytoma grade II/III and 28 with meningioma with ages ranging 21 to 76 years, and 220 healthy controls subjects were analyzed for the frequency of the nonsynonymous PON1 genotypes L55M rs854560 and Q192R rs662. All participants were adult Caucasian individuals recruited in the central area of Spain. Results The frequencies of the PON1 genotypes and allelic variants of the polymorphisms PON1 L55M and PON1 Q192R did not differ significantly between patients with astrocytoma and meningioma and controls. The minor allele frequencies were as follows: PON1 55L, 0.398, 0.328 and 0.286 for patients with astrocytoma, meningioma and control individuals, respectively; PON1 192R, 0.341, 0.362 and 0.302 for patients with astrocytoma, meningioma and control individuals, respectively. Correction for age, gender, or education, made no difference in odds ratios and the p values remained non-significant. Haplotype association analyses did not identify any significant association with the risk of developing astrocytoma or meningioma. Conclusions Common nonsynonymous PON1 polymorphisms are not related with the risk of developing astrocytoma and meningioma.

  17. Antibodies to paraoxonase 1 are associated with oxidant status and endothelial activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López-Mejías, Raquel; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco J; Abal, Francisco; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    2016-11-01

    Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors underlie CV disease occurrence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, a functional impairment of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been observed. Although the actual players are unknown, anti-HDLs were associated with altered lipid profile, decreased paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and CV disease in RA. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of antibodies against PON1 may be involved in this scenario. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies were quantified by ELISA in serum samples from 212 RA patients, 175 healthy controls (HC) and 54 subjects with traditional CV risk factors (CVR). A subgroup of 13 RA patients was prospectively followed upon tumour necrosis factor-α  (TNFα) blockade. Serum PON1 activity, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and TNFα serum levels were assessed by immunoassays. PON1 rs662 (Q > R) status was studied by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies are increased in RA patients compared with HC (P<0.0001) and CVR subjects (P<0.001), even after correcting for total IgG levels. Although no associations with lipid profile were found, a positive correlation with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was observed (r=0.215, P=0.004). Anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with PON1 activity, NO and TAC, a rs662-mediated gene-dosage effect being found. Similarly, anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with sICAM serum levels in univariate and multivariate models. Finally, these antibodies were not affected by TNFα blockade. Anti-PON1 antibodies can be responsible for PON1 impairment in RA patients, with a potential impact on biomarkers of oxidative status and endothelial activation. A gene-environment interaction of rs662 variants is supported. © 2016 The

  18. Paraoxonase-1 L55M polymorphism with fatty acid composition of phospholipids in high-density lipoproteins

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    Ghatreh Samani K

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: Allele (L from L55M polymorphism had a higher frequency in patients with higher LDL-C concentrations. PON1 genotypes seemed to have a modifying role on paraoxonase-1 activity after lovastatin therapy.

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I and Paraoxonase-1 Are Potential Blood Biomarkers for Ischemic Stroke Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle B; Hart, Kimberly; Roll, Susan; Sperling, Matthew; Unruh, Dusten; Davidson, W Sean; Lindsell, Christopher J; Adeoye, Opeolu

    2016-06-01

    Blood biomarkers for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke diagnosis remain elusive. Recent investigations suggested that apolipoprotein (Apo), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and paraoxonase-1 may be associated with stroke. We hypothesized that Apo A-I, Apo C-I, Apo C-III, MMP-3, MMP-9, and paraoxonase-1 are differentially expressed in ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and controls. In a single-center prospective observational study, consecutive stroke cases were enrolled if blood samples were obtainable within 12 hours of symptom onset. Age- (±5 years), race-, and sex-matched controls were recruited. Multiplex assays were used to measure protein levels. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare biomarker values between ischemic stroke patients and controls, hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the difference of 2 medians were calculated. Fourteen ischemic stroke case-control pairs and 23 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) case-control pairs were enrolled. Median Apo A-I levels were lower in ischemic stroke cases versus controls (140 mg/dL versus 175 mg/dL, difference of 35 mg/dL, 95% CI -54 to -16) and in ischemic stroke versus ICH cases (140 mg/dL versus 180 mg/dL, difference of 40 mg/dL, 95% CI -57 to -23). Median paraoxonase-1 was lower in ischemic stroke cases than in both ICH cases and matched controls. Median Apo C-I was slightly lower in ischemic stroke cases than in ICH cases. There were no differences between groups for MMP-3, MMP-9, and Apo C-III. Apo A-I and paraoxonase-1 levels may be clinically useful for ischemic stroke diagnosis and for differentiating between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between human paraoxonase-1 activity and PON1 polymorphisms in Mexican workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, I; Lacasaña, M; Blanco-Muñoz, J; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Sanchez-Villegas, P; Pérez-Méndez, O A; Gamboa-Avila, R

    2009-07-24

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphate pesticides. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study and reported on the distribution of three common genetic polymorphisms of the PON1 gene in a population of floriculture workers from Mexico as well as the association between those polymorphisms and other predictors with serum PON1 activity on paraoxon, diazoxon and phenylacetate. The genotype frequencies at position PON1(55) were 89% (LL), 10% (LM) and 0.6% (MM), at position PON1(192) they were 16% (QQ), 47% (QR) and 37% (RR), and 26% (TT), 42% (TC) and 32% (CC) at position PON1(-108). Thus, the frequencies of alleles L, Q and T were 0.94, 0.40 and 0.47, respectively. The PON1(55) polymorphism had no significant effect on serum PON1 activity on any substrate. We found a significant association between the PON1(192) polymorphism and PON1 activity towards paraoxon and diazoxon, which increased in genotypes as follows: 192RR>192QR>192QQ for paraoxonase activity and, inversely, 192QQ>192QR>192RR for diazoxonase activity. The PON1(-108) polymorphism also had a significant effect on PON1 activity level towards paraoxon in the following order among the genotype groups: -108CC>-108TC>-108TT. Serum PON1 activity towards diazoxon was not associated with the PON1(-108) polymorphism but it was influenced by the intensity exposure to pesticides at the floriculture industry and the years of the occupational exposure to pesticides. No polymorphism significantly influenced serum PON1 activity on phenylacetate.

  1. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

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    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  2. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism Q192R affects the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in healthy males

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    Rimbach Gerald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying atherogenesis. The common PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662, A>G, a glutamine to arginine substitution at amino acid residue 192, has been analyzed in numerous association studies as a genetic marker for coronary heart diseases, however, with controversial results. Findings To get a better understanding about the pathophysiological function of PON1, we analyzed the relationships between the Q192R polymorphism, serum paraoxonase activity and serum biomarkers important for atherogenesis. Genotyping a cohort of 49 healthy German males for the Q192R polymorphism revealed an allele distribution of 0.74 and 0.26 for the Q and R allele, respectively, typical for Caucasian populations. Presence of the R192 allele was found to be associated with a significantly increased paraoxonase enzyme activity of 187.8 ± 11.4 U/l in comparison to the QQ192 genotype with 60.5 ± 4.9 U/l. No significant differences among the genotypes were found for blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol. As expected, MIP-2 alpha a cytokine rather not related to atherosclerosis is not affected by the PON1 polymorphism. In contrast to that, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is enhanced in R192 carriers (163.8 ± 24.7 pg/ml vs 94.7 ± 3.2 pg/ml in QQ192 carriers. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the common PON1 R192 allele may be a genetic risk factor for atherogenesis by inducing chronic low-grade inflammation.

  3. Effects of paraoxonase 1 activity and gene polymorphisms on long-term pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard-exposed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravati, Ali; Ardestani, Sussan K; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Ghorbani, Atefeh; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kazemi, Hadi; Rezaei, Abbas; Hoseini, Habibollah; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent with prolonged adverse effects. The antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an endogenous free radical scavenger, plays a protective role against oxidative stress. The possible roles of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of SM, together with the antioxidant activity of PON1, are enough to warrant the analysis of PON1 polymorphisms and allelic variants in incapacitated veterans. PON1 55 L/M and 192 Q/R polymorphisms were assayed in 289 male veterans with severe pulmonary conditions, who were exposed to SM 20-25 years ago, and 66 gender-, age- and ethnic-matched healthy controls. As we showed previously the PON1 activity decreased significantly in veterans. However, PON1 55 L/M and 192 Q/R genotype distributions were not significantly different between the veterans and the controls. R and L allele carriers have also significantly higher basal and salt-stimulated PON1 activity than Q and M allele carriers. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in individuals with the QQ+(MM or LM) genotype were significantly lower than those with the (RR or QR)+LL genotype. Furthermore, basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity in veterans with the (RR or QR)+LL genotype was significantly lower than that in the controls. A positive correlation has been determined between serum PON1 activity and pulmonary function test in QR/LL genotypes. Some of the veterans with RR+QR genotypes have also shown a novel missense change of Asn227Ser in exon 6 of the enzyme. This substitution is close to the binding domain of PON1 and so modifies enzyme activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-density lipopoprotein antioxidant capacity, subpopulation distribution and paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Krisztina; Tarr, Tünde; Lőrincz, Hajnalka; Borbás, Viktor; Seres, Ildikó; Harangi, Mariann; Fülöp, Péter; Paragh, György

    2016-03-22

    The causes of increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not understood thoroughly, although presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-specific agents were also proposed. In this study, we investigated the quantitative changes in the lipid profile, as well as qualitative characteristics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and markers of inflammation and disease activity in SLE patients. Lipoprotein levels were determined in 51 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. HDL antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically with a cell-free method of hemin-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis was used for HDL subfraction analysis. Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and oxidized LDL concentrations, as well as interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were determined. HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 concentrations decreased significantly in SLE subjects. Also, PON1 arylesterase activity (125.65 ± 26.87 vs. 148.35 ± 39.34 U/L, p = 0.001) and total HDL antioxidant capacity (165.82 ± 58.28% vs. 217.71 ± 54.36%, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. Additionally, all HDL subfraction concentrations were significantly decreased in patients, while the levels of the examined inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in SLE subjects. The latter correlated positively with disease activity, and negatively with HDL concentration and total HDL antioxidant capacity, respectively. PON1 arylesterase activity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were independent predictors of total HDL antioxidant capacity. Induced by the systemic inflammation, altered composition and antioxidant activity may diminish the anti-atherogenic effect of HDL and therefore may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of SLE patients.

  5. Interaction between paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure on metabolic markers in children using a multiplex approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nellemann, Christine; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    and body fat content and blood pressure were previously found to be dependent on paraoxonase1 (PON1) Q192R genotype. In children with the PON1 192 R-allele, leptin, glucagon, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with prenatal pesticide exposure. For PON1 192 QQ...

  6. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and stroke; the dilemma of genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Amir; Rezaee, Mehdi; Rivandi, Mahdi; Forouzanfar, Faranak; Afzaljavan, Fahimeh; Pasdar, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Ischaemic stroke, which is mostly caused by atherosclerosis, is one of the most widely causes of mortality and morbidity. One of the most important enzymatic activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in association with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the prevention of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, which gives it an anti-atherogenic activity. PON1 expression and activity is influenced by various factors; the most important of which is genetic polymorphism, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The results of various studies in different populations indicate that some SNPs of the PON1 gene are associated with stroke. Therefore, in this review we studied various researches, in which the association of PON1 SNPs with stroke had been investigated in different populations. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of in vitro dieldrin exposure on the rat paraoxonase 1 (pon1) promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Mary Beth; Pickin, Rebecca; Crow, John Allen; Chambers, Janice E

    2014-05-01

    The legacy organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin, is still found in soil and accumulation in individuals is possible. Paraoxonase 1 hydrolyzes the oxon metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides, as well as other substrates. Putative binding sites for pregnane X receptor (PXR) exist in the paraoxonase promoter, and studies have indicated that dieldrin can activate PXR-regulated gene expression. We examined rat paraoxonase promoter activity in the presence of dieldrin alone or combined with nuclear receptors (NRs). In vitro dieldrin concentrations from 10 to 100 µM significantly increased (p paraoxonase promoter activity in the presence of NRs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dieldrin increasing paraoxonase promoter activity. Since many organochlorine insecticides are in the same chemical class as dieldrin, these results could be typical of other bioaccumulative persistent pollutants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgard, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate...... pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children...... prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype...

  9. High-density lipoprotein-associated paraoxonase-1 activity for prediction of adverse outcomes in outpatients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Weber, Malory; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L; Butler, Javed; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Decreased arylesterase (ArylE) activity of paraoxonase-1, a HDL-associated protein with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been associated with increased risk of cardiac events in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF). We aim to investigate the prognostic significance of changes in serum ArylE activity over time. We examined the association between baseline and follow-up serum ArylE activity and HF outcomes (death, cardiac transplantation, or ventricular assist device implantation) in 299 patients with HF enrolled in a prospective cohort study from January 2008 to July 2009, with 145 patients having available follow-up levels at 1 year. A significant drop in ArylE activity on follow-up was defined as a drop of ≥25% vs. baseline levels. Mean baseline and follow-up ArylE activity levels were 110.6 ± 29.9 µmol/min/mL and 106.2 ± 29.9 µmol/min/mL, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.1 years, low baseline ArylE activity was associated with increased risk of adverse HF events [hazard ratio (HR; lowest vs highest tertile) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.5, P = 0.01] and HF-related hospitalization [incidence rate ratio (lowest vs. highest tertile) 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-4.1, P = 0.016], which remained significant after adjustment for age, male gender, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, creatinine clearance, CAD, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Patients who had a significant drop in ArylE activity on follow-up (n = 18) had a significantly increased risk of HF events (HR 4.9, 95% CI 1.6-14.6, P = 0.005), even after adjustment for baseline levels of ArylE activity. Reduced baseline ArylE activity and decreased levels on follow-up are associated with adverse outcomes in stable outpatients with HF. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  10. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and activity in predicting cad risk in North-West Indian Punjabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hydrolyzes the oxidized form, therefore preventing the development of atherosclerosis. The polymorphisms of PON1 gene are known to affect the PON1 activity and thereby coronary artery disease (CAD risk. As studies are lacking in North-West Indian Punjabi's, a distinct ethnic group with high incidence of CAD, we determined PON1 activity, genotypes and haplotypes in this population and correlated them with the risk of CAD.350 angiographically proven (≥ 70% stenosis CAD patients and 300 healthy controls were investigated. PON1 activity was determined towards paraoxon (Paraoxonase; PONase and phenylacetate (Arylesterase; AREase substrates. In addition, genotyping was carried out by using multiplex PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide -PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and haplotyping was determined by PHASE software. The serum PONase and AREase activities were significantly lower in CAD patients as compared to the controls. All studied polymorphisms except L55M had significant effect on PONase activity. However AREase activity was not affected by them. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for the conventional risk factors for CAD, QR (OR: 2.73 (1.57-4.72 and RR (OR, 16.24 (6.41-41.14 genotypes of Q192R polymorphism and GG (OR: 2.07 (1.02-4.21 genotype of -162A/G polymorphism had significantly higher CAD risk. Haplotypes L-T-G-Q-C (OR: 3.25 (1.72-6.16 and L-T-G-R-G (OR: 2.82 (1.01-7.80 were also significantly associated with CAD.In conclusion this study shows that CAD patients had lower PONase and AREase activities as compared to the controls. The coding Q192R polymorphism, promoter -162A/G polymorphism and L-T-G-Q-C and L-T-G-R-G haplotypes are all independently associated with CAD.

  11. THE GLN-ARG192 POLYMORPHISM OF HUMAN PARAOXONASE 1 GENE AND THE ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPE VARIATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN SOUTH-INDIAN PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugapriya Chandrasekaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paraoxonase 1, an arylesterase, is associated with high-density lipoprotein and it prevents LDL from peroxidation by hydrolysing lipid peroxides and thereby providing protection against atherosclerosis. A polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 gene provoking a glutamine-to-arginine (A-allele or Q allele to B-allele or R allele interchange at aminoacid-192 has been reported to determine differences in arylesterase activity towards LDL’s oxidised aryl esters, hydrolysed at a higher rate by Q-alloenzyme than Ralloenzyme. AIM We carried out this study to determine the association of paraoxonase 1 gene Q192R polymorphism (R-allele with coronary atherosclerosis and to find out if the low arylesterase activity caused by the paraoxonase 1 gene Q192R polymorphism (Rallele is associated with atherosclerosis. STUDY DESIGN Case control study. METHODS Genotype analysis was done on 181 angiographically proven coronary atherosclerosis patients and 177 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion. Paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity was estimated with phenyl acetate as substrate. RESULTS Cases had significantly higher frequency of R+ genotype (RR and QR than control subjects (0.78 versus 0.49; P=.001. Significantly, lower plasma paraoxonase 1 activity was observed in coronary atherosclerosis patients as compared to healthy controls (71.3 kIU/mL versus 84.74 kIU/mL, P 80 kIU/mL - low risk for atherosclerosis. The mean paraoxonase 1 activity among R+ genotypic individuals is 63.52 kIU/mL whereas the mean paraoxonase 1 activity among R - genotype is 103.26, p value is 0.004. On univariate analysis, the odds ratio for R+ genotype is 3.6 (p=0.00. On multivariate analysis, the odds ratio for R+ genotype is 2.5 (p=0.00. CONCLUSION The low plasma Paraoxonase 1 activity and the R genotype maybe independent risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.

  12. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Level and Paraoxonase-1 Lactonase Activity in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Their Impact on the Incidence of Native AV Fistula Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohny, Samir F; El-Fattah, Mahmoud Abd; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2016-10-14

    Thrombosis of native arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an important cause of complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of measuring circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) level and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) lactonase activity as potential predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in chronic HD patients. This study included 83 HD patients (48 with thrombosed and 35 with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas) and 38 healthy volunteers. Serum FGF-23 level was measured using the ELISA technique, while serum PON1 lactonase activity was measured spectrophotometrically using gamma-thiobutyrolactone as a substrate. FGF-23 was significantly increased while PON1 lactonase was markedly decreased in both thrombosed and non-thrombosed HD patients compared with controls (P AV fistulas compared with HD patients with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). A significant negative correlation was found between FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase in HD patients with thrombosed native AV fistulas (r = -0.342, P = 0.017). This study shows a potential value of FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase as predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in HD patients.

  13. [Relationship between Q192R polymorphisms in paraoxonase 1 gene and young ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-li; Li, Jin-pin; Wang, Xiao-ling; Yang, Yi

    2010-04-06

    To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in paraoxonase1 (PON1) gene Gln192Arg (Q192R) and arterial ischemic stroke in young adults. The Q192R genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 131 young adults with ischemic stroke and 135 age- and gender-matched controls. The plasma lipids were also determined in patients and controls respectively. Furthermore, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients were measured by carotid ultrasonography. The distributions of Q192R genotype frequency were significantly different between patients with ischemic stroke and control individuals. And the patients had more RR genotypes than control individuals (P stroke were 1.743 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-2.943) in subjects with RR genotype. We also studied the relationship between the polymorphisms and the lipid concentration in patients and control individuals. However, no significant association was detected between Q/R192 genotype and any of lipid measurements. Further, the prevalence of cigarette smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed no significant difference between RR and non-RR genotypes in patients. Body mass index (BMI) in two groups did not differ significantly. But IMT of patients with RR genotype obviously increased in comparison to those without RR genotype (P ischemic stroke in young adults. RR genotype is a genetic risk for young adults with ischemic stroke through an increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and an accelerated atherosclerotic process.

  14. Low Paraoxonase 1 Activity Predicts Mortality in Surgical Patients with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bojic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. State of severe oxidative stress is encountered in sepsis. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 protects against oxidative stress but also undergoes inactivation upon that condition. We investigated PON1 activity in surgical patients with sepsis in relation to oxidative stress status, inflammation, disease severity, and survival. Methods. Prospective observational study. Sixty-nine surgical patients with sepsis were compared to 69 age/sex matched healthy controls. PON1 paraoxonase and diazoxonase activities, selected biochemical, hematological and oxidative stress parameters were measured on admission to ICU and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours later. Disease severity scores were calculated daily. Results. Septic patients had significantly lower PON1 activities compared to control group at all time points. PON1 activities had good capacity to differentiate septic patients from healthy controls. Low PON1 activities were associated with higher disease severity scores and higher risk of death. Correlation between PON1 activity and markers of inflammation failed to reach significance. Decrease in PON1 activity was correlated with an increase in reducing components in plasma. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated lower PON1 activity in surgical patients with sepsis compared to healthy controls. PON1 activity also reflected severity of the disease. Low PON1 activity was associated with higher mortality of surgical patients with sepsis.

  15. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  16. Paraoxonase 1 status in keratoconus: a preliminary study of activity and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, R; Tan, J A M A; Deva, J P; Poo, D; Yong, Y; Arjunan, S

    2012-09-01

    To determine the activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in keratoconus in a Malaysian population in comparison with non-keratoconic subjects. Clinical eye examinations were performed on patients with keratoconus and non-keratoconic subjects after questionnaires were completed. Blood samples were collected and subjected to spectrophotometric analysis of paraoxonase and diazoxonase activities for the determination of the status of PON1 of every individual. Of the 11 keratoconic patients and 55 non-keratoconic control samples collected, eight patients of Indian ethnicity were keratoconic (73%), whereas 33 non-Indians were non-keratoconic (60%; p = 0.047). Paraoxonase activity was lower in Indians compared to the non-Indians ie Malays and Chinese (p = 0.008). Keratoconic subjects had a lower paraoxonase activity compared to non-keratoconics (p = 0.038). The reduced paraoxonase activity in keratoconic patients suggests that the keratoconic corneas were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Reduced paraoxonase activity and keratoconus status appears to be associated with ethnicity.

  17. Downregulation of human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) by organophosphate pesticides in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Ponce-Ruiz, Néstor; Ramírez-Chávez, Bryana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Elizondo, Guillermo; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-02-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent esterase synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the plasma where it is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). PON1 hydrolyzes and detoxifies some toxic metabolites of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) such as methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos. Thus, PON1 activity and expression levels are important for determining susceptibility against OPs poisoning. Some studies have demonstrated that OPs can modulate gene expression through interactions with nuclear receptors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the modulation of PON1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) cells by real-time PCR, PON1 activity assay, and western blot. The results showed that the treatments with methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos decreased PON1 mRNA and immunoreactive protein and increased inflammatory cytokines in HepG2 cells. The effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the downregulation of PON1 gene expression in HepG2 cells may provide evidence of OPs cytotoxicity related to oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. A decrease in the expression of the PON1 gene may increase the susceptibility to OPs intoxication and the risk of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 490-500, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Modulation of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and protein N-homocysteinylation by bisphosphonates in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusek, Marta; Pastryk, Jolanta Elżbieta; Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2016-11-25

    Bisphosphonates are potent antiresorptive agents commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis. As osteoporosis and atherosclerosis share some common risk factors and frequently coexist in the same patients, we examined the effect of bisphosphonates on paraoxonase 1 (PON1) - the high density lipoprotein-associated enzyme with potent anti-atherosclerotic activity. Bisphosphonates were administered orally to male adult rats for 4 weeks and then PON1 activity and some related biochemical parameters were measured in plasma. Clodronate, alendronate, ibandronate and pamidronate reduced PON1 activity toward synthetic (paraoxon, phenyl acetate) and natural (homocysteine thiolactone) substrates. The most marked effect was observed in animals receiving ibandronate. In contrast, risedronate increased PON1 activity toward these 3 substrates and zoledronate increased PON1 activity toward phenyl acetate but had no effect on its activity toward paraoxon and homocysteine thiolactone. Bisphosphonates had no effect on total plasma homocysteine and protein-bound homocysteine thiolactone. In addition, total plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase activity did not differ between groups. Bisphosphonates have differential effects on PON1 activity. Risedronate could be particularly useful in patients with high cardiovascular risk and PON1 deficiency. Bisphosphonates have no effect on plasma homocysteine and protein N-homocysteinylation as well as on the lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Caffeine Increases Apolipoprotein A-1 and Paraoxonase-1 but not Paraoxonase-3 Protein Levels in Human-Derived Liver (HepG2) Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sayılan Özgün, Gülben; Özgün, Eray; Tabakçıoğlu, Kıymet; Süer Gökmen, Selma; Eskiocak, Sevgi; Çakır, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. Aims: To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. Study Design: In...

  2. Caffeine Increases Apolipoprotein A-1 and Paraoxonase-1 but not Paraoxonase-3 Protein Levels in Human-Derived Liver (HepG2) Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gülben Sayılan Özgün; Eray Özgün; Kıymet Tabakçıoğlu; Selma Süer Gökmen; Sevgi Eskiocak; Erol Çakır

    2017-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. Aims: To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. Study De...

  3. Caffeine Increases Apolipoprotein A-1 and Paraoxonase-1 but not Paraoxonase-3 Protein Levels in Human-Derived Liver (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayılan Özgün, Gülben; Özgün, Eray; Tabakçıoğlu, Kıymet; Süer Gökmen, Selma; Eskiocak, Sevgi; Çakır, Erol

    2017-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. In vitro experimental study. HepG2 cells were incubated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 200 μM of caffeine for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels were measured by western blotting. We observed a significant increase on apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in the cells incubated with 50 µM of caffeine and a significant increase on paraoxonase-1 protein level in the cells incubated with 200 µM of caffeine. Our study showed that caffeine does not change paraoxonase-3 protein level, but the higher doses used in our study do cause an increase in both apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in liver cells.

  4. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  5. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S.; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Hazen, Leah B.; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815–3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  6. Interleukin-6 upregulates paraoxonase 1 gene expression via an AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chi-Chih [Department of Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chi-Mei [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chiu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tzu-Hsiu, E-mail: hsiu@mail.chna.edu.tw [Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Lan, E-mail: h2326@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •IL-6 could induce PON1 gene expression. •IL-6 increased NF-κB protein expression and NF-κB-p50 and -p65 subunits nuclear translocation. •IL-6-induced PON1 up-regulation was through an AKT/NF-κB pathway. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and atherosclerosis-related inflammation. In this study, human hepatoma HepG2 cell line was used as a hepatocyte model to examine the effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on PON1 expression. The results showed that IL-6, but not TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly increased both the function and protein level of PON1; data from real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the IL-6-induced PON1 expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Increase of IκB kinase activity and IκB phosphorylation, and reduction of IκB protein level were also observed in IL-6-treated HepG2 cells compared with untreated culture. This event was accompanied by increase of NF-κB-p50 and -p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, treatment with IL-6 augmented the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by PDTC and BAY 11-7082, markedly suppressed the IL-6-mediated PON1 expression. In addition, IL-6 increased the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB, AKT). An AKT inhibitor LY294002 effectively suppressed IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling and PON1 gene expression induced by IL-6. Our findings demonstrate that IL-6 upregulates PON1 gene expression through an AKT/NF-κB signaling axis in human hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cell line.

  7. Nevirapine modulation of paraoxonase-1 in the liver: An in vitro three-model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Aline T; Dias, Clara G; Pinheiro, Pedro F; Lemos, Ana Rita; Antunes, Alexandra M M; Marques, M Matilde; Monteiro, Emília C; Miranda, Joana P; Pereira, Sofia A

    2016-01-20

    Nevirapine is associated with severe hepatotoxicity, through the formation of reactive metabolites. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a promiscuous enzyme involved in the metabolism of xeno- and endobiotics and proposed as a biomarker of hepatotoxicity. The aim of this work was to explore the effects of nevirapine and its phase I metabolites, 2-hydroxy-nevirapine and 12-hydroxy-nevirapine, on PON-1 activities. 2D and 3D primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, and also HepG2 2D cell cultures, were exposed to nevirapine, 2-hydroxy-nevirapine, and 12-hydroxy-nevirapine. The paraoxonase (POase), arylesterase (AREase) and lactonase (LACase) activities of PON-1 were quantified. Effects of nevirapine and its metabolites were only observed in the 3D cell model. Both nevirapine and 12-hydroxy-nevirapine increased POase (p<0.05, p<0.01) and LACase activities (p<0.05, p<0.001). The AREase activity was increased only upon 12-hydroxy-nevirapine exposure (p<0.01). These modulatory effects were observed at 300μM concentrations of nevirapine and 12-hydroxy-nevirapine. The formation of 12-hydroxy-nevirapine seems to be the main factor responsible for the increase of PON-1 activities induced by nevirapine exposure. This effect was only observed in the 3D model, suggesting that an in vivo-like system is necessary for this modulation to occur. The present data suggest that the 3D model is a more suitable in vitro model than the conventional ones to explore drug effects on PON-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraoxonase-1 is not a major determinant of stent thrombosis in a Taiwanese population.

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    Dong-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is a prodrug that undergoes in vivo bioactivation to show its antiplatelet effects. Recent studies have shown that cytochrome P450 (CYP, ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCB1, and paraoxonase-1 (PON1 play crucial roles in clopidogrel bioactivation. Here, we aim to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP (CYP 2C19*2, CYP 2C19*3, and CYP 2C19*17, ABCB1 (ABCB1 3435C>T, ABCB1 129T>C, and ABCB1 2677G>T/A, and PON1 (PON1 Q192R, PON1 L55M, and PON1 108C>T on the development of stent thrombosis (ST in patients receiving clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the incidence of ST (0.64% in 4964 patients who were recruited in the CAPTAIN registry (Cardiovascular Atherosclerosis and Percutaneous TrAnsluminal INterventions. The presence of genetic polymorphisms was assessed in 20 subjects who developed ST after aspirin and clopidogrel therapy and in 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects who did not develop ST, which was documented after 9 months of angiographic follow-up. ST was acute in 5 subjects, subacute in 7, late in 7, and very late in 1. The presence of CYP 2C19*2 allele was significantly associated with ST (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 4.20, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263-9.544; P = 0.031. However, genetic variations in PON1 and ABCB1 showed no significant association with ST. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in a Taiwanese population, PON1 Q192R genotype is not associated with ST development after PCI. However, the presence of CYP 2C19*2 allele is a risk factor for ST development after PCI.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Approach in the Comparison of Wild-Type and Mutant Paraoxonase-1 Apoenzyme Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khadija; Miri, Lamia; Naimi, Adil; Saile, Rachid; El Kharrim, Abderrahmane; Mikou, Afaf; Kettani, Anass

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking the mammalian paraoxonase-1 (PON1) loops (L1 and L2) to an increased flexibility and reactivity of its active site with potential substrates. The aim of this work is to study the structural, dynamical, and functional effects of the most flexible regions close to the active site and to determine the impact of mutations on the protein. For both models, wild-type (PON1wild) and PON1 mutant (PON1mut) models, the L1 loop and Q/R and L/M mutations were constructed using MODELLER software. Molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns at 300 K on fully modeled PON1wild and PON1mut apoenzyme have been done. Detailed analyses of the root-mean-square deviation and fluctuations, H-bonding pattern, and torsion angles have been performed. The PON1wild results were then compared with those obtained for the PON1mut. Our results show that the active site in the wild-type structure is characterized by two distinct movements of opened and closed conformations of the L1 and L2 loops. The alternating and repetitive movement of loops at specific times is consistent with the presence of 11 defined hydrogen bonds. In the PON1mut, these open-closed movements are therefore totally influenced and repressed by the Q/R and L/M mutations. In fact, these mutations seem to impact the PON1mut active site by directly reducing the catalytic core flexibility, while maintaining a significant mobility of the switch regions delineated by the loops surrounding the active site. The impact of the studied mutations on structure and dynamics proprieties of the protein may subsequently contribute to the loss of both flexibility and activity of the PON1 enzyme.

  10. Hyperlipidemia-induced hepatic and small intestine ER stress and decreased paraoxonase 1 expression and activity is associated with HDL dysfunction in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Camelia S; Carnuta, Mihaela G; Sanda, Gabriela M; Toma, Laura; Deleanu, Mariana; Niculescu, Loredan S; Sasson, Shlomo; Simionescu, Maya; Sima, Anca V

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating the mechanisms linking hyperlipidemia (HL) with dysfunctional HDL and its main antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase1 (PON1). PON1 expression and activity was determined in the small intestine, liver, and sera of normal and HL hamsters and associated with the ER stress (ERS) and the development of aortic valve lesions. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed standard chow (N) or standard diet with 3% cholesterol and 15% butter for 16 weeks. All hamsters on fat diet developed HL, 50% also hyperglycemia (HLHG) and a fourfold increased homeostasis model assessment of insuline resistance. PON1 expression was reduced in the small intestine and liver (N > HL > HLHG) along with the increased extent of ERS, oxidized lipids, and decreased expression of liver X receptors beta (LXRβ) in the small intestine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in the liver, and of the glucose transporter 4 in the myocardium. Serum PON1 levels decreased along with the increase of oxidized LDL and lesion areas of the aortic valves (N > HL > HLHG). The fat diet activates the ERS and oxidative stress, decreases LXRβ, PPARγ, and PON1 in the small intestine, liver, and sera of all HL animals, in parallel with the appearance of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic valves. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Human Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to the Number of CD4+ T-Cells and Is Restored by Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Morganti Ferreira Maselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods. PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve, and 509 were receiving HAART. HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n=195 or nevirapine (NVP; n=95 or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n=219. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios were determined. Results. PON1 activity (U/L was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r=0,121; P=0,014. The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio in comparison with other groups. Conclusion. PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.

  12. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events.

  13. Incident type 2 diabetes is associated with HDL, but not with its anti-oxidant constituent - paraoxonase-1: The prospective cohort PREVEND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Kieneker, Lyanne M; Bakker, Stephan J L; James, Richard W; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-08-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease and consistently associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) - an anti-oxidant constituent of HDL - is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk, but its relationship with incident type 2 diabetes is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PON-1 and type 2 diabetes risk. PON-1 was measured as its arylesterase activity at baseline in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) prospective study of 5947 predominantly Caucasian participants aged 28-75years with no pre-existing diabetes, that recorded 500 type 2 diabetes cases during a median follow-up of 11.2years. Serum PON-1 was positively correlated with HDL-C (r=0.17; P<0.001). In analyses adjusted for conventional diabetes risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes per 1 standard deviation increase in PON-1 was 1.07 (0.98 to 1.18; P=0.13), which remained non-significant (1.02 (0.93 to 1.12) P=0.65) after additional adjustment for potential confounders. The association was unchanged on further adjustment for HDL-C (1.05 (0.96 to 1.15; P=0.29). However, in subsidiary analyses in the same set of participants, serum HDL-C concentration was inversely and independently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Incident type 2 diabetes is associated with HDL cholesterol but not with its anti-oxidant constituent - PON-1 - in a large cohort of apparently healthy men and women. The current data question the importance of PON-1 activity for the development of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary squalene increases high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gabás-Rivera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Squalene, the main hydrocarbon in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oil, is involved in cholesterol synthesis and it has been reported to own antiatherosclerotic and antiesteatosic effects. However, the squalene's role on lipid plasma parameters and the influence of genotype on this effect need to be addressed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: Three male mouse models (wild-type, Apoa1- and Apoe- deficient were fed chow semisynthetic diets enriched in squalene to provide a dose of 1 g/kg during 11 weeks. After this period, their plasma parameters and lipoprotein profiles were analyzed. KEY RESULTS: Squalene administration at a dose of 1 g/kg showed decreased reactive oxygen species in lipoprotein fractions independently of the animal background and caused an specific increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels, accompanied by an increase in phosphatidylcholine and paraoxonase 1 and no changes in apolipoproteins A1 and A4 in wild-type mice. In these mice, the cholesterol increase was due to its esterified form and associated with an increased hepatic expression of Lcat. These effects were not observed in absence of apolipoprotein A1. The increases in HDL- paraoxonase 1 were translated into decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels depending on the presence of Apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Dietary squalene promotes changes in HDL- cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases reactive oxygen species in lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde levels, providing new benefits of its intake that might contribute to explain the properties of virgin olive oil, although the phenotype related to apolipoproteins A1 and E may be particularly relevant.

  15. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-01-22

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  16. Prognostic value of paraoxonase 1 in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Anna; Cybulski, Marek; Berbeć, Henryk; Wysokiński, Andrzej; Stążka, Janusz; Zapolski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether –108C/T polymorphism of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene and the plasma enzyme activity are risk factors for adverse cardiac events after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Material/Methods Seventy-one patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) undergoing CABG were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the venous blood using the Gen Elute™ Blood Genomic DNA kit (Sigma) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PON1 activity was measured in 50 mM glycine/NaOH buffer (pH 10.5) containing 1.0 mM paraoxon, and 1.0mM CaCl2. Results The mean PON1 activity toward paraoxon and toward phenyl acetate was equal (166.5±86.9 U/ml and 96.0±47.2 U/ml, respectively) in patients with CHD. The –108C/T polymorphism of PON1 gene was tested. In CABG patients, PON1 activities in dependence on genotypes were significantly different and equalled 266.2±117.9 U/ml for CC, 178.8±64.7 U/ml for CT, and 98.9±59.2 U/ml for TT genotype. Patients with PON1 activity lower than 193.5 U/ml exhibited significantly increased risk of a serious cardiac event in comparison with patients with PON1 activity higher or equal to this value (p=0.03). Additionally, TT genotype was significantly associated with shorter time of event-free survival in comparison with CT and CC genotypes (p=0.009). Conclusions The PON1 polymorphism and enzyme plasma activity are associated with CHD occurrence. High PON1 activity connected with the presence of CC and CT genotypes decreases the recurrence of symptoms of coronary heart disease and improve prognosis after CABG. PMID:24721823

  17. Effects of antiretroviral treatment on paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastryk, Jolanta Elżbieta; Rusek, Marta; Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2016-11-25

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially protease inhibitors (PIs), commonly used in HIV-infected patients, effectively suppresses a viral replication. However, it is frequently associated with significant side effects, including fat redistribution, lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Currently, metabolic complications and atherosclerosis resulting from them become the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is the HDL-bound esterase, which inhibits development of atherosclerosis by decomposing lipid peroxidation products and hydrolyzing homocysteine thiolactone. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of HIV protease inhibitors on PON1 activity, total plasma homocysteine and protein-bound homocysteine thiolactone as well as lipid profile in rats. The study was performed on seven groups of male Wistar rats: (1) control; (2) and (3) receiving ritonavir (RTV) at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively; (4) and (5) receiving atazanavir (ATV) at 10 and 100 mg/kg, respectively; (6) and (7) receiving saquinavir (SQV) at 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. All drugs were administered orally for 4 weeks. Compared to control animals, rats receiving PIs had significantly higher concentration of triglycerides and total cholesterol, but the levels of HDL-cholesterol were not different between groups. PON1 activity toward paraoxon was decreased in groups receiving PIs (control: 149 ± 5 U/ml; PIs-treated: RTV at doses 10 mg/kg 133 ± 9.5  U/ml, RTV at doses 50 mg/kg 134 ± 10.8 U/ml, SQV at doses 10 mg/kg 131 ± 9.2 U/ml, ATV at doses 10 mg/kg 132 ± 11.8 U/ml, ATV at doses 100 mg/kg 108 ± 7.8 U/ml). ATV reduced total homocysteine level around 25-28%, whereas other PIs had no effect on its concentration. In contrast, 10-15% increase in protein-bound homocysteine thiolactone was observed in PIs-receiving groups, such as RTV10, RTV50, SQV50

  18. Role of paraoxonase-1 in bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in hyperlipidemic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinxiu [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Cheng, Henry [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Atti, Elisa [Division of Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Shih, Diana M. [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Demer, Linda L. [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Tintut, Yin, E-mail: ytintut@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Anabolic effects of PTH were tested in hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing PON1. ► Expression of antioxidant regulatory genes was induced in PON1 overexpression. ► Bone resorptive activity was reduced in PON1 overexpressing hyperlipidemic mice. ► PON1 restored responsiveness to intermittent PTH in bones of hyperlipidemic mice. -- Abstract: Hyperlipidemia blunts anabolic effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cortical bone, and the responsiveness to PTH are restored in part by oral administration of the antioxidant ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F. To evaluate the mechanism of this rescue, hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing the high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg}) were generated, and daily PTH injections were administered to Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} and to littermate Ldlr{sup −/−} mice. Expression of bone regulatory genes was determined by realtime RT-qPCR, and cortical bone parameters of the femoral bones by micro-computed tomographic analyses. PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTH receptor (PTH1R), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in femoral cortical bone, as well as significantly greater cortical bone mineral content, thickness, and area in femoral diaphyses compared with untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice. In contrast, in control mice (Ldlr{sup −/−}) without PON1 overexpression, PTH treatment did not induce these markers. Calvarial bone of PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice also had significantly greater expression of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes as well as BMP-2-target and Wnt-target genes. Untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTHR1 than untreated Ldlr{sup −/−} mice, whereas sclerostin expression was reduced. In femoral cortical bones, expression levels of transcription factors, Fox

  19. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 ± 39.36 vs. 241.52 ± 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 ± 17.37 vs. 134.28 ± 25.49 μmol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p 192 QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1 55 LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p 55 LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests

  20. Relationship of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gene Polymorphisms and Functional Activity With Systemic Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tamali; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Topol, Eric J.; Zhang, Renliang; Yang, Xia; Schmitt, David; Fu, Xiaoming; Shao, Mingyuan; Brennan, Danielle M.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. The relationship between PON1 genotypes and functional activity with systemic measures of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in humans has not been systematically investigated. Objective To investigate the relationship of genetic and biochemical determinants of PON1 activity with systemic measures of oxidative stress and CVD risk in humans. Design, Setting, and Participants The association between systemic PON1 activity measures and a functional polymorphism (Q192R) resulting in high PON1 activity with prevalent CVD and future major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) was evaluated in 1399 sequential consenting patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography between September 2002 and November 2003 at the Cleveland Clinic. Patients were followed up until December 2006. Systemic levels of multiple structurally defined fatty acid oxidation products were also measured by mass spectrometry in 150 age-, sex-, and race-matched patients and compared with regard to PON1 genotype and activity. Main Outcome Measures Relationship between a functional PON1 polymorphism and PON1 activity with global indices of systemic oxidative stress and risk of CVD. Results The PON1 genotype demonstrated significant dose-dependent associations (QQ192>QR192>RR192) with decreased levels of serum PON1 activity and with increased levels of systemic indices of oxidative stress. Compared with participants with either the PON1 RR192 or QR192 genotype, participants with the QQ192 genotype demonstrated an increased risk of all-cause mortality (43/681 deaths [6.75%] in RR192 and QR192 and 62/584 deaths [11.1%] in QQ192; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–3.18) and of major adverse cardiac events (88/681 events [13.6%] in RR192 and QR192 and 102/584 events [18.0%] in QQ192; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.09–2.03; P

  1. Low paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity and high von Willebrand factor levels are associated with severe coronary atherosclerosis in patients with non-diabetic stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jieying; Chen, Qizhi; Zhuang, Xing; Feng, Zhilei; Xu, Lili; Chen, Fuxiang

    2014-11-25

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and von Willebrand factor (VWF) release are associated with lesion initiation in atherosclerosis. Diabetes can complicate coronary artery disease (CAD) due to the production of advanced glycation end products. This study evaluated PON1 activity and VWF levels in non-post-acute coronary syndrome, stable CAD (SCAD) patients without diabetes. Non-diabetic SCAD patients and patients experiencing acute stress periods were selected (n=130). Forty-seven cases with normal coronary angiography and 50 healthy individuals served as controls. The non-diabetic SCAD group was then stratified into single-vessel lesions, multiple-vessel lesions, and mild or severe luminal stenosis according to the number and the degree of luminal stenoses. Serum PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and plasma VWF levels were measured, as well as serum total cholesterol, total triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A1. PON1 arylesterase activity was detected with an ordinary chemistry system using a novel phenylacetate derivative. Both PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase were lower in the non-diabetic SCAD group, but VWF levels were higher (versus controls, all Pparaoxonase activity (OR=0.991), PON1 arylesterase activity (OR=0.981), and VWF (OR 2.854) influenced SCAD in multiple logistic regression. Decreased PON1 arylesterase activity and increased VWF levels were associated with severe atherosclerosis in non-diabetic SCAD patients. We also observed a slight negative correlation between VWF and PON1 paraoxonase/arylesterase. PON1 and VWF are detectable markers that may predict the severity of stenoses, ideally facilitating a non-diabetic SCAD diagnosis before the sudden onset of life-threatening symptoms.

  2. Regulatory effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs and other AhR ligands on the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1/2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme, is believed to play a critical role in many diseases, including cancer. PCBs are widespread environmental contaminants known to induce oxidative stress and cancer and to produce changes in gene expression of various pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes. Thus, it appeared of interest to explore whether PCBs may modulate the activity and/or gene expression of PON1 as well. In this study, we compared the effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs and of various aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands on PON1 regulation and activity in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results demonstrate that (i) the non-dioxin-like PCB154, PCB155, and PCB184 significantly reduced liver and serum PON1 activities, but only in male rats; (ii) the non-dioxin-like PCB153, the most abundant PCB in many matrices, did not affect PON1 messenger RNA (mRNA) level in the liver but significantly decreased serum PON1 activity in male rats; (iii) PCB126, an AhR ligand and dioxin-like PCB, increased both PON1 activities and gene expression; and (iv) even though three tested AhR ligands induced CYP1A in several tissues to a similar extent, they displayed differential effects on the three PONs and AhR, i.e., PCB126 was an efficacious inducer of PON1, PON2, PON3, and AhR in the liver, while 3-methylcholantrene induced liver AhR and lung PON3, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent AhR agonist, increased only PON3 in the lung, at the doses and exposure times used in these studies. These results show that PCBs may have an effect on the antioxidant protection by paraoxonases in exposed populations and that regulation of gene expression through AhR is highly diverse.

  3. Clinical Care and Delivery: Paraoxonase 1 phenotype distribution and activity differs in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (the CODAM Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.W.; Jansen, E.H.J.; Kruijshoop, M.; Beekhof, P.K.; Blaak, E.E.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant high-density lipoprotein-bound enzyme, which was recently found to be expressed in the islets of Langerhans. A substitution (Q/R) at position 192 results in enzymes with different activity. Oxidation has been implicated in the onset of diabetes, and it can

  4. Activity and determinants of cholinesterases and paraoxonase-1 in blood of workers exposed to non-cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Paniagua, David; Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Gil, Fernando; Parrón, Tesifón; Alarcón, Raquel; Requena, Mar; Lacasaña, Marina; Hernández, Antonio F

    2016-11-25

    Pesticide exposure has been associated with different adverse health effects which may be modulated to some extent by paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and genetic polymorphisms. This study assessed seasonal variations in PON1 activity (using paraoxon -POase-, phenylacetate -AREase-, diazoxon -DZOase- and dihydrocoumarin -DHCase- as substrates), erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma cholinesterase (using butyrylthiocholine -BuChE- and benzoylcholine -BeChE- as substrates. The study population consisted of intensive agriculture workers regularly exposed to pesticides other than organophosphates and non-exposed controls from Almería (Southeastern Spain). The effect of common genetic polymorphisms of PON1 and BCHE on paraoxonase-1 and cholinesterase activities toward different substrates was also assessed. Linear mixed models were used to compare esterase activities in agricultural workers and control subjects over the two study periods (high and low exposure to pesticides). The significant decrease in AChE and increase in BuChE and BeChE activities observed in workers with respect to control subjects was attributed to pesticide exposure. Workers also had higher levels of AREase, DZOase and, to a lesser extent, of POase, but showed decreased DHCase activity. While PON1 Q192R and PON1 -108C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with all PON1 activities, PON1 L55M showed a significant association with AREase, DZOase and DHCase. BCHE-K (Karlow variant) was significantly associated with lower BeChE activity (but not with BuChE) and BCHE-A (atypical variant) showed no significant association with any cholinesterase activity. These findings suggest that increased PON1, BuChE and BeChE activities in exposed workers might result from an adaptive response against pesticide exposure to compensate for adverse effects at the biochemical level. This response appears to be modulated by PON1 and BCHE gene polymorphisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  5. Paraoxonase-1 activity is related to Trichinella spiralis-induced hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Mido, Shogo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects of a chronic zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis infection on hepatic inflammation and its relationship to paraoxonase (PON)-1 and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of T. spiralis infection on hepatic synthesis of PON1. Wistar rats were infected with 2500 first-stage larvae (L1) of T. spiralis, and serum PON1 and BuChE activities were evaluated. Hepatic expression levels of PON1, BuChE and various cytokines and chemokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] were evaluated for up to 9 weeks post-infection (p.i.). The effect of these changes on the degree of hepatic apoptosis was also investigated. Trichinella spiralis infection in rats induced significant decreases in serum PON1 activities from day 2 until week 7 p.i. and BuChE activity starting from day 4 until 2 weeks p.i. Moreover, T. spiralis infection increased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and TGF-β1 during the enteral phase of the parasite life cycle. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 showed significant increases during the enteral phase for the former and the muscle phase for the latter. These were associated with hepatic inflammation and apoptosis. These events typically decreased hepatic PON1 and BuChE mRNA expression. Immune responses mounted against T. spiralis infection in rats were associated with hepatic inflammation and a subsequent decrease in serum PON1 and BuChE activities. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  6. Association between L55M polymorphism in Paraoxonase 1 and cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 21 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lei Chen,1,* Wei Lu,2,* Lu Fang,1 Hu Xiong,3 Xun Wu,4 Meng Zhang,2 Song Wu,2 Dexin Yu1 1Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 2Department of Urology, Anhui Medical University Graduate School, Hefei, Anhui, 3Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 4Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: L55M polymorphism in Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been regarded as a risk factor for many cancer types. Nevertheless, the results remain controversial and inconclusive. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of all eligible case–control studies to evaluate the association between L55M polymorphism and cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Finally, a total of 5,627 cases and 6,390 controls, arising from 21 case–control studies, were enrolled in our study. Significant associations between PON1-L55M polymorphism and overall cancer risk were identified in all genetic models. In the stratified analyses by cancer type, PON1-L55M polymorphism was a risk factor for breast cancer in all genetic models, prostate cancer in the heterozygote model (ML vs LL: OR =1.304, 95% CI =1.049–1.620, Pheterogeneity=0.067, and ovarian cancer in the recessive model (MM vs ML/LL: OR =1.526, 95% CI =1.110–2.097, Pheterogeneity=0.464. Similarly, an increased risk was also identified for the Caucasian population in the heterozygote comparison and homozygote models, and hospital-based controls in all genetic models. To sum up, our study suggests that the PON1-L55M allele increased the risk of cancer. Future well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further verify these findings. Keywords: Paraoxonase 1, L55M, polymorphism, cancer, meta-analysis

  7. Modulation of the endogenous antioxidants paraoxonase-1 and urate by pesticide exposure and genetic variants of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez-Martin, Antonio; Lozano, David; Pla, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated the association between pesticide exposure in farmworkers and plasma levels of the endogenous antioxidants urate and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme activities (paraoxonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase, three substrate-specific assays for measuring PON1 function) by using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Decreases in plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases (BChE and AChE, respectively) were used as biomarkers of pesticide exposure. We also assessed the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolising enzymes PON1, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and cholinesterase variants (BCHE) on plasma levels of endogenous antioxidants and potential gene-environment interactions. A dual effect was observed on paraoxonase depending on the pattern of pesticide exposure. Thus, exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides was associated with decreased paraoxonase activity and urate levels whereas long-term pesticide exposure showed an association with increased paraoxonase activity. Significant interactions were observed between BChE activity and PON1 regulatory region polymorphisms on arylesterase and diazoxonase activities, and between AChE activity (a biomarker for long-term pesticide exposure) and PON1192RR genotype on arylesterase activity. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure may affect plasma antioxidant potential and that relevant gene-pesticide interactions may play a mechanistic role in oxidative stress-induced diseases following pesticide exposure. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to better characterise these interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of statin therapy on paraoxonase-1 status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Gianna; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-10-01

    Decreased activity of the enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) has been demonstrated in cardiovascular diseases. Statins, the forefront of pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia, have been shown to enhance PON1 activity but clinical findings have not been conclusive. To systematically review the clinical findings on the impact of statin therapy on PON1 status (protein concentrations and activities of paraoxonase and arylesterase) and calculate an effect size for the mentioned effects through meta-analysis of available data. Scopus and Medline databases were searched to identify clinical trials. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the one-study remove approach. Random-effects meta-regression was performed to assess the impact of potential confounders on the estimated effect sizes. Meta-analysis suggested that statin therapy is associated with a significant elevation of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, but not PON1 protein concentration. The PON1-enhancing effects of statins were robust in the sensitivity analyses and were independent of statin dose, treatment duration and changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. The increase of paraoxonase and arylesterase activities with statins is a pleiotropic lipid-independent clinical benefit that may partly explain the putative effects of statins in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidized-phospholipids in reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles affect structure and function of recombinant paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subhabrata; Patel, Mitulkumar A; Tripathy, Rajan K; Bajaj, Priyanka; Pande, Abhay H

    2013-12-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-atherogenic properties. Association of PON1 to HDL particles increases the stability and activity of PON1 and is important for the normal functioning of the enzyme. HDL particles are made up of lipid and protein constituents and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a principal protein constituent of HDL that facilitates various biological activities of HDL. In many disease conditions the oxidized phospholipid (Ox-PL) content of HDL is found to be increased and an inverse correlation between the activity of PON1 and oxidation of the HDL is observed. However, the molecular details of the inhibitory action of the Ox-PL-containing HDL on the function of PON1 are not clear yet. In this study we have assembled reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles with and without Ox-PL and compared their effect on the structure and function of (13)C-labeled recombinant PON1 ((13)C-rPON1) by employing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and enzymatic assay. Our results show that the presence of the Ox-PL in the rHDL particles alters the structure of rPON1 and decreases its lactonase activity. © 2013.

  10. Exploring the aryl esterase catalysis of paraoxonase-1 through solvent kinetic isotope effects and phosphonate-based isosteric analogues of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Aljoša; Knez, Damijan; Makovec, Tomaž; Stojan, Jure; Gobec, Stanislav; Goličnik, Marko

    2014-11-01

    Although a recent study of Debord et al. in Biochimie (2014; 97:72-77) described the thermodynamics of the catalysed hydrolysis of phenyl acetate by human paraoxonase-1, the mechanistic details along the reaction route of this enzyme remain unclear. Therefore, we briefly present the solvent kinetic isotope effects on the phenyl acetate esterase activity of paraoxonase-1 and its inhibition with the phenyl methylphosphonate anion, which is a stable isosteric analogue that mimics the high-energy tetrahedral intermediate on the hydroxide-promoted hydrolysis pathway. The data show normal isotope effects, while proton inventory analysis indicates that two protons contribute to the kinetic isotope effect. Coherently, moderate competitive inhibition with the phenyl methylphosphonate anion reveals that the rate-limiting transition state suboptimally resembles the tetrahedral intermediate. The implications of these findings can be attributed to two possible reaction mechanisms that might occur during the paraoxonase-1-catalysed hydrolysis of phenyl acetate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  11. Interpretation of Serum Retinol Data From Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Cori, Héctor; La Frano, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the general socioeconomic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has improved, and many vitamin A programs have been implemented in an attempt to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the region. To examine vitamin A status in Latin America and the Caribbean based on serum retinol concentrations and to contrast available data published before and after 1998. A systematic review was performed. National surveys or representative studies that reported vitamin A status were selected. Ten national surveys and six representative studies were identified. Data for children under 6 years of age indicate that Guatemala and Nicaragua have practically eradicated vitamin A deficiency (less than 2% prevalence of serum retinol Colombia, Mexico, and Haiti it is a severe public health problem (prevalence from 24.3% to 32.0%). Disadvantaged groups (indigenous people and those of Afro-Colombian descent) have the highest rates of deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is under 20% in school-children and adult women. When data published before and after 1998 for children under 6 years of age were compared, most Central American countries had a reduction in the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (p < .05), whereas in South American countries, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased over time (p < .05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under 6 years of age has decreased in many Central American countries, but vitamin A deficiency still remains a public health problem in numerous Latin America and Caribbean countries, especially among disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. Because of issues with the accuracy of the serum retinol biomarker reflecting body stores, these results must be interpreted with caution.

  12. Monocyte-macrophage membrane possesses free radicals scavenging activity: stimulation by polyphenols or by paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, M; Elias, A; Volkova, N; Aviram, M

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we analysed free radicals scavenging activity of monocytes-macrophages in the absence or presence of antioxidants such as polyphenols or paraoxonase 1 (PON1). THP-1 human monocytic cell line, murine J774A.1 macrophages, as well as human primary monocytes have the capability to scavenge free radicals, as measured by the 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This effect (which could be attributed to the cell's membrane) was cell number and incubation time dependent. Upon incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), with VLDL, or with the radical generator, AAPH, the cells' lipid peroxides content, and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) activity were significantly increased. While non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 65%, the Ac-LDL-, VLDL- or AAPH-treated cells, decreased it by only 33%, 30%, or 45%, respectively. We next analysed the effect of J774A.1 macrophage enrichment with antioxidants, such as polyphenols or PON1 on the cells' free radicals scavenging activity. Non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 50%, whereas vitamin E-, punicalagin- or PJ-treated cells significantly further decreased it, by 75%. Similarly, in PON1-treated cells DPPH absorbance was further decreased by 63%, in association with 23% increment in PON1 catalytic activity. In cells under oxidative stress [treated with AAPH-, or with oxidized LDL], PON1 activity was decreased by 31% or 40%, as compared to the activity observed in PON1 incubated with non-treated cells. We conclude that monocytes-macrophages possess free radicals scavenging activity, which is decreased under atherogenic conditions, and increased upon cell enrichment with potent antioxidants such as nutritional polyphenols, or PON1.

  13. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from a Drosophila S2 stable cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeongseok; Yu, Jiyeon; Kim, Sumi; Lee, Nari; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Sungrae; Kim, Nam Doo; Yu, Chiho; Rho, Jaerang

    2017-03-01

    Many pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has demonstrated significant potential for use as a catalytic bioscavenger capable of hydrolyzing a broad range of OPs. However, there are several limitations to the use of human PON1 as a catalytic bioscavenger, including the relatively difficult purification of PON1 from human plasma and its dependence on the presence of hydrophobic binding partners to maintain stability. Therefore, research efforts to efficiently produce recombinant human PON1 are necessary. In this study, we developed a Drosophila S2 stable cell line expressing recombinant human PON1. The recombinant human PON1 was fused with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain (PON1-hFc) to improve protein stability and purification efficiency. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis compared with those of the recombinant human PON1 derived from E. coli. We observed that the recombinant human PON1-hFc is functionally more stable for OP hydrolyzing activities compared to the recombinant human PON1. The catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PON1-hFc towards diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 0.26 × 10 6  M -1  min -1 ) and paraoxon hydrolysis (0.015 × 10 6  M -1  min -1 ) was 1.63- and 1.24-fold higher, respectively, than the recombinant human PON1. Thus, we report that the recombinant PON1-hFc exerts hydrolytic activity against paraoxon and DFP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAOXONASE AND ARYLESTERASE ACTIVITY OF PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1 IN DEPENDENCE ON 55(L/M AND 192(Q/R DNA POLYMORPHISM IN ADULT PEOPLE WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SÝKORA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase 1 is a calcium-dependent esterase located on high density lipoproteins (HDL. It inhibits LDL peroxidation and hydrolysis of oxide forms of phospholipides and therefore significantly affects the development of ateroscletosis. The aim of this study was to establish the paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 in adult people with Down syndrome (DS. Adults with DS (10 men and 10 women ages 16 to 37 years participated and were compared to a control group (10 men and 10 women age ranging from 17 to 45 years. The 55(L/M and 192(Q/R DNA polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity was investigated in every patient. The results showed the reduction of PON1 activity in people with DS, in contrast to the decreased development of atherosclerosis in DS. Therefore it can be concluded, that PON1 does not have a direct effect on the lower prevalence of atherosclerosis in people with DS.

  15. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SEVERITY OF ANGIOGRAPHIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE AND PARAOXONASE-1 PROMOTER GENE POLYMORPHISM T(-107C IN IRANIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalilian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and cell membrane lipids is believed to play an integral role in the development of fatty streak lesions, an initial step in coronary artery disease (CAD. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL particle. PON1 protects LDL from oxidative modification by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides, suggestive of a role for PON1 in the development of CAD. The present study tested the hypothesis that Paraoxonase-1 promoter polymorphism T(-107C could be a risk factor for severity of CAD in Iranian population. Paraoxonase-1 promoter genotypes were determined in 300 consecutive subjects (> 40 years old who underwent coronary angiography (150 subjects with >50% stenosis served as cases [CAD+] and 150 subjects with < 20% stenosis served as controls [CAD-]. PON1 promoter genotypes were determined by PCR and BSTU1 restriction enzyme digestion. CAD+ Subjects did not show any significant differences in the distribution of PON1 promoter genotypes as compared to CAD- Subjects (P = 0.075. However the analysis of PON1 promoter genotypes distribution showed a higher percentage of (-107 TT among CAD+ compared with CAD- (P = 0.027. After controlling for other risk factors, the T(-107C polymorphism had interaction with age (P = 0.012, but did not show any interaction with other risk factors such as BMI ,gender, smoking, diabetes, level of HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride and Total cholesterol. These data suggest that the TT genotype may represent a genetic risk factor for Coronary artery disease in Iranian population.

  17. 5,6-δ-DHTL, a stable metabolite of arachidonic acid, is a potential substrate for paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryanni-Levin, Suzy; Khatib, Soliman; Levy-Rosenzvig, Reut; Tamir, Snait; Szuchman-Sapir, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein-associated lactonase. Recent findings revealed that PON1 knockout mice have low blood pressure, which is negatively correlated with the level of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET), a cytochrome P450 -derived arachidonic acid metabolite. 5,6-EET is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor that causes arterial dilation. Under physiological conditions, 5,6-EET is unstable, transforming to its δ-lactone (5,6-δ-DHTL) that evades the degradation by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), arguing for the existence of yet another enzyme that is responsible specifically for its hydrolysis. We therefore hypothesized that PON1 degrades the 5,6-δ-DHTL, and this specific PON1 lactonase activity thus decreases endothelial vasodilatation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PON1-5,6-δ-DHTL relationship. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry based method for 5,6-EET derivatives identification was developed. Tracking the lactonization of 5,6-EET in a physiological solution revealed that 5,6-EET was fully converted into 5,6-δ-DHTL. Incubation of 5,6-δ-DHTL with rePON1 resulted in 85.1±3.4% degradation of the substrate to 5,6 dihydroxytrienoic acid (5,6-DHET), while only 12.0±8.7% hydrolysis was detected in the absence of PON1. Accordingly, the levels of 5,6-DHTL were found to be significantly higher in the PON1KO mice than in the wild type mice. Kinetic analysis revealed values of Vmax=0.021±0.01μM/s and Km=150.99±62.1μM. Calculation of the docking energy suggested possible interaction of the 5,6-δ-DHTL in the catalytic region of PON1 with free energy of-5.57 Kcal/mol, preferentially for the (S) enantiomer. These findings demonstrate that 5,6-δ-DHTL is a PON1 substrate and imply that the 5,6-EET vasodilation effect may be impaired by PON1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolf P Kreutz1,2, Perry Nystrom2, Yvonne Kreutz2, Jia Miao2, Zeruesenay Desta2, Jeffrey A Breall1, Lang Li2, ChienWei Chiang2, Richard Kovacs1, David A Flockhart2, Yan Jin21Krannert Institute of Cardiology, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The metabolic activation of clopidogrel is a two-step process. It has been suggested that paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of 2-oxo-clopidogrel to an active thiol metabolite. Conflicting results have been reported in regard to (1 the association of a common polymorphism of PON1 (Q192R with reduced rates of coronary stent thrombosis in patients taking clopidogrel and (2 its effects on platelet inhibition in patient populations of European descent. Methods: Blood samples from 151 subjects of mixed racial background with established coronary artery disease and who received clopidogrel were analyzed. Platelet aggregation was determined with light transmittance aggregometry and VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and *3 and PON1 (Q192R polymorphisms was performed.Results: Carriers of CYP2C19*2 alleles exhibited lower levels of platelet inhibition and higher on-treatment platelet aggregation than noncarriers. There was no significant difference in platelet aggregation among PON1 Q192R genotypes. Homozygous carriers of the wild-type variant of PON1 (QQ192 had similar on-treatment platelet reactivity to carriers of increased-function variant alleles during maintenance clopidogrel dosing, as well as after administration of a clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose.Conclusion: CYP2C19*2 allele is associated with impaired platelet inhibition by clopidogrel and high on-treatment platelet aggregation. PON1 (Q192R polymorphism does not appear to be a significant determinant of clopidogrel response.Keywords: PON1, platelet, aggregation, cytochrome P450 enzymes

  19. Association of lead, cadmium and mercury with paraoxonase 1 activity and malondialdehyde in a general population in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertinde; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Souza-Nogueira, André de; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Michelin, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Peixe, Tiago Severo; Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-07-01

    Metal exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS), which is considered an underlying mechanism of metal-induced toxicity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a final product of lipid peroxidation, and it has been extensively used to evaluate metal-induced OS. Pro-oxidant effects produced by metals can be mitigated by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme known to prevent cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Among other factors, the Q192R polymorphism and the exposure to heavy metals have been known to alter PON1 activity. Here, we evaluated the association of blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels with PON1 activity, and with MDA concentrations in a randomly selected sample of Brazilian adults aged 40 years or older, living in an urban area in Southern Brazil. A total of 889 subjects were evaluated for blood Pb and Cd levels, and 832 were tested for Hg. Geometric mean of blood Pb, Cd and Hg was 1.93μg/dL, 0.06μg/L and 1.40μg/L, respectively. PON1 activity was significantly different among various genotypes: QQ (PON1=121.4U/mL), QR (PON1=87.5U/mL), and RR (PON1=55.2U/mL), p<0.001. PON1 genotypes were associated only with Cd blood levels. Those with QR genotype had Cd concentrations higher (0.07μg/L) than those with the RR genotype (0.04μg/L) with p=0.034. However, PON1 activity was not significantly associated with metal concentrations. Cluster analysis showed that men who reported to be current smokers and drinkers with higher blood Pb and Cd levels, had significantly lower PON1 activity than non-smokers or -drinkers, and women with lower Pb and Cd levels. RR genotype carriers had lower PON1 activity than those with the QR genotype, and had higher levels of Pb and Cd compared with other genotype carriers. For blood Hg, no association with PON1 activity or genotype was noted. We found low levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in environmentally exposed Brazilian adults. Cd concentrations were increased in subjects with QR genotype. Those with

  20. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase values as antioxidants in healthy premature infants at fasting and posprandial times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, H; Laloglu, F; Kilic, O; Ciftel, M; Yildirim, A; Orbak, Z; Ertekin, V; Laloglu, E

    2015-05-01

    Newborn infants, particularly preterm infants, are at greater risk of oxidative stress because of an imbalance between high oxidant loads and immature antioxidant defenses. In several studies, the activities of serum paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) have been found to decline in patients under increased oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between PON-1 and ARE with fasting and postprandial in premature newborns in this study. Serum paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase levels were investigated in premature infants less than 37 weeks, after birth while they were fasting and postprandial. The paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase values of infants in fasting were significantly lower than the values in postprandial (for paraoxonase-1, p = 0.034, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively; for arylesterase, p paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase values are increased in postprandial and reduced in fasting, showing that these neonates are subjected to oxidative stress. Thus, starting feeding as soon as possible in premature newborns is vital to protect them from oxidative damage.

  1. The impact of environmental and biological factors on paraoxonase 1 and γ-glutamyltranspeptydase activities in the blood of smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizoń, Anna; Kepinska, Marta; Snacki, Krzysztof; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of paraoxonase and γ-glutamyltranspeptydase activities can induce development of the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of occupational exposure to heavy metals, tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption on the activities of paraoxonase and γ-glutamyltranspeptydase as well as glutathione concentration. We have observed reduced paraoxonase activity and higher γ-glutamyltranspeptydase activity in serum of smelters when compared to control groups. In the blood of smoking smelters was demonstrated a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and BMI value as well as between paraoxonase activity and tobacco smoke and consumption of 40% alcohol. Also, negative correlation was found for the activity of paraoxonase and glutathione concentration as well as γ-glutamyltranspeptydase activity. Higher γ-glutamyltranspeptydase activity and lower paraoxonase activity in the serum of smelters exposed to heavy metals and tobacco smoke can cause disorders in functioning of the body.

  2. Profile of the Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 Gene 192Q/R Polymorphism and Clinical Associations among Older Singaporean Chinese with Alzheimer's and Mixed Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C.C. Seow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the prevalence of the Paraoxonase1 (PON1 gene 192Q/R polymorphism amongst Singaporean Chinese with Alzheimer's disease (AD and mixed dementia and possible clinical associations. Methods: We examined the presence of the PON1 192Q/R polymorphism together with cognitive status, functional status and neuropsychiatric symptoms among 186 older Singaporean Chinese with AD (n = 109 and mixed dementia (n = 77. Results: The R allele predominated in 67% of the AD patients and 63.1% of the patients with mixed dementia. Within the mixed dementia subgroup, the R allele was significantly associated with a higher BADLS score, NPI-Q scores and CDR scores. Conclusion: Among older Singaporean Chinese with AD and mixed dementia, the R allele was predominant. In particular, within the mixed dementia subgroup, the R allele carrier status was associated with poorer functional status, greater presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and a more severe stage of dementia. Further studies should be conducted.

  3. Effect of paraoxonase 1 192 Q/R polymorphism on paraoxonase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activities in a Turkish population exposed to organophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunay, Seda Zengin; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Bayrak, Tülin; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-12-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most commonly used pesticide groups and they are commercially used in the market for local and industrial purposes. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme plays an important role in biotransformation of OP compounds, which shows toxic effects via inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PON1 gene polymorphism and its effects on PON and AChE enzyme activities in individuals who were exposed to organophosphorus insecticides due to occupational reasons, and to profile the probability of susceptibility to organophosphorus compounds. For this purpose, 54 individuals who were exposed to OPs and 54 healthy unrelated controls were studied. First, PON1 and AChE enzyme activities were measured. Second, PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism was determined by standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. When the PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism was compared with PON1 enzyme activities, statistically significant association was found in both OP-exposed and control groups (p 192 R(-), respectively. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Near-infrared heat lamp therapeutic effect on paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase as potential biomarkers of redox state changes induced by γ-irradiation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Magied, N; Ahmed, A G; Shedid, S M

    2018-02-01

    Infrared radiation has a potential therapeutic effect in some diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the therapeutic role of near infrared heat lamp (NIRHL) on the variations of the activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), in relation to lipid disorders, associated with oxidative stress in rats gamma-irradiated. In addition, study the effect of the duration of NIRHL treatment. Animals were divided into six groups. The results revealed that irradiated rats treated with NIRHL 20 min/once/day showed positive modulation of PON1 and MPO linked to significant improvement of lipid disorders evidenced by lower triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL-C) and higher density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as significant amelioration of redox state, manifested by markedly increase of glutathione (GSH) content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) associated with a noticeable decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (TNF-α, IL-1 beta and IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOs), malondialdehyde (MDA), compared to irradiated rats. The results showed also that the NIRHL treatment for 20 min/twice/day had negative effects on the previous parameters and on the behavior of rats such as itching, irritability, dyspnea and death in normal as well as, irradiated rats. In conclusion, the results in this study show that NIRHL therapy for a short time can effectively prevent the lipid disorders induced by radiation through the positive modulation mechanism of PON1 and MPO enzymes and improvement of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R) as a genetic marker of diabetic nephropathy in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih, Ons; Triki, Sonia; Rejeb, Jihene; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Ommezzine, Asma; Chouchane, Slaheddine; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Bouslama, Ali; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2017-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms have been largely involved in diabetes complications. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of PON1 polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R) on diabetic nephropathy (DN). The study involved 116 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 91 healthy subjects. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was determined by immunoturbidimetry. PON1 activity was measured by a spectrophotometric method, and genotyping of PON1 gene was assessed by multiplex PCR followed by RFLP. PON1 activity was inversely correlated to AER (r = -0.245, p = 0.008). A significant decrease (p = 0.037) in PON1 activity was shown between patients with nephropathy and those without (162 [57-618] vs. 316 [37-788] IU/L, respectively). The distribution of AER was, for L55M polymorphism MM > LM > LL (p = 0.002), and for Q192R polymorphism QQ > QR > RR (p < 0.001). The opposite distribution was noted for PON 1 activity (p < 0.001). LMQQ and MMQQ haplotypes seem to increase AER (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) and to reduce PON1 activity (p = 0.011, p = 0.052, respectively) in youths with T1D. However, LLRR haplotype seems to have the opposite effect. This study demonstrated that PON1 polymorphisms L55M and Q192R seem to be genetic markers involved in the development of DN in T1D. (Endokrynol Pol 2017; 68 (1): 35-41).

  6. Characterization of human paraoxonase 1 variants suggest that His residues at 115 and 134 positions are not always needed for the lactonase/arylesterase activities of the enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Pande, Abhay H

    2013-01-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) hydrolyzes variety of substrates and the hydrolytic activities of enzyme can be broadly grouped into three categories; arylesterase, phosphotriesterase, and lactonase. Current models of the catalytic mechanism of h-PON1 suggest that catalytic residues H115 and H134 mediate the lactonase and arylesterase activities of the enzyme. H-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of catalytic bioscavenger for organophosphate poisoning in humans. Recently, Gupta et al. (Nat. Chem. Biol. 2011. 7, 120) identified amino acid substitutions that significantly increased the activity of chimeric-PON1 variant (4E9) against some organophosphate nerve agents. In this study we have examined the effect of these (L69G/S111T/H115W/H134R/R192K/F222S/T332S) and other substitutions (H115W/H134R and H115W/H134R/R192K) on the hydrolytic activities of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) variants. Our results show that the substitutions resulted in a significant increase in the organophosphatase activity of all the three variants of rh-PON1 enzyme while had a variable effect on the lactonase/arylesterase activities. The results suggest that H residues at positions 115 and 134 are not always needed for the lactonase/arylesterase activities of h-PON1 and force a reconsideration of the current model(s) of the catalytic mechanism of h-PON1. PMID:24123308

  7. A Genetic Biomarker of Oxidative Stress, the Paraoxonase-1 Q192R Gene Variant, Associates with Cardiomyopathy in CKD: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dounousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of CKD and this alteration is strongly implicated in LV hypertrophy and in LV dysfunction. Methods and Patients. We resorted to the strongest genetic biomarker of paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity, the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene, to unbiasedly assess (Mendelian randomization the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of this gene-variant with LV mass and function in 206 CKD patients with a 3-year follow-up. Results. The R allele of Q192R polymorphism associated with oxidative stress as assessed by plasma 8-isoPGF2α (P=0.03 and was dose-dependently related in a direct fashion to LVMI (QQ: 131.4 ± 42.6 g/m2; RQ: 147.7 ± 51.1 g/m2; RR: 167.3 ± 41.9 g/m2; P=0.001 and in an inverse fashion to systolic function (LV Ejection Fraction (QQ: 79 ± 12%; RQ: 69 ± 9%; RR: 65 ± 10% P=0.002. On longitudinal observation, this gene variant associated with the evolution of the same echocardiographic indicators [LVMI: 13.40 g/m2 per risk allele, P=0.005; LVEF: −2.96% per risk allele, P=0.001]. Multivariate analyses did not modify these associations. Conclusion. In CKD patients, the R allele of the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene is dose-dependently related to the severity of LVH and LV dysfunction and associates with the longitudinal evolution of these cardiac alterations. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in cardiomyopathy in CKD patients.

  8. Repeated gestational exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) modulated effects in maternal and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Toby B; Li, Wan-Fen; Co, Aila L; Hay, Ariel M; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Costa, Lucio G; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured enzyme inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1(+/+)), PON1-knockout (PON1(-/-)), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75, or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational day (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), red blood cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1(-/-) and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1(+/+) or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1(-/-) mice, but not in other genotypes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five gene modules based on clustering of the correlations among their fetal-brain expression values, allowing for correlation of module membership with the phenotypic data on enzyme inhibition. One module that correlated highly with maternal brain AChE activity had a large representation of homeobox genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple gene sets affected by gestational CPO exposure in tgHuPON1Q192 but not tgHuPON1R192 mice, including gene sets involved in protein export, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmission. These data indicate that maternal PON1 status modulates the effects of repeated gestational CPO exposure on fetal-brain gene expression and on inhibition of both maternal and fetal biomarker enzymes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved

  9. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L.N.; Lungholt, M.M.; Nielsen, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    of development and gross pathological mucosal lesions were recorded and compared with serum antibody responses and faecal egg counts. Faecal egg counts were determined in samples from A. perfoliata infected horses using a semi-quantitative centrifugation/flotation technique. Blood samples collected at slaughter...

  10. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  11. Role and interpretation of total serum IgE measurements in the diagnosis of allergic airway disease in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Dubois, AEJ; Postma, DS; Schouten, JP; de Monchy, JGR

    Background: While total IgE measurements are often used in clinical practice, it is unclear how they should be interpreted for the diagnosis of allergic disorders. We studied whether total IgE may be used to rule out or predict sensitization and whether there are age or gender differences. Methods:

  12. Electrophoresis-tutor: an image-based personal computer program that teaches clinical interpretation of protein electrophoresis patterns of serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astion, M L; Rank, J; Wener, M H; Torvik, P; Schneider, J B; Killingsworth, L M

    1995-09-01

    High-resolution protein electrophoresis of serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can aid in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, macroglobulinemia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. Electrophoresis-Tutor is a personal computer program based on approximately 150 digital images that teaches the clinical interpretation of agarose gel electrophoretic patterns. The program is divided into the following sections: introduction, CSF, serum, urine, review of disease states, program navigator, and final exam. The CSF section describes normal and abnormal CSF findings with emphasis on oligoclonal banding, as seen in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis. The serum section emphasizes monoclonal gammopathy patterns but also has detailed descriptions of inflammation, liver disease, protein-losing disorders, genetic deficiencies, and other patterns. Monoclonal gammopathy is described in the context of specific associated clinical conditions (e.g., myeloma, amyloidosis). For each monoclonal gammopathy example, results of standard electrophoresis, densitometry, and immunofixation are presented. The review of disease states uses animation to illustrate the development and remission of a variety of pathological patterns. The program navigator allows the user to jump quickly to any place in the program. The optional exam contains 20 questions, and detailed feedback is given after each question. Electrophoresis-Tutor can be used as a stand-alone teaching tool, a companion to traditional instruction, or a reference source.

  13. 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D status: limitations in comparison and clinical interpretation of serum-levels across different assay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Fridrich, Leo; Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Ernst, Juliane; Wendler, Iris; Fabian, Daniel; Hauptlorenz, Susanne; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, clinical interest to evaluate human 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) serum levels has increased exponentially. In the present study, four chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA), one radioimmunoassy (RIA), and one high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were compared and also with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in view of 25(OH)D serum level determination. Methods: For the method comparison, blood samples from 133 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. All participants gave written informed consent for their blood samples to be used in this study. They came to the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Central Hospital Steyr (Austria) for osteodensidometric measurement as part of their preventive medical check-up. Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and paired t-tests were calculated. Assay-specific reference ranges were considered using blood samples from persons with normal parathormone, calcium, and total-protein values (n = 97). Results: The highest correlation was between the HPLC and the LC-MS/MS method (r = 0.96). The lowest correlation was between the cobas Vitamin D3 assay (Roche) and any of the evaluated assays (r = 0.46 - 0.63). Bland-Altman plots revealed a big negative mean bias in three assays (cobas Vitamin D3 assay [Roche]: -22.8; DiaSorin LIAISON [25[OH]D total CLIA [Diasorin]: -18.4; Diasorin 25[OH]D125 I RIA [Diasorin]: -23.8 [nmol/L]) and a much smaller positive mean bias in the other assays (ClinRep complete 25[OH]D2/D3 HPLC kit [Recipe]: 2.7; ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D total assay [Siemens]: 8.2; IDS total vitamin D assay [Immunodiagnostic Systems]: 12.1 [nmol/L]) compared to the LC-MS/MS method. Meanwhile, the manufacturer has withdrawn the cobas Vitamin D3 assay from the market. Conclusions: Poor antibody specificity with cross-reactivity to other vitamin D metabolites, incomplete extraction of the 25(OH)D analyte from the vitamin D

  14. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  15. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  16. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  17. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Increased N7-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts after occupational exposure to pesticides and influence of genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Altakroni, Bashar; Lozano-Paniagua, David; Margison, Geoffrey P; de Vocht, Frank; Povey, Andrew C; Hernández, Antonio F

    2015-06-01

    There are concerns about genetic risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides as these compounds may damage DNA, resulting in mutations that eventually lead to cancer, neurological, and reproductive adverse health effects. This study assessed DNA damage in intensive agricultural workers exposed to pesticides by determining the levels of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine (N7-MedG), an adduct known to be a robust biomarker of recent exposure to chemical methylating agents. A cohort of 39 plastic greenhouse workers was assessed for changes in lymphocyte DNA N7-MedG levels between low level and high level exposures during the course of a spraying season. The contributions of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolizing enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTM1 and GSTT1, on N7-MedG levels and other potential confounders were also assessed. N7-MedG increased in the period of high pesticide exposure as compared to the low exposure period (0.23 and 0.18 µmol N7-MedG/mol dG for the unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models, P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively). Significant decreased levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were observed in the high versus low exposure period in both the unadjusted (2.85 U/g hemoglobin and 213.13 U/L, respectively) and adjusted linear mixed models (2.99 U/g hemoglobin and 230.77 U/L, respectively), indicating pesticide intake. In intensive agriculture workers, higher pesticide exposure increased DNA alkylation levels, further demonstrating the genotoxicity of pesticides in man. In addition, pesticide-exposed individuals with inherited susceptible metabolic genotypes (particularly, null genotype for GSTM1 and the PON1 192R allele) appear to have an increased risk of genotoxic DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:437-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The common variant Q192R at the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene and its activity are responsible for a portion of the altered antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari, Mehryar; Sharafeddin, Fahimeh; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Alizadeh, Ahad; Masoumi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and the variant PON1-Q192R on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and total thiol. In addition, we examined the distribution of genotypes of this variant and the relationship of the genotypes with age in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 115 patients with T2D were enrolled in this study. Paraoxonase activity (PON-para) and arylesterase activity (PON-aryl) were determined using spectrophotometric assays. The distribution of the Q192R genotypes was determined by the double substrate method. The antioxidant status was evaluated by determining FRAP and total thiol. The frequencies of Q and R allozyme were 0.78 and 0.22, respectively. The multivariate analysis identified a significant association between the variables PON1-Q192R (Wilks' λ = 0.85, P = 0.002) and PON-aryl (Wilks' λ = 0.896, P = 0.017), with FRAP and total thiol. The significant difference observed for PON1-Q192R and PON-aryl is primarily due to the changes in FRAP levels (η(2 )= 0.127, P = 0.002 for PON1-Q192R; η(2 )= 0.083, P = 0.011 for PON-aryl). The interaction PON1-Q192R-PON-aryl increased the effect sizes from 8 to 19% for FRAP. Only in R-carrying genotypes, there were significant correlations between both PON-para/HDL (r = -0.574, P < 0.001) and PON-aryl/HDL (r = -0.577, P < 0.001) with age. Our data suggest that the variant PON1-Q192R and PON1 activity, particularly PON-aryl, influenced the antioxidant status in T2D. The interaction of this variant and PON1 activity increased the effect size on the antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the presence of the R allozyme may potentiate the effects of age on susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in T2D. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Association between paraoxonase-1 gene Q192R and L55M polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) in a population from Cairo of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alshaymaa Ahmed; El-Lebedy, Dalia; Ashmawy, Ingy; Hady, Maha Abdel

    2017-06-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is involved in the oxidative stress process that cause tissue damage observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PON1 Q192R and L55M polymorphisms with risk of SLE and associated APS among Egyptian sample. The study included 120 SLE patients (45 without APS and 75 with APS) and 120 healthy subjects. PON1 Q192R and L55M polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR. No significant differences in Q192R genotypes or allele frequencies were found between patients and controls (p = 0.5 and 0.1, respectively). The frequency of the 55M allele was significantly higher in SLE patients than in controls (66.6 vs. 43.3%), while the 55L allele was more frequent in controls (56.6%) than in patients (33.3%) (p = 0.03). The LL genotype was more frequent in controls (21.6%) than in patients (10%) while M allele carrier genotypes (LM + MM) were more frequent among patients (90%) than controls (78.3%), p = 0.04. Also, the 55M allele was more frequent in APS patients (73.3%) than in patients without APS (55.6%), p = 0.004. M allele carrier genotypes (LM + MM) was significantly higher among APS patients (95.4%) than in non-APS patients (80%), p = 0.008. Our results indicated that the PON1 L55M polymorphism associated with SLE and associated APS in a population from Cairo of Egypt, while the Q192R polymorphism plays no role in disease susceptibility. A large scale study to assess PON1 polymorphisms, PON1 activity, and markers of oxidative stress interaction is needed to clarify the role of PON-1 polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of SLE and associated APS.

  1. [Difficulties in interpreting the results of laboratory tests for methanol concentration in serum of patients with metabolic acidosis of various origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Kamil; Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing availability of methyl alcohol, methanol poisoning becomes more common. Consumption of even relatively small amounts can lead to very serious consequences, including irreversible damage to the eye and death. Quickly implemented proper treatment can alleviate the course of poisoning. Since the victims of poisoning often come to medical facilities unconscious, unresponsive, with unknown or incomplete medical history, it is crucial, both for toxicologists and emergency physicians, to consider the possibility of methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. It is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of such a poisoning and to order appropriate laboratory tests, especially arterial blood gas and if necessary serum concentrations of methanol and ethylene glycol. The article discusses the course of methanol poisoning, various diagnostic methods of detecting methyl alcohol and factors that affect the methanol concentration in serum. Two clinical cases of patients with non-respiratory acidosis and hyperglycemia, the presence of methanol determined by spectrophotometric method and no methanol intake in anamnesis were also presented. We are considering the possibility of false positive results of methanol determination in the course of diabetic ketoacidosis and significant hyperglycemia.

  2. Decreased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takci, Z; Bilgili, S G; Karadag, A S; Kucukoglu, M E; Selek, S; Aslan, M

    2015-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be an important phenomenon in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme with three activities: paraoxonase, arylesterase and dyazoxonase. In this study, we evaluated serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and serum lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in patients with rosacea in comparison to healthy controls. The study included 39 rosacea patients and healthy controls, consisting of 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate substrates. Serum LOOH levels were measured with the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. In rosacea group mean serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were 74.54 ± 38.30 U L(-1) and 141.29 ± 22.27 kU L(-1) respectively, which were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.010, 0.005; respectively). Mean serum LOOH level of rosacea group was 8.17 ± 1.91 μmol L(-1) which was significantly higher than controls (P = 0.009). There were no statistically significant differences between the clinical subtypes of the disease, menopause situation or ocular involvement with the respect to the serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and LOOH levels (all; P > 0.05). Serum PON1 enzyme activities have decreased significantly in rosacea. These findings support that decreased PON1 activity and increased oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of PON1 activity in the pathophysiology of rosacea. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Association of serum paraoxonase enzyme activity and oxidative stress markers with dyslipidemia in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Kamal, Sanaa; El-Gammal, Mona; Youness, Eman

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) concentration and oxidative stress markers and assess its relations with the biochemical parameters in obese adolescents. One hundred and fifty obese adolescents (range 16-18 years) and 150 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The data were extracted from a project entitled "Obesity among Youth: Lifestyle and Genetic Factors" funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund, Egypt. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), nitric oxide (NO), and malonaldehyde were measured. Anthropometry, fasting glucose, insulin concentrations, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Diagnostic accuracy of oxidative markers to identify dyslipidemia was calculated with ROC analysis. The study showed that PON1 activity was significantly lower in obese adolescents than controls. Obese adolescents had significant lower NO level and significant increased MA values as compared to controls. PON1 was negatively correlated with MAD and body mass index in obese subjects. Obese adolescents showed dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure and HOMA-IR values. PON1 had high area under the curve in ROC analysis for identifying dyslipidemia in obese subjects. Our results indicate that obese subjects have increased oxidative stress and decreased PON1 activity. The lower paraoxonase level might contribute to the greater risk of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, high blood pressure that are considered as important components in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

  4. Association of serum paraoxonase enzyme activity and oxidative stress markers with dyslipidemia in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1 concentration and oxidative stress markers and assess its relations with the biochemical parameters in obese adolescents. Materials and Methods : One hundred and fifty obese adolescents (range 16-18 years and 150 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The data were extracted from a project entitled "Obesity among Youth: Lifestyle and Genetic Factors" funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund, Egypt. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nitric oxide (NO, and malonaldehyde were measured. Anthropometry, fasting glucose, insulin concentrations, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR. Diagnostic accuracy of oxidative markers to identify dyslipidemia was calculated with ROC analysis. Results: The study showed that PON1 activity was significantly lower in obese adolescents than controls. Obese adolescents had significant lower NO level and significant increased MA values as compared to controls. PON1 was negatively correlated with MAD and body mass index in obese subjects. Obese adolescents showed dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure and HOMA-IR values. PON1 had high area under the curve in ROC analysis for identifying dyslipidemia in obese subjects. Conclusions: Our results indicate that obese subjects have increased oxidative stress and decreased PON1 activity. The lower paraoxonase level might contribute to the greater risk of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, high blood pressure that are considered as important components in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

  5. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  6. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  7. Interpretive Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Susana; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In summary one-third of the political coverage analyzed in the 16 countries was found to contain interpretive journalism, with some countries - including France and the United States - making use of it much more than the rest. Indeed, the story genres and the interpretive journalism used in the various countries differ substantially, indicating distinct motives and news cultures. A multivariate analysis conducted to identify the most powerful predictors of interpretive journ...

  8. Clinical and Genetic Association of Serum Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Activities with Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W. H. Wilson; Hartiala, Jaana; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Stewart, Alexandre F.R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Allayee, Hooman; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Diminished serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (measures of paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] function) in humans have been linked to heightened systemic oxidative stress and atherosclerosis risk. The clinical prognostic utility of measuring distinct PON1 activities has not been established, and the genetic determinants of PON-1 activities are not known. Methods and Results We established analytically robust high throughput assays for serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and measured these in 3,668 stable subjects undergoing elective coronary angiography without acute coronary syndrome, and were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE = death, myocardial infarction, stroke) over 3 years. Low serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activities were both associated with increased risk for MACE, with arylesterase activity showing greatest prognostic value (Q4 versus Q1, Hazard Ratio [HR] 2.63, 95%CI 1.97–3.50, pparaoxonase (1.18×10−303) or arylesterase (4.99×10−116) activity but these variants were not associated with either 3-year MACE risk in an angiographic cohort (n=2,136) or history of either coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction in the CARDIoGRAM consortium (n~80,000 subjects). Conclusions Diminished serum arylesterase activity, but not the genetic determinants of PON-1 functional measures, provides incremental prognostic value and clinical reclassification of stable subjects at risk of developing MACE. PMID:22982463

  9. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  10. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  11. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  12. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  13. Serum paraoxonase activity and oxidative stress levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, S; Aslan, M; Ceylan, M R; Sunnetcioglu, M; Bozan, N; Kara, H; Demir, H

    2017-07-01

    Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by the aerobic sporeforming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B. anthracis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The serum MDA levels, SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were measured using a spectrophotometer. The serum SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were significantly lower in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in controls (for all, p paraoxonase activity, arylesterase activity, SOD levels, and MDA levels (all, p > 0.05) in patients with cutaneous anthrax. The current study was the first to show decreased antioxidant levels and increased oxidant levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Therefore, decreased PON1 activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous anthrax.

  14. The relationship between serum ferritin levels and serum lipids and HDL function with respect to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yasar Ellidag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated serum ferritin (SFer levels have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between SFer levels and serum lipid parameters, and how this relation changes in terms of age and gender. Additionally, we investigated a possible relationship between SFer levels and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. SFer levels and lipid panel (total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C of 4205 people (3139 women, 1066 men were examined retrospectively. Study population was classified according to age and gender. Separately, 100 subjects (52 women, 48 men were randomly recruited to investigate the relation between SFer levels, and HDL dependent paraoxonase-1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE activities. In all age groups, women’s SFer levels were found to be significantly lower and HDL-C levels significantly higher compared to men. In the 50-70 ages range, TC and LDL-C levels of women were found to be significantly higher than those of men (P < 0.01. SFer levels tended to increase with age in women. Correlation analyses revealed a negative correlation between levels of SFer and HDL-C, while positive correlations existed between levels of SFer, and TC, TG and LDL-C. There was no significant correlation between SFer levels and PON1 or ARE activities. The finding that increased SFer levels are accompanied by increased serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels may help us to explain the increased risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

  15. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  16. Serum PON1 arylesterase activity in relation to hyperhomocysteinaemia and oxidative stress in young adult central retinal venous occlusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angayarkanni, N; Barathi, S; Seethalakshmi, T; Punitham, R; Sivaramakrishna, R; Suganeswari, G; Tarun, S

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the arylesterase activity of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1-ARE), which is reported to have an antioxidant and antiatherogenic potential and to correlate with plasma homocysteine (Hcys) and plasma TBARS in young adult central retinal venous occlusion (CRVO) patients. A case-control prospective study carried out in 10 CRVO patients (mean age 27+/-5 years; 7 males, 3 females) and 20 healthy controls (mean age 29+/-5 years; 15 males, 5 females). The CRVO patients showed a significantly lowered serum PON1-ARE activity (P=0.009) along with a significant increase in the levels of plasma Hcys (P=0.018) when compared to the control subjects. There was a negative correlation between serum PON1-ARE and plasma Hcys levels (P=0.058) as well as between PON1-ARE and plasma TBARS levels (P=0.001) in the CRVO patients. This is the first report of lowered serum PON1-ARE level as a risk factor for CRVO (OR= 1.108, CI=0.914, 1.314; P=0.296), which is found to correlate with oxidative stress.

  17. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  18. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and motilities by human serum paraoxonase (hPON1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aybey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase 1 (hPON1 which hydrolyzes Pseudomonas aeruginosa acyl homoserine lactone (AHL signal molecules was used as antibiofilm agent. hPON1 was purified by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and specially designed hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-1-Naphthylamine from the fresh human serum. As cell motility of swarming, swimming and twitching are proven instrumental in biofilm formation, we investigated whether or not hPON1 affected the P. aeruginosa motility. hPON1 was reduced the early stage of biofilm formation, mature biofilm and motilities. The early stage and old biofilm were decreased more than 50% by 1 mg ml–1 of hPON1 concentration within range of 0.1–10 mg ml–1. Additionally, exopolymeric substance (EPS of mature biofilm was indirectly decreased by hPON1. Inhibitory effect of hPON1 within range of 0.003–30 mg ml–1 on swarming and swimming motilities. But it resulted in highly inhibitory effects on twitching motility at concentration as low as 0.3 mg ml–1 concentration. This study proved that hPON1 alone can be safely used to inhibit/disrupt the mature biofilms and cell motility of P. aeruginosa and beholds much promise in clinical applications.

  19. Purification of PON1 from human serum and assessment of enzyme kinetics against metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Beydemir, Sükrü

    2010-06-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an organophosphate hydrolyser enzyme which has also antioxidant properties in metabolism. Due to its crucial functions, inhibition of the enzyme is undesirable and very dangerous. PON1 enzyme activity should not be altered in any case. Inhibitory investigations of this enzyme are therefore important and useful. Metal toxicology of enzymes has become popular in the recent years. Here, we report the in vitro inhibitory effects of some metal ions, including Pb(+2), Cr(+2), Fe(+2), and Zn(+2), on the activity of human serum PON1 (hPON1; EC 3.1.8.1.). For this purpose, we purified the enzyme from human serum and analyzed the alterations in the enzyme activity in the presence of metal ions. The results show that metal ions exhibit inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations with IC (50) values ranging from 0.838 to 7.410 mM. Metal ions showed different inhibition mechanisms: lead and iron were competitive, chrome was noncompetitive, and zinc was uncompetitive. Lead was determined to be the most effective inhibitor.

  20. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  1. Relationship between MPV and paraoxonase-1 activity, brachial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eDepartment of Internal Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Training and Research Hospital, Rize, Turkey. fDepartment of Endocrinology, Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. *Corresponding ... Keywords: cardiovascular, diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, vasculature.

  2. Enzymatic and genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase- 1 in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... concentrations of total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B100, the latency time of oxidation of small and dense LDL, arylesterase activity and genetic polymorphism ...

  3. Human Paraoxonase 1 as a Pharmacologic Agent: Limitations and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human PON1 (h-PON1 is a multifaceted enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate a wide range of substrates. The enzyme shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiatherogenic, ant-diabetic, antimicrobial, and organophosphate (OP-detoxifying properties. However, there are certain limitations regarding large-scale production and use of h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate. These include difficulties in producing recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1 using microbial expression system, low hydrolytic activity of wild-type h-PON1 towards certain substrates, and low storage stability of the purified enzyme. This review summarizes the work done in our laboratory to address these limitations. Our results show that (a optimized polynucleotide sequence encoding rh-PON1 can express the protein in an active form in E. coli and can be used to generate variant of the enzyme having enhanced hydrolytic activity, (b in vitro refolding of rh-PON1 enzyme can dramatically increase the yield of an active enzyme, (c common excipients can be used to stabilize purified rh-PON1 enzyme when stored under different storage conditions, and (d variants of rh-PON1 enzyme impart significant protection against OP-poisoning in human blood (ex vivo and mouse (in vivo model of OP-poisoning. The rh-PON1 variants and their process of production discussed here will help to develop h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.

  4. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Oxidative stress injury in MDR-TB patients may be effectively managed by combination of moxifloxacin with anti-TB treatment. Keywords: Multiple drug-resistant TB, Moxifloxacin, Paraoxonase, Oxidative stress. Tropical Journal of ... age, course of disease, smoking history, MDR-. TB clinical classification, and ...

  5. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  6. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  7. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  8. The relationship between serum paraoxonase levels and carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ayşe; Tüzün, Fatma Aykan; Arslan, Harun; Demir, Halit; Tamer, Sibel; Demir, Canan; Tasin, Muhterem

    Low paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and carotid atherosclerosis have been suggested to be important risk factors for dementia. However, the studies to date could not fully clarify the relationship between PON1, carotid atherosclerosis and dementia. The present study aimed to measure carotid atherosclerosis and PON1 activity in Alzheimer's Disease and to evaluate the relationship between them. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and 25 control subjects, for a total of 50 individuals. The study measured the serum PON1 activity and other biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerotic plaque values of the participants. The mean paraoxonase activity (31.06±2.31U/L) was significantly lower in the Alzheimer's group compared to the control group (59.05±7.05U/L) (Phomocystein level was higher in the patient group (22.15±7.05) compared to the control group (13.30±3.32). In conclusion, our findings show inverse association between PON1 activity and carotid atherosclerosis in Alzheimer patients: the lower the PON1 activity the more progressed the atherosclerotic process in AD. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Selected serum oxidative stress biomarkers in dogs with non-food-induced and food-induced atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Ramón M; Rubio, Camila P; Cerón, José J; Ansón, Agustina; Tichy, Alexander; Mayer, Ursula

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of human and canine atopic dermatitis (AD) through several distinct mechanisms. Selected serum biomarkers of OS (sbOS) have been validated in normal dogs and studied in several canine diseases. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the sbOS evaluated in this study have not previously been described in canine AD. The aims of the study were to evaluate a panel of sbOS in dogs with food-induced (FIAD) and non-food-induced (NFIAD) AD: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and serum total thiol (THIOL). The aim was to compare these metabolites with those in healthy control dogs, and to correlate sbOS with validated pruritus and CADESI-04 severity scales in dogs with AD. Forty six healthy, nine NFIAD and three FIAD client-owned dogs were included. The study was designed as a cohort study. There were significant differences in atopic dogs when compared to healthy dogs for all of the sbOS analysed. These findings suggest that OS could play a role in the pathogenesis of canine NFIAD and FIAD. In addition, the evaluation of sbOS could be useful for precision medicine to help to detect atopic dogs that might benefit from antioxidant-targeted therapies. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  11. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  12. Establishment of reference values in a healthy population and interpretation of serum PTH concentrations in hemodialyzed patients according to the KDIGO Guidelines using the Lumipulse® G whole PTH (3rd generation) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, Etienne; Salsé, Margot; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Watar, Florence; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Delanaye, Pierre; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    3rd generation PTH assays only detect the bioactive 1-84 fragment. Since standardization is still lacking, each new PTH assay requires to establish reference values and to assess the impact in the medical care of the mineral and bone disorders in hemodialyzed patients. Using Fujirebio Lumipulse G wPTH assay, serum PTH levels were measured in a population of 439 healthy subjects from France and Belgium PTH levels were also determined in 119 hemodialyzed patients. These patients were classified according to the KDIGO recommendation. Reference range was found to be 6.5 (90%CI: 6.0-7.0) - 41.8 (90% CI: 38.1-43.7). In hemodialysis patients, Passing-Bablock regression between 3rd generation PTH from Fujirebio and DiaSorin was DiaSorin = 1.01 xFujirebio-2.4 with a slope not different from 1.0(95%CI: 0.96-1.04) and a non-significant intercept, ranging from -6.0 to 0.1. Hemodialysis patients with a PTH concentration below 2-fold the Upper Limit of Normality (ULN), within the KDIGO range and upper 9-fold upper limit were respectively 33.6%, 54.6%, 11.8% (Fujirebio Lumipulse) and 36.1%, 51.3% and 12.6% (Diasorin Liaison). We determined a reference range with the 3rd generation PTH assay from Fujirebio. In a hemodialysis population, 3rd generation assays from Fujirebio and DiaSorin provide similar results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that we can show similar PTH results obtained by 2 different 3rd generation PTH assays in healthy subjects and hemodialyzed patients without mathematically processing them. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    ...; interpreting style, such as poor body posture, tensing muscles, signing too forcefully; job control, including the emotional and physical stress of the job, being overworked, and disliking the job...

  14. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  15. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  16. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  17. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  18. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.-F.; Sun, C.-W.; Cheng, T.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of > 1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR = 2.20, p < 0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 4.18 low vs. high, p < 0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p < 0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 - 108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.

  19. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  20. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality......, such as the interpreter's engagement in explicit co-construction of meaning. In addition, we shall include social factors which must be assumed to have a bearing on the interpreter's behaviour. Here we can, at least to some extent, draw upon the questionnaires and interviews mentioned above. Finally, we shall discuss...

  1. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  2. Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Anion Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-01-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that suppo...

  3. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  4. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  5. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  6. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...... measured in the various assay methods varied, there was good agreement between the interpretation of a given sample among the participating laboratories. This indicates that the differences in estimates of serum GH concentration by different immunoassay systems can be compensated for when cut-off values...

  7. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  8. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  9. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  11. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  12. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm Serum globulin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins ...

  13. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  14. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  15. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to acting and therefore the only difference between reception and interpretation is that they work with different types of sign. However, the type of sign is not relevant for a function, or rather, it should not be a criterion for distinguishing between functions. The lemma selection for the communicative......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...

  16. Lactonase Activity and Lipoprotein-Phospholipase A2 as Possible Novel Serum Biomarkers for the Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Rett Syndrome: Results from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joussef Hayek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are not merely expression of brain dysfunction but also reflect the perturbation of physiological/metabolic homeostasis. Accordingly, both disorders appear to be associated with increased vulnerability to toxicants produced by redox imbalance, inflammation, and pollution, and impairment of systemic-detoxifying agents could play a role in the exacerbation of these detrimental processes. To check this hypothesis, the activities of two mechanistically related blood-based enzymes, paraoxonase-1 (arylesterase, paraoxonase, and lactonase, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 were measured in the serum of 79 ASD and 95 RTT patients, and 77 controls. Lactonase and Lp-PLA2 showed a similar trend characterized by significantly lower levels of both activities in ASD compared to controls and RTT (p<0.001 for all pairwise comparisons. Noteworthy, receiving operator curve (ROC analysis revealed that lactonase and, mostly, Lp-PLA2 were able to discriminate between ASD and controls (lactonase: area under curve, AUC = 0.660; Lp-PLA2, AUC = 0.780, and, considering only females, between ASD and RTT (lactonase, AUC = 0.714; Lp-PLA2, AUC = 0.881. These results suggest that lactonase and, especially, Lp-PLA2 activities might represent novel candidate biomarkers for ASD.

  17. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  18. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  19. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  20. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  1. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  2. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  3. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  4. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  5. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  6. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  7. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  8. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  9. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  10. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  11. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... theories, and relate them to observations in contemporary landscape architecture. It is my premise that investigating the relationship between modes of aesthetic perception and examples in contemporary art, and landscape architecture, will enable us to better understand characteristics of a contemporary...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects...

  12. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......-cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented...

  13. Interpretations of interpretivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, John

    2003-01-01

    What is interpretivism? As is common with broad methodological debates, much hinges on matters of definition. Interpretivism might be defined residually — as non-positivism. However, this scarcely clarifies the matter, as noted by Robert Adcock and David Dessler in their contributions to this symposium. We might start with David Laitin’s suggestion that interpretivism refers to interpretation or clarification— rendering the ambiguous into a clearer form. This is true enough, so far as it ...

  14. A Narrative Interpretive Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Anna Linda Musacchio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in ...

  15. Interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology.\\ud \\ud Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress thr...

  16. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  17. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  18. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  19. Clinical usefulness of the serum anion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-03-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that support their practice. While an increase in the anion gap is almost always caused by retained unmeasured anions, a decrease in the anion gap can be generated by multiple mechanisms.

  20. Serum ferritin. Its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochna Viola, E.M. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1981-08-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis.

  1. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  3. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  4. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  5. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  6. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  7. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  8. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  9. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  10. Functionalized imidazolium and benzimidazolium salts as paraoxonase 1 inhibitors: Synthesis, characterization and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Alıcı, Bülent; Gökçe, Başak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Arslan, N Burcu; Özdemir, Namık

    2016-03-15

    Paraoxonase (PON) is a key enzyme in metabolism of living organisms and decreased activity of PON1 was acknowledged as a risk for atherosclerosis and organophosphate toxicity. The present study describes the synthesis, characterization, PON1 inhibitory properties and molecular docking studies of functionalized imidazolium and benzimidazolium salts (1a-5g). The structures of all compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and structures of compounds 2b and 2c were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1c, a coumarin substituted imidazolium salt showed the best inhibitory effect on the activity of PON1 with good IC50 value (6.37 μM). Kinetic investigation was evaluated for this compound and results showed that this compound is competitive inhibitor of PON1 with Ki value of 2.39 μM. Molecular docking studies were also performed for most active compound 1c and one of least active compound 2c in order to determine the probable binding model into active site of PON1 and validation of the experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HUMAN PARAOXONASE-1 (PON1): GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION, PROMISCUOUS ACTIVITIES AND MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, is believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. PMID:25965560

  12. Human paraoxonase 1 overexpression in mice stimulates HDL cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlef, Souade; Berrougui, Hicham; Kamtchueng Simo, Olivier; Zerif, Echarki

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of human PON1 overexpression in mice on cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. PON1 overexpression in PON1-Tg mice induced a significant 3-fold (pparaoxonase activity and a significant ~30% (p<0.0001) increase in the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages compared to wild-type mice. It also caused a significant 4-fold increase (p<0.0001) in the capacity of macrophages to transfer cholesterol to apoA-1, a significant 2-fold (p<0.0003) increase in ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression, and a significant increase in the expression of PPARγ (p<0.0003 and p<0.04, respectively) and LXRα (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively) mRNA and protein compared to macrophages from wild-type mice. Moreover, transfection of J774 macrophages with human PON1 also increased ABCA1, PPARγ and LXRα protein expression and stimulates macrophages cholesterol efflux to apo A1. In vivo measurements showed that the overexpression of PON1 significantly increases the fecal elimination of macrophage-derived cholesterol in PON1-Tg mice. Overall, our results suggested that the overexpression of PON1 in mice may contribute to the regulation of the cholesterol homeostasis by improving the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux and by stimulating reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:28278274

  13. PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) AS A GENETIC DETERMINANT OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ORGANOPHOSPHATE TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E.

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON1) is an A-esterase capable of hydrolyzing the active metabolites (oxons) of a number of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as parathion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 activity is highest in liver and in plasma. Human PON1 displays two polymorphisms in the coding region (Q192R and L55M) and several polymorphisms in the promoter and the 3’-UTR regions. The Q192R polymorphism imparts differential catalytic activity toward some OP substrates, while the polymorphism at position –108 (C/T) is the major contributor of differences in the levels of PON1 expression. Both contribute to determining an individual's PON1 “status”. Animal studies have shown that PON1 is an important determinant of OP toxicity. Administration of exogenous PON1 to rats or mice protects them from the toxicity of specific OPs. PON1 knockout mice display a high sensitivity to the toxicity of diazoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon, but not of paraoxon. In vitro catalytic efficiencies of purified PON192 alloforms for hydrolysis of specific oxon substrates accurately predict the degree of in vivo protection afforded by each isoform. Evidence is slowly emerging that a low PON1 status may increase susceptibility to OP toxicity in humans. Low PON1 activity may also contribute to the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of OPs, as shown by animal and human studies. PMID:22884923

  14. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on paraoxonase 1 activities and oxidative stress status in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralic, Ivana; Djordjevic, Brizita; Dikic, Nenad; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Spasic, Slavica; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana; Radivojevic, Nenad; Andjelkovic, Marija; Pejic, Snezana

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of astaxanthin (Asx) on paraoxonase (PON1) activities and oxidative stress status in soccer players. Forty soccer players were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to Asx and placebo (P) group. Blood samples were obtained before, 45 and 90 days after supplementation. PON1 activity was assessed by using two substrates: paraoxon and diazoxon. The oxidative stress biomarkers were also examined: total sulphydryl group content (-SH groups), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products and redox balance. The significant interaction effect of supplementation and training (p Asx group after 90 days (p Asx group (supplementation and training, p Asx supplementation might increase total SH groups content and improve PON1 activity through protection of free thiol groups against oxidative modification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dramatic Differences in Organophosphorus Hydrolase Activity between Human and Chimeric Recombinant Mammalian Paraoxonase-1 Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    1 s-1 (see Table 1)]. G2E6 PON1 had 13- and 6-fold greater catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of the pesticide ...Therapeutics (Hardman, J. G., Limbird, L. E., and Gilman, A. G., Eds.) pp 175-192, McGraw-Hill, New York. 3. Maynard, R. L., and Beswick, F. W. (1992...Organophosphorus compounds as chemical warfare agents. In Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Organophosphates and Carbamates (Ballantyne, B., and Marrs, T

  16. Investigation of Evolved Paraoxonase-1 Variants for Prevention of Organophosphorous Pesticide Compound Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    industries such as pesticide manufacturing, groundskeeping, pet grooming and building fumigation are also at risk for exposures to pesticides and...50 μg/mL sodium pyruvate) was added to the cells and incubated at 37 °C for 24 to 96 h. PON1 activity in the culture medium was quantified using...per cell lysis reagent (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL), and PON1 activity in cell culture medium and lysate was determined using phenyl acetate

  17. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements......’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15...... about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...

  18. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  20. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  1. Assessment of Interpretive Facilities and the Delivery of Interpretive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of interpretive facilities and the delivery of interpretive services in Chad Basin National Park (CBNP), Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Okomu National Park (OKNP), and Yankari National Park (YNP) were conducted. The parks were selected to represent the major ecological zones where National Parks are ...

  2. Regulation of serum phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  3. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  5. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  6. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  7. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  8. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  9. 77 FR 58323 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Exemptions From Preparation Pursuant to an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 107 RIN 0579-AD66 Viruses... our interpretation of the veterinary practitioner exemption provided by the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act..., fax (301) 734-4314. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 151...

  10. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  11. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN SOKOTO, ... Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and .... acid and alpha tocopherol in Sickle cell anaemia. Cent Af J. Med., 41: ...

  12. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  13. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  14. Seasonal Variation in Serum Ascorbic Acid and Serum Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the serum ascorbic acid and serum lipid composition of the baboons under natural environmental conditions. We consider these data important as they .... way analysis of covariance" was computed on serum cholesterol, using cubic regression on body mass. Since 5 variables were under consideration, IO signi-.

  15. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  16. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  17. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  18. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  19. Radioimmunoassay for serum paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatori, D.; Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two variants of a radioimmunoassay for the bipyridylium herbicide Paraquat are described. Both employ antiserum raised to Paraquat-BSA which has been covalently linked to particulate solid-phase support media. The rapid assay for clinical use employs a [ 3 H] Paraquat tracer, requires no agitation and yields results in the range 10-2500 ng/ml serum in 20 min from receipt of sample. The more sensitive assay, designed for research purposes, employs a 125 iodinated tracer, requires 2 h continuous agitation but can detect Paraquat at 0.1 ng/ml in simple aqueous solution or 0.25 ng/ml serum. Results from rapid clinical assay agree well with the existing colorimetric method. (Auth.)

  20. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyr......Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...

  1. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  2. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  3. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  4. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  5. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  6. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  7. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  8. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  9. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  10. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  11. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  12. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: hatano@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Abstract. We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability ...

  13. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  14. meaning, interpretation and literary theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thetic concepts and interpretations within particular historical, political and cultural frameworks. The impact of cultural studies, postcolonial stu- dies, New Historicism and feminism on all textual practices is very strong. These approaches ask differing sets of questions, questions such as: How does a particular text fit into a ...

  15. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various...

  16. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  17. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding ... important texts. In what follows, this answer is described by emphasising the many facets of Van Aarde's Matthew interpretation. Van Aarde is an .... has created the necessary distance between text and reader, it.

  18. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from programm...

  19. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  20. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  1. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  2. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  3. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  4. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  5. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  6. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  7. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  8. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  9. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  10. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  11. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  12. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  13. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  14. Serum chemistry of the minke whale from the northeastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Brun, E

    2001-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 42 harpooned minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) during commercial whaling off the coast of northern Norway (1997 and 1998) and analyzed for serum chemistry parameters in order to find clinical reference values for the northeastern Atlantic stock of this species. Mean and median values, as well as standard deviation and 90% central range, are presented for 28 different serum chemistry parameters. Lipemia is a common finding in marine mammals such as the minke whale, and chemical analysis of lipemic serum samples may produce artifacts. We found statistically significant elevated values of total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium and chloride in strongly-lipemic compared to non-lipemic samples, all which may be artifacts due to interference of lipids with the methods used for analysis. In addition, we found significantly elevated levels of creatin kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, uric acid and triglycerides, as well as a decrease in creatinine in the strongly lipemic samples. Reanalyzing serum samples after twelve mo storage at -20 C (n = 13) revealed reduction in the serum concentration of the enzymes ALT (42%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 10%), LDH (19%), gamma glutamyl transferase (17%) and amylase (11%), as well as for triglycerides (9%) and non-esterified fatty acids (16%). It is crucial that serum chemistry analysis is performed without delay after sampling. Possible changes in the values of some parameters due to the presence of high amounts of lipids or long term storage of samples must be considered when interpreting results from serum chemistry analysis in these animals.

  15. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  16. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  17. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  18. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  19. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  20. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  1. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  2. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow......Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...

  3. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  4. Case report: Extreme levels of serum S-100B in a patient with chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Elisabet Persson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The protein S-100B is a biomarker increasingly used within neurosurgery and neurointensive care. As a relatively sensitive, yet unspecific, indicator of CNS pathology, potential sources of error must be clearly understood when interpreting serum S-100B levels. This case report studied the course of a 46-year-old gentleman with a chronic subdural haemorrhage, serum S-100B levels of 22 μg/L and a history of malignant melanoma. Both intra- and extra-cranial sources of S-100B are evaluated and imply an unclear contribution of several sources to the total serum concentration. Potential sources of error when interpreting serum concentrations of S-100B are discussed

  5. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  6. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  7. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  8. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  9. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  10. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  11. Effects of molecular structural variants on serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 levels in sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemura Masahiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6, which is classified as human mucin-1 (MUC1, is used as a marker of sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases. However, there remain some limitations due to a lack of information on the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6. This study was designed to investigate the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6 by molecular analysis. Methods Western blot analysis using anti-KL-6 antibody was performed simultaneously on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum obtained from 128 subjects with sarcoidosis. Results KL-6/MUC1 in BALF showed three bands and five band patterns. These band patterns were associated with the MUC1 genotype and the KL-6 levels. KL-6/MUC1 band patterns in serum were dependent on molecular size class in BALF. Significantly increased levels of serum KL-6, serum/BALF KL-6 ratio and serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor were observed in the subjects with influx of high molecular size KL-6/MUC1 from the alveoli to blood circulation. The multivariate linear regression analysis involving potentially relevant variables such as age, gender, smoking status, lung parenchymal involvement based on radiographical stage and molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum showed that the molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum was significant independent determinant of serum KL-6 levels. Conclusions The molecular structural variants of KL-6/MUC1 and its leakage behavior affect serum levels of KL-6 in sarcoidosis. This information may assist in the interpretation of serum KL-6 levels in sarcoidosis.

  12. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  13. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  14. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  15. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  16. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  17. Model-based biosignal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, S

    1994-03-01

    Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.

  18. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  19. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  20. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  1. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Some questions about context and interpretation. One of the most important problems in the study of language use is that of the interpretation of utterances. For our purposes this problem can be formulated in the form of the following question:.

  3. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  4. Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation

  5. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  6. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  7. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  8. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation work, and management skills expected of interpretation staff. Eight predetermined management skills were listed and respondents were asked to indicate ... Environmental interpretation in Uganda's National Parks. 21. Table 2. Job description of the rangers (N=32). Job description f. %. General work. 12. 37.5.

  9. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  10. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold

  11. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  12. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    , interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... traditionally been used to model feed-back in econometrics....

  13. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  14. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  15. Pages 114 - 118.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    body mass index and gender, Serum Triglycerides (TG), High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low-Density lipoprotein. (LDL) levels, serum paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase activities were determined. Oxidative and antioxidative statuses were evaluated by measuring serum-free sulfhydryl groups, lipid hydroperoxide levels, ...

  16. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  17. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  18. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  19. Association between Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Polymorphisms and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in a North African Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounafaa, Abdelghani; Berrougui, Hicham; Ghalim, Noreddine; Nasser, Boubker; Bagri, Abdallah; Moujahid, Abderrahmane; Ikhlef, Souad; Camponova, Pamela; Yamoul, Najoua; Simo, Olivier Kamtchueng; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the distribution of PON1 Q192R and L55M polymorphisms and activities in a North African population and to determine their association with cardiovascular complications. The prevalence of the QQ, QR, RR, LL, LM, and MM genotypes in the study population was 55.4%, 34.09%, 9.83%, 41.97%, 48.20%, and 9.83% respectively. The Q, R, L, and M alleles had a gene frequency of 0.755, 0.245, 0.67, and 0.33, respectively. The PON1 192 RR genotype was significantly more prevalent among ACS patients than among healthy subjects. There was a 4.33-fold increase in the risk of ACS in subjects presenting the PON1 192 RR genotype compared to those with the QQ genotype (OR=4.33; 95% CI=1.27–17.7). There was a significantly different distribution of PON1 L55M in the ACS patient groups (UA, STEMI, NSTEMI). Moreover, individuals presenting the PON1 55MM genotype present a higher risk for ACS than those with LL genotype (OR=3.69; 95% CI=1.61–11.80). Paraoxonase activities were significantly lower in coronary patients than in healthy subjects. The decrease in PON1 activity was inversely correlated with the number of concomitant risk factors for CVD (r=0.57, p<0.0001). The results of the present study suggested that the PON1 R and M alleles may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia in our North African population and that a decrease in PON1 activity may be a valuable marker for monitoring the development of the atherosclerosis process and the associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:26241956

  20. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase (PON is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation.A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR, and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months.PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61% and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%. After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55-87.0, but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78-1.61. The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342 but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027. The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients compared with non-ACS patients.PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C.

  1. Chemokine ligand 2 and paraoxonase-1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The search for alternative causative factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2015-03-14

    The incidence and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is constantly increasing. Despite this is apparently associated with the growing increase in obesity, insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic disturbances their presence is not a necessary or sufficient condition to explain the accumulation of fat in the liver. Conversely, NAFLD is a predictor of other metabolic risks. NAFLD is currently the most frequent chronic liver disease but should not be considered benign or anecdotic because a considerable proportion of patients with NAFLD progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Consequently, the search for alternative molecular mechanisms with therapeutic implications in NAFLD and associated disorders deserves a careful consideration. Mitochondria are possible targets as these organelles generate energy from nutrient oxidation. Some findings, generated in patients with extreme obesity and in murine models, support the notion that NAFLD could be a mitochondrial disease. This is plausible because mitochondrial dysfunction affects the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and promotes lipid peroxidation, the production of reactive oxygen species, the release of cytokines causing inflammation and cell death. Here we discuss basic research and mechanistic studies targeting the role of chemokine ligand 2 in liver inflammation and that of the paraoxonases in the oxidative stress. Their combination and association with mitochondrial dysfunction may uncover mechanisms underlying the progression of NAFLD and may help to identify novel therapeutic targets.

  2. Serum tau and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nielsen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test serum tau as a predictor of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We measured the neuronal protein tau in serum at 24, 48, and 72 hours after cardiac arrest in 689 patients in the prospective international Target Temperature Management trial. The main outcome...... was poor neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Categories 3-5 at 6 months. RESULTS: Increased tau was associated with poor outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest (median = 38.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 5.7-245ng/l in poor vs median = 1.5, IQR = 0.7-2.4ng/l in good outcome, for tau....... The accuracy in predicting outcome by serum tau was equally high for patients randomized to 33 °C and 36 °C targeted temperature after cardiac arrest. INTERPRETATION: Serum tau is a promising novel biomarker for prediction of neurological outcome in patients with cardiac arrest. It may be significantly better...

  3. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  4. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  5. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  6. Chromatin-independent binding of serum amyloid P component to apoptotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Familian, A.; Zwart, B.; Huisman, H. G.; Rensink, I.; Roem, D.; Hordijk, P. L.; Aarden, L. A.; Hack, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein structurally belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. Mice with a targeted deletion of the SAP gene develop antinuclear Abs, which was interpreted as evidence for a role of SAP in

  7. Serum D-dimer concentrations in nephrotic syndrome track with albuminuria, not estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sexton, D J

    2012-01-01

    The nephrotic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. There are little published data on the distribution, interpretation or determinants of serum D-dimer levels in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. We aimed to describe this relationship.

  8. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency ..... and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer- assisted potassium control. Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;19(1):1–11.

  9. Informal interpreting in general practice: Comparing the perspectives of general practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-06-01

    To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters' role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties focusing on interpreter's role, power and trust in interpreters. In line with family interpreters' perspective, patients expected the interpreters to advocate on their behalf and felt empowered when they did so. GPs, on the contrary, felt annoyed and disempowered when the family interpreters performed the advocacy role. Family interpreters were trusted by patients for their fidelity, that is, patients assumed that family interpreters would act in their best interest. GPs, on the contrary, mistrusted family interpreters when they perceived dishonesty or a lack of competence. Opposing views were found between GPs on the one hand and family interpreters and patients on the other hand on interpreter's role, power dynamics and the different dimensions of trust. These opposing perspectives might lead to miscommunication and conflicts between the three interlocutors. GPs should be educated to become aware of the difficulties of family interpreting, such as conflicting role expectations, and be trained to be able to call on professional interpreters when needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  11. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  12. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  13. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  14. Representing Interpreters' Knowledge: Why, What, and How?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command of such ......Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command...

  15. Investigations of serum HPL during pregnancy using two different radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, H.

    1978-01-01

    The interassay investigations showed that it is absolutely necessary to standardize the HPL antisera as well as the standard sera, as it is otherwise impossible to compare and interpret the findings of different HPL radioimmunoassays. The investigations have shown that in addition to conventional clinical examinations and laboratory test methods (urine estriol determination, DHEAS-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate test-, urine pregnandiol determination, and determination of heat-resisting alkaline serum phosphatase), HPL concentration determination is a parameter of the nutritive function of the placenta. (orig.) [de

  16. Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in ... glucose in rats administered with the extract of 8000 mg/kg body weight increased two and half-fold.

  17. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  18. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  19. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  20. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  1. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  2. Computerised Analysis, Interpretation, Storage and Retrieval of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a computerised electrocardiographic analysis and interpretive system as a service to a teaching and referral hospital. Available computer equipment and programmes are considered. The accuracy and quality of the analysis and interpretation of the ...

  3. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  4. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    SUMMARY. The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using ... encourages a quantitative approach to research (Darling and. 40. AJPARS ... Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Research. Scott ...

  5. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipenga

    Issues in idiom interpretation and acquisition. Idiom comprehension and interpretation is said to be affected by several factors such as familiarity of the idiom, linguistic context and transparency/semantic analysability of the idiom. Research has shown that the most familiar idioms are easier to understand than less familiar ...

  6. Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.

  7. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing, no...

  8. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no...

  9. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  10. Designing for collaborative interpretation in telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bjørn, Pernille; Kensing, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate why clinicians experience problems interpreting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) data when the patient is absent, and we explore how to reintroduce patients into the socio-technical setup of telemonitored interpretation practices. Method: An action research stu...

  11. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an...

  12. Geometrical interpretation and architecture selection of MLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cheng; Ding, Shenqiang Q; Lee, Tong Heng

    2005-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is suggested in this paper. Some general guidelines for selecting the architecture of the MLP, i.e., the number of the hidden neurons and the hidden layers, are proposed based upon this interpretation and the controversial issue of whether four-layered MLP is superior to the three-layered MLP is also carefully examined.

  13. A functional interpretation for nonstandard arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.; Briseid, E.; Safarik, P.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce constructive and classical systems for nonstandard arithmetic and show how variants of the functional interpretations due to Gödel and Shoenfield can be used to rewrite proofs performed in these systems into standard ones. These functional interpretations show in particular that our

  14. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  15. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.; Bianchi, A.; Peat, D.; Windsor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It argues that interpretation might not be well understood in analogy to games, not if the game is anything like the typical example of chess.

  16. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2014-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It asks how to possibly make sense of international law as a language and of interpretation as a game. Above all, it elucidates the linguistic

  17. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  18. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  20. The logical interpretation and the measurement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletic, Mark I.

    The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not

  1. Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum biochemistry of Japanese quails fed with diets containing African pear seed meal. ... haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) serum total protein (PRO), Albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), creatinine (CREAT), cholesterol (CHOL) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  2. Medical interpreters as tools: dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters' roles and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Kramer, Eric Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The psychotherapist and the sign language interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT). Although psychotherapists for the deaf are trained to use sign language, situations will always arise in which a sign language interpreter is needed. Most psychotherapists have the opinion that working with a sign language interpreter in therapy sessions can be a valuable alternative option but also see it as a second-best solution because of its impact on the therapeutic process. This paper describes our years of collaborationship as a therapist and a sign language interpreter. If this collaborationship is optimal, it can generate a certain "therapeutic power" in the therapy sessions. Achieving this depends largely on the interplay between the therapist and the interpreter, which in our case is the result of literature research and our experiences during the last 17 years. We analyze this special collaborative relationship, which has several dimensions and recurrent themes like, the role conception of the interpreter, situational interpreting, organizing the interpretation setting, or managing therapeutic phenomena during therapy sessions.

  4. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  5. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    45-56. Singh VK. (2009) Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Ann Clin Psychiat. 21:148-160. 5...spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication (verbal and nonverbal), social interactions, and... autoimmunity ; in particular, the generation of antibodies reactive against brain and CNS proteins. The goal of this grant is to identify serum

  6. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha Gadicherla; Suma M. N; Parveen Doddamani

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in re...

  7. Relevance and the interpretation of literary works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion about how far relevance theory can help in analysing the interpretation of literary works. Starting from the assumption that literary works are not entirely sui generis but exploit at least some of the abilities used in other varieties of verbal communication, I show how the same theoretical machinery used in analysing the interpretation of ordinary utterances can shed light on the interpretation of literary texts, and touch briefly on two more general issues: how can fictional works be relevant, and how can illocutionary and perlocutionary effects be disentangled in the case of literary works? [translated by Deirdre Wilson].

  8. Serum thyroglobulin in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement. The limitations of Tg immunoassay are well described and include potential interference from TgAb. For the majority of patients with DTC who are TgAb-negative, Tg measurement remains the most useful method of follow-up. For the TgAb-positive minority, interference and the possibility of producing erroneous results is a concern. Some assays are less badly affected than others and laboratories are advised to choose their assays carefully. Laboratories have sought to identify interferences using measurement of TgAb, lack of concordance between RIAs and immunometric assays and recovery of added Tg. More recently LC-MSMS assays to quantify Tg have been developed. They are not currently as sensitive as Tg immunoassays and it is likely these assays will, like immunoassays, be limited by Tg heterogeneity and standardization issues, although initial evaluations indicate that they may have value in the clinical setting as a second line test in antibody-positive DTC patients in whom Tg is unmeasurable by immunoassay.

  9. Conceptualizing emotion in healthcare interpreting: A normative approach to interpreters' emotion work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Nicodemus, Brenda

    2015-06-22

    By juxtaposing literature in signed language interpreting with that of spoken language interpreting, we provide a narrative review to explore the complexity of emotion management in interpreter-mediated medical encounters. We conduct literature search through library databases and Google Scholar using varied combinations of search terms, including interpreter, emotion, culture, and health care. We first examine (a) interpreters' management and performance of others' emotions, (b) interpreters' management and performance of their own emotions, and (c) impacts of emotion work for healthcare interpreters. By problematizing the roles and functions of emotion and emotion work in interpreter-mediated medical encounters, we propose a normative model to guide future research and practices of interpreters' emotion management in cross-cultural care. Quality and equality of care should serve as the guiding principle for interpreters' decision-making about their emotions and emotion work. Rather than adopting a predetermined practice, interpreters should evaluate and prioritize the various clinical, interpersonal, and therapeutic objectives as they consider the best practice in managing their own and other speakers' emotions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics interpretation model of isothermal martensite reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It was discussed details associated to the interpretation of kinetics of martencite heterogeneous nucleation in isothermal reactions. It was proposed a model which allows compute the variation of concentration of preferencial sites nucleation with a volumetric martencite fraction [pt

  11. [The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language.

  12. Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    1983-01-01

    Outlines an alternative interpretive approach to listening which is grounded in the hermeneutic phenomenologies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur. Explains four features of this alternative: openness, linguisticality, play, and the fusion of horizons. Discusses conceptual and pedagogical implications. (PD)

  13. Pattern recognition approach to data interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolff, Diane D; Parsons, M. L

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made in this book to give scientists a detailed working knowledge of the powerful mathematical tools available to aid in data interpretation, especially when confronted with large data...

  14. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  15. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  16. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  17. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, George

    2006-01-01

    .... Because the Court has recently placed renewed emphasis on statutory text and somewhat reduced emphasis on legislative history and other interpretive sources extrinsic to the text, this report focuses...

  18. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...... examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  19. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  20. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  1. Heterophile antibody interference in qualitative urine/serum hCG devices: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Khushbu K; Gronowski, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    This case report investigates the origin of a false positive result on a serum qualitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) device. A 46-year-old woman diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia presented with nausea and vomiting. A qualitative serum hCG test was interpreted as positive; however, a quantitative serum hCG test was negative (hCG devices composed of antibodies from different animal sources. Blocking reagent from an automated quantitative immunoassay was also tested for its ability to inhibit the heterophile antibody interference. The qualitative test result was negative after pretreatment with heterophilic blocking reagent. Other devices composed of antibodies from different animal sources also demonstrated mixed results with the patient's sample. Blocking reagent obtained from the automated quantitative assay inhibited the heterophile antibody interference in the patient's sample. This case demonstrates that positive serum point-of-care hCG results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with a quantitative serum hCG immunoassay when clinical suspicion is raised. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  3. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  5. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  6. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  7. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  8. HETEROGENIC SERUM, AGE, AND MULTIPLICATION OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; Ebeling, A H

    1922-01-01

    The presence in a culture medium of heterogenic serum of various concentrations exerts a definite influence on the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts. Dog serum does not inhibit the growth of See PDF for Structure chicken fibroblasts markedly until its concentration reaches 15 per cent. Beyond this figure, each increase of the concentration brings about a rapid decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. When the concentration reaches from 30 to 45 per cent, no growth takes place. The inhibiting action of cat serum begins to manifest itself at a concentration of 25 per cent and prevents cell proliferation completely at a concentration of 55 and 60 per cent. The ratio, See PDF for Equation can be taken as expressing the action of the serum on fibroblast multiplication; that is, as the growth index of the serum. See PDF for Structure The inhibiting influence of heterogenic serum was found to vary in direct ratio to the age of the animal from which it was obtained. The rate of proliferation of chicken fibroblasts was studied comparatively in media containing varied concentrations of serum from young and old animals. For each concentration of serum, the rate of growth in the serum of the old animal was expressed in relation to the rate of growth in the serum of the young animal. When cat serum was used, the curve obtained in plotting this ratio in ordinates and the serum concentration in abscissae showed a rapid increase in the inhibiting action of the old serum as soon as the concentration reached 30 per cent. The same tests were repeated with the serum from young and old dogs. The general results were identical, although See PDF for Structure the quantitative inhibiting action of both sera was greater than that of cat serum. It may be concluded that under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Heterogenicsera inhibit and prevent the growth of chicken fibroblasts when their concentration is made to vary within certain limits. 2. A relation exists between the rate

  9. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  10. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present. Two semistructured interviews were undertaken subsequently with three additional community representatives purposively recruited to increase participant diversity. Data were collected in 2016 and analysed inductively using a method of constant comparison to identify, and reach consensus on, key emerging themes. All participant groups emphasised the importance of working with trained interpreters, rather than relying on family interpreters or a doctor's own second language skills. Although participants reported experiences of effective interpreted consultations, other reports suggested that some doctors are unaware of, or have difficulty following, accepted guidelines about speech, gaze and turn-taking. Challenges identified in relation to interpreted consultations fell into the five themes of contextual constraints, consultation complexity, communication difficulties, the interpreter role and collaboration. Some general practitioner participants appeared to be unsure and anxious about the etiquette of interpreted consultations, and there was some confusion between and within participant groups about

  11. Interpretation of Epithelial Lining Fluid Concentrations of Antibiotics against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Sungmin; Schentag, Jerome J

    2014-12-01

    Although antibiotics whose epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations are reported high tend to be preferred in treatment of pneumonia, measurement of ELF concentrations of antibiotics could be misled by contamination from lysis of ELF cells and technical errors of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In this review, ELF concentrations of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) antibiotics were interpreted considering above confounding factors. An equation used to explain antibiotic diffusion into CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) was adopted: ELF/free serum concentration ratio = 0.96 + 0.091 × ln (partition coefficient / molecular weight(1/2)). Seven anti-MRSA antibiotics with reported ELF concentrations were fitted to this equation to see if their ELF concentrations were explainable by the penetration capacity only. Then, outliers were modeled under the assumption of varying contamination from lysed ELF cells (test range 0-10% of ELF volume). ELF concentrations of oritavancin, telavancin, tigecycline, and vancomycin were well described by the diffusion equation, with or without additional impact from cell lysis. For modestly high ELF/free serum concentration ratio of linezolid, technical errors of BAL should be excluded. Although teicoplanin and iclaprim showed high ELF/free serum ratios also, their protein binding levels need to be cleared for proper interpretation. At the moment, it appears very premature to use ELF concentrations of anti-MRSA antibiotics as a relevant guide for treatment of lung infections by MRSA.

  12. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    increased production diseases and fertility problems. (Hewett, 1974). This fertility problem has been found to be significantly inversely related to serum electrolytes such as serum inorganic phosphorus, serum potassium, serum total protein and serum urea - nitrogen (Hewett, 1974). Measuring serum electrolyte levels of ...

  13. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  14. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  15. ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Svatonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape and b to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age. The results of the research showed that (1 false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2 colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour increases the success rate of identifying the element (3 experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4 men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  16. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  17. Interpretive bias, repressive coping, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James J; McNally, Maria A; Skariah, Ancy; Butt, Ayesha A; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    According to vigilance-avoidance theory, repressors have an avoidant interpretive bias, i.e., they interpret ambiguous self-relevant situations in a nonthreatening fashion. This study sought to demarcate the range of situations associated with avoidant interpretive bias in repressors. Four groups of participants, representing the four combinations of low- and high-trait anxiety and defensiveness, were identified. Those low in trait anxiety and high in defensiveness were categorized as repressors. Participants (N = 163) rated their likelihood of making both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations of 32 ambiguous scenarios over four domains: social, intellectual, physical, and health. Half the scenarios were self-relevant and half were other relevant. Brief measures of state anxiety were taken after each likelihood rating. Repressors displayed an avoidant interpretive bias for ambiguous threats in the social and intellectual domains but not the health or physical domains. This was due to repressors' low level of trait anxiety rather than their high defensiveness. Individuals high in trait anxiety are especially sensitive to situations involving social evaluation but not those characterized by danger to their health or physical well-being.

  18. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  19. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a w ave image of the world . The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  20. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there seem...... to be systematic issues with regard to how researchers interpret their results when using the MLM. In this study, I present a set of guidelines critical to analyzing and interpreting results from the MLM. The procedure involves intuitive graphical representations of predicted probabilities and marginal effects...... suitable for both interpretation and communication of results. The pratical steps are illustrated through an application of the MLM to the choice of foreign market entry mode....

  1. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    scripted role play. The subjects were untrained Arabic interpreters working for a Danish agency. Two of the four interpreters favoured the direct style of interpreting. The other two favoured the indirect style. The findings show that all four interpreters tended to identify with the patient...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  2. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; pCompetency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; pstudents who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (pyears (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  3. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  4. Gestalt descriptions embodiments and medical image interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that medical specialists interpret and diagnose through technological mediations like X-ray and fMRI images, and by actualizing embodied skills tacitly they are determining the identity of objects in the perceptual field. The initial phase of human interpretation...... of visual perception. My argument is that biology, society and instruments constitute unique individual ontologies influencing specialist readings of the technological output, in other words, putting limits on the “truth-to-nature” relation, which is so much sought for in science....

  5. Noncommutative quantum mechanics and Bohm's ontological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an investigation into the possibility of developing a Bohmian interpretation based on the continuous motion of point particles for noncommutative quantum mechanics. The conditions for such an interpretation to be consistent are determined, and the implications of its adoption for noncommutativity are discussed. A Bohmian analysis of the noncommutative harmonic oscillator is carried out in detail. By studying the particle motion in the oscillator orbits, we show that small-scale physics can have influence at large scales, something similar to the IR-UV mixing

  6. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  7. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  8. Statistical interpretation of CMS search results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frensch, Felix [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To be able to draw conclusion from physical results, one has to interpret them in a statistical way. This is especially true for High Energy Physics like experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at Cern in Genf. The treatment of systematic uncertainties is ambiguous and makes statistic approaches highly nontrivial. In this presentation different statistical methods are introduced and the recommended (in both ATLAS and CMS experiments) ''CLs'' method will be motivated. The practical calculation of the expected and observed upper limit are shown. By an example of a search for Supersymmetry different methods are compared and resulting observed, and expected upper limits are discussed and interpreted.

  9. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  10. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  11. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  12. [Human serum alcaline phosphatase and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, M R; Martins, M J; Ramos, E; Barros, H; Hipólito-Reis, C; Azevedo, I

    2003-01-01

    In experimental ageing models an inverse relationship between age and alkaline phosphatase activity has been observed. To characterize serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in humans according to age and gender. Serum alkaline phosphatase was determined in a random sample of 203 community dwellers aged 40 or more years. In men (n=87) total serum alkaline phosphatase markedly increased from the 5th to the 6th decade and then stabilized. For women (n=116) there was a slight increase in total serum alkaline phosphatase from the 5th to the 6th decade, followed by a bend upward after 69 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between total serum alkaline phosphatase and age for the whole population. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity appears as a biomarker of age in humans, similarly to what has been described for experimental animal models.

  13. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  15. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  16. Challenges in Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests in Pregnant Women with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval. The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH. Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases.

  17. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  18. Chuukese Patients, Dual Role Interpreters, and Confidentiality: Exploring Clinic Interpretation Services for Reproductive Health Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A

    2018-04-01

    This exploratory study analyzes limited English proficient (LEP) Chuukese patients' perspectives on dual-role interpreters in Guam and Chuuk. Methods included ethnographic observations of encounters with health care workers (HCWs) and 225 female Chuukese patients seeking reproductive healthcare in community health clinics: 126 women in Guam and 99 women in Chuuk. Ethnographic observations were supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 26 HCWs, and life history interviews with 15 Chuukese transnational migrant women. Notes from interview transcripts and observations were analyzed using critical interpretive and grounded theory. Findings demonstrated that Chuukese LEP patients need and at times want interpreters in order to understand their healthcare visits. In the absence of professional interpreters, ad-hoc interpreters (family interpreters and employees of the clinic) are an important resource. However, social and cultural concerns with community confidentiality influenced patient trust of staff interpreters. This lack of trust can limit access to health care overall, as some patients may avoid seeking care to prevent their confidential health information being disclosed. These complexities in interpretation must be considered in order for clinics to provide optimal care for the communities they serve.

  19. Court Interpreting in Denmark - the role of court interpreters in Danish courtrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    1999-01-01

    Court interpreters in Denmark are expected to follow the guidelines laid down in the document Instructions for Interpreters, which was published in 1994, and which deals with four principal areas: accuracy and completeness, impartiality, confidentiality and conflict of interest. This paper contends...

  20. Informal Interpreting in General Practice: Comparing the perspectives of General Practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.; Schouten, B.C.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van den Putte, B.

    Objective To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters’ role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. Methods 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties

  1. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  2. Scepticism and the Interpreter | Cox | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper defends an argument from interpretation against the possibility of massive error. The argument shares many important features with Donald Davidson's famous argument, but also key differences. I defend the argument against claims that it begs the question against scepticism and that it leaves the sceptic with an ...

  3. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL... methods of administration as will reasonably ensure the prompt and full payment of unemployment benefits...

  4. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pre-loaded on a laptop, handheld device or other computer or equipment and exported under the tools of... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS INTERPRETATIONS... device to evade the requirement for a license. (2) Parts are exported as spares, replacements, for resale...

  5. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  6. Biological microarray interpretation : The rules of engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression microarrays are now established as a standard tool in biological and biochemical laboratories. Interpreting the masses of data generated by this technology poses a number of unusual new challenges. Over the past few years a consensus has begun to emerge concerning the most important

  7. 75 FR 39196 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... proposed change in the Schwab Interpretation, the FAA believes that a company wishing to take advantage of... cost of owning, operating and maintaining a company aircraft when used for routine personal travel by senior company officials and employees under certain conditions. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  8. Improving electrocardiogram interpretation skills for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel,1 Omar El Tokhy,1 Shlok Patel,2 Hanna Maroof31Department of Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3GKT School of Medical Education, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College of London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Zeng at al1 who propose a new electrocardiogram (ECG teaching method called the “graphics-sequence memory method”. An ECG is one of the most important diagnostic tests and is currently used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of a number of cardiac diseases. We appreciate that it can be a challenging concept to teach, often bringing frustration to the educators trained in ECG interpretation. Zeng et al1 highlight a deficiency in learning through the traditional Chinese disease-based teaching method, resulting in a relative inability to interpret ECGs where the diagnosis is not quite so straightforward. Accumulation of evidence2 has suggested that a significant proportion of undergraduate medical students do not feel competent in their interpretation of an ECG. Therefore, the authors are right to suggest a novel approach with the dual benefit of aiding teaching and improving learning and confidence when interpreting an ECG.View original paper by Zeng and colleagues.

  9. Neural network classification - A Bayesian interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric A.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between minimizing a mean squared error and finding the optimal Bayesian classifier is reviewed. This provides a theoretical interpretation for the process by which neural networks are used in classification. A number of confidence measures are proposed to evaluate the performance of the neural network classifier within a statistical framework.

  10. Interpretative trajectories toward understanding personhoods in prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the genesis of discussions of individual and dividual aspects of person(hood. It discuses actual interpretations of different modes of personhood: individuality and indivisibility, dividuality, partibility and fractality, and permeability in archaeology and anthropology. It focuses on the heterogeneity of past identities in European Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age contexts.

  11. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...

  12. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting Systemic Functional Linguistics, the study investigated factors that influence idiom interpretation and acquisition in children. Semantic analysability, idiom structure and idiom modification were investigated in 20 native Chichewa speaking children aged between 4 – 14 years. Three experiments were conducted to ...

  13. Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV&AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher ...

  14. Psychoanalytic interpretations: word-music and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2003-02-01

    A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as a special case of artistic translations (i.e. translations of both content and formal aspects of discourse) is proposed. Mutative interpretations are seen as creative endeavours that always presuppose a prior text, which is itself already a translation. Freud's main uses of the metaphor of translation as an intrapsychic as well as an intersubjective phenomena, their resonance among later psychoanalytic thinkers and their convergence with classic theories of translation are presented. A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as an evolving self-other dialect is developed within the framework of Borges's theory of translation and Bakhtin's concept of exotopy. This framework questions the possibility of an original source, proposes the translator's inevitable implication in translation and underscores intersubjectivity as a necessary way towards the translation of absent meanings. The work of translation also highlights the relevance of space and time contexts, as well as the necessary role of a different other for the interpretation of unconscious processes. Differences between theories of translation reiterate contemporary psychoanalytic controversies about the preeminence of the analysand's subjectivity and the intersubjective approach to treatment. Borges's 'The Aleph' and an excerpt of Dora's case offer paradigmatic demonstrations of the limits and possibilities of understanding through translation.

  15. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  16. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  17. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  18. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  19. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  20. Interpretive Research Design. Concepts and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, P.; Yanow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. In many social science disciplines, however, scholars working in an interpretive-qualitative tradition get little guidance on this aspect of research from the positivist-centered training

  1. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  2. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using systems theory. The paper also addresses the underlying assumptions of this research methodology and how these affect the way research questions are answered. In reviewing this methodology, an example is ...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... accounting periods. In essence, it clarifies whether restructuring costs are to be treated as an expense of...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting Standard—Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose, provides, in 9904.402-40, that...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting Standard—Consistency in Estimating, Accumulating and Reporting Costs, requires in 9904.401-40 that a...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to the requirements of 9904.403, Cost Accounting Standard, Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments...

  7. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  8. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  9. Charts for interpreting wildland fire behavior characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Richard C. Rothermel

    1982-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is proposed as a graphical method ofpresenting two primary characteristics of fire behavior – spread rate and intensity. Its primary use is communicating and interpreting either site-specific predictions of fire behavior or National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components. Rate of spread, heat per unit area, flame length...

  10. The Copenhagen interpretation as an emergent phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2013-08-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed by Schrödinger’s equation without the need for observers or their brains. In order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas. Firstly, we adopt a relational approach and use the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix of a quantum sub-system, or equivalently the Schmidt decomposition, to define the ‘internal state’ of a sub-system. Previous work has identified serious objections to such an interpretation because it apparently leads to macroscopic superpositions and physically unacceptable instabilities near degeneracies. We show that both these problems are solved if the sub-system consists of a large number of coarse-grained degrees of freedom as one expects in order to make contact with the classical world. We further argue that coarse graining is a necessary ingredient because measuring devices have both finite spatial and temporal resolutions. What results is an interpretation in which both decoherence and coarse graining play key roles and from which the rules of the Copenhagen interpretation are seen to emerge in realistic situations that include the measurement of the position of a particle and a decay process.

  11. Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Asher

    1999-01-01

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  12. Towards Abstract Interpretation of Epistemic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai; Gallagher, John Patrick

    The model-checking problem is to decide, given a formula φ and an interpretation M, whether M satisfies φ, written M |= φ. Model-checking algorithms for temporal logics were initially developed with finite models (such as models of hardware) in mind so that M |= φ is decidable. As interest grew i...

  13. Video interpretability rating scale under network impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmair, Thomas; Coman, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of network transmission channel parameters on the quality of streaming video data. A common practice for estimating the interpretability of video information is to use the Motion Imagery Quality Equation (MIQE). MIQE combines a few technical features of video images (such as: ground sampling distance, relative edge response, modulation transfer function, gain and signal-to-noise ratio) to estimate the interpretability level. One observation of this study is that the MIQE does not fully account for video-specific parameters such as spatial and temporal encoding, which are relevant to appreciating degradations caused by the streaming process. In streaming applications the main artifacts impacting the interpretability level are related to distortions in the image caused by lossy decompression of video data (due to loss of information and in some cases lossy re-encoding by the streaming server). One parameter in MIQE that is influenced by network transmission errors is the Relative Edge Response (RER). The automated calculation of RER includes the selection of the best edge in the frame, which in case of network errors may be incorrectly associated with a blocked region (e.g. low resolution areas caused by loss of information). A solution is discussed in this document to address this inconsistency by removing corrupted regions from the image analysis process. Furthermore, a recommendation is made on how to account for network impairments in the MIQE, such that a more realistic interpretability level is estimated in case of streaming applications.

  14. Towards a Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Homeopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum interpretation of the homeopathic method is presented. It is shown that provided neither the medication itself, nor the patient is observed, a net effect is expected, even at homeopathic dilutions. The temporal dilution in homeopathic exercise is explained in terms of Heisenberg's theory

  15. Phenomenology and the Interpretation of Psychopathological Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Gallagher, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    psychiatric object”; Marková & Berrios, 2009; see also Chapter 2, this volume) as readily operationalizable object-like entities, with a nonstandard phenomenological approach that emphasizes the importance of a specific kind of interpretive interview. The descriptive methods of today's psychiatry perpetuate...

  16. Restrictiveness relative to notions of interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incurvati, L.; Löwe, B.

    Maddy gave a semi-formal account of restrictiveness by defining a formal notion based on a class of interpretations and explaining how to handle false positives and false negatives. Recently, Hamkins pointed out some structural issues with Maddy’s definition. We look at Maddy’s formal definitions

  17. Multi-Interpretation Operators and Approximate Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper non-classical logical techniques are introduced to formalize the analysis of multi-interpretable observation information, in particular in approximate classification processes where information on attributes of an object is to be inferred on the basis of observable properties of the

  18. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  19. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  20. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question